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Sample records for defensive conditioned reflex

  1. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V.; Bogodvid, Tatiana K.; Deryabina, Irina B.; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Tagirova, Roza R.; Vinarskaya, Aliya K.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the “neurotoxic” analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  2. Dynamics of a stabilized motor defense conditioned reflex at different levels of motivation in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemberg, A S

    1982-05-01

    Postradiation dynamics of strengthened motor-defense conditioned reflex in rats-males irradiated with the doses of 94.111 and 137 Gy was studied. Phase disturbances of conditioned-reflex activity increased with enhancing irradiation dose have been revealed. Rapid recovery of conditioned reflex after short primary aggravation was a characteristic peculiarity. At that, the dynamics of relation of main nervous processes in cortex was noted for significant instability increasing with radiation syndrome development. Enhancement of force of electro-defense support promoted more effective strengthening of temporary connections and conditioned high stability of trained-reflex reactions during serious functional disturbances resulted from sublethal dose irradiation.

  3. Clarifying the Role of Defensive Reactivity Deficits in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Using Startle Reflex Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms – an affective-interpersonal component, and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. The current study examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD—but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy, and not the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD. PMID:20973594

  4. THE ANXIETY SPECTRUM AND THE REFLEX PHYSIOLOGY OF DEFENSE: FROM CIRCUMSCRIBED FEAR TO BROAD DISTRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the diagnostic nosology, anxiety patients are expected to show defensive hyperarousal during affective challenge, irrespective of the principal phenotype. In the current study, patients representing the whole spectrum of anxiety disorders (i.e., specific phobia, social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)), and healthy community control participants, completed an imagery-based fear elicitation paradigm paralleling conventional intervention techniques. Participants imagined threatening and neutral narratives as physiological responses were recorded. Clear evidence emerged for exaggerated reactivity to clinically relevant imagery—most pronounced in startle reflex responding. However, defensive propensity varied across principal anxiety disorders. Disorders characterized by focal fear and impairment (e.g., specific phobia) showed robust fear potentiation. Conversely, for disorders of long-enduring, pervasive apprehension and avoidance with broad anxiety and depression comorbidity (e.g., PTSD secondary to cumulative trauma, GAD), startle responses were paradoxically diminished to all aversive contents. Patients whose expressed symptom profiles were intermediate between focal fearfulness and broad anxious-misery in both severity and chronicity exhibited a still heightened but more generalized physiological propensity to respond defensively. Importantly, this defensive physiological gradient—the inverse of self-reported distress—was evident not only between but also within disorders. These results highlight that fear circuitry could be dysregulated in chronic, pervasive anxiety, and preliminary functional neuroimaging findings suggest that deficient amygdala recruitment could underlie attenuated reflex responding. In summary, adaptive defensive engagement during imagery may be compromised by long-term dysphoria and stress—a phenomenon

  5. A comparison of procedures for unpairing conditioned reflexive motivating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Tracy L; Neef, Nancy A; Kelley, Michael E; Heward, William L

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two procedures to reduce behavior evoked by a reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R). Task demands were shown to evoke escape-maintained problem behavior for 4 students with disabilities. Alternative communication responses were taught as an appropriate method to request escape and this treatment combined with extinction for problem behavior led to decreases in problem behavior for all students. A beeping timer was then arranged to temporally precede the task demand to create a CMO-R that evoked communication responses. When data showed that the sound of the timer was functioning as a CMO-R, two methods to reduce behavior evoked by a CMO-R-extinction unpairing and noncontingent unpairing-were evaluated. Results indicated that noncontingent unpairing was an effective method to reduce the evocative effects of the CMO-R. Extinction produced unsystematic effects across participants. Results are discussed in terms of abolishing CMOs and the implications of CMOs. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Defensive peripersonal space: the blink reflex evoked by hand stimulation is increased when the hand is near the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, C F; Liang, M; Cruccu, G; Iannetti, G D

    2012-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist may elicit a blink reflex [hand blink reflex (HBR)] mediated by a neural circuit at brain stem level. As, in a Sherringtonian sense, the blink reflex is a defensive response, in a series of experiments we tested, in healthy volunteers, whether and how the HBR is modulated by the proximity of the stimulated hand to the face. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the orbicularis oculi, bilaterally. We observed that the HBR is enhanced when the stimulated hand is inside the peripersonal space of the face, compared with when it is outside, irrespective of whether the proximity of the hand to the face is manipulated by changing the position of the arm (experiment 1) or by rotating the head while keeping the arm position constant (experiment 3). Experiment 2 showed that such HBR enhancement has similar magnitude when the participants have their eyes closed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed, respectively, that the blink reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve, as well as the N20 wave of the somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by the median nerve stimulation, are entirely unaffected by hand position. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that the brain stem circuits mediating the HBR in humans undergo tonic and selective top-down modulation from higher order cortical areas responsible for encoding the location of somatosensory stimuli in external space coordinates. These findings support the existence of a "defensive" peripersonal space, representing a safety margin advantageous for survival.

  7. Particular features of conditioned electrodefensive reflex in white rats on background of constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shust, I.V.; Galantyuk, S.I.; Cheretyanko, Yu.V.

    Study of the influence of magnetic fields upon the higher nervous activity of man and animals has long been attracting the attention of researchers. It is indicated in the literature that magnetic fields inhibit development of conditioned reflexes in planarians, fishes, and mammals. However, there are data of opposite nature as well, indicating accelerated development of the avoidance reflex in animals exposed previously to a magnetic field. Researchers studied formation of a conditioned electrodefensive reflex (CER) in white rats exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF), and the influence of a vitamin preparation - galascorbin - on formation of the CER in animals exposed to a CMF.

  8. Factitious lymphoedema as a psychiatric condition mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a case report

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    Nwaejike Nnamdi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. Case presentation We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Conclusion Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.

  9. Restoring walking after spinal cord injury: operant conditioning of spinal reflexes can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of electromyographic activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Basic Dimensions of Financial Condition within the Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowden, Craig

    1998-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this thesis was to analyze financial data from a sample of defense industry firms in order to determine the basic dimensions of financial condition in the defense industry...

  11. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Learning of conditioned reflexes of the Wistar rat under intermittent action of low CO concentrations

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    Zorn, H.

    1972-04-01

    The influence of an intermittent long-time exposure to a concentration of 150 ppm carbon monoxide on the ability to learn conditioned reflexes was investigated with Wistar rats. Half the 80 rats employed and divided into intelligence groups were exposed to this concentration at night five times for 8 hr weekly. The carboxyhemoglobin level in the blood of these animals increased to 7-13 percent. After an adequate interval for CO elimination, the rats exposed and the control animals were trained to develop a conditioned flight reflex. At a later date, the results were ascertained. With regard to the progress in learning this action, the CO-exposed animals showed a significant reduction in performance (longer learning time, more frequent deficient behavior, and inclination for stupor and anxious denial).

  13. The Cerebellum in Maintenance of a Motor Skill: A Hierarchy of Brain and Spinal Cord Plasticity Underlies H-Reflex Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2006-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the H-reflex, the electrical analog of the spinal stretch reflex, is a simple model of skill acquisition and involves plasticity in the spinal cord. Previous work showed that the cerebellum is essential for down-conditioning the H-reflex. This study asks whether the cerebellum is also essential for maintaining…

  14. Modulation of the spike activity of neocortex neurons during a conditioned reflex.

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    Storozhuk, V M; Sanzharovskii, A V; Sachenko, V V; Busel, B I

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on cats to study the effects of iontophoretic application of glutamate and a number of modulators on the spike activity of neurons in the sensorimotor cortex during a conditioned reflex. These studies showed that glutamate, as well as exerting a direct influence on neuron spike activity, also had a delayed facilitatory action lasting 10-20 min after iontophoresis was finished. Adrenomimetics were found to have a double modulatory effect on intracortical glutamate connections: inhibitory and facilitatory effects were mediated by beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors respectively. Although dopamine, like glutamate, facilitated neuron spike activity during the period of application, the simultaneous facilitatory actions of glutamate and L-DOPA were accompanied by occlusion of spike activity, and simultaneous application of glutamate and haloperidol suppressed spike activity associated with the conditioned reflex response. Facilitation thus appears to show a significant level of dependence on metabotropic glutamate receptors which, like dopamine receptors, are linked to the intracellular medium via Gi proteins.

  15. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditional reflex activity of the rats after chronic antenatal γ-radiation in the combination with mercazolil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, L.N.; Izmest'eva, O.S.; Zhavoronkov, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of rats antenatally subjected to separate and combined chronic γ irradiation effect with total dose of 1.25 Gy to develop the conditioned protective reflex in a shuttle chamber is studied. Essential decrease in the ability to formation and stabilization of associative bonds in the process of teaching for the conditioned reflex of avoidance is identified for animals in all experimental groups at the age of 2 months. The partial recreation of psychophysiological functions is revealed at the age of 7 months [ru

  17. Effects of microinjection of scopolamine into the neostriatum of rats on performance of a food conditioned reflex at different levels of fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonravov, D L; Shapovalova, K B; Dyubkacheva, T A

    1997-01-01

    Chronic experiments performed on 32 Sprague-Dawley rats using a movement-feeding operant reflex (Skinner box) model showed that microinjection of scopolamine into the neostriatum had effects on this reflex which depended on the stage of learning. In animals with weakly fixed reflexes (prior to reaching the stage of memory consolidation), bilateral microinjection of 0.3 microgram of scopolamine into the caudate nucleus completely inhibited the reflex for a prolonged period of time. When the operant habit was well fixed, bilateral microinjection of the same doses of scopolamine into the neostriatum had no effect on the reflex. These results suggest that the neostriatum cholinergic system is critically involved in forming the motor engram. The cholinergic system of the caudate nucleus either takes no part in realizing the well-fixed conditioned reflex movement response and/or other forebrain structures are involved in the reflex, compensating for the disturbance in neostriatal cholinergic function.

  18. Repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to sensitisation in subsequent avoidance behaviour and induces fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janik Vincent M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous reflexes enable animals to respond quickly to potential threats, prevent injury and mediate fight or flight responses. Intense acoustic stimuli with sudden onsets elicit a startle reflex while stimuli of similar intensity but with longer rise times only cause a cardiac defence response. In laboratory settings, habituation appears to affect all of these reflexes so that the response amplitude generally decreases with repeated exposure to the stimulus. The startle reflex has become a model system for the study of the neural basis of simple learning processes and emotional processing and is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical applications. However, previous studies did not allow animals to avoid the stimulus and the evolutionary function and long-term behavioural consequences of repeated startling remain speculative. In this study we investigate the follow-up behaviour associated with the startle reflex in wild-captured animals using an experimental setup that allows individuals to exhibit avoidance behaviour. Results We present evidence that repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to rapid and pronounced sensitisation of sustained spatial avoidance behaviour in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. Animals developed rapid flight responses, left the exposure pool and showed clear signs of fear conditioning. Once sensitised, seals even avoided a known food source that was close to the sound source. In contrast, animals exposed to non-startling (long rise time stimuli of the same maximum sound pressure habituated and flight responses waned or were absent from the beginning. The startle threshold of grey seals expressed in units of sensation levels was comparable to thresholds reported for other mammals (93 dB. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the acoustic startle reflex plays a crucial role in mediating flight responses and strongly influences the motivational state of an animal beyond a short

  19. Acetylcholine release in the hippocampus during the operant conditioned reflex and the footshock stimulus in rats.

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    Dong, Yu; Mao, Jianjun; Shangguan, Dihua; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Guoquan

    2004-10-14

    The activity of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway was investigated by measuring changes in the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the hippocampus, by means of microdialysis, during the operant conditioned reflex and the repeated footshock stimulus. Microdialysis samplings were conducted in a Skinner box where lights were delivered as conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with footshocks as unconditioned stimuli (US). Two groups of rats were used. Extracellular ACh and choline (Ch) in samples collected at 6min intervals were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The elevation of hippocampus ACh was observed in the two experimental groups. The increase in ACh during aversive stimulus (footshock) was significantly larger and was probably related to the number of footshocks. There might be moderate increase in the hippocampal ACh release during the retrieval of information. The concentration of choline showed no significant fluctuation in the two groups during the whole process. This experiment explored in more detail hippocampal cholinergic activity in relation to the two different procedures.

  20. Reflex dystrophy, a poorly known condition in children. A general review with four case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labenne, M.; Bertrand, A.M.; Wendling, D.; Onimus, M.; Laurain, J.M.; Amsallem, D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report four cases of reflex dystrophy in childhood. The specific characteristics of childhood forms are pointed out: idiopathic forms are more common; the feet and ankles are preferentially involved; a particular psychologic profile is present; roentgenographic changes are missing or delayed compared to clinical manifestations, with bandlike metaphyseal osteolysis being suggestive; bone scintigraphy is contributive, showing increased or decreased uptake of the tracer; and outcome is usually better than in adults [fr

  1. The effect of operant-conditioning balance training on the down-regulation of spinal H-reflexes in a spastic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Koceja, David M; Riley, Zachary A

    2011-10-24

    Spasticity in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients has primarily been treated pharmacologically. However, there is increasing evidence that physical rehabilitation can help manage hyper-excitability of reflexes (hyperreflexia), which is a primary contributor to spasticity. In the present study, one chronic hemiparetic stroke patient operantly conditioned the soleus H-reflex while training on a balance board for two weeks. The results showed a minimal decrease in the Hmax-Mmax ratio for both the affected and unaffected limb, indicating that the H-reflex was not significantly altered with training. Alternatively, paired-reflex depression (PRD), a measure of history-dependent changes in reflex excitability, could be conditioned. This was evident by the rightward shift and decreased slope of reflex excitability in the affected limb. The non-affected limb decreased as well, although the non-affected limb was very sensitive to PRD initially, whereas the affected limb was not. Based on these results, it was concluded that PRD is a better index of hyperreflexia, and this measurement could be more informative of synapse function than simple H-reflexes. This study presents a novel and non-pharmacological means of managing spasticity that warrants further investigation with the potential of being translated to the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of glucose and lactate in hippocampal dialysates of rats during the operant conditioned reflex using microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Lei; Shangguan, Dihua; Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Rui; Han, Huiwan; Liu, Guoquan

    2003-07-01

    Changes of extracellular glucose and lactate in hippocampus for freely moving rats during the operant conditioned reflex were examined simultaneously. Samples of the dialysate were assayed for both glucose and lactate using in vivo microdialysis and a microbore flow injection analysis-immobilized enzyme reactor-electrochemical detection (FIA-IMER-ECD) system. Microdialysis samplings were conducted in a Skinner box where lights were delivered as conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with foot shocks as unconditioned stimuli (US). In the treatment group the concentration of glucose and lactate showed no fluctuations during the whole process. However, in the control group in which the rats were exposed to many foot shocks, lactate levels decreased by 19% below baseline during the behavioral session and glucose showed a delayed decrease (by 18%). Compared with glucose, lactate can immediately indicate the dynamic changes in brain.

  3. [Forming of the visual cognitive structures in the monkey conditioned-reflex behaviour: the dependence on the sensory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, K N; Chueva, I V

    2008-01-01

    In monkeys, changes in size and shape of figures led to a significant decrease of correct solutions in training and a considerable increase of refusals from solution of tasks as well as the time of their motor response. The invariance of differentiation in this case was achieved after additional training. The data obtained show that, based on the stimulus sensory processing in conditioned-reflex training, in the long-term memory some differentiating signs are formed: the cognitive structures (the functional neurophysiological mechanisms) maintaining the classification of visual images. With these structures, temporary conditioned connection will be established. Their formation will be determined by the type of sensory information and provided for by existence in the long-term memory of separate subsystems for spatial as well as non-spatial information.

  4. The Reflex of Defensing the Seven Letters and Qiraahs Within the Context ofCriticism Directed Towards Al-Tabari

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    Necattin HANAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to al-Tabarî, seven letters (al-ahruf al-sab‘a are expression types having the same meanings. However, Caliphate Uthman ordered the copying of the Quran just with one of the letters, leaving out the rest; besides, current recitation/qiraah of the Quran was cited through single report/khabar al-wâhid by recitators/qurrâ. That‘s why, in the interpretation/tafseer of Taberî, in order a qiraah to be recitated and evaluated, it is emphasized that its‘ citations should be agreed or it must be recitated by most of the qurrâs. This approach means that al-Tabarî makes a distinction between the Quran and qiraah. His criticizing some of the qiraahs, which were accepted as continually cited/motewaater, due to their contrariety to the consensus/ijmâ‘ is an evidence of this. In traditional thought, a qiraah‘s being cited by the qurrâ of sab‘a or ashara means that it can be questioned and its being questioned or criticism have been accepted as the criticism of the Quran. Thus, al-Tabarî‘s criticizing the qiraahs which were accepted as motewaater with different aspects has been considered dangerous with the concern of damaging the reliability of the Qur‘an. Besides, al-Tabarî was tried to be defamed in terms of Qiraah science. The present study tackles the afore-mentioned criticisms with particular considerations. As a result, it has been put forth that criticisms towards al-Tabarî were carried out with settled acceptances and a defensive reaction.

  5. A cost minimisation and Bayesian inference model predicts startle reflex modulation across species

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Dominik R

    2015-01-01

    In many species, rapid defensive reflexes are paramount to escaping acute danger. These reflexes are modulated by the state of the environment. This is exemplified in fear-potentiated startle, a more vigorous startle response during conditioned anticipation of an unrelated threatening event. Extant explanations of this phenomenon build on descriptive models of underlying psychological states, or neural processes. Yet, they fail to predict invigorated startle during reward anticipation and ins...

  6. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) as explosives detectors: exploring proboscis extension reflex conditioned response to trinitrotolulene (TNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-mccabe, Kirsten J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingo, Robert M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haarmann, Timothy K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We examined honey bee's associative learning response to conditioning with trinitrotolulene (TNT) vapor concentrations generated at three temperatures and their ability to be reconditioned after a 24 h period. We used classical conditioning of the proboscis extension (PER) in honey bees using TNT vapors as the conditioned stimulus and sucrose as the unconditioned stimulus. We conducted fifteen experimental trials with an explosives vapor generator set at 43 C, 25 C and 5 C, producing three concentrations of explosives (1070 ppt, 57 ppt, and 11 ppt). Our objective was to test the honey bee's ability to exhibit a conditioned response to TNT vapors at all three concentrations by comparing the mean percentage of honey bees successfully exhibiting a conditioned response within each temperature group. Furthermore, we conducted eight experimental trials to test the honey bee's ability to retain their ability to exhibit a conditioned response to TNT after 24h period by comparing the mean percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response TNT on the first day compared to the percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response to TNT on the second day. Results indicate that there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response to TNT vapors between three temperature groups. There was a significant difference between the percentage of honey bees exhibiting conditioned response on the first day of training compared to the percentage of honey bees exhibiting conditioned response 24 h after training. Our experimental results indicate that honey bees can be trained to exhibit a conditioned response to a range of TNT concentrations via PER However, it appears that the honey bee's ability to retain the conditioned response to TNT vapors after 24h significantly decreases.

  7. Is the conditioned pain modulation paradigm reliable? A test-retest assessment using the nociceptive withdrawal reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Biurrun Manresa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm assessed by an objective electrophysiological method, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR, and psychophysical measures, using hypothetical sample sizes for future studies as analytical goals. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in two identical experimental sessions, separated by 1 to 3 weeks. In each session, the cold pressor test (CPT was used to induce CPM, and the NWR thresholds, electrical pain detection thresholds and pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were assessed before and during CPT. CPM was consistently detected by all methods, and the electrophysiological measures did not introduce additional variation to the assessment. In particular, 99% of the trials resulted in higher NWR thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 3.4 mA (p<0.001. Similarly, 96% of the trials resulted in higher electrical pain detection thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 2.2 mA (p<0.001. Pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were reduced during CPT in 84% of the trials, displaying an average decrease of 1.5 points in a numeric rating scale (p<0.001. Under these experimental conditions, CPM reliability was acceptable for all assessment methods in terms of sample sizes for potential experiments. The presented results are encouraging with regards to the use of the CPM as an assessment tool in experimental and clinical pain. Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01636440.

  8. Formation of cognitive structures in conditioned-reflex behavior in monkeys: Relationship with type of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, K N; Chueva, I V

    2009-02-01

    The characteristics of learning processes and long-term memory (LTM) were studied in rhesus macaques discriminating visual stimuli (geometrical figures of different shapes, sizes, and orientations, and with different spatial relationships between image components). Trained monkeys were tested for the ability to perform invariant recognition after stimulus transformation, i.e., changes in size, shape, number of objects, and spatial relationships. Analysis of behavioral characteristics (correct solutions, refusals to decide, motor response times) revealed differences associated with the type of visual information. When monkeys discriminated between black and white geometrical figures of different shapes and orientations, as well as black-and-white figures with different shapes or orientations, the learning time was short and transformation of the stimuli had no effect on correct solutions: there was complete transfer of learning. When monkeys discriminated figures of different sizes or complex images with different spatial relationships, the learning time was significantly greater. Changes in the size and shape of figures led to significant reductions in correct solutions and significant increases in refusals to solve the task and in motor reaction times. Invariance of discrimination in this case appeared after additional training. The results obtained here showed that in conditioned reflex learning, the sensory processing of stimuli has the result that discriminatory features are formed in LTM, i.e., cognitive structures (functional neurophysiological mechanisms), these supporting the classification of visual images. The temporal conditioned link of the executive reaction is established with these. Their formation is determined by the type of sensory information and the existence in LTM of separate subsystems for spatial and non-spatial information.

  9. [Effect of activation and blockade of the GABA-ergic system of the substantia nigra in the midbrain on the realization of conditioned food reflexes in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral injection of 45 mcg of GABA into substantia nigra pars compacta produced in dogs a manifested improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition but failed to influence the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex. Injection of GABA synaptic antagonist--picrotoxin impaired conditioned alimentary behaviour. Numerous injections of the GABAergic pharmacological agents resulted in motor disturbance--rotatory movements--and skin trophic deviations. The data obtained and literature references give ground for discussion of the role of striato-nigral and internal GABAergic substantia nigra systems in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour and conditioned stimuli differentiation.

  10. Reflexives and reflexive constructions in Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    2. Reflexives. Afrikaans items belonging to the traditional lexical category of reflexives (or reflexive ... reflexive and non-reflexive pronouns are syntactically derived from the same lexical root pronoun √PRON. The ...... 32 The matrix verbs in (33) and (34) both concern a future activity of an entity: belowe (“promise”) in the (a).

  11. Pricing Strategy, Pricing Stability and Financial Condition in the Defense Aerospace Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Jeffrey Carl; Keavney, Patrick Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this research is to determine if pricing strategy and pricing stability for products in the defense aerospace industry can be predicted based on a firm's financial condition. The sample for this research includes 17 contractors and 52 missile and aircraft programs. Two separate issues are addressed. The first issue concerns the relationship between financial condition and contractor pricing strategy. The second concerns the...

  12. Shoulder reflexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.; Krogsgaard, M.; Voigt, Michael

    2002-01-01

    long latency (300 ms) excitatory reflex has been found when nerves in the capsule were stimulated electrically during shoulder surgery. In addition, when the anterior-inferior capsule was excited in conscious humans with modest amplitude electrical stimuli during muscle activity, a strong inhibition...... activity around the shoulder. This has implications for rehabilitation and shoulder surgery.......Dynamic shoulder stability is dependent on muscular coordination and sensory inputs. In the shoulder, mechanoreceptors are found in the coracoacromial ligament, the rotator cuff tendons, the musculotendinous junctions of the rotator cuff and in the capsule. The number of receptors in the capsule...

  13. To reflect or not to reflect: Prior team performance as a boundary condition of the effects of reflexivity on learning and final team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, M.; Homan, A.C.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2013-01-01

    A small but growing body of literature adds to our understanding of the role of team reflexivity (i.e., reflecting upon team functioning) in predicting team performance. Although many studies conclude that reflexivity is an asset for teams, the contingencies of team reflexivity have received far

  14. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  15. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rethinking the role of edaphic condition in halophyte vegetation degradation on salt marshes due to coastal defense structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong; Li, Shanze; Zhang, Shuyan

    2018-02-01

    Determining how human disturbance affects plant community persistence and species conservation is one of the most pressing ecological challenges. The large-scale disturbance form defense structures usually have a long-term and potential effect on phytocommunity in coastal saltmarshes. Coastal defense structures usually remove the effect of tidal wave on tidal salt marshes. As a consequence, edaphic factors such as the salinity and moisture contents are disturbed by tidal action blocking. However, few previous studies have explicitly addressed the response of halophyte species persistence and dynamics to the changing edaphic conditions. The understanding of the response of species composition in seed banks and aboveground vegetation to the stress is important to identify ecological effect of coastal defense structures and provide usefully insight into restoration. Here, we conducted a field study to distinguish the density, species composition and relationships of seed bank with aboveground vegetation between tidal flat wetlands with and without coastal defense structures. We also addressed the role of edaphic condition in vegetation degradation caused by coastal defense structures in combination with field monitor and greenhouse experiments. Our results showed the density of the seed bank and aboveground vegetation in the tidal flat without coastal defense structures was significantly lower than the surrounded flat with coastal defense structures. A total of 14 species were founded in the surrounded flat seed bank and 11 species in the tidal flat, but three species were only recorded in aboveground vegetation of the tidal flat which was much lower than 24 aboveground species in the surrounded flat. The absent of species in aboveground vegetation contributed to low germination rate which depend on the edaphic condition. The germination of seeds in the seed bank were inhabited by high soil salinity in the tidal flat and low soil moisture in the surrounded flat. Our

  17. A Cloud Storage Platform in the Defense Context : Mobile Data Management With Unreliable Network Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.S. van der; Bastiaans, M.; Jonge, M. de; Strijkers, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a cloud storage platform in the defense context. The mobile and dismounted domains of defense organizations typically use devices that are light in storage, processing and communication capabilities. This means that it is difficult to store a lot of information on these devices

  18. Alpha-tocopherol alters endogenous oxidative defense system in mungbean plants under water-deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Akram, N.A.; Javed, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Foliar spray of plant growth regulating compounds including antioxidants is an effective strategy to overcome the adverse effects of environmental constraints on different plants. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the influence of exogenously applied alpha-tocopherol (Toc) in up-regulating the oxidative defense system in two mungbean cultivars (Cyclone 7008 and Cyclone 8009) grown under normal and water deficit conditions. After 30-day of water deficit treatment, four levels of Toc (0 (non spray), 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1) were applied as a foliage application (at vegetative growth stage). A significant reduction was observed in plant height and total soluble proteins, while an increase was observed in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, malondialdehyde (MDA), total free amino acids and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD and CAT) antioxidants in both mungbean cultivars under drought conditions. Foliar spray of Toc was effective in improving plant height, AsA, total soluble proteins, total free amino acids, and activities of POD and CAT enzymes, but reduced MDA under water stress conditions. However, no prominent change was observed on the concentrations of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, phenolics, and SOD enzyme due to foliar-applied Toc in both mungbean cultivars under both water regimes. Both mungbean cultivars were almost similar in all attributes measured except that cv. Cyclone 7008 was higher in the levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and TSP while cv. Cyclone 8009 in phenolics. So, from the results of this study we can suggest that exogenous application of Toc is effective in improving growth and antioxidative potential of mungbean plants under dry arid environment. (author)

  19. Defense reactions of bean genotypes to bacterial pathogens in controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, B.; Bastas, K. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study was focused on the role of antioxidant enzymes and total protein in imparting resistance against common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) and halo blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) in bean. Activities of Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Catalase (CAT) and total protein were studied in resistant and susceptible bean genotypes. Five-day-old seedlings were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (108 CFU ml-1) and harvested at different time intervals (0, 12, 24 and 36 up to 72 h) under controlled growing conditions and assayed for antioxidant enzymes and total protein. Temporal increase of CAT, APX enzymes activities showed maximum activity at 12 h after both pathogens inoculation (hpi) in resistant cultivar, whereas in susceptible it increased at 72 h after both pathogens inoculation for CAT and 12, 24 h for APX enzymes. Maximum total protein activities were observed at 12 h and 24 h respectively after Xap, Psp inoculation (hpi) in resistant and maximum activities were observed at 24 h and 72 h respectively after Xap, Psp inoculation (hpi) in susceptible. Increase of antioxidant enzyme and total protein activities might be an important component in the defense strategy of resistance and susceptible bean genotypes against the bacterial infection. These findings suggest that disease protection is proportional to the amount of enhanced CAT, APX enzyme and total protein activity.

  20. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  1. Quantifying Permafrost Extent, Condition, and Degradation at Department of Defense Installations in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is planning over $500M in military construction on Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) within the next three fiscal years. This construction program will expand the footprint of facilities and change the storm water management scheme, which will have second order effects on the underlying permafrost layer. These changes in permafrost will drive engineering decision making at local and regional levels, and help shape the overall strategy for military readiness in the Arctic. Although many studies have attempted to predict climate change induced permafrost degradation, very little site-specific knowledge exists on the anthropogenic effects to permafrost at this location. In 2016, the permafrost degradation rates at Eielson AFB were modeled using the Geophysics Institute Permafrost Laboratory (GIPL) 2.1 model and limited available geotechnical and climate data. Model results indicated a degradation of the discontinuous permafrost layer at Eielson AFB of up to 7 meters in depth over the next century. To further refine an understanding of the geophysics at Eielson AFB and help engineers and commanders make more informed decisions on engineering and operations in the arctic, this project established two permafrost monitoring stations near the future construction sites. Installation of the stations occurred in July 2017. Permafrost was located and characterized using two Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys, as well as direct frost probe measurements. Using this data, the research team optimized the placement location and depth of two long term ground temperature monitoring stations, and then installed the stations for data collection. The data set generated by these stations are the first of their kind at Eielson AFB, and represent the first systematic effort in the DoD to quantify permafrost condition before, during, and after construction and other anthropogenic activities in order to fully understand the effects of that activity in the

  2. Tooth pulp stimulation as an unconditioned stimulus in defensive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Keller, O; Zieliński, K

    1977-01-01

    In an experiment performed on five cats, stable escape and avoidance reflexes in a bar-pressing situation were established using tooth pulp electric stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus. The influence of changes in parameters of the unconditioned stimulus (current intensity, single pulse and train durations, frequency of pulses and rate of train presentations) on unconditioned and instrumental responses was analysed in three additional subjects. Among other relationships the dependence of the threshold of bar press responses on the amount of charge in a single pulse was determined.

  3. Reflexivity in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Henderson, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    There has been something of a “reflexive shift” in sociological research. Sociological researchers are increasingly encouraged to be “present” within their work, and to recognize their own role in structuring the entire research process. One way to achieve this is through engagement in reflexive...... practice, that is, to reflect on our own values, beliefs, and biographies. It can be difficult to know exactly how a researcher should engage in these practices, however. Here, we discuss our reflexive practice in two case studies, both which utilized the same figurational theoretical framework...... Kingdom. Reflexive practice in both studies was affected by researcher biographies and by study design. In Study 1, both researchers were reasonably detached from the study context, the theoretical framework was in place from the very beginning, and reflexive practice was embedded in the study design...

  4. A cost minimisation and Bayesian inference model predicts startle reflex modulation across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2015-04-07

    In many species, rapid defensive reflexes are paramount to escaping acute danger. These reflexes are modulated by the state of the environment. This is exemplified in fear-potentiated startle, a more vigorous startle response during conditioned anticipation of an unrelated threatening event. Extant explanations of this phenomenon build on descriptive models of underlying psychological states, or neural processes. Yet, they fail to predict invigorated startle during reward anticipation and instructed attention, and do not explain why startle reflex modulation evolved. Here, we fill this lacuna by developing a normative cost minimisation model based on Bayesian optimality principles. This model predicts the observed pattern of startle modification by rewards, punishments, instructed attention, and several other states. Moreover, the mathematical formalism furnishes predictions that can be tested experimentally. Comparing the model with existing data suggests a specific neural implementation of the underlying computations which yields close approximations to the optimal solution under most circumstances. This analysis puts startle modification into the framework of Bayesian decision theory and predictive coding, and illustrates the importance of an adaptive perspective to interpret defensive behaviour across species. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Etnography and Reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cardano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with a relevant and controversial topic – objectivity in ethnographic research. More specifically, I would like to examine how reflexive procedures, more precisely “reflexive account”, can increase the robustness of results gained through an ethnographic research. The essay is organized in five parts. I will start by giving a preliminary definition of the two key concepts which are at the center of the analysis – objectivity and reflexivity. I will then give a brief description of the epistemological framework in which the proposed conceptions of objectivity and reflexivity are located. Thirdly, I move on to consider the epistemic status of ethnographic research, and will emphasize that ethnographies are not just “theory-laden”, as many writers have stated, but also “praxis” or “procedure laden”. In other words, I will stress that it is not only theories which are inevitably embedded in research, influencing how observations can be made; much the same can also be said of the concrete research practices which contribute to determine the experience of the ethnographer and its representation in a text. Fourthly, I will discuss why it is useful to employ reflexive practices, and then immediately afterwards will illustrate the ways in which reflexive descriptions can contribute to greater objectivity of ethnographic accounts. In conclusion, I will discuss a number of objections which have been raised against this use of reflexivity.

  6. On Reflexive Data Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    2000-08-20

    An information system is reflexive if it stores a description of its current structure in the body of stored information and is acting on the base of this information. A data model is reflexive, if its language is meta-closed and can be used to build such a system. The need for reflexive data models in new areas of information technology applications is argued. An attempt to express basic notions related to information systems is made in the case when the system supports and uses meta-closed representation of the data.

  7. Reflex syncope: Diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sutton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the diagnosis of reflex syncope, diligent history-building with the patient and a witness is required. In the Emergency Department (ED, the assessment of syncope is a challenge which may be addressed by an ED Observation Unit or by a referral to a Syncope Unit. Hospital admission is necessary for those with life-threatening cardiac conditions although risk stratification remains an unsolved problem. Other patients may be investigated with less urgency by carotid sinus massage (>40 years, tilt testing, and electrocardiogram loop recorder insertion resulting in a clear cause for syncope. Management includes, in general terms, patient education, avoidance of circumstances in which syncope is likely, increase in fluid and salt consumption, and physical counter-pressure maneuvers. In older patients, those that will benefit from cardiac pacing are now well defined. In all patients, the benefit of drug therapy is often disappointing and there remains no ideal drug. A role for catheter ablation may emerge for the highly symptomatic reflex syncope patient. Keywords: Cardiac pacing, Catheter ablation, Diagnosis, Drugs, Management, Reflex syncope

  8. Model simulation studies to clarify the effect on saccadic eye movements of initial condition velocities set by the Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Winters, J. M.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.

  9. Too Busy for Reflexivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    What Danish school managers can teach STS researchers about epistemological ideals and pragmatic morals. Reflexivity has an ambivalent status in both anthropology and Science and Technology Studies. On the one hand, the critique of representation at the heart of the reflexivity debates of the 1980s...... highlighted non-symmetric relationships between observer and observed and accused the academic text of enacting a realist genre, concealing the relativism entailed in textual production (Clifford and Marcus 1986, Woolgar 1988, Ashmore 1989). On the other hand, the reflexivity program produced fears...... of a “corrosive relativism in which everything is but a more or less clever expression of opinion” (Geertz 1988:2, 3) and it has suffered the little flattering accusations of piling "layer upon layer of self-consciousness to no avail" (Latour 1988:170) with little “interest [for] … theoretically ambitious...

  10. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co......Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded...

  11. Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex dynamic and static changes in spastic hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun G.; Ren, Yupeng; Liu, Lin; Roth, Elliot J.; Rymer, W. Zev

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes tonic and phasic stretch reflex and stiffness and viscosity changes associated with spastic hemiparesis. Perturbations were applied to the ankle of 27 hemiparetic and 36 healthy subjects under relaxed or active contracting conditions. A nonlinear delay differential equation model characterized phasic and tonic stretch reflex gains, elastic stiffness, and viscous damping. Tendon reflex was characterized with reflex gain and threshold. Reflexively, tonic reflex gain was increased in spastic ankles at rest (P hemiparesis may help to evaluate and treat them more effectively. PMID:23636726

  12. [Laryngeal adduction reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Bonenberger, S; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Jungheim, M

    2014-07-01

    Laryngeal Adductor Reflex Background: A rapid closure of the vocal folds is necessary, whenever foreign materials or food particles penetrate into the larynx. Otherwise a passage of these particles into the trachea or the lower respiratory tract would be imminent. An aspiration could mechanically block the respiratory tract and cause severe dyspnoea or cause aspiration pneumonia. For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed and Scopus using the keywords "laryngeal adductor reflex" and "vocal fold closure" has been carried out. Apart from the oesophago-glottal and pharyngo-glottal closure reflexes, the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) has been investigated in particular. The LAR qualifies as a reflectory laryngeal adductor mechanism and involves early, presumably di- or oligosynaptic ipsilateral LAR1 as well as late polysynaptic ipsi- and contralateral LAR2 components. In clinical routine diagnostic settings of dysphagia, LAR is only assessed qualitatively and usually triggered by air pulses or tactile stimulation. Dysphagiologists often find that not only the laryngeal sensibility in general is impaired, but especially the protective laryngeal adduction mechanism, which results in a higher risk of aspiration. Thus, it appears mandatory to test the LAR not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Unfortunately a valid and reliable method that can be employed in clinical practice has not yet been put forward. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Probabilities on Streams and Reflexive Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probability measures on streams (e.g. on hypernumbers and p-adic numbers have been defined. It was shown that these probabilities can be used for simulations of reflexive games. In particular, it can be proved that Aumann's agreement theorem does not hold for these probabilities. Instead of this theorem, there is a statement that is called the reflexion disagreement theorem. Based on this theorem, probabilistic and knowledge conditions can be defined for reflexive games at various reflexion levels up to the infinite level. (original abstract

  14. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  15. Reflex epilepsy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Nikkhah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting phenomena of reflex epileptic syndromes are characterized by epileptic seizures each one induced by specific stimulus with a variety of types. Simple triggers, which lead to seizures within seconds, are of sensory type (most commonly visual, most rarely tactile or proprioceptive stimuli. Complex triggers, which are mostly of cognitive type such as praxis, reading, talking, and music, usually induce the epileptic event within minutes. It should differ from what most epileptic patients report as provocative precipitants for seizures (such as emotional stress, fatigue, fever, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. The identification of a specific trigger is not only important for patients or their parents to avoid seizures, but also it might help neurologists to choose the most effective antiepileptic drug for each case. In addition, research in this area may possibly reveal some underlying pathophysiology of epileptic phenomena in the brain.In this review, we briefly introduce reported reflex epileptic seizures, their clinical features and management.

  16. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  17. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  19. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  20. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  1. Reflexive Dressing: Rethinking Retro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella North

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article undertakes a philosophical exploration of the act we know, or think we know, as ‘dressing’. Inhabiting, in thought, the moment in which we dress, I examine some of its constituent mechanisms, attending to the impulses by which dressing is generated out of subjective experience.  When those impulses are temporally marked, as they are in the case of retro dress, this generation is a two-pronged process, in which the holding of the body in time, and the holding of time in the body, recalibrate one another. The process of ‘dressing,’ in this understanding, has a reflexivity which is double; it entails the turning of the body, with dress as medium, towards itself, and the turning of present experience towards some felt notion of the past. Reflexively dressing, we are always becoming ourselves, and becoming other than ourselves, at once; a movement of circuitous internalisation and externalisation by which the ambiguation inherent in material experience is realised.

  2. AMPUTATION AND REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTZEN, JHB; EISMA, WH

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by chronic burning pain, restricted range of motion, oedema and vasolability. Patients are difficult to treat and the prognosis is very often poor. This report emphasizes that an amputation in case of a reflex sympathetic

  3. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  4. Management of Reflex Anoxic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation, Liverpool, UK, review the definition, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of reflex anoxic seizures (RAS in children.

  5. Scrutinizing the Reflexive Ethnography of Urban Outcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz Larsen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    The core of Bourdieu and Wacquant’s ‘epistemic reflexivity’ demands an embodied reflexivity which takes up the point of view of the practice and the social problems under study via a reflection and reconstruction of the point of view of the ethnographer as an agent embedded in a scientific practice...... in the scientific field. This must be done to cast light over the social conditions and conditionings that have a possible effect on the construction of the given scientific object under study. However, measured by these standards, Urban Outcasts remains not as pedagogical as one might wish. Despite all...

  6. Avian reflex and electroencephalogram responses in different states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Dale A; Auckburally, Adam; Flaherty, Derek; Sandilands, Victoria; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2014-06-22

    Defining states of clinical consciousness in animals is important in veterinary anaesthesia and in studies of euthanasia and welfare assessment at slaughter. The aim of this study was to validate readily observable reflex responses in relation to different conscious states, as confirmed by EEG analysis, in two species of birds under laboratory conditions (35-week-old layer hens (n=12) and 11-week-old turkeys (n=10)). We evaluated clinical reflexes and characterised electroencephalograph (EEG) activity (as a measure of brain function) using spectral analyses in four different clinical states of consciousness: conscious (fully awake), semi-conscious (sedated), unconscious-optimal (general anaesthesia), unconscious-sub optimal (deep hypnotic state), as well as assessment immediately following euthanasia. Jaw or neck muscle tone was the most reliable reflex measure distinguishing between conscious and unconscious states. Pupillary reflex was consistently observed until respiratory arrest. Nictitating membrane reflex persisted for a short time (power (PTOT) significantly increased, whereas median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies significantly decreased. This study demonstrates that EEG analysis can differentiate between clinical states (and loss of brain function at death) in birds and provides a unique integration of reflex responses and EEG activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyama, Sahoko; Arimoto, Kiyoshi; Kimiya, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is an electrically elicited spinal monosynaptic reflex. H reflex was examined in 18 patients with spastic quadriplegia who had perinatal or postnatal problems. H reflex was elicitable in 11 patients for the abductor pollicis brevis (61.1%), 10 for the abductor digiti minimi (55.6%) and 16 for the abductor hallucis (88.9%). Because the abductor pollicis brevis and the abductor digiti minimi do not exhibit H reflex in normal subjects, it was suggested that the excitability of alpha motor neurons innervating these muscles was increased. H reflex was not detected for the extensor digitorum brevis in any patients, indicating the difference in the excitability among alpha motor neurons. In some patients, H reflex did not disappear under supramaximal stimuli. We conclude that the mechanism of evolution of H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia is different from that in normal subjects.

  8. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  9. Reflexive fatherhood in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at fathering practices in Denmark, using the findings from a research project on everyday family life in Denmark. It takes a social psychological perspective and employs discursive psychology and theories about reflexive modernisation. It shows how fathers orient towards intimacy...... in their relationships with their children. Moreover, it discusses how fathers’ relatedness reflects individualisation and detraditionalisation. It is argued that reflexive modernisation entails subjective orientations that enable novel pathways to intimacy in contemporary father–child relationships. Through...... this analysis and discussion, the article offers a way to understand the complexities of fathering in everyday life from the perspective of fathers....

  10. Outside home. Notes on reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Clemente

    2017-01-01

    The paper proffers the idea in which a “reflexive process” on subjectivity can involve and/or hopefully involve the entire experience of the researcher, going beyond the borders of a single research. In the process, unexpected elements of subjectivity can come into play; in other cases the meaning attributed to them can change in time or can have a role different from what had been expected. Some elements, objects of epistemological analyses, as imposed by a reflexive approach, can become objects of attention also on the phenomenological level.

  11. Educating the Reflexive Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Neveu

    2012-09-01

    wearing any clothes.Notwithstanding such issues, I do believe the studio holds the potentialto be an empowering learning experience. The intention of this article is to question the mode of instruction in an architectural studio. I’ve structured the paper in three parts. First, I will briefly describe the findingsof the study made by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancementof Teaching known as the Boyer Report.2 To develop and support the findings of the Boyer Report, I introduce the work of the educator Donald Schön. Though I see much merit in the Boyer Report, and Schön’sproposals, I argue that a more nuanced approach is required. I will recommend, therefore, in the second section of this paper that a meansof architectural education as based on the Socratic method may be amore productive approach. My reading of the Socratic method is basedprimarily on early Socratic dialogues and I will specifically use Charmidesto illustrate the issues that I believe are relevant to studio pedagogy.3 From my analysis of Charmides I will, in the third section of the essay,describe how the Socratic method is beneficial to studio pedagogy threeways: reflexive, non-propositional, and finally how Socrates’ approachmay indeed be practical. This last section will be illustrated with a studentproject. It is my conjecture that the Socratic method offers insight intocurrent discussions of educational theory, namely student-centered,project-based learning.

  12. Collaborative Research in Contexts of Inequality: The Role of Social Reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Brenda; Bozalek, Vivienne; Farmer, Jean; Garraway, James; Herman, Nicoline; Jawitz, Jeff; McMillan, Wendy; Mistri, Gita; Ndebele, Clever; Nkonki, Vuyisile; Quinn, Lynn; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Vorster, Jo-Anne; Winberg, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the role and value of social reflexivity in collaborative research in contexts of extreme inequality. Social reflexivity mediates the enablements and constraints generated by the internal and external contextual conditions impinging on the research collaboration. It fosters the ability of participants in a collaborative…

  13. Reflexive Language and Ethnic Minority Activism in Hong Kong: A Trajectory-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Milans, Miguel; Soto, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with Archer's call to further research on reflexivity and social change under conditions of late modernity (2007, 2010, 2012) from the perspective of existing work on reflexive discourse in the language disciplines (Silverstein 1976, Lucy 1993). Drawing from a linguistic ethnography of the networked trajectories of a group of…

  14. Neurodevelopmental Reflex Testing in Neonatal Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Antoinette T; Armstrong, Edward A; Yager, Jerome Y

    2017-04-24

    Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants. The techniques described assess a variety of neurodevelopmental reflexes in neonatal rats. Neurodevelopmental reflex testing offers the investigator a testing method that is not otherwise available in such young animals. The methodology presented here aims to assist investigators in examining developmental milestones in neonatal rats as a method of detecting early-onset brain injury and/or determining the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The methodology presented here aims to provide a general guideline for investigators.

  15. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  16. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  17. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  18. Dynamic Shaping of the Defensive Peripersonal Space through Predictive Motor Mechanisms: When the "Near" Becomes "Far".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Garbarini, Francesca; Biggio, Monica; Fossataro, Carlotta; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2017-03-01

    The hand blink reflex is a subcortical defensive response, known to dramatically increase when the stimulated hand is statically positioned inside the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS) of the face. Here, we tested in a group of healthy human subjects the hand blink reflex in dynamic conditions, investigating whether the direction of the hand movements (up-to/down-from the face) could modulate it. We found that, on equal hand position, the response enhancement was present only when the hand approached to (and not receded from) the DPPS of the face. This means that, when the hand is close to the face but the subject is planning to move the hand down, the predictive motor system can anticipate the consequence of the movement: the "near" becomes "far." We found similar results both in passive movement condition, when only afferent (visual and proprioceptive) information can be used to estimate the final state of the system, and in motor imagery task, when only efferent (intentional) information is available to predict the consequences of the movement. All these findings provide evidence that the DPPS is dynamically shaped by predictive mechanisms run by the motor system and based on the integration of feedforward and sensory feedback signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The defensive peripersonal space (DPPS) has a crucial role for survival, and its modulation is fundamental when we interact with the environment, as when we move our arms. Here, we focused on a defensive response, the hand blink reflex, known to increase when a static hand is stimulated inside the DPPS of the face. We tested the hand blink reflex in dynamic conditions (voluntary, passive, and imagined movements) and we found that, on equal hand position, the response enhancement was present only when the hand approached to (and not receded from) the DPPS of the face. This suggests that, through the integration of efferent and afferent signals, the safety boundary around the body is continuously shaped by

  19. Proximally evoked soleus H-reflex to S1 nerve root stimulation in sensory neuronopathies (ganglionopathies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Qing; Zhu, Yu; Qiao, Kai; Zheng, Chao-Jun; Bradley, Scott; Weber, Robert; Chen, Xiang-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) mimics distal sensory axonopathy. The conventional H-reflex elicited by tibial nerve stimulation (tibial H-reflex) is usually abnormal in both conditions. We evaluated the proximally evoked soleus H-reflex in response to S1 nerve root stimulation (S1 foramen H-reflex) in SNN. Eleven patients with SNN and 6 with distal sensory axonopathy were studied. Tibial and S1 foramen H-reflexes were performed bilaterally in each patient. Tibial and S1 foramen H-reflexes were absent bilaterally in all patients with SNN. In the patients with distal sensory axonopathy, tibial H-reflexes were absent in 4 and demonstrated prolonged latencies in 2, but S1 foramen H-reflexes were normal. Characteristic absence of the H-reflex after both proximal and distal stimulation reflects primary loss of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the distinct non-length-dependent impairment of sensory nerve fibers in SNN. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impact of oxidative stress defense on bacterial survival and morphological change in Campylobacter jejuni under aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen, inescapably faces high oxygen tension during its transmission to humans. Thus, the ability of C. jejuni to survive under oxygen-rich conditions may significantly impact C. jejuni viability in food and food safety as well. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxidative stress resistance on the survival of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions by examining three mutants defective in key antioxidant genes, including ahpC, katA, and sodB. All the three mutants exhibited growth reduction under aerobic conditions compared to the wild type (WT, and the ahpC mutant showed the most significant growth defect. The CFU reduction in the mutants was recovered to the WT level by complementation. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were accumulated in C. jejuni under aerobic conditions than microaerobic conditions, and supplementation of culture media with an antioxidant recovered the growth of C. jejuni. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the mutants compared to WT. Additionally, the mutants exhibited different morphological changes under aerobic conditions. The ahpC and katA mutants developed coccoid morphology by aeration, whereas the sodB mutant established elongated cellular morphology. Compared to microaerobic conditions, interestingly, aerobic culture conditions substantially induced the formation of coccoidal cells, and antioxidant treatment reduced the emergence of coccoid forms under aerobic conditions. The ATP concentrations and PMA-qPCR analysis supported that oxidative stress is a factor that induces the development of a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC state in C. jejuni. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress resistance plays an important role in the survival and morphological changes of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions.

  1. Neurophysiology and Clinical Implications of the Laryngeal Adductor Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Amanda S; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an involuntary protective response to stimuli in the larynx. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) acts as the afferent limb and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) as the efferent limb of this reflex, which is modulated by the central nervous system. Perhaps the most clinically significant application of the LAR is its use in laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination testing. Importantly, aberrations in the LAR may predict dysphagia or portend clinical phenotypes of chronic cough, vocal cord dysfunction or pediatric apneas. LP sensation is a potential target for interventions addressing the aforementioned conditions though currently remains an area of active investigation.

  2. Effects of anticipated emotional category and temporal predictability on the startle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Elizabeth A; Hajcak, Greg; Aneziris, Eleni; Nelson, Brady D

    2017-09-01

    Anticipated emotional category and temporal predictability are key characteristics that have both been shown to impact psychophysiological indices of defensive motivation (e.g., the startle reflex). To date, research has primarily examined these features in isolation, and it is unclear whether they have additive or interactive effects on defensive motivation. In the present study, the startle reflex was measured in anticipation of low arousal neutral, moderate arousal pleasant, and high arousal unpleasant pictures that were presented with either predictable or unpredictable timing. Linear mixed-effects modeling was conducted to examine startle magnitude across time, and the intercept at the beginning and end of the task. Across the entire task, the anticipation of temporally unpredictable (relative to predictable) pictures and emotional (relative to neutral) pictures potentiated startle magnitude, but there was no interaction between the two features. However, examination of the intercept at the beginning of the task indicated a Predictability by Emotional Category interaction, such that temporal unpredictability enhanced startle potentiation in anticipation of unpleasant pictures only. Examination of the intercept at the end of the task indicated that the effects of predictability and emotional category on startle magnitude were largely diminished. The present study replicates previous reports demonstrating that emotional category and temporal predictability impact the startle reflex, and provides novel evidence suggesting an interactive effect on defensive motivation at the beginning of the task. This study also highlights the importance of examining the time course of the startle reflex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G

    2013-09-01

    Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.; Saad, Evan I.

    2011-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS SNP in contrast to no effect on BRS PE . BRS SNP was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS SNP were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS SNP was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A 2A antagonist), or VUF5574 (A 3 antagonist). In contrast, BRS SNP was preserved after blockade of A 1 (DPCPX) or A 2B (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS SNP depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A 2A receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms. - Research highlights: → The role of central adenosinergic sites in

  5. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  6. Being reflexive in qualitative grounded theory: discussion and application of a model of reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engward, Hilary; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    A discussion of the meaning of reflexivity in research with the presentation of examples of how a model of reflexivity was used in a grounded theory research project. Reflexivity requires the researcher to make transparent the decisions they make in the research process and is therefore important in developing quality in nursing research. The importance of being reflexive is highlighted in the literature in relation to nursing research, however, practical guidance as to how to go about doing research reflexively is not always clearly articulated. This is a discussion paper. The concept of reflexivity in research is explored using the Alvesson and Skoldberg model of reflexivity and practical examples of how a researcher developed reflexivity in a grounded theory project are presented. Nurse researchers are encouraged to explore and apply the concept of reflexivity in their research practices to develop transparency in the research process and to increase robustness in their research. The Alvesson and Skoldberg model is of value in applying reflexivity in qualitative nursing research, particularly in grounded theory research. Being reflexive requires the researcher to be completely open about decisions that are made in the research process. The Alvesson and Skolberg model of reflexivity is a useful model that can enhance reflexivity in the research process. It can be a useful practical tool to develop reflexivity in grounded theory research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Integrating Reflexivity in Livelihoods Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods research...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  8. Soleus and lateral gastrocnemius H-reflexes during standing with unstable footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Lepers, Romuald; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2015-05-01

    Unstable footwear has been shown to increase lower extremity muscle activity, but the reflex response to perturbations induced by this intervention is unknown. Twenty healthy subjects stood in stable and unstable footwear conditions (presented randomly) while H-reflex amplitude and background muscle activity were measured in the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. Wearing unstable footwear resulted in larger H-reflexes (normalized to the maximal M-wave) for the LG (+12%; P = 0.025), but not for the soleus (+4%; P > 0.05). Background activity of both muscles was significantly higher in the unstable condition. The H-reflex facilitation observed with unstable footwear was unexpected, as challenging postural conditions usually result in reflex depression. Increased muscle activity, decreased presynaptic inhibition, and/or more forward postural position may have (over-)compensated the expected reflex depression. Differences between LG and soleus H-reflex modulation may be due to diverging motor unit recruitment thresholds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Two ways to support reflexivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Knudsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A current challenge to public managers is the lack of a well-defined role. How can master’s programmes prepare managers to live up to an undefined function? In this paper we argue that the lack of role description enhances the need for reflexivity and show how it is done at Master in Educational...... Management (MEM). MEM provides the participating managers with a new language that can give them a critical distance to the overload of expectations they meet at work and MEM teaches the participants to translate this new language into practice. The pedagogy used for this is labelled ‘experimental management...

  10. Bernstein Lethargy Theorem and Reflexivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Asuman Güven; Peng, Qidi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the equivalence of reflexive Banach spaces and those Banach spaces which satisfy the following form of Bernstein's Lethargy Theorem. Let $X$ be an arbitrary infinite-dimensional Banach space, and let the real-valued sequence $\\{d_n\\}_{n\\ge1}$ decrease to $0$. Suppose that $\\{Y_n\\}_{n\\ge1}$ is a system of strictly nested subspaces of $X$ such that $\\overline Y_n \\subset Y_{n+1}$ for all $n\\ge1$ and for each $n\\ge1$, there exists $y_n\\in Y_{n+1}\\backslash Y_n$ such that ...

  11. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  12. Modulation of the masseteric reflex by gastric vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E

    1983-04-01

    Several investigations have shown that the vagal nerve can affect the reflex responses of the masticatory muscles acting at level either of trigeminal motoneurons or of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN). The present experiments have been devoted to establish the origin of the vagal afferent fibres involved in modulating the masseteric reflex. In particular, the gastric vagal afferents were taken into consideration and selective stimulations of such fibres were performed in rabbit. Conditioning electrical stimulation of truncus vagalis ventralis (TVV) reduced the excitability of the MTN cells as shown by a decrease of the antidromic response recorded from the semilunar ganglion and elicited by MTN single-shock electrical stimulation. Sympathetic and cardiovascular influences were not involved in these responses. Mechanical stimulation of gastric receptors, by means of gastric distension, clearly diminished the amplitude of twitch tension of masseteric reflex and inhibited the discharge frequency of proprioceptive MTN units. The effect was phasic and depended upon the velocity of distension. Thus the sensory volleys originating from rapid adapting receptors reach the brain stem through vagal afferents and by means of a polysynaptic connection inhibits the masseteric reflex at level of MTN cells.

  13. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    DR Decision Review DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DRPM Direct Reporting Program Manager DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency...STE Special Test Equipment STEP Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process STLDD Software Top Level Design Document STP Software Test Plan STPR...established catalog or market prices for specific tasks under standard commercial terms and conditions; this does not include services sold based

  14. Reflex responses in the lower leg following landing impact on an inverting and non-inverting platform.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüneberg, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, P.H.J.A.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the lower leg, landing after a jump induces reflexes, the role of which is not well understood. This is even more so for reflexes following landing on inverting surfaces. The latter condition is of special interest since ankle inversion traumata are one of the most common injuries during sport.

  15. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop an advanced reflexive structure system to increase the survivability of aerostructures. This reflexive...

  16. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  17. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  18. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The medial olivocochlear reflex in children during active listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer B; Cone, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    To determine if active listening modulates the strength of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex in children. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were recorded from the right ear in quiet and in four test conditions: one with contralateral broadband noise (BBN) only, and three with active listening tasks wherein attention was directed to speech embedded in contralateral BBN. Fifteen typically-developing children (ranging in age from 8 to14 years) with normal hearing. CEOAE levels were reduced in every condition with contralateral acoustic stimulus (CAS) when compared to preceding quiet conditions. There was an additional systematic decrease in CEOAE level with increased listening task difficulty, although this effect was very small. These CEOAE level differences were most apparent in the 8-18 ms region after click onset. Active listening may change the strength of the MOC reflex in children, although the effects reported here are very subtle. Further studies are needed to verify that task difficulty modulates the activity of the MOC reflex in children.

  20. Modulation of the startle reflex by pleasant and unpleasant music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Mailhot, Jean-Philippe; Gosselin, Nathalie; Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The issue of emotional feelings to music is the object of a classic debate in music psychology. Emotivists argue that emotions are really felt in response to music, whereas cognitivists believe that music is only representative of emotions. Psychophysiological recordings of emotional feelings to music might help to resolve the debate, but past studies have failed to show clear and consistent differences between musical excerpts of different emotional valence. Here, we compared the effects of pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts on the startle eye blink reflex and associated body markers (such as the corrugator and zygomatic activity, skin conductance level and heart rate). The startle eye blink amplitude was larger and its latency was shorter during unpleasant compared with pleasant music, suggesting that the defensive emotional system was indeed modulated by music. Corrugator activity was also enhanced during unpleasant music, whereas skin conductance level was higher for pleasant excerpts. The startle reflex was the response that contributed the most in distinguishing pleasant and unpleasant music. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that emotions were felt in response to music, supporting the emotivist stance.

  1. Objective evaluation of binaural summation through acoustic reflex measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha W; Parrill, Madaline

    2018-02-12

    A previous study [Rawool, V. W. (2016). Auditory processing deficits: Assessment and intervention. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., pp. 186-187] demonstrated objective assessment of binaural summation through right contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds (ARTs) in women. The current project examined if previous findings could be generalised to men and to the left ear. Cross-sectional. Sixty individuals participated in the study. Left and right contralateral ARTs were obtained in two conditions. In the alternated condition, the probe tone presentation was alternated with the presentation of the reflex activating clicks. In the simultaneous condition, the probe tone and the clicks were presented simultaneously. Binaural summation was calculated by subtracting the ARTs obtained in the simultaneous condition from the ARTs obtained in the alternated condition. MANOVA on ARTs revealed no significant gender or ear effects. The ARTs were significantly lower/better in the simultaneous condition compared to the alternated condition. Binaural summation was 4 dB or higher in 88% of the ears and 6 dB or higher in 76% of ears. Stimulation of six out of the total 120 (0.5%) ears resulted in worse thresholds in the simultaneous condition compared with the alternating condition, suggesting binaural interference.

  2. The Multiple Faces of Reflexive Research Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexive research can be grouped into five clusters with circular relations between two elements x ↔ x, namely circular relations between observers, between scientific building blocks like concepts, theories or models, between systemic levels, between rules and rule systems or as circular relations or x ↔ y between these four components. By far the most important cluster is the second cluster which becomes reflexive through a re-entry operation RE into a scientific element x and which establishes its circular formation as x(x. Many of the research problems in these five clusters in reflexivity research are still unexplored and pose grand challenges for future research.

  3. A near catastrophe from trigeminocardiac reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K Bithal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminocardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex that results from stimulation of any branch of the trigeminal nerve along its course. It produces a constellation of signs and symptoms decrease in blood pressure (BP and heart rate, dysrhythmias, apnoea and increased gastric motility. We present a case of 80-year-old female patient who developed alarming hypotension and bradycardia during craniotomy for meningioma excision resulting from this reflex. In the face of refractory hypotension despite administering ephedrine and phenylephrine, we had to resort to adrenaline to restore her normal BP.

  4. Portraying Reflexivity in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, John; Green, Bill

    2016-09-01

    A model is proposed for supporting reflexivity in qualitative health research, informed by arguments from Bourdieu and Finlay. Bourdieu refers to mastering the subjective relation to the object at three levels-the overall social space, the field of specialists, and the scholastic universe. The model overlays Bourdieu's levels of objectivation with Finlay's three stages of research (pre-research, data collection, and data analysis). The intersections of these two ways of considering reflexivity, displayed as cells of a matrix, pose questions and offer prompts to productively challenge health researchers' reflexivity. Portraiture is used to show how these challenges and prompts can facilitate such reflexivity, as illustrated in a research project. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  6. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Enhances the Excitability of Trigemino-Facial Reflex Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, Christopher; Cipullo, Federica; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes a tiny burning sensation through activation of local cutaneous trigeminal afferents. Trigeminal sensory inputs from tDCS may generate excitability changes in the trigemino-facial reflex circuits. Sixteen healthy volunteers were submitted to 20 minutes tDCS sessions with two types of electrode-montage conditions: 1. Real vs Sham 'bi-hemispheric' tDCS (cathode/anode: C4/C3), for blinded assessment of effects, and 2. 'uni-hemispheric' tDCS (cathode/anode: Fp3/C3), for assessment of laterality of the effects. Supraorbital nerve stimuli were used to obtain blink reflexes before, during (10 minutes from onset) and after (30 minutes from onset) the tDCS session. Outcome measures were R2 habituation (R2H) to repeated stimuli, the blink reflex excitability recovery (BRER) to paired stimuli and the blink reflex inhibition by a prepulse (BRIP). Real but not sham bi-hemispheric tDCS caused a significant decrease of R2H and leftward shift of BRER curve (p tDCS on BRER and BRIP were larger on ipsilateral than on contralateral blink reflexes (p tDCS enhances the excitability of trigemino-facial reflex circuits. The finding of larger ipsilateral than contralateral effects suggests that sensitization through cutaneous trigeminal afferents adds on other possible mechanisms such as activation of cortico-nuclear or cortico-reticular connections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term locomotor adaptation to a robotic ankle exoskeleton does not alter soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Lewis, Cara L; Ferris, Daniel P

    2010-07-26

    To improve design of robotic lower limb exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation, it is critical to identify neural mechanisms that govern locomotor adaptation to robotic assistance. Previously, we demonstrated soleus muscle recruitment decreased by approximately 35% when walking with a pneumatically-powered ankle exoskeleton providing plantar flexor torque under soleus proportional myoelectric control. Since a substantial portion of soleus activation during walking results from the stretch reflex, increased reflex inhibition is one potential mechanism for reducing soleus recruitment when walking with exoskeleton assistance. This is clinically relevant because many neurologically impaired populations have hyperactive stretch reflexes and training to reduce the reflexes could lead to substantial improvements in their motor ability. The purpose of this study was to quantify soleus Hoffmann (H-) reflex responses during powered versus unpowered walking. We tested soleus H-reflex responses in neurologically intact subjects (n=8) that had trained walking with the soleus controlled robotic ankle exoskeleton. Soleus H-reflex was tested at the mid and late stance while subjects walked with the exoskeleton on the treadmill at 1.25 m/s, first without power (first unpowered), then with power (powered), and finally without power again (second unpowered). We also collected joint kinematics and electromyography. When the robotic plantar flexor torque was provided, subjects walked with lower soleus electromyographic (EMG) activation (27-48%) and had concomitant reductions in H-reflex amplitude (12-24%) compared to the first unpowered condition. The H-reflex amplitude in proportion to the background soleus EMG during powered walking was not significantly different from the two unpowered conditions. These findings suggest that the nervous system does not inhibit the soleus H-reflex in response to short-term adaption to exoskeleton assistance. Future studies should determine if the

  9. Reflex and Non-Reflex Torque Responses to Stretch of the Human Knee Extensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mrachacz-Kersting, N

    2001-01-01

    .... The quadriceps muscles were stretched at various background torques, produced either voluntarily or electrically and thus the purely reflex-mediated torque could be calculated. The contribution of the reflex mediated stiffness initially low, increased with increasing background torques for the range of torques investigated.

  10. "On Becoming a Critically Reflexive Practitioner" Redux: What Does It Mean to "Be" Reflexive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Cunliffe states that is convinced that reflexivity offers a way of foregrounding our moral and ethical responsibility for people and for the world around us. To "BE" reflexive was defined as embracing "subjective understandings of reality as a basis for thinking more critically about the impact of our…

  11. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  12. A novel reflex cough testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2017-01-18

    The reflex cough test is useful for detecting silent aspiration, a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. However, assessing the risk of aspiration pneumonia requires measuring not only the cough reflex but also cough strength. Currently, no reflex cough testing device is available that can directly measure reflex cough strength. We therefore developed a new testing device that can easily and simultaneously measure cough strength and the time until the cough reflex, and verified whether screening with this new instrument is feasible for evaluating the risk of aspiration pneumonia. This device consists of a special pipe with a double lumen, a nebulizer, and an electronic spirometer. We used a solution of prescription-grade L-tartaric acid to initiate the cough reflex. The solution was inhaled through a mouthpiece as a microaerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer. The peak cough flow (PCF) of the induced cough was measured with the spirometer. The 70 patients who participated in this study comprised 49 patients without a history of pneumonia (group A), 21 patients with a history of pneumonia (group B), and 10 healthy volunteers (control group). With the novel device, PCF and time until cough reflex could be measured without adverse effects. The PCF values were 118.3 ± 64.0 L/min, 47.7 ± 38.5 L/min, and 254.9 ± 83.8 L/min in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. The PCF of group B was significantly lower than that of group A and the control group (p reflex was 4.2 ± 5.9 s, 7.0 ± 7.0 s, and 1 s in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. This duration was significantly longer for groups A and B than for the control group (A: p reflex and the strength of involuntary coughs for assessment of patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia.

  13. The effects of team reflexivity on psychological well-being in manufacturing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingqiu; Bamberger, Peter A; Song, Yifan; Vashdi, Dana R

    2018-04-01

    While the impact of team reflexivity (a.k.a. after-event-reviews, team debriefs) on team performance has been widely examined, we know little about its implications on other team outcomes such as member well-being. Drawing from prior team reflexivity research, we propose that reflexivity-related team processes reduce demands, and enhance control and support. Given the centrality of these factors to work-based strain, we posit that team reflexivity, by affecting these factors, may have beneficial implications on 3 core dimensions of employee burnout, namely exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy (reduced personal accomplishment). Using a sample of 469 unskilled manufacturing workers employed in 73 production teams in a Southern Chinese factory, we implemented a time lagged, quasi-field experiment, with half of the teams trained in and executing an end-of-shift team debriefing, and the other half assigned to a control condition and undergoing periodic postshift team-building exercises. Our findings largely supported our hypotheses, demonstrating that relative to team members assigned to the control condition, those assigned to the reflexivity condition experienced a significant improvement in all 3 burnout dimensions over time. These effects were mediated by control and support (but not demands) and amplified as a function of team longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Using ESO Reflex with Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järveläinen, P.; Savolainen, V.; Oittinen, T.; Maisala, S.; Ullgrén, M. Hook, R.

    2008-08-01

    ESO Reflex is a prototype graphical workflow system, based on Taverna, and primarily intended to be a flexible way of running ESO data reduction recipes along with other legacy applications and user-written tools. ESO Reflex can also readily use the Taverna Web Services features that are based on the Apache Axis SOAP implementation. Taverna is a general purpose Web Service client, and requires no programming to use such services. However, Taverna also has some restrictions: for example, no numerical types such integers. In addition the preferred binding style is document/literal wrapped, but most astronomical services publish the Axis default WSDL using RPC/encoded style. Despite these minor limitations we have created simple but very promising test VO workflow using the Sesame name resolver service at CDS Strasbourg, the Hubble SIAP server at the Multi-Mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST) and the WESIX image cataloging and catalogue cross-referencing service at the University of Pittsburgh. ESO Reflex can also pass files and URIs via the PLASTIC protocol to visualisation tools and has its own viewer for VOTables. We picked these three Web Services to try to set up a realistic and useful ESO Reflex workflow. They also demonstrate ESO Reflex abilities to use many kind of Web Services because each of them requires a different interface. We describe each of these services in turn and comment on how it was used

  15. Reflexive Planning as Design and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Grin, John

    2011-01-01

    in planning emerges as a new tool for generating critical knowledge and dialogue that can synthesise the perspectives of multiple actors in a common understanding, existing structural constraints and a collective imagination of alternative future possibilities. Such research highlights the potential......In recent years, planning theorists have advanced various interpretations of the notion of reflexivity, inspired by American pragmatism, complexity theory, hermeneutics, discursive and collaborative planning. Scholars agree that “reflexivity” has a strong temporal dimension: it not only aims...... to solve present planning problems, but to imagine and understand alternative trajectories for future action. This article explores the practical utility of reflexivity for planners, through a case study that focuses on a project to promote sustainable development in the Port of Amsterdam. Reflexivity...

  16. Cerebellar interaction with the acoustic reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    1981-01-01

    The involvement of the cerebellar vermis in the acoustic reflex was analyzed in 12 cats, decerebrated or in pentobarbital anesthesia. Anatomical data suggested the existence of a connection of lobules VIII with the ventral cochlear nucleus. Single cell recording and evoked potential techniques demonstrated the existence of the acoustic projection to lobulus VIII. Electrical stimulation of this area changed the tension of the middle ear muscle and caused evoked potential responses in the caudal part of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Electrical stimulation of the motor nucleus of the facial nerve evoked a slow wave in the recording taken from the surrounding of the cochlear round window. A hypothesis is proposed which postulates the involvement of the acoustic reflex in space localization of acoustic stimuli and the action of cerebellar vermis in order to assure the stability and plasticity of the acoustic reflex arc.

  17. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  18. Orthodoxy and reflexivity in international comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens; Valkenburg, Ben

    2002-01-01

    This contribution aims at four points.First we want to argue why we think a reflexive social science is more adequate than the orthodox consensus. In current practice much of the criticism on the orthodox consensus is shared on a theoretical level, without considering the implications and acting...... upon the consequences on the level of empirical research. We want to avoid that, so our second and third subject will be the practical implications of reflexivity for empirical research as well as for social policy. Our discussion on these subjects is based on the practical experiences in the INPART...

  19. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min Ryu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields.

  20. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2017-03-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering.

  1. A simple measurement hammer for quantitative reflex studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Leeuwen, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflex hammer for measurement of the mechanical stimulus strength was designed. Combined with standard EMG equipment this instrument permits the study of both stimulus-response relations and latencies of myotatic reflexes. Some results in normal subjects are discussed

  2. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  3. Comparison of Stretch Reflex Torques in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Plantarflexors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tung, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) ankle muscles, Pulse, step, and a combination of random perturbation and step inputs were used to identify the reflex and intrinsic contributions to the measured torque, TA reflex torques were very...

  4. The Use of Restoring Resources of the Survival Roles and Reflex Patterns in MNRI® (Reflex Integration Interactive Training of Personality Growth and Interpersonal Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masgutova S.K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality growth as a socio-psychological problem is a multi-complex phenomenon that targets Self-identity, Self-actualization, and other areas. During the last decade scientists started studying other factors limiting the personality growth, such as stress and post-trauma. However, the Survival Roles, the socio-individual patterns based on neurophysiological and psychological defense mechanisms blocking the personality Self-actualization, social interaction and professional business qualities, are rarely discussed. Thus this study based on Survival Roles may extend the personality growth oriented concepts and therapy modality tools. This study showed a correlation between Survival Role patterns, stress resilience, and survival reflexes (integrative units of the nervous system functions. Comparative data on 464 business professionals from high management jobs (Study Group — n=340, and Control Group — n=124 participated in this research which found 70.9 % (n=329 of the total group was in stress. This stress activated socio-individual Survival Roles and protective reflex patterns which responded with reactivity, over-protection, non-constructive interactions with others and limited business strategies. The MNRI® reflex integrative training used in this study demonstrated improvement of functions of the protective reflex patterns effected positively the survival mechanisms including increased stress resilience, and decreased negative effect of Survival Roles. MNRI® proposes a new paradigm in the realm of personality growth and socio-interpersonal activity, and supports the neurophysiological aspects to optimize the overall quality of life of business professionals from a variety of high management business areas.

  5. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  6. Dilemmas and Deliberations in Reflexive Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janean Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces insights into the challenges and dilemmas experienced whilst researching students' interpretations and understandings of the Behaviour Management in Schools policy in Western Australia. Journal records, supported by student transcripts, are woven together in a reflexive ethnographic journey--from the beginning phase of searching…

  7. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okudan ZV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Vildan Okudan,1 Çiğdem Özkara2 1Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Reflex epilepsies (REs are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient’s own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously. The stimuli can be external (light flashes, hot water, internal (emotion, thinking, or both and should be distinguished from triggering precipitants, which most epileptic patients could report such as emotional stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. Different genetic and acquired factors may play a role in etiology of RE. This review will provide a current overview of the triggering factors and management of reflex seizures. Keywords: seizure, reflex epilepsy, photosensitivity, hot water, reading, thinking

  8. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  9. Snout and Visual Rooting Reflexes in Infantile Autism. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderaa, Ruud B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The authors conducted extensive neurological evaluations of 42 autistic individuals and were surprised to discover a consistently positive snout reflex in most of them. Difficulties with assessing the reflex are noted. The authors then reassessed the Ss for a series of primitive reflexes which are interpreted as signs of diffuse cortical brain…

  10. Long-term depression-like plasticity of the blink reflex for the treatment of blepharospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Gottfried; Shamim, Ejaz A; Lin, Peter T; Kranz, George S; Hallett, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Our previous work showed a beneficial therapeutic effect on blepharospasm using slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which produces a long-term depression (LTD)-like effect. High-frequency supraorbital electrical stimulation, asynchronous with the R2 component of the blink reflex, can also induce LTD-like effects on the blink reflex circuit in healthy subjects. Patients with blepharospasm have reduced inhibition of their blink recovery curves; therefore, a LTD-like intervention might normalize the blink reflex recovery (BRR) and have a favorable therapeutic effect. This is a randomized, sham-controlled, observer-blinded prospective study. In 14 blepharospasm patients, we evaluated the effects of high-frequency supraorbital stimulation on three separate treatment days. We applied 28 trains of nine stimuli, 400 Hz, either before or after the R2 or used sham stimulation. The primary outcome was the blink rate, number of spasms rated by a blinded physician and patient rating before, immediately after and 1 hour after stimulation while resting, reading, and talking; secondary outcome was the BRR. Stimulation "before" and "after" the R2 both showed a similar improvement as sham stimulation in physician rating, but patients felt significantly better with the before condition. Improvement in recovery of the blink reflex was noted only in the before condition. Clinical symptoms differed in the three baseline conditions (resting, reading, and talking). Stimulation before R2 increased inhibition in trigeminal blink reflex circuits in blepharospasm toward normal values and produced subjective, but not objective, improvement. Inhibition of the blink reflex pathway by itself appeared to be insufficient for a useful therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Effect of chronic and acute cigarette smoking on the pharyngo-upper oesophageal sphincter contractile reflex and reflexive pharyngeal swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, K; Bardan, E; Ren, J; Sui, Z; Shaker, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—Cigarette smoking is known to affect adversely the defence mechanisms against gastro-oesophageal reflux. The effect of smoking on the supraoesophageal reflexes that prevent aspiration of gastric contents has not been previously studied. 
Aims—To elucidate the effect of cigarette smoking on two of the supraoesophageal reflexes: the pharyngo-upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) contractile reflex; and the reflexive pharyngeal swallow. 
Methods—Ten chronic smokers and 10 non-...

  12. Spasm of the near reflex: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Maedbh; Byrne, Caroline; Logan, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Spasm of the near reflex (SNR) is a triad of miosis, excess accommodation and excess convergence. Primary SNR is most often functional in origin We aim to highlight the clinical features which distinguish primary convergence from other conditions with a similar presentation but more sinister underlying aetiology, for example bilateral abducens nerve palsy. There is a paucity of published data on SNR, in particular diagnostic criteria and treatment. We report a case of SNR of functional origin in an otherwise healthy young female and discuss the clinical features that differentiate this condition from similar conditions with underlying neurological origin. SNR is predominantly a clinical diagnosis, and often leads to patients undergoing unnecessary investigations and sometimes treatment. Recognising the salient features that differentiate it could potentially avoid this.

  13. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish: cellular organization and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-09-20

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons that have radially directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca(++)-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediate neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus, the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system.

  14. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish Cellular organization and neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal’s determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons which have radially-directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca++-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediates neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system. PMID:19598285

  15. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  16. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  17. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  18. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  19. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  20. Muscle weakness and lack of reflex gain adaptation predominate during post-stroke posture control of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Helm Frans CT

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instead of hyper-reflexia as sole paradigm, post-stroke movement disorders are currently considered the result of a complex interplay between neuronal and muscular properties, modified by level of activity. We used a closed loop system identification technique to quantify individual contributors to wrist joint stiffness during an active posture task. Methods Continuous random torque perturbations applied to the wrist joint by a haptic manipulator had to be resisted maximally. Reflex provoking conditions were applied i.e. additional viscous loads and reduced perturbation signal bandwidth. Linear system identification and neuromuscular modeling were used to separate joint stiffness into the intrinsic resistance of the muscles including co-contraction and the reflex mediated contribution. Results Compared to an age and sex matched control group, patients showed an overall 50% drop in intrinsic elasticity while their reflexive contribution did not respond to provoking conditions. Patients showed an increased mechanical stability compared to control subjects. Conclusion Post stroke, we found active posture tasking to be dominated by: 1 muscle weakness and 2 lack of reflex adaptation. This adds to existing doubts on reflex blocking therapy as the sole paradigm to improve active task performance and draws attention to muscle strength and power recovery and the role of the inability to modulate reflexes in post stroke movement disorders.

  1. Gutkha Addiction: Nicotine Dependence or a Conditioned Reflex?

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Prathamesh Satish; Prashant, M C; Nagpal, Neelu; Patil, Atulkumar A; Ahuja, Rinky; Mathur, Vidhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A pre-packaged mixture of areca nut, tobacco, slaked lime, catechu, and flavoring agents is popularly known as Gutkha. Aim of study is to analyze the addiction biology of Gutkha chewing and to assess efficacy of a cessation program based on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Materials and Methods: Patterns of addiction of 400 Gutkha chewers were analyzed with a questionnaire-based survey. Urine cotinine levels of 60 subjects undergoing NRT were periodically estimated using gas ch...

  2. A robot conditioned reflex system modeled after the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Reduction of a theory of cerebellar function to computer software for the control of a mechanical manipulator. This reduction is achieved by considering the cerebellum, along with the higher-level brain centers which control it, as a type of finite-state machine with input entering the cerebellum via mossy fibers from the periphery and output from the cerebellum occurring via Purkinje cells. It is hypothesized that the cerebellum learns by an error-correction system similar to Perceptron training algorithms. An electromechanical model of the cerebellum is then developed for the control of a mechanical arm. The problem of modeling the granular layer which selects the set of parallel fibers which are active at any instant of time is considered, and a relevance matrix is constructed to model the relative degree of influence which mossy fibers from the various joints have on the sets of granule cells unique to each joint.

  3. Reflexive cartography a new perspective in mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Casti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Reflexive Cartography addresses the adaptation of cartography, including its digital forms (GIS, WebGIS, PPGIS), to the changing needs of society, and outlines the experimental context aimed at mapping a topological space. Using rigorous scientific analysis based on statement consistency, relevance of the proposals, and model accessibility, it charts the transition from topographical maps created by state agencies to open mapping produced by citizens. Adopting semiotic theory to uncover the complex communicative mechanisms of maps and to investigate their ability to produce their own messages and new perspectives, Reflexive Cartography outlines a shift in our way of conceptualizing maps: from a plastic metaphor of reality, as they are generally considered, to solid tools that play the role of agents, assisting citizens as they think and plan their own living place and make sense of the current world. Applies a range of technologies to theoretical perspectives on mapping to innovatively map the world's geogr...

  4. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaidullayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  5. Human investigations into the exercise pressor reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H; Amann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, neural input from skeletal muscles reflexly maintains or elevates blood pressure (BP) despite a maybe fivefold increase in vascular conductance. This exercise pressor reflex is illustrated by similar heart rate (HR) and BP responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise....... The importance of the exercise pressor reflex for tight cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise is supported by studies using pharmacological blockade of lower limb muscle afferent nerves. These experiments show attenuation of the increase in BP and cardiac output when exercise is performed...... with attenuated neural feedback. Additionally, there is no BP response to electrically induced exercise with paralysing epidural anaesthesia or when similar exercise is evoked in paraplegic patients. Furthermore, BP decreases when electrically induced exercise is carried out in tetraplegic patients. The lack...

  6. Otolith and canal reflexes in human standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers, Ian; Day, Brian L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    We used galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to identify human balance reflexes of the semicircular canals and otolith organs. The experiment used a model of vestibular signals arising from GVS modulation of the net signal from vestibular afferents. With the head upright, the model predicts that the GVS-evoked canal signal indicates lateral head rotation while the otolith signal indicates lateral tilt or acceleration. Both signify body sway transverse to the head. With the head bent forward, the model predicts that the canal signal indicates body spin about a vertical axis but the otolith signal still signifies lateral body motion. Thus, we compared electromyograms (EMG) in the leg muscles and body sway evoked by GVS when subjects stood with the head upright or bent forward. With the head upright, GVS evoked a large sway in the direction of the anodal electrode. This response was abolished with the head bent forward leaving only small, oppositely directed, transient responses at the start and end of the stimulus. With the head upright, GVS evoked short-latency (60–70 ms), followed by medium-latency (120 ms) EMG responses, of opposite polarity. Bending the head forward abolished the medium-latency but preserved the short-latency response. This is compatible with GVS evoking separate otolithic and canal reflexes, indicating that balance is controlled by independent canal and otolith reflexes, probably through different pathways. We propose that the short-latency reflex and small transient sway are driven by the otolith organs and the medium-latency response and the large sway are driven by the semicircular canals. PMID:15618274

  7. Evolutionary problems in non-reflexive spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-22 ISSN 1262-3377 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * energetic solution * energies with linear growth * oscillations * relaxation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.084, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/MTR/kruzik-evolutionary problems in non-reflexive spaces.pdf

  8. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  9. Arakeri’s Reflex: an Alternative Pathway for Dento-Cardiac Reflex Mediated Syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Arali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentocardiac reflex, a variant of trigeminocardiac reflex elicited specifically during tooth extraction procedures in den-tal/maxillofacial surgery and is believed to cause syncope with an afferent link mediated by posterior superior alveolar nerve. Another variant of trigeminocardiac reflex which is also of interest to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon is oculocardiac reflex which can be triggered by direct or indirect manipulation of eye globe or muscles around it.The hypothesis: Excessive or injudicious pressure or manipulations around the maxillary first molars during extraction procedure are as-sociated with maximum incidence of bradycardia and hypotension than around incisor/ canine/ third molars. This is because; the pressure on eye globe and ophthalmic rectus muscle is maximum during extraction of first molar than incisor/canine and third molars. This observation led us to postulate an alternative pathway for dentocardiac reflex mediated syncope which may possibly justify the maxillary first molar region as a prone factor for the trigger. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Present hypothesis may not confer the specific factor responsible for switch in autonomic response in syncope origin during the tooth extraction procedure, but may provide a clue to where we should be looking.

  10. Clinical and electrophysiological findings in patients with phenylketonuria and epilepsy: Reflex features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Celik, Senay; Bebek, Nerses; Gurses, Candan; Baykan, Betul; Gokyigit, Aysen

    2018-03-23

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common form of amino acid metabolism disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. The brain damage can be prevented by early diagnosis and a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Untreated or late-treated patients may show mental retardation and other cognitive dysfunctions, as well as motor disability and/or epilepsy. Three patients with PKU and epilepsy were recognized to have reflex epileptic features, and there were ten consecutive adult patients with PKU and epilepsy who were evaluated retrospectively. Medical history, ages at diagnosis and therapy onset, age at seizure onset, seizure types and reflex features, neurological findings, cranial imaging, electroencephalography (EEG) findings, and final clinical condition were evaluated. Reflex epilepsy features were examined in detail. The cases (6 females, 4 males) were diagnosed at ages between 3.5months and 12years. All patients had various degrees of mental-motor retardation and focal or generalized seizures with age at seizure onset varied between neonatal period and 15years. Three patients had febrile seizure, 3 patients had myoclonia, and 3 patients had status epilepticus. All patients had abnormal EEG findings except one. There was a slowing of background activity, and generalized discharges were observed in 7 patients; 3 of them had asymmetrical discharges. One patient had right hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and another patient had hypointensities in the basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Reflex features were clinically observed in 3 of the patients; however, EEG results did not show any related findings. One patient had reflex seizures triggered by photic stimuli, hot water, and startling; one by photic stimuli; and the other one by startling. Reports on the clinical and electrophysiological features of adult patients with PKU were scant. We emphasized that reflex clinical features may be observed in this metabolic disease, and focal epileptiform abnormalities and asymmetry

  11. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  12. Limitations of learning in the proboscis reflex of the flower visiting syrphid fly Eristalis tenax

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lina; Donda, Miriam; Hohmann, Michele; Sermon, Leonie; Stegmanns, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    Flower visiting Eristalis hoverflies feed on nectar and pollen and are known to rely on innate colour preferences. In addition to a preference for visiting yellow flowers, the flies possess an innate proboscis reflex elicited by chemical as well as yellow colour stimuli. In this study we show that the flies’ proboscis reflex is only triggered by yellow colour stimuli and not altered by conditioning to other colours. Neither in absolute nor in differential conditioning experiments the flies learned to associate other colours than yellow with reward. Even flies that experienced only blue nutrients during the first four days after hatching could not be trained to extend the proboscis towards other colours than yellow. The natural targets of the visually elicited proboscis reflex are yellow pollen and yellow anthers. One consequence of our findings is that flowers might advertise nectar and pollen rewards for Eristalis hoverflies by a yellow colour hue of nectar guides, nectaries, stamens or pollen. Alternatively, flowers might protect their pollen against Eristalis by displaying other pollen colours than yellow or direct flies by yellow pollen-mimicking floral guides towards nectar resources. Testing the proboscis extension of various hoverfly species in the field showed that only Eristalis hoverflies possess the proboscis reflex elicited by yellow colour hues. PMID:29558491

  13. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  14. Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children's musical improvisation is investigated through the "reflexive interaction" paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a "reflexive" output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children's abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children's ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary

  15. [Effects of morphine on pupillary light reflex in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Chen, Nan-Hui; Miao, Ying-Da; Hu, Xin-Tian; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2010-06-01

    The pupil size of both human and other animals can be affected by light. Many kinds of psychiatrical and psychological disorders, such as drug abuse, associate with abnormal properties of pupillary light reflex. Thus, the properties of pupillary light reflex could serve as an indicator for drug abuse detection. However, the effect of drug abuse on pupillary light reflex is till unclear. To assess the effects of addictive drugs on pupillary light reflex quantificationally, in the present study, we examined the effects of morphine on pupil diameter and pupillary light reflex in rhesus monkeys. By measuring the pupil diameter at different timing points before and after the administration of morphine, we found that morphine administration reduced the diameter of pupil and decreased the constriction rate. Our present results provide an experimental support for applying the properties of pupillary light reflex as a reference in addicts' detection.

  16. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  17. The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, G

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment. PMID:7097153

  18. The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, G

    1982-05-01

    The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment.

  19. Relationship between vomiting reflex during esophagogastroduodenoscopy and dyspepsia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Shotaro; Watanabe, Mika; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Kato, Jun; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mohara, Osamu; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-09-01

    Although frequent vomiting reflexes during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) causes suffering in patients, very few studies have investigated the characteristics of subjects who frequently develop vomiting reflexes. This study examined the incidence of the vomiting reflex and related factors, especially upper gastrointestinal symptoms, among individuals undergoing transoral EGD. Subjects included 488 consecutive adults (mean age, 56.1 ± 8.9 years) who underwent transoral EGD for gastric cancer screening between February 2010 and March 2011. All procedures were performed by an endoscopist with 15 years of experience. Based on a questionnaire survey using the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), symptoms (dyspepsia and acid reflux symptoms) and the number of vomiting reflexes during EGD were recorded. Of the 488 subjects, 271 (56%) developed vomiting reflexes (mean, 4.2 times). This reflex-positive group was younger (54.3 ± 9.5 years) than the reflex-negative group (58.3 ± 7.7 years, P reflex-positive group with a high FSSG dyspepsia score (2.27 ± 2.57 vs 1.23 ± 1.84; P acid reflux symptom score (1.96 ± 2.22 vs 1.34 ± 2.14; P reflex-negative group. Multivariate analysis also showed a significant correlation between these four factors and the occurrence of vomiting reflexes. Using an FSSG dyspepsia score of 1 as the cut-off offered 68% sensitivity and 57% specificity for predicting the occurrence of vomiting reflexes. Based on FSSG questionnaire responses on upper gastrointestinal symptoms, dyspepsia symptoms, in particular, are related to presence of vomiting reflexes during EGD. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  20. The legacy of care as reflexive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marta Rodríguez; Moya, Jose Luis Medina

    2016-06-14

    to analyze whether the tutor's use of reflexive strategies encourages the students to reflect. The goal is to discover what type of strategies can help to achieve this and how tutors and students behave in the practical context. a qualitative and ethnographic focus was adopted. Twenty-seven students and 15 tutors from three health centers participated. The latter had received specific training on reflexive clinical tutoring. The analysis was developed through constant comparisons of the categories. the results demonstrate that the tutors' use of reflexive strategies such as didactic questioning, didactic empathy and pedagogical silence contributes to encourage the students' reflection and significant learning. reflexive practice is key to tutors' training and students' learning. analisar se o uso de estratégias reflexivas por parte da tutora de estágio clínico estimula a reflexão nos estudantes. A intenção é descobrir qual tipo de estratégias podem ajudar a fazê-lo e como as tutoras e os estudantes se comportam no contexto prático. foi adotado um enfoque qualitativo de cunho etnográfico em que participaram 27 estudantes e 15 tutores de três centros de saúde que haviam recebido formação específica sobre tutoria clínica reflexiva. A análise foi realizada por meio de comparações constantes das categorias. os resultados demonstram que o uso de estratégias reflexivas como a interrogação didática, a empatia didática e o silêncio pedagógico por parte das tutoras, contribui para fomentar a reflexão do estudante e sua aprendizagem significativa. a prática reflexiva é a chave para a formação dos tutores e para a aprendizagem dos estudantes. analizar si el uso de estrategias reflexivas por parte de la tutora de prácticas clínicas fomenta la reflexión en los estudiantes. Se trata de conocer qué tipo de estrategias pueden ayudar a hacerlo y cómo se comportan tutoras y estudiantes en el contexto práctico. se ha utilizado un enfoque

  1. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop an advanced reflexive structure technology system to increase the survivability of future systems constructed of...

  2. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an ac...

  3. Reflex muscle contraction in anterior shoulder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D A; Beard, D J; Gill, R H; Eng, B; Carr, A J

    1997-01-01

    Reduced proprioception may contribute to recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Twelve patients with unilateral shoulder instability were investigated for evidence of deficient proprioception with an activated pneumatic cylinder and surface electromyography electrodes; the contralateral normal shoulder was used as a control. The latency between onset of movement and the detection of muscle contraction was used as an index of proprioception. No significant difference in muscle contraction latency was detected between the stable and unstable shoulders, suggesting that there was no significant defect in muscular reflex activity. This study does not support the use proprioception-enhancing physiotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability.

  4. Reflexivity in the Interstices: A Tale of Reflexivity at Work in, during, and behind the Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Corrine M.; Cohen, James A.; Walther, Carol S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a story of how the authors came to make sense of the significance of those words in relation to gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship in writing a manuscript about L[subscript 1]L[subscript 2] acquisition. It is a tale about how Reflexivity wove itself into the conversations, into the writing, into the in-between spaces, the…

  5. Effects of brainstem lesions on the masseter inhibitory reflex. Functional mechanisms of reflex pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Cruccu, G.; Manfredi, M.; Koelman, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The masseter inhibitory reflex (MIR) was investigated in 16 patients with localized brainstem lesions involving the trigeminal system. The MIR consists of two phases of EMG silence (S1 and S2) evoked by stimulation of the mental nerve during maximal clenching of the teeth. The extent of the lesions

  6. Palateless custom bar supported overdenture: a treatment modality to treat patient with severe gag reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    To suggest a custom bar supported overdenture treatment modality for prosthodontic management of patients with severe gag reflex. Some patients have a severe gag reflex and cannot tolerate conventional maxillary complete dentures with maximum palatal coverage and extensions of all borders. The condition further gets complicated in patients suffering from respiratory problems along with severe gag reflex. Severe gagging acts as a barrier to treat such patients with accepted clinical procedures and prevent patients from wearing the prosthesis. By saving some of the remaining natural teeth and fabricating, a horse shoe shape palateless simple tooth or bar supported overdenture can be successfully used for treating such patients. The remaining maxillary right and left canines were prepared with the tapered round end diamond bur to receive copings of custom bar after intentional root canal treatment of same teeth. Impression was made with light body and putty of the polyvinyl siloxane elastomer with double step putty wash technique. Impression was poured with die stone. Wax pattern of copings with bar was fabricated with inlay wax which was invested and casted. After retrieving the bar, it was finished and its fit was evaluated. The coping-bar assembly was finally cemented with the glass ionomer cement. Palateless overdenture was fabricated by conventional technique used for the fabrication of complete denture. Palateless custom bar supported overdenture procedure can be successfully used for the management of patients with severe gag reflex with improved denture retention, stability, chewing efficiency and comfort of the patient.

  7. Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2012-10-01

    This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  8. Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction is diminished in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Armstrong, C G

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare reflex control of limb blood flow in healthy young (Y; 26 +/- 2 yr) and older (O;61 +/- 2 yr) men during whole body cooling under resting conditions. To better isolate the effect of chronological age, the two age groups (n = 6 per group) were closely matched for maximal oxygen uptake, body surface area, skinfold thickness, and fat-free weight. Subjects sat in an environmentally controlled chamber clad in standardized (0.6-clo) light cotton clothing at a dry-bulb temperature (Tdb) of 28 degrees C. After 30 min, Tdb was decreased by 2 degrees C every 5 min until Tdb = 10 degrees C, where it was held constant for the remainder of the 120-min session. Esophageal and mean skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured every 5 min by venous occlusion plethysmography by using a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge while arm temperature between the wrist and elbow was clamped at 37.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C by localized warm air heating. In this way, limb vasoconstriction was driven solely by thermoregulatory reflexes and not by direct effects of localized cooling. Mean skin temperature decreased at a similar rate and to a similar extent (by approximately 6 degrees C over a 2-h period) in both age groups, whereas esophageal temperature was relatively unaffected. In response to the local heating, the Y group maintained a significantly higher FBF than did the O group during the initial 30 min but decreased FBF during the cooling phase at a greater rate and to a greater extent than did the O group, leading to a significantly lower FBF during the final 30 min (at Tdb = 10 degrees C). Because there was no age difference in the mean arterial pressure response, similar effects of age were seen on forearm vascular conductance (FBF/mean arterial pressure). It was concluded that older men have a diminished reflex limb vasoconstrictor response to skin cooling. Furthermore, this difference in control of peripheral

  9. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrazier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1, where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. 1. Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence?Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1, differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3 or finite (2 and 4, and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2 or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4.The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Exp. 3 and 4, wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure.

  10. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bidirectional interactions between the baroreceptor reflex and arousal: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Dampney, Roger A L; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Studies involving genetic engineering on animal models and mathematical analysis of cardiovascular signals on humans are shedding new light on the interactions between the arterial baroreceptor reflex (baroreflex) and arousal. Baroreceptor stimulation, if very mild or performed under anaesthesia, may inhibit cortical arousal. However, substantial increases or decreases in baroreflex activation cause arousal in animal models and human subjects in physiological conditions. On the other hand, cardiovascular changes during autonomic arousals and between the states of wakefulness and sleep involve changes in the baroreflex set point and balance with central autonomic commands. Neural connectivity and functional data suggest that the nucleus of the solitary tract, adrenergic C1 neurons of the medulla, and the parabrachial nucleus of the pons mediate the bidirectional interactions between the baroreflex and arousal. These interactions may constitute a positive feedback loop that facilitates sharp and coordinated brain state and autonomic transitions upon arousal: upon arousal, central autonomic commands may increase blood pressure, thereby loading baroreceptors and further increasing arousal. Anomalies of this feedback loop may play a role in the pathophysiology of disease conditions associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations. These conditions include: obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, with its association with excessive daytime sleepiness and baroreflex impairment; and insomnia, with its association with autonomic hyperarousal and hypertension. When faced with disorders associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations, clinical reasoning should entertain the possibility that both conditions are strongly influenced by anomalies of baroreflex function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. (Re)constructing Reflexivity: A Relational Constructionist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosking, D.M.; Pluut, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article distinguishes three discourses of reflexivity in relation to human inquiry. One of these arises from a post-modern, relational constructionist perspective which radically re-conceptualizes reflexivity: (a) as a local and co-constructed process oriented towards the question (b) how are

  13. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical purposes...

  14. The Role of Transformational Leadership in Enhancing Team Reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Schippers (Michaéla); D.N. den Hartog (Deanne); P.L. Koopman (Paul); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTeam reflexivity, or the extent to which teams reflect upon and modify their functioning, has been identified as a key factor in the effectiveness of work teams. As yet, however, little is known about the factors that play a role in enhancing team reflexivity, and it is thus important to

  15. The role of transformational leadership in enhancing team reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, M.C.; den Hartog, D.N.; Koopman, P.L.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Team reflexivity, or the extent to which teams reflect upon and modify their functioning, has been identified as a key factor in the effectiveness of work teams. As yet, however, little is known about the factors that play a role in enhancing team reflexivity, and it is thus important to develop

  16. The influence of reflexive educational environment on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of reflexive educational environment on students' reflection development in ... based on them) from which, as they integrate, a reflexive personality style is developed. ... (narrative, dialogical, cognitive and axiological) are the factors influencing the outcome of social adaptation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  18. Low Incidence Of Extensor Plantar Reflex In Newborns In An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthy term newborns with Apgar score of 8 and above at one minute were recruited into the study consecutively in a maternity hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. The plantar reflex was elicited by stroking the lateral side of the sole with firm pressure, between 24 - 48 hours after delivery. Results Of 461 newborns, the plantar reflex ...

  19. Electroacupuncture improves gait locomotion, H-reflex and ventral root potentials of spinal compression injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Corona, Carlos; Torres-Castillo, Sergio; Rodríguez-Torres, Erika Elizabeth; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Quiroz-González, Salvador

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-injury weeks, the BBB scores of the SCI group of rats treated with EA at 50Hz showed a gradual but greater enhancement of locomotor activity than the other groups of rats. Unrestrained gait kinematic analysis of SCI rats treated with EA-50Hz stimulation showed a significant improvement in stride duration, length and speed (p<0.05), whereas a discrete recovery of gait locomotion was observed in the other groups of animals. After four post-injury weeks, the H-reflex amplitude and H-reflex/M wave amplitude ratio obtained in SCI rats had a noticeable enhancement (217%) compared to sham rats (n=10). Meanwhile, SCI rats treated with EA at 50Hz manifested a decreased facilitation of the H-reflex amplitude and H/M amplitude ratio (154%) and a reduced frequency-dependent amplitude depression of the H-reflex (66%). In addition, 50 Hz-EA treatment induced a recovery of the presynaptic depression of the Gs-VRP evoked by PBSt conditioning stimulation in the SCI rat (63.2±8.1%; n=9). In concordance with the latter, it could be suggested that 50 Hz-EA stimulation reduced the hyper-excitability of motoneurons and provokes a partial improvement of the locomotive performance and H reflex responses by a possible recovery of presynaptic mechanisms in the spinal cord of experimentally injured rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. From globalist to cosmopolitan learning: on the reflexive modernization of teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Rönnström

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss teacher education reform and the work of teachers in light of globalization and reflexive modernization. Increasing globalization has meant changed conditions for national education traditionally geared toward nation building and to the nationalizing of lifeworlds. It is assumed that the global economy has made knowledge and lifelong learning essential to economic growth, and governments have considered their citizens, teachers, and schools to be poorly trained for the demands of knowledge economies. Consequently, nation-states have invested massively in teacher education because of the vital role effective high-quality teachers are expected to play in preparation for working on global markets and for the competitive edge of nations. However, recent teacher education reform can be criticized for a one-sided orientation toward principles of economic growth, effectiveness, and competitiveness at the expense of other important educational aims, such as the development of reflective and communicative capacities and education for cosmopolitan citizenship. Moreover, recent teacher education reform in various nation-states seems to neglect how processes of reflexive modernization profoundly change schools, society, and the teaching situation, and undermine the principles that marked earlier phases of nation-centered modernization. I discuss teacher education and the work of teachers as reflexive modern practices and phenomena within the framework of critical social theory, and I mainly use Ulrich Beck's theory of reflexive modernization. I argue that increased reflexivity, institutionalized individualization, and cosmopolitization constitute reasons for the re-contextualization of teacher education away from the uncritical influence of the primacy of the economy, instrumental rationalization, and other principles of modernization that are now running dry. In the final part, I discuss the importance of moving from a mainly

  1. Voluntary Control of the Near Reflex: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Akar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spasm of the near reflex is a rare disorder that involves intermittent and variable episodes of esotropia, pseudomyopia, and pupillary myosis. It is usually functional in origin and is seen mainly in young patients. Treatment options for spasm of the near reflex have had variable success. In instances where the etiology of spasm of the near reflex was suspected to be hysteria, psychotherapy has proven beneficial. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who had functional spasm of the near reflex. The symptoms persisted for two years. Symptomatic relief was achieved by cycloplegia and spectacle correction (added plus lenses at near. The patient also underwent psychological counseling. In our case, the functional spasm of the near reflex spontaneously resolved after 2 years. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 161-3

  2. Prevalence of family history in patients with reflex syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Benn, Marianne; Kaijer, Michelle Nymann

    2013-01-01

    Reflex syncope is defined by a rapid transient loss of consciousness caused by global cerebral hypoperfusion resulting from vasodilatation and/or bradycardia attributable to inappropriate cardiovascular reflexes. A hereditary component has been suggested, but prevalence of family history may differ...... among subtypes of reflex syncope, as these have different autonomic responses and pathogeneses may be diverse. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of a positive family history of syncope and cardiovascular characteristics in patients with cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor reflex syncope....... Patients (n=74) were classified into subtypes of reflex syncope - cardioinhibition/asystole (Vasovagal Syncope International Study subtypes II-B [VASIS II-B], n=38) or vasodepressor (VASIS III, n=36) - using the head-up tilt test. Family history was obtained by questionnaires supplemented by interview...

  3. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  4. Intact reflexive but deficient voluntary social orienting in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Anne Kirchgessner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Impairment in social interactions is a primary characteristic of people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Although these individuals tend to orient less to naturalistic social cues than do typically developing (TD individuals, laboratory experiments testing social orienting in ASD have been inconclusive, possibly because of a failure to fully isolate reflexive (stimulus-driven and voluntary (goal-directed social orienting processes. The purpose of the present study was to separately examine potential reflexive and/or voluntary social orienting differences in individuals with ASD relative to TD controls. Subjects (ages 7-14 with high-functioning ASD and a matched control group completed three gaze cueing tasks on an iPad in which individuals briefly saw a face with averted gaze followed by a target after a variable delay. Two tasks were 100% predictive with either all congruent (target appears in gaze direction or all incongruent (target appears opposite from gaze direction trials, respectively. Another task was non-predictive with these same trials (half congruent and half incongruent intermixed randomly. Response times (RTs to the target were used to calculate reflexive (incongruent condition RT – congruent condition RT and voluntary (non-predictive condition RT – predictive condition RT gaze cueing effects. Subjects also completed two additional non-social orienting tasks (ProPoint and AntiPoint. Subjects with ASD demonstrate intact reflexive but deficient voluntary gaze following. Similar results were found in a separate test of non-social orienting. This suggests problems with using social cues, but only in a goal-directed fashion, in our sample of high-functioning individuals with ASD. Such findings may not only explain inconclusive previous findings but more importantly be critical for understanding social dysfunctions in ASD and for developing future interventions.

  5. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  6. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  7. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Fascetti, E.; Bonanni, G.; Calvisi, V.; Buoni, C.; Passariello, R.

    1987-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) is characterized by pain, swelling, and limitation of motion. The etiology and pathophysiology mechanism have not yet been identified. We considered eight patients with clinical signs of RSDS, in five cases located at the knee joint and in three cases in the hip. In all cases conventional radiography and radionuclide bone scanning were performed before MR imaging. Conventional radiography was negative in three cases while scintigraphy demonstrated the lesion in all patients. MR imaging showed an area of low intensity signal on T1-weighted scans and an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. This area is located at the bone marrow and its regular and homogeneous. This specific finding on MR images is due to reflect edema by hyperemia of the bone marrow. The MR imaging diagnosis was confirmed on clinical and radiological follow-up. MR imaging can have a role in the differential diagnosis when other studies are nondiagnostic or nonspecific for RSDS

  8. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2011-01-01

    and the EU CSR Alliance. Focusing on human rights based in international law, it analyses the patterns of negotiation in the MSF and the background for the launch of the CSR Alliance. It shows that analysing public-private regulation of CSR from the perspective of reflexive law theory assists us......This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... climate change and environmental sustainability, and social, economic and other human rights lend human rights as part of CSR a potential for meeting some environmental and climate concerns and handling adverse side-effects. The article analyses two EU initiatives: The EU Multi-Stakeholder (MSF) on CSR...

  10. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainablility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    and the EU CSR Alliance. Focusing on human rights based in international law, it analyses the patterns of negotiation in the MSF and the background for the launch of the CSR Alliance. It shows that analysing public-private regulation of CSR from the perspective of reflexive law theory assists us......This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... climate change and environmental sustainability, and social, economic and other human rights lend human rights as part of CSR a potential for meeting some environmental and climate concerns and handling adverse side-effects. The article analyses two EU initiatives: The EU Multi-Stakeholder (MSF) on CSR...

  11. Reflexivity and vulnerability in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    -reports of positive learning outcomes and fails to illuminate how power is always at play leaving certain participants exposed and potentially vulnerable (Fenwick, 2008). As such, it remains unclear how power relations unfold in moment-by-moment interactions including how the researcher’s position matters...... because their voices are subjugated and they appear to be vulnerable. The extent of this development in the peer interactions and the reproductive nature of the knowledge produced were unexpected. In other words we – the researchers – became struck in the analytical process. In the final part of the paper......, we discuss how the reproduction of power relations invokes ethical concerns and raises critical perspectives on the undeniable common good of collaborative research in which participants’ vulnerability may be overlooked in potentially reflexive moments (Nordentoft and Kappel, 2011). Still, we find...

  12. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  13. Study of the Reflex-Klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia A, R.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is the theoretical study and the development of a technique for designing. A low power Reflex-Klystron, in order to construct it in the graduated section laboratories of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional. It is pretended to attain a power of 15-45 m W in frequencies of 8-10 GHz with low acceleration potentials (300-400 V) and electric current of 15-25 m A; the device will be mechanically tuned and will have a fine tuning through the potential of the reflector (150-180 V negative with respect to the resonator). The International System of Units is used in this thesis. (Author)

  14. Sudden onset Oculo-cardiac Reflex post-traumatic eye injury in PNG: a case study and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Aaron D

    2014-08-01

    This case study examines the onset of traumatic OCR--Oculo-cardiac Reflex--in the remote southern highlands of PNG. The spontaneous occurrence of OCR post-trauma in the clinical setting leads to sudden onset bradycardia, nausea and hypotension, resulting in cardiovascular compromise and deteriorating clinical conditions. Initial recognition of the characteristics of OCR will prepare the clinician to deal with the sequence of events that arise post the reflex initiation. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditions for Adopting an Irregular Defense Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    guerrillas are becoming increasingly professional, more professional soldiers are fighting with guerrilla techniques, with no one side having a monopoly ...legally procured through the commercial market system. Whether “from below” or “from above,” however, this equipment is significantly cheaper than jet...demonstrated extreme brutality, using chlorine gas with conventional explosives. These ruthless tactics, the bombings of three hotels in Amman, the

  16. Subjectivity and Reflexivity in the Social Sciences: Epistemic Windows and Methodical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We sketch four basic epistemological assumptions that imply a constructionist orientation to knowledge including (a perspectivity, positionality; (b horizonality, dynamic observer position; (c the structuring of knowledge through instruments of knowledge production; and (d interactivity and interventionist nature of research. Although social scientists often adopt a constructionist epistemology to frame their research object, the methodological consequences of such an epistemology for the production of social scientific knowledge are not normally drawn. Instead of dealing with the four assumptions as a productive epistemic window, many researchers exhibit a defensive tendency and continue the quest for objectivity in their own writing. We propose a different methodological position conceptualized in the dialectic of the always embodied, individual, and social researcher-in-interaction. Beginning with the concept of a decentered (self- observation we develop the idea of the reflexive nature that relates the epistemic subject and object. We propose a way systematizing methodological considerations and procedures that follows the research process, beginning with the identification of a research topic to the final presentation of the results. The contributions to the two present FQS volumes on "Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research" provide answers and possible solutions to the questions and problems raised in this introduction. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302258

  17. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  18. Reflex responses of lip muscles in young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, A B

    1996-06-01

    The perioral reflex in response to innocuous mechanical stimulation of the lip vermilion was studied in 20 young and 20 older women. Responses to stimuli at the right and left sides of both the upper and lower lips were recorded. Results show significant specificity of response, especially for upper lip sites. Reflex response at the site of stimulation was greatest in amplitude and shortest in latency, followed by response at sites ipsilateral to the site of stimulation. Younger subjects showed greater localizing tendency than older subjects. Stimulation was significantly less likely to produce a reflex response in the older group. When reflex responses did occur, they were significantly lower in amplitude and longer in latency than the responses of the younger group. Nonetheless, reflex responses were common in both groups, with responses at the site of stimulation occurring 78% of the time in older women and 90% of the time in younger women. Every participant showed at least one reflex response to lip stimulation. Results suggest decreasing complexity of synaptic drive to the perioral system in old age but also show that reflexive response does not deteriorate completely, remaining an available element for motor control in normal older women.

  19. Effects of Bed Rest on Conduction Velocity of the Triceps Surae Stretch Reflex and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Esteves, J. T.; Taylor, L. C.; DeDios, Y. E.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite rigorous exercise and nutritional management during space missions, astronauts returning from microgravity exhibit neuromuscular deficits and a significant loss in muscle mass in the postural muscles of the lower leg. Similar changes in the postural muscles occur in subjects participating in long-duration bed rest studies. These adaptive muscle changes manifest as a reduction in reflex conduction velocity during head-down bed rest. Because the stretch reflex encompasses both the peripheral (muscle spindle and nerve axon) and central (spinal synapse) components involved in adaptation to calf muscle unloading, it may be used to provide feedback on the general condition of neuromuscular function, and might be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at preserving muscle mass and function during periods of unloading. Stretch reflexes were measured on 18 control subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 deg head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 degrees at a peak velocity of about 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender. Computerized posturography was also conducted on these same subjects before and after bed rest as part of the standard measures. Peak-to-peak sway was measured during Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) to evaluate changes in the ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Although no gender differences were found, a significant increase in reflex latency and a significant decrease in CV were observed during the bed

  20. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  1. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  2. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  3. [Human physiology: images and practices of the reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübben, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The essay examines the function of visualizations and practices in the formation of the reflex concept from Thomas Willis to Marshall Hall. It focuses on the specific form of reflex knowledge that images and practices can contain. In addition, the essay argues that it is through visual representations and experimental practices that technical knowledge is transferred to the field of human reflex physiology. When using technical metaphors in human physiology authors often seem to feel obliged to draw distinctions between humans, machines and animals. On closer scrutiny, these distinctions sometimes fail to establish firm borders between the human and the technical.

  4. Resolution of hypothyroidism after correction of somatovisceral reflex dysfunction by refusion of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis is a rare initial presentation of new-onset hypothyroidism. The author describes the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with psychosis caused by hypothyroidism, or myxedema madness. Although the patient's psychosis resolved after standard monotherapy using levothyroxine sodium, her hypothyroidism persisted. Imaging of the patient's cervical spine showed that previous C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusions had failed. The failed fusions were corrected, and the patient's hypothyroidism resolved, suggesting that the somatovisceral reflex was the cause of the patient's hypothyroidism. Although somatovisceral reflex dysfunctions are rare, physicians should consider them as potential underlying causes of their patients' presenting medical conditions. © 2015 The American Osteopathic Association.

  5. Report on a membership audit of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Reflex Therapy (ACPIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Gunnel; Svarovska, Beth

    2014-08-01

    Reflex Therapy (RT), akin to reflexology, is a non-invasive physiotherapy modality approved by the UK Chartered Society of Physiotherapists. One hundred members of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Reflex Therapy (ACPIRT) participated in an audit to establish a baseline of practice. Findings indicate that experienced therapists use RT in conjunction with their professional skills to induce relaxation (95%) and reduce pain (86%) for patients with conditions including whiplash injury and chronic pain. According to 68% of respondents, RT is "very good," "good" or "as good as" orthodox physiotherapy practices. Requiring minimal equipment, RT may be as cost effective as orthodox physiotherapy with regards to duration and frequency of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ivane S. Beritashvili (1884-1974): from spinal cord reflexes to image-driven behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagareli, M G; Doty, R W

    2009-10-20

    Ivane Beritashvili ("Beritoff" in Russian, and often in Western languages) was a major figure in 20th-century neuroscience. Mastering the string galvanometer, he founded the electrophysiology of spinal cord reflexes, showing that inhibition is a distinctly different process from excitation, contrary to the concepts of his famous mentor, Wedensky. Work on postural reflexes with Magnus was cut short by World War I, but he later demonstrated that navigation in two-dimensional space without vision is a function solely of the vestibular system rather than of muscle proprioception. Persevering in his experiments despite postwar turmoil he founded an enduring Physiology Institute in Tbilisi, where he pursued an ingenious and extensive investigation of comparative memory in vertebrates. This revealed the unique nature of mammalian memory processes, which he forthrightly called "image driven," and distinguished them unequivocally from those underlying conditional reflexes. For some 30 years the Stalinist terror confined his publications to the Russian language. Work with his colleague, Chichinadze, discovering that memory confined to one cerebral hemisphere could be accessed by the other via a specific forebrain commissure, did reach the West, and ultimately led to recognition of the fascinating "split brain" condition. In the 1950s he was removed from his professorial position for 5 years as being "anti-Pavlovian." Restored to favor, he was honorary president of the "Moscow Colloquium" that saw the foundation of the International Brain Research Organization.

  7. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  8. Photovoltaics in the Department of Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the history of photovoltaic use within the Department of Defense leading up to the installation of 2.1 MW of photovoltaics underway today. This history describes the evolution of the Department of Defense's Tri-Service Photovoltaic Review Committee and the committee's strategic plan to realize photovoltaic's full potential through outreach, conditioning of the federal procurement system, and specific project development. The Photovoltaic Review Committee estimates photovoltaic's potential at nearly 4,000 MW, of which about 700 MW are considered to be cost-effective at today's prices. The paper describes photovoltaic's potential within the Department of Defense, the status and features of the 2.1-MW worth of photovoltaic systems under installation, and how these systems are selected and implemented. The paper also documents support provided to the Department of Defense by the Department of Energy dating back to the late 70s. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Do changes in spinal reflex excitability elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation differ based on the site of cerebellar stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi

    2018-05-06

    The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle. Conditioning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered at one of the following sites 110 ms prior to tibial stimulation: right, central, or left cerebellum; midline parietal (Pz) region; or sham stimulation. A total of 10 test trials were included for each condition, in random order. The unconditioned and conditioned H-reflexes were measured during random inter-test trials, and the cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) ratios for each site were calculated (the ratio of conditioned to unconditioned H-reflexes). CSpF ratios were compared among TMS sites. CSpF ratios were significantly higher at cerebellar sites than at the Pz site or during sham stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in CSpF ratio among cerebellar sites. TMS conditioning over any part of the cerebellum facilitated the excitability of the spinal motoneuron pool. Facilitation of the H-reflex due to C-TMS may involve the effects of the bilateral descending tract of the spinal cord on the spinal motoneuron pool. Alternatively, direct brainstem stimulation may have activated portions of the bilateral descending tract of the spinal cord.

  10. The Danish CSR Reporting Requirement as Reflexive Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    With effect for financial years beginning January 2009 or later, the Danish Financial Statements Act and related governmental regulations require large Danish companies and institutional investors to submit an annual Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) report. Through application of reflexive law...

  11. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal

  12. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal

  13. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  14. Bone mineral density in reflex sympathetic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghaphi, M.; Azarian, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a complex of symptoms that produce pain burning sensation, swelling, tenderness, autonomic and physical dysfunction in joint areas, particularly distal of a limb. Osteopenia or osteoporosis is an important finding that is produced gradually in involved limb. Three phase bone can scan help to diagnosis of RSD. The disease may be bilateral but is mostly unilateral. As it is believed that bone densitometry will show osteopenia more accurate than plain comparative radiographs of the involved limbs, we investigated in patients with RSD. Methods: During last three years, 8 patients with RSD were admitted. Bone mineral density was measured for 5 patients by DEXA method. The patients were 3 males and 2 females with age range of 20 to 48 years (mean 32 years). The involved areas were ankle and foot in 4, and wrist and hand in one patient. Results: Mean Bone Mineral Content (BMC) of 4 involved lower limbs were 475 +-73 grams comparing with 516+-72 grams of uninvolved limbs (p t h patient was not significant. conclusion: comparative bone mineral density in patients with RSD of the lower limbs contributes to more accurate diagnosis than plain radiographs

  15. A tapetal-like fundus reflex in a healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, Patrik; Bregnhøj, Jesper; Arvidsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP).......To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP)....

  16. The Reflexive Nature of Reading as Ethnographic Practice: Editorial Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, I suggest that not only is reading published texts a way of doing ethno­graph­ic research, but also reading concretely realizes itself in the productions of new texts that reproduce the cultural practices that are analyzed in the published text. Reading as ethnographic method is therefore a reflexive project. I provide a dialectical framework for theorizing the reflexive nature of reading. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401390

  17. Reflex epileptic mechanisms in humans: Lessons about natural ictogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The definition of reflex epileptic seizures is that specific seizure types can be triggered by certain sensory or cognitive stimuli. Simple triggers are sensory (most often visual, more rarely tactile or proprioceptive; simple audiogenic triggers in humans are practically nonexistent) and act within seconds, whereas complex triggers like praxis, reading and talking, and music are mostly cognitive and work within minutes. The constant relation between a qualitatively, often even quantitatively, well-defined stimulus and a specific epileptic response provides unique possibilities to investigate seizure generation in natural human epilepsies. For several reflex epileptic mechanisms (REMs), this has been done. Reflex epileptic mechanisms have been reported less often in focal lesional epilepsies than in idiopathic "generalized" epilepsies (IGEs) which are primarily genetically determined. The key syndrome of IGE is juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), where more than half of the patients present reflex epileptic traits (photosensitivity, eye closure sensitivity, praxis induction, and language-induced orofacial reflex myocloni). Findings with multimodal investigations of cerebral function concur to indicate that ictogenic mechanisms in IGEs largely (ab)use preexisting functional anatomic networks (CNS subsystems) normally serving highly complex physiological functions (e.g., deliberate complex actions and linguistic communication) which supports the concept of system epilepsy. Whereas REMs in IGEs, thus, are primarily function-related, in focal epilepsies, they are primarily localization-related. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticausatives are weak scalar expressions, not reflexive expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schäfer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss conceptual and empirical arguments from Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages against an analysis treating anticausative verbs as derived from their lexical causative counterparts under reflexivization. Instead, we defend the standard account to the semantics of the causative alternation according to which anticausatives in general, and anticausatives marked with reflexive morphology in particular, denote simple one-place inchoative events that are logically entailed by their lexical causative counterparts. Under such an account, anticausative verbs are weak scalar expressions that stand in a semantico-pragmatic opposition to their strong lexical causative counterparts. Due to this scalar relation, the use of an anticausative can trigger the implicature that the use of its lexical causative counterpart is too strong. As usual with implicatures, they can be ‘metalinguistically’ denied, cancelled, or reinforced and we argue that these mechanisms explain all central empirical facts brought up in the literature in favor of a treatment of anticausatives as semantically reflexive predicates. Our results reinforce the view that the reflexive morphemes used in many (Indo-European languages to mark anticausatives do not necessarily trigger reflexive semantics. However, we also show that a string involving a reflexively marked (anti-causative verb can be forced into a semantically reflexive construal under particular conceptual or grammatical circumstances.

  19. Trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma surgery: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan

    2017-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.

  20. Student Mobility and Transnational Social Ties as Factors of Reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to develop and apply new quantitative measurement instruments capable of significantly improving understanding of the relationship between the transnational mobility and transnational social ties of students, along with their reflexive capacities. With a focus on students building their personal networks, educational and professional activities that extend beyond the nation’s borders and organising their day-to-day routines in transnational social spaces, we analyse the role of mobility in their reflexive capacities. Applying a tool that is line with Archer’s theory and indicators to measure reflexivity, and transnational social ties as proposed by Molina et al., we analyse data collected via an on-line survey questionnaire administered to Slovenian students. In addition, students from the Middle East (Lebanon and the USA (Hawai’i are added for comparative purposes. The results of path analysis show the Slovenian students’ mobility as such implies higher scores for meta reflexivity, combined with lower scores for communicative and fractured reflexivity. Further, social transactions reaching beyond one’s physical localities in terms of transnational social ties implies they have higher levels of reflexivity in general.

  1. Anticausatives are semantically reflexive in Norwegian, but not in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lundquist

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss cross-linguistic variation in semantic entailment patterns in causative alternations. Previous work has probed this issue with data from elicited semantic judgements on paired linguistic forms, often involving linguistic negation and contradiction. We contribute to the debate in the form of a related psycholinguistic experiment that taps into direct judgements of truth conditions based on visualized scenarios. The stimulus consisted of video sequences of agents causing events, and the task involved answering a Yes-No question based on the anticausative/inchoative alternant. We were therefore able to test two languages, Norwegian and English, with the very same stimuli and directly compare the judgements. Based on our results, we will argue that the causative alternation is qualitatively different in the two languages. More specifically, the results support an entailment relation between the causative and its anticausative counterpart in English, as predicted by the whole class of “causer-less” analyses (Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Ramchand 2008; Reinhart & Siloni 2005 in the literature. In contrast to this, our results support a reflexive analysis of anticausatives in Norwegian (Chierchia 2004; Koontz-Garboden 2009, where no such entailment holds.

  2. Rhinitis and sleep disorders: The trigeminocardiac reflex link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, Barkha; Singh, Gyaninder Pal; Chowdhury, Tumul; Schaller, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    Rhinitis, allergic or non-allergic, is an inflammatory condition of the nose. It is associated with a wide range of sleep disorders that are generally attributed to nasal congestion and presence of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and interleukins. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these sleep disorders remain unclear. On the other hand, the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) has recently been linked to various sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea, sleep bruxism and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep apnea. TCR can be incited by stimulation of the trigeminal nerve or the area innervated by its branches including the nasal mucosa. Trigeminal nasal afferents can be activated on exposure to noxious stimuli (mechanical or chemical) like ammonia vapors, carbon-dioxide, nicotine, hypertonic saline, air-puffs and smoke. In rhinitis, there is associated neuronal hyper-responsiveness of sensory nasal afferents due to inflammation (which can be suppressed by steroids). This may further lead to increased occurrence of TCR in rhinitis. Moreover, there is involvement of autonomic nervous system both in rhinitis and TCR. In TCR, parasympathetic over activity and sympathetic inhibition leads to sudden onset bradycardia, hypotension, apnea and gastric motility. Also, the autonomic imbalance reportedly plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of rhinitis. Thus, considering these facts we hypothesize that the TCR could be the link between rhinitis and sleep disorders and we believe that further research in this direction may yield significant development in our understanding of sleep disorders in rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  4. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  5. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  6. The past, present, and future of health development campaigns: reflexivity and the critical-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; de Souza, Rebecca

    2008-07-01

    In contemporary society, health issues have gained increasing urgency in both political and academic spheres. Looking back at the failure of the modernist development initiatives, there is the need to realize that we live in a time of increasing sociopolitical complexity. The present moment is perhaps best understood in terms of a complex tension and linkage between the past and present, global and local, modern and postmodern. The critical-cultural approach to health campaigns is an approach that, through the reflexive interrogation of modernist assumptions underlying health communication campaigns, attempts to foreground the tensions inherent in the practice of health campaigns. This essay discusses the manner in which the critical-cultural approach interrogates modernist assumptions and provides an alternative paradigm for approaching the theory and practice of health campaigns by suggesting the necessity for reflexivity. Specifically, we discuss how the perspective interrogates the role of the media in development, the significance of culture, the locus of health responsibility, the impact of structural conditions, and the politics of knowledge, providing examples of campaigns that illustrate this reflexivity.

  7. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  9. Avaliação da ativação de defesa em soja contra Phakopsora pachyrhizi em condições controladas Evaluation of soybean defense activation against Phakopsora pachyrhizi in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ceolin Meneghetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A efetividade da ativação de defesa em diferentes cultivares de soja contra Phakopsora pachyrhizi proporcionada pelo fosfito, bem como sua associação com fungicidas aplicados em diferentes épocas em relação à inoculação com o patógeno, foi estudada em condições de casa-de-vegetação em dois ensaios conduzidos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o fosfito não foi capaz de induzir a expressão dos mecansimos de defesa, uma vez que não foi observada qualquer redução na severidade, número de pústulas.cm-2, e na Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso de Doença (AACPD, por conta da aplicação do produto. O progresso da ferrugem foi mais lento na cultivar Fundacep 55 RR, que teve uma AACPD 53% menor do que a cultivar Fundacep 56 RR, a mais suscetível. O fungicida epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina proporcionou uma redução na AACPD de 29%, quando comparado ao emprego do triazol isolado na média das épocas de aplicação. As aplicações mais próximas da inoculação e preventivas foram mais efetivas do que aquelas realizadas de forma muito precoce ou muito tardia em relação à infecção das plantas pelo patógeno. Os resultados indicaram que o fosfito não induziu resistência em soja contra P. pachyrhizi, e que houve variação na resistência parcial à ferrugem por parte das cultivares e na efetividade dos fungicidas entre si e quanto ao momento em que os mesmos são aplicados.The effectiveness of defense activation in different soybean cultivars against P. pachyrhizi promoted by phosphite, as well as its association with fungicides in different timing of application in relation to pathogen inoculation, was studied in greenhouse conditions in two assays carried out in completely randomized design, with four replications. The results shown that phosphite was unable to induce defense, because no reduction of severity, pustules.cm-2 number, and Area Under Progress

  10. Local Injections of Superoxide Dismutase Attenuate the Exercise Pressor Reflex in Rats with Femoral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. Our data show that femoral occlusion decreased the protein levels of SOD in ischemic muscle as compared with control muscle. Downregulation of SOD appeared to a greater degree in the oxidative (red muscle than in the glycolytic (white muscle under the condition of muscle ischemia. In addition, the exercise pressor response was assessed during electrically induced static contraction. The data demonstrates that the enhancement of the exercise pressor reflex was significantly attenuated after tempol (a mimetic of SOD, 30 mg over a period of 72 h was administered into the occluded hindlimb. In the occluded rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP response was 26 ± 3 mmHg with no tempol and 12 ± 2 mmHg with tempol application (P < 0.05 vs. group with no tempol; n = 6 in each group. There were no differences in muscle tension development (time-tension index: 12.1 ± 1.2 kgs with no tempol and 13.5 ± 1.1 kgs with tempol; P > 0.05 between groups. In conclusion, SOD is lessened in the ischemic muscles and supplement of SOD improves the amplified exercise pressor reflex, which is likely beneficial to the restricted blood flow to the limbs in PAD.

  11. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  13. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  15. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  16. Regional cerebral perfusion in cardiovascular reflex syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeyry, J.P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Laensimies, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the regional cerebral perfusion in subjects with presyncope or syncope, and the impact that autonomic nervous dysfunction has on it. Seven subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor reflex syncope were studied. A baseline test was performed with the patients standing in the 70 upright position, while the passive head-up tilt table test with and without isoprenaline infusion was employed for provocation. Regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by means of single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m labelled V-oxo-1,2-N,N 1 -ethylenedylbis-l-cysteine diethylester (baseline, and during blood pressure decline in the provocation test) and the autonomic nervous function by means of spectral analysis of heart rate variability (baseline, and before blood pressure decline in the provocation test). Every subject showed an abrupt decline in blood pressure in the provocation test (five with presyncope and two with syncope). The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P<0.001) between the baseline and the provocation study time points (radiopharmaceutical injection and lowest systolic blood pressure). Mean cerebral perfusion as average count densities decreased upon provocation as compared with baseline (190±63 vs 307±90 counts/voxel, respectively, P=0.013). Hypoperfusion was most pronounced in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that cerebral perfusion decreases markedly during presyncope or syncope with systemic blood pressure decline in subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor syncope. Furthermore, the autonomic nervous function remains unchanged before the systemic blood pressure decline. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. ESO Reflex: a graphical workflow engine for data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Richard; Ullgrén, Marko; Romaniello, Martino; Maisala, Sami; Oittinen, Tero; Solin, Otto; Savolainen, Ville; Järveläinen, Pekka; Tyynelä, Jani; Péron, Michèle; Ballester, Pascal; Gabasch, Armin; Izzo, Carlo

    ESO Reflex is a prototype software tool that provides a novel approach to astronomical data reduction by integrating a modern graphical workflow system (Taverna) with existing legacy data reduction algorithms. Most of the raw data produced by instruments at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile are reduced using recipes. These are compiled C applications following an ESO standard and utilising routines provided by the Common Pipeline Library (CPL). Currently these are run in batch mode as part of the data flow system to generate the input to the ESO/VLT quality control process and are also exported for use offline. ESO Reflex can invoke CPL-based recipes in a flexible way through a general purpose graphical interface. ESO Reflex is based on the Taverna system that was originally developed within the UK life-sciences community. Workflows have been created so far for three VLT/VLTI instruments, and the GUI allows the user to make changes to these or create workflows of their own. Python scripts or IDL procedures can be easily brought into workflows and a variety of visualisation and display options, including custom product inspection and validation steps, are available. Taverna is intended for use with web services and experiments using ESO Reflex to access Virtual Observatory web services have been successfully performed. ESO Reflex is the main product developed by Sampo, a project led by ESO and conducted by a software development team from Finland as an in-kind contribution to joining ESO. The goal was to look into the needs of the ESO community in the area of data reduction environments and to create pilot software products that illustrate critical steps along the road to a new system. Sampo concluded early in 2008. This contribution will describe ESO Reflex and show several examples of its use both locally and using Virtual Observatory remote web services. ESO Reflex is expected to be released to the community in early 2009.

  18. Trigeminal cardiac reflex and cerebral blood flow regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Lapi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulation of some facial regions is known to trigger the trigemino-cardiac reflex: the main stimulus is represented by the contact of the face with water. This phenomenon called diving reflex induces a set of reactions in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems occurring in all mammals, especially marine (whales, seals. During the immersion of the face in the water, the main responses are aimed at reducing the oxygen consumption of the organism. Accordingly reduction in heart rate, peripheral vasoconstriction, blood pooling in certain organs, especially the heart and brain, and an increase in blood pressure have been reported. Moreover, the speed and intensity of the reflex is inversely proportional to the temperature of the water: more cold the water, more reactions as described are strong. In the case of deep diving an additional effect, such as blood deviation, has been reported: the blood is requested within the lungs, to compensate for the increase in the external pressure, preventing them from collapsing.The trigeminal-cardiac reflex is not just confined to the diving reflex; recently it has been shown that a brief proprioceptive stimulation (10 min by jaw extension in rats produces interesting effects both at systemic and cerebral level, reducing the arterial blood pressure and vasodilating the pial arterioles. The arteriolar dilation is associated with rhythmic diameter changes characterized by an increase in the endothelial activity. Fascinating the stimulation of trigeminal nerve is able to activated the nitric oxide release by vascular endothelial. Therefore the aim of this review was to highlight the effects due to trigeminal cardiac reflex induced by a simple mandibular extension, because produced opposite effects compared to those elicited by the diving reflex as it induces hypotension and modulation of cerebral arteriolar tone.

  19. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  20. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  1. Precipitation affects plant communication and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Enrico; Mancuso, Stefano; Karban, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Anti-herbivore defense shows high levels of both inter- and intraspecific variability. Defending against herbivores may be costly to the plant when it requires a tradeoff in allocation between defense and other missed opportunities, such as reproduction. Indeed, the plastic expression of defensive traits allows the plant to invest resources in defense only when the risk of being damaged actually increases, avoiding wasted resources. Plants may assess risk by responding to volatile cues emitted by neighbors that are under attack. Most plastic responses likely depend on environmental conditions. In this experiment, we investigated the effect of water availability on resistance induced by volatile cues in sagebrush. We found that plants receiving additional water over summer and/or volatile cues from neighbor donor plants showed reduced herbivore damage compared to control plants. Interestingly, we found no evidence of interactions between additional water and volatile cues. We performed an inferential analysis comparing historical records of the levels of herbivore damage during different years that had different temperature and precipitation accumulations. Results confirmed findings from the experiment, as the regression model indicated that sagebrush was better defended during wetter and hotter seasons. Reports from the literature indicated that sagebrush is extremely sensitive to water availability in the soil. We suggest that water availability may directly affect resistance of herbivory as well as sensitivity to cues of damage. Costs and benefits of allocating resources to defensive traits may vary with environmental conditions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  3. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  4. Nociceptive flexion reflexes during analgesic neurostimulation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Larrea, L; Sindou, M; Mauguière, F

    1989-11-01

    Nociceptive flexion reflexes of the lower limbs (RIII responses) have been studied in 21 patients undergoing either epidural (DCS, n = 16) or transcutaneous (TENS, n = 5) analgesic neurostimulation (AN) for chronic intractable pain. Flexion reflex RIII was depressed or suppressed by AN in 11 patients (52.4%), while no modification was observed in 9 cases and a paradoxical increase during AN was evidenced in 1 case. In all but 2 patients, RIII changes were rapidly reversible after AN interruption. RIII depression was significantly associated with subjective pain relief, as assessed by conventional self-rating; moreover, in 2 patients it was possible to ameliorate the pain-suppressing effects of AN by selecting those stimulation parameters (intensity and frequency) that maximally depressed nociceptive reflex RIII. We recorded 2 cases of RIII attenuation after contralateral neurostimulation. AN appeared to affect nociceptive reflexes rather selectively, with no or very little effect on other cutaneous, non-nociceptive responses. Recording of RIII reflexes is relatively simple to implement as a routine paraclinical procedure. It facilitates the objective assessment of AN efficacy and may help to choose the most appropriate parameters of neurostimulation. In addition, RIII behavior in patients could be relevant to the understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in AN-induced pain relief.

  5. Faroese long-distance reflexives face off against Icelandic long-distance reflexives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E. Strahan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance reflexives (LDRs in Faroese are often compared to those in Icelandic, and are even considered to have the same distribution (Thráinsson et al., 2004. In this paper I evaluate the extent to which this is true. The results from recent fieldwork show that there are clear differences between the LDR in the two closely related languages, in particular that Faroese speakers often reject LDR sentences that contain a non-third person, and that Faroese LDR is often completely acceptable out of a non-complement clause. In addition, initial findings suggest that there may be dialectal variation with respect to at least these two aspects of LDR in Faroese.

  6. The pulse duration of electrical stimulation influences H-reflexes but not corticospinal excitability for tibialis anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Alyssa R; Lou, Jenny W H; Collins, David F

    2014-10-01

    The afferent volley generated by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) influences corticospinal (CS) excitability and frequent NMES sessions can strengthen CS pathways, resulting in long-term improvements in function. This afferent volley can be altered by manipulating NMES parameters. Presently, we manipulated one such parameter, pulse duration, during NMES over the common peroneal nerve and assessed the influence on H-reflexes and CS excitability. We hypothesized that compared with shorter pulse durations, longer pulses would (i) shift the H-reflex recruitment curve to the left, relative to the M-wave curve; and (ii) increase CS excitability more. Using 3 pulse durations (50, 200, 1000 μs), M-wave and H-reflex recruitment curves were collected and, in separate experiments, CS excitability was assessed by comparing motor evoked potentials elicited before and after 30 min of NMES. Despite finding a leftward shift in the H-reflex recruitment curve when using the 1000 μs pulse duration, consistent with a larger afferent volley for a given efferent volley, the increases in CS excitability were not influenced by pulse duration. Hence, although manipulating pulse duration can alter the relative recruitment of afferents and efferents in the common peroneal nerve, under the present experimental conditions it is ineffective for maximizing CS excitability for rehabilitation.

  7. Central and peripheral mechanisms underlying gastric distention inhibitory reflex responses in hypercapnic-acidotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Hsiao, An-Fu; Longhurst, John C

    2011-03-01

    We have observed that in chloralose-anesthetized animals, gastric distension (GD) typically increases blood pressure (BP) under normoxic normocapnic conditions. However, we recently noted repeatable decreases in BP and heart rate (HR) in hypercapnic-acidotic rats in response to GD. The neural pathways, central processing, and autonomic effector mechanisms involved in this cardiovascular reflex response are unknown. We hypothesized that GD-induced decrease in BP and HR reflex responses are mediated during both withdrawal of sympathetic tone and increased parasympathetic activity, involving the rostral (rVLM) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (cVLM) and the nucleus ambiguus (NA). Rats anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine or α-chloralose were ventilated and monitored for HR and BP changes. The extent of cardiovascular inhibition was related to the extent of hypercapnia and acidosis. Repeated GD with both anesthetics induced consistent falls in BP and HR. The hemodynamic inhibitory response was reduced after blockade of the celiac ganglia or the intraabdominal vagal nerves with lidocaine, suggesting that the decreased BP and HR responses were mediated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic afferents. Blockade of the NA decreased the bradycardia response. Microinjection of kainic acid into the cVLM reduced the inhibitory BP response, whereas depolarization blockade of the rVLM decreased both BP and HR inhibitory responses. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the rVLM also reduced the BP and HR reflex responses. Atropine methyl bromide completely blocked the reflex bradycardia, and atenolol blocked the negative chronotropic response. Finally, α(1)-adrenergic blockade with prazosin reversed the depressor. Thus, in the setting of hypercapnic-acidosis, a sympathoinhibitory cardiovascular response is mediated, in part, by splanchnic nerves and is processed through the rVLM and cVLM. Additionally, a vagal excitatory reflex, which involves the NA, facilitates the GD

  8. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  9. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  10. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, T

    2002-01-01

    was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating...... of afferent input to the spinal cord, by EMG activity and by walking mechanics. Increasing H reflex excitability during the swing phase appears to protect the subject against unexpected perturbations around heel strike by a facilitated stretch reflex in the triceps surae muscle. Alternatively, in subjects...... with a suppressed H reflex in the swing phase the knee joint extensors seem to form the primary protection around heel strike....

  11. Single Canonical Model of Reflexive Memory and Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumil S.; Red, Stuart; Lin, Eric; Sereno, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Many neurons in the dorsal and ventral visual stream have the property that after a brief visual stimulus presentation in their receptive field, the spiking activity in these neurons persists above their baseline levels for several seconds. This maintained activity is not always correlated with the monkey’s task and its origin is unknown. We have previously proposed a simple neural network model, based on shape selective neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex, which predicts the valence and time course of reflexive (bottom-up) spatial attention. In the same simple model, we demonstrate here that passive maintained activity or short-term memory of specific visual events can result without need for an external or top-down modulatory signal. Mutual inhibition and neuronal adaptation play distinct roles in reflexive attention and memory. This modest 4-cell model provides the first simple and unified physiologically plausible mechanism of reflexive spatial attention and passive short-term memory processes. PMID:26493949

  12. Spasm of the near reflex: a spectrum of anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J H; Schneekloth, B B

    1996-01-01

    Spasm of the near reflex has been characterized as the variable appearance of pseudomyopia, convergent strabismus and miosis. These characteristics may appear together or separately. In addition, abnormalities of accommodation may appear not only as pseudomyopia, but may also be manifest in cases with significant hypermetropia in which the patient is unable to relax accommodation even when plus lenses are used. The intent of this review is to identify the various clinical presentations of anomalies of the entire near reflex as well as the component parts. The relationship to functional and organic disorders are discussed as well as the related neuroanatomy. We suggest that one may more readily understand the clinical manifestations as a spectrum of anomalies of the near reflex rather than a multitude of disconnected entities.

  13. Single Canonical Model of Reflexive Memory and Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumil S; Red, Stuart; Lin, Eric; Sereno, Anne B

    2015-10-23

    Many neurons in the dorsal and ventral visual stream have the property that after a brief visual stimulus presentation in their receptive field, the spiking activity in these neurons persists above their baseline levels for several seconds. This maintained activity is not always correlated with the monkey's task and its origin is unknown. We have previously proposed a simple neural network model, based on shape selective neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex, which predicts the valence and time course of reflexive (bottom-up) spatial attention. In the same simple model, we demonstrate here that passive maintained activity or short-term memory of specific visual events can result without need for an external or top-down modulatory signal. Mutual inhibition and neuronal adaptation play distinct roles in reflexive attention and memory. This modest 4-cell model provides the first simple and unified physiologically plausible mechanism of reflexive spatial attention and passive short-term memory processes.

  14. A critical reflexive Perspective on othering in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the article is to show power mechanisms of in- and exclusion in moments where certain participants appeared to be othered in two collaborative research and development projects in a health care setting. Design/methodology/approach The article contributes to critical......-reflexive analyses of reflexive processes within collaborative knowledge production We use an analytical framework combining Bakhtin and Foucault to investigate processes of inclusion and exclusion in the interplay between dominant and subordinated voices in a moment-by-moment analysis of two incidents from...... interdisciplinary workshops. Findings The analysis illuminates how differences between voices challenge participants’ reflexive awareness and lead to the reproduction of contextual power and knowledge hierarchies and the concomitant silencing of particular participants. Thus, the findings draw attention...

  15. Effects of postural changes of the upper limb on reflex transmission in the lower limb. Cervicolumbar reflex interactions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, P J; Figiel, C; Richelle, C

    1977-06-01

    The influence of passive changes in upper limb position on the excitability of three myotatic arc reflexes (soleus, quadriceps, and biceps femoris) of the lower limb has been explored on 42 volunteers. The results indicate that the excitability of the three myotatic arcs can be influenced at a distance by postural modifications of the upper limb. When the ipsilateral upper limb is forwards or the contralateral backwards, a facilitation of both soleus and quadriceps tendon reflexes is observed while the biceps femoris reflexes are reduced. This pattern of facilitation and inhibition is reversed when the ipsilateral upper limb is backwards or the contralateral forwards. The facilitations as well as inhibitions of proximal myotatic arc reflexes are quantitatively more marked than that of the soleus reflex. Facilitation and inhibition are not linearly related to the angle of the arm with the trunk. Effects begin at a considerable angle, become maximal at 45 degrees, and progressively disappear for greater values. It is suggested that the distinct pattern of facilitation and inhibition which is exerted in reciprocal fashion on extensor and flexor motor nuclei might depend on the long propriospinal neurones connecting cervical and lumbar enlargements.

  16. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  17. Plantar flexor stretch reflex responses to whole body loading/unloading during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; van Doornik, Johannes; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Numerous animal and human studies have shown that afferent information from the periphery contributes to the control of walking. In particular, recent studies have consistently shown that load receptor input is an important element of the locomotion control mechanism. The objective of this study...... perturbation during human walking. Three body load conditions were investigated: normal body load, a 30% increase in body load, and a 30% decrease in body load. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.6 km/h with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. Dorsiflexion...... strongly to the corrective response of the stretch reflex in the plantar flexor muscles during walking....

  18. The Foucault-Habermas Debate: the Reflexive and Receptive Aspects of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...

  19. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  20. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  1. FEFsem neuronal response during combined volitional and reflexive pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, Leah; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Although much is known about volitional and reflexive smooth eye movements individually, much less is known about how they are coordinated. It is hypothesized that separate cortico-ponto-cerebellar loops subserve these different types of smooth eye movements. Specifically, the MT-MST-DLPN pathway is thought to be critical for ocular following eye movements, whereas the FEF-NRTP pathway is understood to be vital for volitional smooth pursuit. However, the role that these loops play in combined volitional and reflexive behavior is unknown. We used a large, textured background moving in conjunction with a small target spot to investigate the eye movements evoked by a combined volitional and reflexive pursuit task. We also assessed the activity of neurons in the smooth eye movement subregion of the frontal eye field (FEFsem). We hypothesized that the pursuit system would show less contribution from the volitional pathway in this task, owing to the increased involvement of the reflexive pathway. In accordance with this hypothesis, a majority of FEFsem neurons (63%) were less active during pursuit maintenance in a combined volitional and reflexive pursuit task than during purely volitional pursuit. Interestingly and surprisingly, the neuronal response to the addition of the large-field motion was highly correlated with the neuronal response to a target blink. This suggests that FEFsem neuronal responses to these different perturbations-whether the addition or subtraction of retinal input-may be related. We conjecture that these findings are due to changing weights of both the volitional and reflexive pathways, as well as retinal and extraretinal signals.

  2. Automated data reduction workflows for astronomy. The ESO Reflex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudling, W.; Romaniello, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Ballester, P.; Forchi, V.; García-Dabló, C. E.; Moehler, S.; Neeser, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Data from complex modern astronomical instruments often consist of a large number of different science and calibration files, and their reduction requires a variety of software tools. The execution chain of the tools represents a complex workflow that needs to be tuned and supervised, often by individual researchers that are not necessarily experts for any specific instrument. Aims: The efficiency of data reduction can be improved by using automatic workflows to organise data and execute a sequence of data reduction steps. To realize such efficiency gains, we designed a system that allows intuitive representation, execution and modification of the data reduction workflow, and has facilities for inspection and interaction with the data. Methods: The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has developed Reflex, an environment to automate data reduction workflows. Reflex is implemented as a package of customized components for the Kepler workflow engine. Kepler provides the graphical user interface to create an executable flowchart-like representation of the data reduction process. Key features of Reflex are a rule-based data organiser, infrastructure to re-use results, thorough book-keeping, data progeny tracking, interactive user interfaces, and a novel concept to exploit information created during data organisation for the workflow execution. Results: Automated workflows can greatly increase the efficiency of astronomical data reduction. In Reflex, workflows can be run non-interactively as a first step. Subsequent optimization can then be carried out while transparently re-using all unchanged intermediate products. We found that such workflows enable the reduction of complex data by non-expert users and minimizes mistakes due to book-keeping errors. Conclusions: Reflex includes novel concepts to increase the efficiency of astronomical data processing. While Reflex is a specific implementation of astronomical scientific workflows within the Kepler workflow

  3. Child–Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children’s Musical Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children’s musical improvisation is investigated through the “reflexive interaction” paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a “reflexive” output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6–7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children’s abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children’s ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational

  4. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  5. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  6. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  7. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  8. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  9. The dynamics of fear: The defense cascade - La dinámica del miedo: la cascada defensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of defense reactions has become in the last years one of the most relevant ways to advance knowledge on the psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of fear and anxiety. The antecedents of these studies are rooted in the work of Pavlov on the unconditioned reflexes of orienting and defense and on the work of Cannon on the fight or flight response, giving rise to two different approaches to defense: the attentional and the motivational. These two approaches have been difficult to reconcile in the past. However, in the last years new data have been accumulated on defense reactions which are facilitating the integration of both traditions. Part of these data refers to the cardiac defense response. Recent research in this area has shown that cardiac defense is a complex pattern of heart rate changes with two accelerative/decelerative sequential components, with both sympathetic and parasympathetic physiological mediation, and with both attentional and motivational significance. In this context, an attentional-motivational model of cardiac defense has been proposed. The model postulates an attentional defense phase –analogous to the freezing response- associated with the first acceleration/deceleration and a motivational defense phase –analogous to the fight/flight response- associated with the second acceleration/deceleration.

  10. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  11. Post-activation depression of soleus stretch reflexes in healthy and spastic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Klinge, Klaus; Crone, Clarissa

    2007-01-01

    Reduced depression of transmitter release from Ia afferents following previous activation (post-activation depression) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity. However, the effect of this mechanism on the myotatic reflex and its possible contribution to increased...... reflex excitability in spastic participants has not been tested. To investigate these effects, we examined post-activation depression in Soleus H-reflex responses and in mechanically evoked Soleus stretch reflex responses. Stretch reflex responses were evoked with consecutive dorsiflexion perturbations...... of the soleus stretch reflex and H-reflex decreased as the interval between the stimulus/perturbation was decreased. Similarly, the stretch-evoked torque decreased. In the spastic participants, the post-activation depression of both reflexes and the stretch-evoked torque was significantly smaller than...

  12. Department of Defense Agency Financial Report. Fiscal Year 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Fiscal Year (FY) 2007 Agency Financial Report (AFR) provides the President, the Congress, other Federal departments and agencies, and the American public an overview of the Department's financial condition...

  13. Defense Trade: Data Collection and Coordination on Offsets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... on the U.S. economy and national security. Defense offsets are the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that firms provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services...

  14. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... Over several decades, great disparities in the funding of defense research and technology by NATO members has produced a widening technological gap that threatens to become a divergence a condition...

  15. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to the metaboreceptor component of the exercise pressor reflex

    OpenAIRE

    McCord, Jennifer L.; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2009-01-01

    The exercise pressor reflex is evoked by both mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscle. Recently, the blockade of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) with amiloride and A-316567 attenuated the reflex. Moreover, amiloride had no effect on the mechanoreceptor component of the reflex, prompting us to determine whether ASICs contributed to the metaboreceptor component of the exercise pressor reflex. The metaboreceptor component can be assessed by measuring mean arteri...

  16. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  17. Teaching Reflexivity: Undoing or Reinscribing Habits of Gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach used in a course designed to teach reflexivity as a research skill and explores what kind of gender intervention such teaching might constitute. Although inspired by feminist debates about the complex power dynamics of research relationships, the course in question does not focus specifically on gender issues.…

  18. Caught in Uncertain Futures, Now: A Reflexive Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reynaldo, III

    2016-01-01

    This reflexive vignette reveals the emotional risks of ethnographic work by a Chicano researcher, educator, and advocate doing work in the Texas-Mexico Borderlands, caught at the intersection of vulnerable Latina/o youth and their possible futures. Data in this creative piece are derived from field notes of one classroom observation from an…

  19. Spasm of the near reflex associated with head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher; Sachdev, Arun; Gottlob, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of the near reflex is characterized by intermittent miosis, convergence spasm and pseudomyopia with blurred vision at distance. Usually, it is a functional disorder in young patients with underlying emotional problems. Only rarely is it caused by organic disorder. We report a patient who developed convergent spasm associated with miosis after head trauma at the age of 84 years.

  20. Polyphony in the Classroom: Reporting Narrative Action Research Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Reetta; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Kannas, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    In this article we will present a reflexive way of producing a narrative analysis on teaching and learning that involves all participants of the pedagogical process. Our theoretical contribution rests on the concept "lived pedagogy", adapted from Max van Manen's term "lived experience". Like van Manen, we start by asking the…

  1. Vestibulo-ocular reflex and the head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana T. Maranhão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlights the importance of the vestibulo-ocular reflex examination through the head impulse test as a diagnostic method for vestibular dysfunction as well as, and primarily, a bedside semiotic resource capable of differentiating between acute peripheral vestibulopathy and a cerebellar or brainstem infarction in emergency rooms.

  2. Team performance in the Italian NHS: the role of reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbini, Flavio; Callea, Antonino; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ingusci, Emanuela; Ciavolino, Enrico

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the goodness of the input-process-output (IPO) model in order to evaluate work team performance within the Italian National Health Care System (NHS); and second, to test the mediating role of reflexivity as an overarching process factor between input and output. Design/methodology/approach The Italian version of the Aston Team Performance Inventory was administered to 351 employees working in teams in the Italian NHS. Mediation analyses with latent variables were performed via structural equation modeling (SEM); the significance of total, direct, and indirect effect was tested via bootstrapping. Findings Underpinned by the IPO framework, the results of SEM supported mediational hypotheses. First, the application of the IPO model in the Italian NHS showed adequate fit indices, showing that the process mediates the relationship between input and output factors. Second, reflexivity mediated the relationship between input and output, influencing some aspects of team performance. Practical implications The results provide useful information for HRM policies improving process dimensions of the IPO model via the mediating role of reflexivity as a key role in team performance. Originality/value This study is one of a limited number of studies that applied the IPO model in the Italian NHS. Moreover, no study has yet examined the role of reflexivity as a mediator between input and output factors in the IPO model.

  3. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  4. Soleus H-reflex excitability during pedaling post-stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Brown, David A.; Lewis, Gwyn N.

    2008-01-01

    A major contributor to impaired locomotion post-stroke is abnormal phasing of paretic muscle activity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have shown that, in the paretic limb of people post-stroke, Group Ia reflexes are abnormally elevated and fail to decrease in amplitude during...

  5. Approaching Reflexivity through Reflection: Issues for Critical Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article seeks to develop insights for teaching reflexivity in undergraduate management classes through developing processes of critical reflection. Theoretical inferences to support this aim are developed and organized in relation to four principles. They are as follows: first, preparing and making space for reflection in the…

  6. Pure nuclear reflexes and combined hyperfine interactions in YIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, H; Eisberg, R; Alp, E; Rueffer, R; Gerdau, E; Lauer, S; Trautwein, A X; Grodzicki, M; Vera, A

    1983-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of oriented YIG single crystals were taken and the numerical analysis using the transmission integral yielded a consistent set of hyperfine interaction parameters. They are in good agreement with theoretical values obtained by MO-calculations which included clusters up to 62 ions. Finally pure nuclear reflexes are predicted for single crystals and two theoretical spectra are given.

  7. Reconceptualizing reflexivity and dissonance in professional and personal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ann

    2008-09-01

    Debates around 'reflexivity' and the construction of the gendered self within late modernity have occupied the attention of both 'reflexive modernization' theorists (Beck, Giddens and Lash 1994; Beck and Beck-Gernsheim 1996; Giddens 1991, 1992) as well as gender and feminist theorists. While theorists such as Beck and Giddens have been preoccupied with establishing the connection between reflexivity and the construction of the 'non-gendered' self, gender and feminist theorists have sought to amplify the debate by exploring the intersecting nexus of contemporary theorizing, more fully within this context. This paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of these debates and their application to specific professional and personal domains. I consider three case studies to assess these issues as outlined in my own work, Brooks 2006, and in the work of Wajcman and Martin 2002, and McDowell 1997, which draw on empirical research and explore changes to gender identity within professional and personal domains. I conclude that there is little evidence in the research presented here of any systematic reconfiguring of gender identities leading to a detraditionalization of gender as suggested by the 'reflexive modernization' theorists.

  8. Neural reflex pathways in intestinal inflammation: hypotheses to viable therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemze, Rose A.; Luyer, Misha D.; Buurman, Wim A.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in neuroscience and immunology have clarified much of the anatomical and cellular basis for bidirectional interactions between the nervous and immune systems. As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes.

  9. PhD Students, Interculturality, Reflexivity, Community and Internationalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interviews with a small group of doctoral students at a British university indicate that the students feel that the programme provides an environment within which they develop interculturality through reflexive engagement with the PhD community and in some cases with the participants in their research. Significant here is that they are…

  10. A reflexing electron microwave amplifier for rf particle accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rf-accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave power sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing-electron class of sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and has demonstrated operation from 800-MHz to 40-GHz. The pulse length appears to be limited by diode closure, and reflexing-electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. A design is presented for a reflexing electron microwave amplifier that is frequency and phase locked. In this design, the generated microwave power can be efficiently coupled to one or several accelerator loads. Frequency and phase-locking capability may permit parallel-source operation for higher power. The low-frequency (500-MHz to 10-GHz) operation at very high power required by present and proposed microwave particle accelerators makes an amplifier, based on reflexing electron phenomena, a candidate for the development of new accelerator power sources. (author)

  11. Supporting relationships in reflexive movements in leadership and organisational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ann Rubens

    , and the actions in these relationships have profound and long-lasting effects above and beyond the immediate context, i.e., the organisation. I am offering a systemic social constructionist perspective on reflexivity in leadership and organisational research, bringing forth a way of creating connections...

  12. THE CONCEPT OF REFLEXIVE MANAGEMENT OF CONSUMER DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Mavrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of theoretical approaches of demand management is conducted from the moment of awareness of the importance of this concept. Many models of individual consumers were developed. However, to predict the reaction of consumers to the commercial policy of the enterprise, exact methods do not exist yet because the available ones are mostly empirical in nature. Models of behaviour often do not provide the expected result because they use an erroneous approach to the analysis of the mechanism of demand formation. The subject of the research is the theoretical and methodological basis, methods of assessment, and reflexive management of consumer demand of commercial enterprises. The purpose of the paper is developing a concept of reflexive management of consumer demand. To achieve the research goal, the following tasks are set and solved: to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations of reflexive consumer management, to analyse existing approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour; to improve the model of consumer behaviour; to develop a concept of reflexive management of consumer behaviour. Methodology. In the paper, we use such methods and approaches to research as: reflexive approach (phenomenological method, behavioural economic theory, marketing approach, abstract-logical analysis, analysis of theoretical approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour. Results. Modern approaches to modelling of consumer behaviour are mostly empirical in nature and have shortcomings of general models. In them, there is no description of specific situations of the purchase of goods. They cannot be quantified. Therefore, they cannot be practical models. But they have a weighty advantage in a comprehensive look at motivated purchases, what makes it possible to evaluate the relevance of individual variables and to understand the fundamental processes of consumer behaviour. It makes possible to identify the variables necessary for the

  13. Isometric and Dynamic Control of Neck Muscles : Reflexive contributions and muscle synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes the head using reflexive feedback and cocontraction. The major reflexive pathways in the neck are through muscle spindles generating the cervicocollic reflex (CCR) and through the vestibular organ generating the vestibulocollic

  14. Affective Modulation of the Startle Eyeblink and Postauricular Reflexes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Benning, Stephen D.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Eyeblink and postauricular reflexes to standardized affective images were examined in individuals without (n = 37) and with (n = 20) autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affective reflex modulation in control participants replicated previous findings. The ASD group, however, showed anomalous reflex modulation patterns, despite similar self-report…

  15. A task dependent change in the medium latency component of the soleus stretch reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Larsen, Birgit; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In comparison to the H-reflex, the task dependency of the human stretch reflex during locomotive and postural tasks has not received a great deal of attention in the literature. The few studies on reflex task dependency that have been performed to date have concentrated on either the group Ia...

  16. Effects of internal and external factors on the budgeting between defensive and non-defensive responses in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leod, Kaitlyn A Mac; Seas, Alexandra; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2018-04-25

    Following exposure to aversive stimuli, organisms budget their behaviors by augmenting defensive responses and reducing/suppressing non-defensive behaviors. This budgeting process must be flexible to accommodate modifications in the animal's internal and/or external state that require the normal balance between defensive and non-defensive behaviors to be adjusted. When exposed to aversive stimuli, the mollusk Aplysia budgets its behaviors by concurrently enhancing defensive withdrawal reflexes (an elementary form of learning known as sensitization) and suppressing feeding. Sensitization and feeding suppression are consistently co-expressed following different training protocols and share common temporal domains, suggesting that they are interlocked. In this study, we attempted to uncouple the co-expression of sensitization and feeding suppression using: 1) manipulation of the animal's motivational state through prolonged food deprivation and 2) extended training with aversive stimuli that induces sensitization lasting for weeks. Both manipulations uncoupled the co-expression of the above behavioral changes. Prolonged food deprivation prevented the expression of sensitization, but not of feeding suppression. Following the extended training, sensitization and feeding suppression were co-expressed only for a limited time (i.e., 24 h), after which feeding returned to baseline levels as sensitization persisted for up to seven days. These findings indicate that sensitization and feeding suppression are not interlocked and that their co-expression can be uncoupled by internal (prolonged food deprivation) and external (extended aversive training) factors. The different strategies, by which the co-expression of sensitization and feeding suppression was altered, provide an example of how budgeting strategies triggered by an identical aversive experience can vary depending on the state of the organism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Delayed latency of peroneal reflex to sudden inversion with ankle taping or bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, N; Maeda, A; Hirohashi, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle taping and bracing based on the peroneal reflex in the hypermobile and normal ankle joints with and without history of ankle injury. Thirty-six ankle joints of 18 collegiate American football athletes with and without previous history of injury were studied. The angle of talar tilt (TT) was measured by stress radiograph for classifying normal (TT5 degrees ) ankles. They were tested with taping, bracing, and without any supports as a control. The latency of peroneus longus muscle was measured by a sudden inversion of 25 degrees using surface EMG signals. The results of the present study show no significant three-way Group (hypermobile or normal ankles) by History (previously injured or uninjured ankles) by Condition (control, taping, or bracing) interaction, while Condition main effect was significant (p0.05). In conclusion, ankle taping and bracing delayed the peroneal reflex latency not only for hypermobile ankles and/or injured ankle joints but also for intact ankle joints.

  19. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  20. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  1. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  2. Anxiety and Depression Symptom Dimensions Demonstrate Unique Relationships with the Startle Reflex in Anticipation of Unpredictable Threat in 8 to 14 Year-Old Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-02-01

    There is growing evidence that heightened sensitivity to unpredictability is a core mechanism of anxiety disorders. In adults, multiple anxiety disorders have been associated with a heightened startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat. Child and adolescent anxiety has been linked to an increased startle reflex across baseline, safety, and threat conditions. However, it is unclear whether anxiety in youth is related to the startle reflex as a function of threat predictability. In a sample of 90 8 to 14 year-old girls, the present study examined the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and startle potentiation during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task. Depression symptom dimensions were also examined given their high comorbidity with anxiety and mixed relationship with the startle reflex and sensitivity to unpredictability. To assess current symptoms, participants completed the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and Children's Depression Inventory. Results indicated that social phobia symptoms were associated with heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat and attenuated startle potentiation in anticipation of predictable threat. Negative mood and negative self-esteem symptoms were associated with attenuated and heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat, respectively. All results remained significant after controlling for the other symptom dimensions. The present study provides initial evidence that anxiety and depression symptom dimensions demonstrate unique associations with the startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat in children and adolescents.

  3. Anxiety and Depression Symptom Dimensions Demonstrate Unique Relationships with the Startle Reflex in Anticipation of Unpredictable Threat in 8 to 14 Year-Old Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D.; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that heightened sensitivity to unpredictability is a core mechanism of anxiety disorders. In adults, multiple anxiety disorders have been associated with a heightened startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat. Child and adolescent anxiety has been linked to an increased startle reflex across baseline, safety, and threat conditions. However, it is unclear whether anxiety in youth is related to the startle reflex as a function of threat predictability. In a sample of 90 8 to 14 year-old girls, the present study examined the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and startle potentiation during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task. Depression symptom dimensions were also examined given their high comorbidity with anxiety and mixed relationship with the startle reflex and sensitivity to unpredictability. To assess current symptoms, participants completed the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and Children’s Depression Inventory. Results indicated that social phobia symptoms were associated with heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat and attenuated startle potentiation in anticipation of predictable threat. Negative mood and negative self-esteem symptoms were associated with attenuated and heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat, respectively. All results remained significant after controlling for the other symptom dimensions. The present study provides initial evidence that anxiety and depression symptom dimensions demonstrate unique associations with the startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat in children and adolescents. PMID:27224989

  4. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  5. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  6. O conceito de reflexão de Hegel como crítica aos conceitos de essência e de reflexão tradicionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Iber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo ilumina o específico do conceito de reflexão de Hegel em cinco momentos. Em um primeiro momento, delineia-se um esboço do conceito de reflexão na lógica da essência de Hegel. Em um segundo momento, o conceito de reflexão de Hegel é apresentado como estrutura lógica objetiva em contraste com a reflexão subjetiva da consciência e do entendimento, com a qual, ao mesmo tempo, o conceito de essência ontológica independente da reflexão é submetido a uma crítica. Do novo conceito de reflexão de Hegel resulta, em terceiro lugar, uma adaptação radical do círculo vicioso na teoria tradicional da reflexão da autoconsciência. Num quarto momento, lança-se um olhar sobre o conceito de reflexão anterior de Hegel como pensar do entendimento que separa, do qual o conceito de reflexão posterior se distingue. Por fim, apresenta-se, em quinto lugar, a lógica da reflexão de Hegel como crítica à fundação ontológica da reflexão em Schelling. O conceito de reflexão de Hegel se mostra, com isto, como crítica da metafísica ontológica tradicional e como fundação de uma metafísica da relacionalidade absoluta que supera a relatividade do pensar moderno do entendimento.

  7. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  8. Study of high frequency instabilities on a cold cathode reflex discharge; Contribution a l'etude des instabilites a haute frequence dans la decharge reflex a cathodes froides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    The cold cathode reflex discharge develops a cathode sheath of several hundreds of volts, which accelerates electrons released from the cathode to high velocities along the lines of the axial magnetic field. On the studied pressure range (4.10{sup -4} torr < p < 2.10{sup -2} torr) the plasma density is about 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Under certain conditions high frequency (1 5000 MHz) instabilities appear. These instabilities are found to profoundly modify the mean characteristics of the discharge. In particular, particle flow across the lines of magnetic field is found to be considerably greater than that predicted by classical diffusion theory. Theoretical considerations are presented with complementary experimental results. They show that the high frequency instabilities are a result of the fast electronic assembly accelerated through the cathode sheath. (author) [French] Dans certaines conditions, qui sont precisees, des instabilites a haute frequence (1 5000 MHz) se developpent dans la decharge reflex a cathodes froides. Lorsque le plasma (n {approx_equal}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) est instable, les caracteristiques moyennes de la decharge sont profondement alterees. Les fuites de particules a travers les lignes de forces du champ magnetique statique applique deviennent en particulier trop importantes pour que le seul effet classique des collisions binaires puisse les expliquer. L'ionisation du gaz est assuree par une assemblee electronique qui acquiert dans les gaines cathodiques ({approx_equal} 500 volts) une vitesse, parallele au champ magnetique, importante. La discussion de resultats theoriques et une experience complementaire montrent que cette population d'electrons rapides, tres distincte de celle des electrons lents du plasma pour les pressions les plus faibles du domaine etudie (4.10{sup -4} torr < p < 2.10{sup -2} torr), est responsable des instabilites a haute frequence observees. (auteur)

  9. A new hypothesis of cause of syncope: trigeminocardiac reflex during extraction of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Arali, Veena

    2010-02-01

    Transient Loss Of Consciousness (TLOC) or vasovagal syncope is well known phenomenon in dental/maxillofacial surgery. Despite considerable study of vasovagal syncope, its pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated. After having encountered a case of trigeminocardiac reflex after extraction of maxillary first molar we observed and studied 400 extractions under local anesthesia to know the relation between trigeminocardiac reflex and syncope. We make hypothesis that trigeminocardiac reflex which is usually seen under general anesthesia when all sympathetic reflexes are blunted can also occur under local anesthesia during extractions of maxillary molars (dento-cardiac reflex) and mediate syncope.

  10. The {P,Q,k+1}-Reflexive Solution to System of Matrix Equations AX=C, XB=D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zhou Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Let P∈Cm×m and Q∈Cn×n be Hermitian and {k+1}-potent matrices; that is, Pk+1=P=P⁎ and Qk+1=Q=Q⁎, where ·⁎ stands for the conjugate transpose of a matrix. A matrix X∈Cm×n is called {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive (antireflexive if PXQ=X (PXQ=-X. In this paper, the system of matrix equations AX=C and XB=D subject to {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive and antireflexive constraints is studied by converting into two simpler cases: k=1 and k=2. We give the solvability conditions and the general solution to this system; in addition, the least squares solution is derived; finally, the associated optimal approximation problem for a given matrix is considered.

  11. A reevaluation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex: new ideas of its purpose, properties, neural substrate, and disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, R. J.; Brandt, T.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional views of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have emphasized testing with caloric stimuli and by passively rotating patients at low frequencies in a chair. The properties of the VOR tested under these conditions differ from the performance of this reflex during the natural function for which it evolved--locomotion. Only the VOR (and not visually mediated eye movements) can cope with the high-frequency angular and linear perturbations of the head that occur during locomotion; this is achieved by generating eye movements at short latency (disorders that disrupt the VOR cause not just only nystagmus, but also instability of posture (eg, increased fore-aft sway in patients with downbeat nystagmus) and disturbance of spatial orientation (eg, tilt of the subjective visual vertical in Wallenberg's syndrome).

  12. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  13. Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Bromantan (N-[2-adamantil]-N-[para-bromphenyl]amine) is an "actoprotective" drug widely used in Russia as a muscle performance-enhancing agent for sportsmen and as an immunostimulator in medicine. Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. Sexually mature female rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given bromantan at doses of 30 mg/kg (30-mg/kg group), 150 mg/kg (150-mg/kg group) and 600 mg/kg (600-mg/kg group) daily for 16 days, while the controls received the vehicle, amylaceous solution. Afterwards, treated females were mated with untreated males. The body weight change of the pregnant rats was monitored, as well as the length of gestation, litter size, sex ratio and number of stillborn. The offsprings were weighed and observed for external malformations, abnormalities of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes and open-field behaviour. Observation of rat dams revealed that their general state and activity in all groups did not differ significantly both during and after bromantan treatment. Bromantan had no adverse effects on body weight and gestation length of dams. Number of dams delivered per group did not differ from controls. There were stillborn rat pups in all litters, but the control group had less. One dam in the first group delivered a rat pup with a head hematoma. Litter size of the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups was decreased (by 34.9% and 44.2%, respectively) and increased in the 150-mg/kg group (by 45.1%, POpen-field testing (PND 40) resulted in an insignificant decrease of exploratory and locomotor behaviors for the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups. The number of grooming episodes was insignificantly decreased for the 30-mg/kg group and insignificantly increased for the 600-mg/kg group. In the passive avoidance testing, on the retention day (72 h later), entry latency for rat pups in the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups increased by 259.0%, 175.3% and 160

  14. Facilitation of Hoffmann reflexes of ankle muscles in prone but not standing positions by focal ankle-joint cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Hertel, Jay

    2015-05-01

    Focal ankle-joint cooling (FAJC) has been shown to increase Hoffmann (H) reflex amplitudes of select leg muscles while subjects lie prone, but it is unknown whether the neurophysiological cooling effects persist in standing. To assess the effects of FAJC on H-reflexes of the soleus and fibularis longus during 3 body positions (prone, bipedal, and unipedal stances) in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Crossover. Laboratory. 15 young adults with CAI (9 male, 6 female) and 15 healthy controls. All subjects received both FAJC and sham treatments on separate days in a randomized order. FAJC was accomplished by applying a 1.5-L plastic bag filled with crushed ice to the ankle for 20 min. Sham treatment involved room-temperature candy corn. Maximum amplitudes of H-reflexes and motor (M) waves were recorded while subjects lay prone and then stood in quiet bipedal and unipedal stances before and immediately after each treatment. Primary outcome measures were H(max):M(max) ratios for the soleus and fibularis longus. Three-factor (group × treatment condition × time) repeated-measures ANOVAs and Fisher LSD tests were performed for statistical analyses. Significant interactions of treatment condition by time for prone H(max):M(max) ratios were found in the soleus (P = .001) and fibularis longus (P = .003). In both muscles, prone H(max):M(max) ratios moderately increased after FAJC but not after sham treatment. The CAI and healthy groups responded similarly to FAJC. In contrast, there were no significant interactions or main effects in the bipedal and unipedal stances in either muscle (P > .05). FAJC moderately increased H-reflex amplitudes of the soleus and fibularis longus while subjects were prone but not during bipedal or unipedal standing. These results were not different between groups with and without CAI.

  15. The Closing of Critique, Pluralism and Reflexivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    addresses wider concerns regarding the politics of research and publishing and the conditions of critique at the present time. The pressure and eagerness to get published lead to strong subspecialization and an inclination to build research approaches within which authors are inclined to reproduce shared...... assumptions and be unwelcome to critical explorations. The article points to the risk of assumption-challenging work being marginalized through the anticipation of critique leading to hostile reactions and specialized, politically motivated reviewers blocking the publication of far-reaching critique....

  16. Neuroinflammatory contributions to pain after SCI: roles for central glial mechanisms and nociceptor-mediated host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Edgar T

    2014-08-01

    Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, often intractable, and can be severely debilitating. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for this pain, which are discussed briefly, along with methods for revealing SCI pain in animal models, such as the recently applied conditioned place preference test. During the last decade, studies of animal models have shown that both central neuroinflammation and behavioral hypersensitivity (indirect reflex measures of pain) persist chronically after SCI. Interventions that reduce neuroinflammation have been found to ameliorate pain-related behavior, such as treatment with agents that inhibit the activation states of microglia and/or astroglia (including IL-10, minocycline, etanercept, propentofylline, ibudilast, licofelone, SP600125, carbenoxolone). Reversal of pain-related behavior has also been shown with disruption by an inhibitor (CR8) and/or genetic deletion of cell cycle-related proteins, deletion of a truncated receptor (trkB.T1) for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or reduction by antisense knockdown or an inhibitor (AMG9810) of the activity of channels (TRPV1 or Nav1.8) important for electrical activity in primary nociceptors. Nociceptor activity is known to drive central neuroinflammation in peripheral injury models, and nociceptors appear to be an integral component of host defense. Thus, emerging results suggest that spinal and systemic effects of SCI can activate nociceptor-mediated host defense responses that interact via neuroinflammatory signaling with complex central consequences of SCI to drive chronic pain. This broader view of SCI-induced neuroinflammation suggests new targets, and additional complications, for efforts to develop effective treatments for neuropathic SCI pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Triceps surae short latency stretch reflexes contribute to ankle stiffness regulation during human running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Cronin

    Full Text Available During human running, short latency stretch reflexes (SLRs are elicited in the triceps surae muscles, but the function of these responses is still a matter of controversy. As the SLR is primarily mediated by Ia afferent nerve fibres, various methods have been used to examine SLR function by selectively blocking the Ia pathway in seated, standing and walking paradigms, but stretch reflex function has not been examined in detail during running. The purpose of this study was to examine triceps surae SLR function at different running speeds using Achilles tendon vibration to modify SLR size. Ten healthy participants ran on an instrumented treadmill at speeds between 7 and 15 km/h under 2 Achilles tendon vibration conditions: no vibration and 90 Hz vibration. Surface EMG from the triceps surae and tibialis anterior muscles, and 3D lower limb kinematics and ground reaction forces were simultaneously collected. In response to vibration, the SLR was depressed in the triceps surae muscles at all speeds. This coincided with short-lasting yielding at the ankle joint at speeds between 7 and 12 km/h, suggesting that the SLR contributes to muscle stiffness regulation by minimising ankle yielding during the early contact phase of running. Furthermore, at the fastest speed of 15 km/h, the SLR was still depressed by vibration in all muscles but yielding was no longer evident. This finding suggests that the SLR has greater functional importance at slow to intermediate running speeds than at faster speeds.

  19. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  20. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  1. Teacher education and the challenges of the reflexive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Peres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the importance of teacher practice and their initial and continuing education in the light of the challenges offered by the critical reflexive proposal. The aims of this study were to investigate the underlying assumptions regarding teachers’ current education and practice, to research and analyze the major difficulties found in the development of teaching practice, to comprehend and analyze the complexity inherent to the teacher’s performance in the initial years of elementary school. A bibliographic research and a qualitative research with elementary school teachers were therefore developed. The results indicate that although teachers believe the learning process to be continuous, they do not invest in this type of education. Furthermore it was found that teachers’ critical reflexive attitudes are blended with eproductivist attitudes.

  2. Correlation of gastroesophageal reflex with aspiration pneumonia after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Tokuji; Hashimoto, Hajime; Noro, Toshio; Takahashi, Tadao; Hino, Yasunori; Kuroiwa, Kouzirou

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the correlation of gastroesophageal reflex (GER) with aspiration pneumonia after surgery, 48 patients (mean, 75.6 years) with gastric cancer treated at the hospital from March, 1994 to December, 1994 were subjected to this prospective study. The pharyngeal stimulation test, nutritional assessment, radionuclide esophageal scintigraphy (34 cases) were performed before surgery and relationship between those results and aspiration pneumonia were studied. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in 3 cases, and all of them were in, significantly, poor nutritional status, compared with other. A significant increase in the frequency of GER was observed when a naso-gastric tube (NGT) was placed, but surprisingly, all the patients with aspiration pneumonia were 3 out of 4 patients who had continuous GER without NGT. It is noteworthy, continuous GER without NGT was significantly (p<0.001) affected postoperative aspiration pneumonia and impaired phalyngeal reflex was frequently correlated with development of aspiration pneumonia, when malnutritional status existed. (author)

  3. [Spasm of the near reflex. Treatment with botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Rojas, P; Gómez de Liaño, P; Franco Iglesias, G

    2015-05-01

    A 38-year old female with diplopia and esotropia, with limitation of ocular abduction in both eyes, with full abduction after doll's head rotation also being observed. She was diagnosed with spasm of the near reflex. Treatment with injections of botulinum toxin in both medial rectus has temporally resolved the convergence spasm. Near reflex spasm is characterized as miosis, pseudomyopia, and convergent strabismus that lead to diplopia, blurred vision, headache, and variable, progressive, and intermittent esotropia. As the spasm worsens there will be limited ocular versions and ductions simulating a sixth nerve palsy. Botulinum toxin may be effective in some cases. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Explicating Positionality: A Journey of Dialogical and Reflexive Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Carter MN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers must be aware of and explicit about their social background as well as political and ideological assumptions. To facilitate this awareness, we believe that researchers need to begin with their own story as they seek to understand the stories of others. Taking into account the vulnerable act of storytelling, it is salient to consider how to share personal narratives in an authentic way within academic settings. In this article, we share our process and reflections of engaging in reflexive and dialogical storytelling. The focus of the article is the re-storying of one researcher's experience as she and her research team explore her emotions and positionality prior to conducting research on First Nations men's narratives of identity. We integrate a series of methodological lessons concerning reflexivity throughout the re-storying.

  5. Creating safety by strengthening clinicians' capacity for reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This commentary explores the nature of creating safety in the here-and-now. Creating safety encompasses two dimensions: revisiting specific behaviours by focusing on substandard performance (reflection), and a more broad-ranging attention to everyday behaviours that are taken as given (reflexivity). The piece pays particular attention to this second dimension of creating safety. Two techniques that promote reflexivity are discussed: video-filming real-time, everyday clinical practice and inviting clinicians' feedback about their own footage, and reflecting on the knowledge and questions that patients and families have about their care, and about unexpected outcomes and clinical incidents. The piece concludes that feedback about everyday practice using these methods is critical to enhancing the safety of everyday activity. PMID:21450780

  6. Review Essay: Grenzgänger Seeks Reflexive Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflexive Methodology reviews major strands of current thought in epistemology, philosophy, social science, and interpretive methods. The book falls short in that it neither does a thorough job reviewing the literature nor does it provide method-related advice useful to students. Grenzgängerin constitutes a collection of essays on a broad range of topics, but which are only loosely connected if at all. Drawing on DERRIDA and the notion of a historical science of the historical subject, I attempt to practice method, something I missed in both texts. I make explicit the historical nature of my own writing and the historical nature of my subject. I make explicit intertextuality and in the process practice reflexivity in the particular way I am writing. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020328

  7. Cortical tremor: a variant of cortical reflex myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, A; Kakigi, R; Funai, N; Neshige, R; Kuroda, Y; Shibasaki, H

    1990-10-01

    Two patients with action tremor that was thought to originate in the cerebral cortex showed fine shivering-like finger twitching provoked mainly by action and posture. Surface EMG showed relatively rhythmic discharge at a rate of about 9 Hz, which resembled essential tremor. However, electrophysiologic studies revealed giant somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) with enhanced long-loop reflex and premovement cortical spike by the jerk-locked averaging method. Treatment with beta-blocker showed no effect, but anticonvulsants such as clonazepam, valproate, and primidone were effective to suppress the tremor and the amplitude of SEPs. We call this involuntary movement "cortical tremor," which is in fact a variant of cortical reflex myoclonus.

  8. Comparison of cough reflex test against instrumental assessment of aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna; Moore, Sara; McFarlane, Mary; Lee, Fiona; Allen, Jacqueline; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2013-06-13

    Silent aspiration is associated with pneumonia and mortality, and is poorly identified by traditional clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE). The aim of this study was to validate cough reflex testing (CRT) for identification of silent aspiration against aspiration confirmed by instrumental assessment. Cough reflex threshold testing was completed on all patients using inhaled, nebulised citric acid. Within an hour, 80 patients underwent videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) and 101 patients underwent fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). All tests were recorded and analysed by two researchers blinded to the result of the alternate test. Significant associations between CRT result and cough response to aspiration on VFSS (X(2) (2)=11.046, p=.003) and FEES (X(2) (2)=34.079, pacid provide a better predictive measure of silent aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  10. ESO Reflex: A Graphical Workflow Engine for Data Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, R.; Romaniello, M.; Péron, M.; Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Izzo, C.; Ullgrén, M.; Maisala, S.; Oittinen, T.; Solin, O.; Savolainen, V.; Järveläinen, P.; Tyynelä, J.

    2008-08-01

    Sampo {http://www.eso.org/sampo} (Hook et al. 2005) is a project led by ESO and conducted by a software development team from Finland as an in-kind contribution to joining ESO. The goal is to assess the needs of the ESO community in the area of data reduction environments and to create pilot software products that illustrate critical steps along the road to a new system. Those prototypes will not only be used to validate concepts and understand requirements but will also be tools of immediate value for the community. Most of the raw data produced by ESO instruments can be reduced using CPL {http://www.eso.org/cpl} recipes: compiled C programs following an ESO standard and utilizing routines provided by the Common Pipeline Library. Currently reduction recipes are run in batch mode as part of the data flow system to generate the input to the ESO VLT/VLTI quality control process and are also made public for external users. Sampo has developed a prototype application called ESO Reflex {http://www.eso.org/sampo/reflex/} that integrates a graphical user interface and existing data reduction algorithms. ESO Reflex can invoke CPL-based recipes in a flexible way through a dedicated interface. ESO Reflex is based on the graphical workflow engine Taverna {http://taverna.sourceforge.net} that was originally developed by the UK eScience community, mostly for work in the life sciences. Workflows have been created so far for three VLT/VLTI instrument modes ( VIMOS/IFU {http://www.eso.org/instruments/vimos/}, FORS spectroscopy {http://www.eso.org/instruments/fors/} and AMBER {http://www.eso.org/instruments/amber/}), and the easy-to-use GUI allows the user to make changes to these or create workflows of their own. Python scripts and IDL procedures can be easily brought into workflows and a variety of visualisation and display options, including custom product inspection and validation steps, are available.

  11. Peripheral δ-opioid receptors attenuate the exercise pressor reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Anna K; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kim, Joyce; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2013-10-15

    In rats with ligated femoral arteries, the exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated, an effect that is attenuated by stimulation of peripheral μ-opioid receptors on group IV metabosensitive afferents. In contrast, δ-opioid receptors are expressed mostly on group III mechanosensitive afferents, a finding that prompted us to determine whether stimulation of these opioid receptors could also attenuate the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in "ligated" rats. We found femoral arterial injection of [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE; 1.0 μg), a δ-opioid agonist, significantly attenuated the pressor and cardioaccelerator components of the exercise pressor reflex evoked by hindlimb muscle contraction in both rats with ligated and patent femoral arteries. DPDPE significantly decreased the pressor responses to muscle mechanoreflex activation, evoked by tendon stretch, in ligated rats only. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect in either group on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to capsaicin (0.2 μg), which primarily stimulates group IV afferents. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to lactic acid (24 mM), which stimulates group III and IV afferents, in rats with patent femoral arteries but significantly decreased the pressor response in ligated rats. Western blots revealed the amount of protein comprising the δ-opioid receptor was greater in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with ligated femoral arteries than in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with patent femoral arteries. Our findings support the hypothesis that stimulation of δ-opioid receptors on group III afferents attenuated the exercise pressor reflex.

  12. Spinal mechanism of micturition reflex inhibition by naftopidil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2014-10-29

    We investigated the spinal mechanism through which naftopidil inhibits the micturition reflex by comparing the effects of noradrenaline and naftopidil in rats. The following were investigated: the influence of oral naftopidil on plasma monoamine and amino acid levels, the distribution of oral 14C-naftopidil, the effects of intravenous (IV) or intrathecal (IT) injection of noradrenaline or naftopidil on isovolumetric bladder contractions, amino acid levels in the lumbosacral spinal cord after IT noradrenaline or naftopidil, and the effects of IT naftopidil and strychnine and/or bicuculline on isovolumetric bladder contractions. Oral naftopidil decreased the plasma adrenaline level, while it increased the serotonin and glycine levels. After oral administration, 14C-naftopidil was detected in the spinal cord and cerebrum, as well as in plasma and the prostate gland. When the bladder volume was below the threshold for isovolumetric reflex contractions, IV (0.1mg) or IT (0.1μg) noradrenaline evoked bladder contractions, but IV (1mg) or IT (0.01-1μg) naftopidil did not. When the bladder volume was above the threshold for isovolumetric reflex contractions, IV or IT noradrenaline transiently abolished bladder contractions. IT noradrenaline decreased the levels of glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lumbosacral cord, while IT naftopidil increased the GABA level. IT strychnine and/or bicuculline blocked the inhibitory effect of IT naftopidil on bladder contractions. Naftopidil inhibits the micturition reflex by blocking α1 receptors, as well as by the activation of serotonergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  14. APOBEC3G: a Double Agent in Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Harold C.

    2011-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is an effective cellular host defense factor under experimental conditions in which a functional form of the HIV-encoded protein Vif cannot be expressed. Wild type Vif targets A3G for proteasomal degradation and along with it, any host defense advantage A3G might provide is severely diminished or lost. Recent evidence cast doubt on the potency of A3G in host defense and suggested that it could, under some circumstances, promote the emergence of more virulent HIV strains. In thi...

  15. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  16. Rapid motor learning in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Weldon, Patrick; Tang, Bingfeng; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Motor learning was induced in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) when monkeys were repeatedly subjected to a brief (0.5 sec) head translation while they tried to maintain binocular fixation on a visual target for juice rewards. If the target was world-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually increased; if the target was head-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually decreased. The rate of learning acquisition was very rapid, with a time constant of approximately 100 trials, which was equivalent to or=1 d without any reinforcement, indicating induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Although the learning generalized to targets with different viewing distances and to head translations with different accelerations, it was highly specific for the particular combination of head motion and evoked eye movement associated with the training. For example, it was specific to the modality of the stimulus (translation vs rotation) and the direction of the evoked eye movement in the training. Furthermore, when one eye was aligned with the heading direction so that it remained motionless during training, learning was not expressed in this eye, but only in the other nonaligned eye. These specificities show that the learning sites are neither in the sensory nor the motor limb of the reflex but in the sensory-motor transformation stage of the reflex. The dependence of the learning on both head motion and evoked eye movement suggests that Hebbian learning may be one of the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  17. A reflexive exploration of two qualitative data coding techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to help find meaning within qualitative data, researchers commonly start by coding their data. There are a number of coding systems available to researchers and this reflexive account explores my reflections on the use of two such techniques. As part of a larger investigation, two pilot studies were undertaken as a means to examine the relative merits of open coding and template coding for examining transcripts. This article does not describe the research project per se but attempts to step back and offer a reflexive account of the development of data coding tools. Here I reflect upon and evaluate the two data coding techniques that were piloted, and discuss how using appropriate aspects of both led to the development of my final data coding approach. My exploration found there was no clear-cut ‘best’ option but that the data coding techniques needed to be reflexively-aligned to meet the specific needs of my project. This reflection suggests that, when coding qualitative data, researchers should be methodologically thoughtful when they attempt to apply any data coding technique; that they do not assume pre-established tools are aligned to their particular paradigm; and that they consider combining and refining established techniques as a means to define their own specific codes. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v6i1.18772DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v6i1.18772

  18. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo

    2006-04-01

    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  19. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural reflex pathways in intestinal inflammation: hypotheses to viable therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemze, Rose A; Luyer, Misha D; Buurman, Wim A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-06-01

    Studies in neuroscience and immunology have clarified much of the anatomical and cellular basis for bidirectional interactions between the nervous and immune systems. As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes. Sympathetic immune modulation and reflexes are well described, and in the past decade the parasympathetic efferent vagus nerve has been added to this immune-regulation network. This system, designated 'the inflammatory reflex', comprises an afferent arm that senses inflammation and an efferent arm that inhibits innate immune responses. Intervention in this system as an innovative principle is currently being tested in pioneering trials of vagus nerve stimulation using implantable devices to treat IBD. Patients benefit from this treatment, but some of the working mechanisms remain to be established, for instance, treatment is effective despite the vagus nerve not always directly innervating the inflamed tissue. In this Review, we will focus on the direct neuronal regulatory mechanisms of immunity in the intestine, taking into account current advances regarding the innervation of the spleen and lymphoid organs, with a focus on the potential for treatment in IBD and other gastrointestinal pathologies.

  1. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  2. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  3. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  4. Acoustic Reflex Screening of Conductive Hearing Loss for Third Window Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Robert S; Metz, Christopher M; Bojrab, Dennis I; Babu, Seilesh C; Zappia, John; Sargent, Eric W; Chan, Eleanor Y; Naumann, Ilka C; LaRouere, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of acoustic reflexes in screening for third window disorders (eg, superior semicircular canal dehiscence) prior to middle ear exploration for conductive hearing loss. Case series with chart review. Outpatient tertiary otology center. A review was performed of 212 ears with acoustic reflexes, performed as part of the evaluation of conductive hearing loss in patients without evidence of chronic otitis media. The etiology of hearing loss was determined from intraoperative findings and computed tomography imaging. The relationship between acoustic reflexes and conductive hearing loss etiology was assessed. Eighty-eight percent of ears (166 of 189) demonstrating absence of all acoustic reflexes had an ossicular etiology of conductive hearing loss. Fifty-two percent of ears (12 of 23) with at least 1 detectable acoustic reflex had a nonossicular etiology. The positive and negative predictive values for an ossicular etiology were 89% and 57% when acoustic reflexes were used alone for screening, 89% and 39% when third window symptoms were used alone, and 94% and 71% when reflexes and symptoms were used together, respectively. Acoustic reflex testing is an effective means of screening for third window disorders in patients with a conductive hearing loss. Questioning for third window symptoms should complement screening. The detection of even 1 acoustic reflex or third window symptom (regardless of reflex status) should prompt further workup prior to middle ear exploration. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Correlation of augmented startle reflex with brainstem electrophysiological responses in Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sadao; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Sugai, Kenji; Iso, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the evolution of an augmented startle reflex in Tay-Sachs disease and compare the temporal relationship between this reflex and brainstem evoked potentials. Clinical and electrophysiological data from 3 patients with Tay-Sachs disease were retrospectively collected. The augmented startle reflex appeared between the age of 3 and 17 months and disappeared between the age of 4 and 6 years. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potentials revealed that poor segregation of peak I, but not peak III, coincided with the disappearance of the augmented startle reflex. A blink reflex with markedly high amplitude was observed in a patient with an augmented startle reflex. The correlation between the augmented startle reflex and the preservation of peak I but not peak III supports the theory that the superior olivary nucleus is dispensable for this reflex. The blink reflex with high amplitudes may represent augmented excitability of reticular formation at the pontine tegmentum in Tay-Sachs disease, where the pattern generators for the augmented startle and blink reflexes may functionally overlap. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of e-Cigarette Use on Cough Reflex Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dicpinigaitis, Alis J; Negassa, Abdissa

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes (e-cigs) have attained widespread popularity, yet knowledge of their physiologic effects remains minimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on cough reflex sensitivity. Thirty healthy nonsmokers underwent cough reflex sensitivity measurement using capsaicin cough challenge at baseline, 15 min, and 24 h after e-cig exposure (30 puffs 30 s apart). The end point of cough challenge is the concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C5). The number of coughs induced by each e-cig inhalation was counted. A subgroup of subjects (n = 8) subsequently underwent an identical protocol with a non-nicotine-containing e-cig. Cough reflex sensitivity was significantly inhibited (C5 increased) 15 min after e-cig use (?0.29; 95% CI, ?0.43 to ?0.15; P < .0001); 24 h later, C5 returned to baseline (0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.38; P = .0002 vs post-15-min value). A subgroup of eight subjects demonstrating the largest degree of cough reflex inhibition had no suppression after exposure to a non-nicotine-containing e-cig (P = .0078 for comparison of ?C5 after nicotine vs non-nicotine device). Furthermore, more coughing was induced by the nicotine-containing vs non-nicotine-containing device (P = .0156). A single session of e-cig use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. Exploratory analysis of a subgroup of subjects suggests that nicotine is responsible for this observation. Our data, consistent with previous studies of nicotine effect, suggest a dual action of nicotine: an immediate, peripheral protussive effect and a delayed central antitussive effect. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02203162; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. O conceito de reflexão de Hegel como crítica aos conceitos de essência e de reflexão tradicionais

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Iber

    2017-01-01

    O presente artigo ilumina o específico do conceito de reflexão de Hegel em cinco momentos. Em um primeiro momento, delineia-se um esboço do conceito de reflexão na lógica da essência de Hegel. Em um segundo momento, o conceito de reflexão de Hegel é apresentado como estrutura lógica objetiva em contraste com a reflexão subjetiva da consciência e do entendimento, com a qual, ao mesmo tempo, o conceito de essência ontológica independente da reflexão é submetido a uma crítica. Do novo conceito d...

  8. Response time scores on a reflexive attention task predict a child's inattention score from a parent report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundwall, Rebecca A; Sgro, Jordan F; Fanger, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Compared to sustained attention, only a small proportion of studies examine reflexive attention as a component of everyday attention. Understanding the significance of reflexive attention to everyday attention may inform better treatments for attentional disorders. Children from a general population (recruited when they were from 9-16 years old) completed an exogenously-cued task measuring the extent to which attention is captured by peripheral cue-target conditions. Parents completed a questionnaire reporting their child's day-to-day attention. A general linear model indicated that parent-rated inattention predicted the increase in response time over baseline when a bright cue preceded the target (whether it was valid or invalid) but not when a dim cue preceded the target. More attentive children had more pronounced response time increases from baseline. Our findings suggest a link between a basic measure of cognition (response time difference scores) and parent observations. The findings have implications for increased understanding of the role of reflexive attention in the everyday attention of children.

  9. Role of duodenal mucosal nerve endings in the acid-induced duodenogastric sensorimotor reflex: effect of benzocaine in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, T; Karamanolis, G; Vos, R; Van Oudenhove, L; Farré, R; Tack, J

    2013-05-01

    Duodenal acid exposure induces a duodenogastric reflex resulting in gastric relaxation, inhibition of antral motility, and sensitization of the proximal stomach to distension. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid has been identified as a potential pathogenic mechanism in functional dyspepsia. The nature and localization of the duodenal acid-sensitive receptors are still elusive. We hypothesize that acid directly activates superficial afferent nerve endings in the duodenal mucosa, triggering the duodenogastric reflex. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in 13 healthy volunteers, benzocaine, a local anesthetic, vs saline was perfused in the duodenum 15 min before duodenal acid perfusion. Gastric responses were monitored by a barostat. Stepwise isobaric gastric distensions were performed before and during acid perfusion. Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scales for six dyspeptic symptoms and an overall perception score. Benzocaine perfusion caused a relaxation of the stomach prior to duodenal acidification, indicating the existence of an excitatory duodenogastric tone. Pretreatment of the duodenum with benzocaine reduced the acid-induced gastric relaxation by 50% and abolished the inhibition of phasic motility of the proximal stomach. Finally, sensitization to distension was more pronounced in the benzocaine condition because of higher proximal gastric volumes. These findings support a model in which different neuronal subpopulations are responsible for the motor and sensory limb of the acid-sensitive duodenogastric reflex, making benzocaine an unsuitable drug to treat duodenal hypersensitivity to acid. These data provide more insight in the contribution of duodenal neuronal input to gastric physiology in the fasting state. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  11. Effect of straining on diaphragmatic crura with identification of the straining-crural reflex. The "reflex theory" in gastroesophageal competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sibai Olfat

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the crural diaphragm during increased intra-abdominal pressure is not exactly known. We investigated the hypothesis that the crural diaphragm undergoes reflex phasic contraction on elevation of the intra-abdominal pressure with a resulting increase of the lower esophageal pressure and prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux. Methods The esophageal pressure and crural diaphragm electromyographic responses to straining were recorded in 16 subjects (10 men, 6 women, age 36.6 ± 11.2 SD years during abdominal hernia repair. The electromyogram of crural diaphragm was recorded by needle electrode inserted into the crural diaphragm, and the lower esophageal pressure by a saline-perfused catheter. The study was repeated after crural anesthetization and after crural infiltration with saline. Results The crural diaphragm exhibited resting electromyographic activity which showed a significant increase on sudden (coughing, p Conclusions Straining effected an increase of the electromyographic activity of the crural diaphragm and of the lower esophageal pressure. This effect is suggested to be reflex in nature and to be mediated through the "straining-crural reflex". The crural diaphragm seems to play a role in the lower esophageal competence mechanism. Further studies are required to assess the clinical significance of the current results in gastro-esophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia.

  12. Hypnotizability, hypnosis and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in healthy women: an ERP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Russo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis suggests that highly hypnotizable individuals (HHs) have more effective frontal attentional systems implementing control, monitoring performance, and inhibiting unwanted stimuli from conscious awareness, than low hypnotizable individuals (LHs). Recent studies, using prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex (ASR), suggest that HHs, in the waking condition, may show reduced sensory gating although they may selectively attend and disattend different stimuli. Using a within subject design and a strict subject selection procedure, in waking and hypnosis conditions we tested whether HHs compared to LHs showed a significantly lower inhibition of the ASR and startle-related brain activity in both time and intracerebral source localization domains. HHs, as compared to LH participants, exhibited (a) longer latency of the eyeblink startle reflex, (b) reduced N100 responses to startle stimuli, and (c) higher PPI of eyeblink startle and of the P200 and P300 waves. Hypnosis yielded smaller N100 waves to startle stimuli and greater PPI of this component than in the waking condition. sLORETA analysis revealed that, for the N100 (107 msec) elicited during startle trials, HHs had a smaller activation in the left parietal lobe (BA2/40) than LHs. Auditory pulses of pulse-with prepulse trials in HHs yielded less activity of the P300 (280 msec) wave than LHs, in the cingulate and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA23/31). The present results, on the whole, are in the opposite direction to PPI findings on hypnotizability previously reported in the literature. These results provide support to the neuropsychophysiological model that HHs have more effective sensory integration and gating (or filtering) of irrelevant stimuli than LHs.

  13. Hypnotizability, hypnosis and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in healthy women: an ERP analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis suggests that highly hypnotizable individuals (HHs have more effective frontal attentional systems implementing control, monitoring performance, and inhibiting unwanted stimuli from conscious awareness, than low hypnotizable individuals (LHs. Recent studies, using prepulse inhibition (PPI of the auditory startle reflex (ASR, suggest that HHs, in the waking condition, may show reduced sensory gating although they may selectively attend and disattend different stimuli. Using a within subject design and a strict subject selection procedure, in waking and hypnosis conditions we tested whether HHs compared to LHs showed a significantly lower inhibition of the ASR and startle-related brain activity in both time and intracerebral source localization domains. HHs, as compared to LH participants, exhibited (a longer latency of the eyeblink startle reflex, (b reduced N100 responses to startle stimuli, and (c higher PPI of eyeblink startle and of the P200 and P300 waves. Hypnosis yielded smaller N100 waves to startle stimuli and greater PPI of this component than in the waking condition. sLORETA analysis revealed that, for the N100 (107 msec elicited during startle trials, HHs had a smaller activation in the left parietal lobe (BA2/40 than LHs. Auditory pulses of pulse-with prepulse trials in HHs yielded less activity of the P300 (280 msec wave than LHs, in the cingulate and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA23/31. The present results, on the whole, are in the opposite direction to PPI findings on hypnotizability previously reported in the literature. These results provide support to the neuropsychophysiological model that HHs have more effective sensory integration and gating (or filtering of irrelevant stimuli than LHs.

  14. Defense Reutilization and Marketing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    H -3 E Responsibilities of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions (D R M s...at Defense electronic products which produce radiation Reutilization and Marketing Offices, para- when energized. Among the principal radi- graph F... Sporting Equipment 7820 Games , Toys, and Wheeled Goods 7830 Recreational and Gymnastic Equipment 7910 Floor Polishers and Vacuum Cleaning Equipment

  15. Systemic low-dose aspirin and clopidogrel independently attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilation in middle-aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowatz, Lacy A; Jennings, John D; Lang, James A; Kenney, W Larry

    2010-06-01

    Chronic systemic platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition with low-dose aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] significantly attenuates reflex cutaneous vasodilation in middle-aged humans, whereas acute, localized, nonisoform-specific inhibition of vascular COX with intradermal administration of ketorolac does not alter skin blood flow during hyperthermia. Taken together, these data suggest that platelets may be involved in reflex cutaneous vasodilation, and this response is inhibited with systemic pharmacological platelet inhibition. We hypothesized that, similar to ASA, specific platelet ADP receptor inhibition with clopidogrel would attenuate reflex vasodilation in middle-aged skin. In a double-blind crossover design, 10 subjects (53+/-2 yr) were instrumented with four microdialysis fibers for localized drug administration and heated to increase body core temperature [oral temperature (Tor)] 1 degrees C during no systemic drug (ND), and after 7 days of systemic ASA (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) treatment. Skin blood flow (SkBF) was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site assigned as 1) control, 2) nitric oxide synthase inhibited (NOS-I; 10 mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), 3) COX inhibited (COX-I; 10 mM ketorolac), and 4) NOS-I+COX-I. Data were normalized and presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVCmax; 28 mM sodium nitroprusside+local heating to 43 degrees C). During ND conditions, SkBF with change (Delta) in Tor=1.0 degrees C was 56+/-3% CVCmax. Systemic low-dose ASA and clopidogrel both attenuated reflex vasodilation (ASA: 43+/-3; clopidogrel: 32+/-3% CVCmax; both P0.05). NOS-I attenuated vasodilation in ND and ASA (ND: 28+/-6; ASA: 25+/-4% CVCmax; both P0.05). NOS-I+COX-I was not different compared with NOS-I alone in either systemic treatment condition. Both systemic ASA and clopidogrel reduced the time required to increase Tor 1 degrees C (ND: 58+/-3 vs. ASA: 45+/-2; clopidogrel: 39+/-2 min; both Preflex

  16. The Gateway Reflex, a Novel Neuro-Immune Interaction for the Regulation of Regional Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tanaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gateway reflex is a new phenomenon that explains how immune cells bypass the blood–brain barrier to infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS and trigger neuroinflammation. To date, four examples of gateway reflexes have been discovered, each described by the stimulus that evokes the reflex. Gravity, electricity, pain, and stress have all been found to create gateways at specific regions of the CNS. The gateway reflex, the most recently discovered of the four, has also been shown to upset the homeostasis of organs in the periphery through its action on the CNS. These reflexes provide novel therapeutic targets for the control of local neuroinflammation and organ function. Each gateway reflex is activated by different neural activations and induces inflmammation at different regions in the CNS. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to manipulate each independently, providing a novel therapeutic strategy to control local neuroinflammation and peripheral organ homeostasis.

  17. Effect of joint mobilization on the H Reflex amplitude in people with spasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Parra, Julio Ernesto; Henao Lema, Claudia Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the H reflex amplitude of thesoleus muscle in people with spasticity. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study withcrossover design and simple masking was conducted in 24 randomized subjects to initiate thecontrol or experimental group. Traction and rhythmic oscillation were applied for five minutesto the ankle joint. H wave amplitude changes of Hoffmann reflex (electrical equivalent of themonosynaptic spinal reflex) w...

  18. Study of Achilles Tendon Reflex in Normal Korean and Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Yung; Kim, Kwang Won; Yae, Sung Bo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to establish the diagnostic value of Achilles tendon reflex and to determine the normal value of Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean, the author measured the Achilles tendon reflex time by photomotograph. This study was carried out in 272 cases with various thyroid diseases and 340 normal Korean. 1) The Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean was like this, between 11 years old and 20 years old; male (62 cases); 250±27 msec, female (36 cases); 266±27 msec, between 21 years old and 30 years old; male (38 cases); 271±27 msec, female (21 cases); 284±27 msec, between 31 years old and 40 years old; male (26 cases); 275±25 msec, female (29 cases); 291±27 msec, between 41 years old and 50 years old; male (20 cases); 286±35 msec, female (24 cases); 307±42 msec, between 51 years old and 60 years old, male (20 cases); 296±33 msec, female (20 cases); 318±46 msec, over 61 years; male (24 cases) 301±33 msec, female (20 cases); 325±35 msec. The Achilles tendon reflex time was delayed with increasing age and delayed in the female. 2) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly shortened to 221±20 msec in untreated hyperthyroidism. 3) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly delayed to 435±59 msec in hypothyroidism. 4) The Achilles tendon reflex time was not changed significantly in other thyroid diseases with norms thyroid function. 5) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed good correlationship with ETR, T 3 RU, 131 I thyroid uptake and serum TSH. 6) Reproducibility of Achilles tendon reflex time was good, and no significant difference between left and right was noted. 7) Diagnostic accuracy of Achilles tendon reflex time was 71% in hyperthyroidism and 90% in hypothyroidism. 8) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed useful test to evaluate the clinical course of the hyperthyroidism.

  19. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RefleX : X-ray-tracing code (Paltani+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltani, S.; Ricci, C.

    2017-11-01

    We provide here the RefleX executable, for both Linux and MacOSX, together with the User Manual and example script file and output file Running (for instance): reflex_linux will produce the file reflex.out Note that the results may differ slightly depending on the OS, because of slight differences in some implementations numerical computations. The difference are scientifically meaningless. (5 data files).

  1. Inhibition of reflex vagal bradycardia by a central action of 5-hydroxytryptophan.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadepalli, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    1 Vagally mediated reflex bradycardia was elicited in spinal cats with intravenous pressor doses of noradrenaline. Administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (1.5 and 3 mg total dose) into the fourth cerebral ventricle reduced the reflex bradycardia. 2 Inhibition of central amino acid decarboxylase with R044602 prevented the effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan. After intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan, vagal reflex bradycardia was not affected. 3 Results suggest that 5-hydroxytryptophan ...

  2. Eyeing up the Future of the Pupillary Light Reflex in Neurodiagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Hall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The pupillary light reflex (PLR describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications. Measurement of the PLR using dynamic pupillometry is now an established quantitative, non-invasive tool in assessment of traumatic head injuries. This review examines the more recent application of dynamic pupillometry as a diagnostic tool for a wide range of clinical conditions, varying from neurodegenerative disease to exposure to toxic chemicals, as well as its potential in the non-invasive diagnosis of infectious disease.

  3. Simultaneously measured pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daluwatte, C; Yao, G; Miles, J H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the potential inter-relationship between two measures of autonomic nervous system: pupillary light reflex (PLR) and heart rate variability (HRV), in healthy children of 8–16 years old. PLR was measured at both dark- and light-adapted conditions with various stimulation intensities. Simultaneously measured HRV was obtained in five different PLR testing phases: before PLR test, light-adapted PLR test, dark adaptation, dark-adapted PLR test and after PLR test. The frequency domain HRV parameters measured during the PLR test were significantly different from those measured during rest. Both the regression analysis and factor analysis indicated that PLR and HRV parameters were not correlated, which suggests that they may provide complementary assessment of different aspects of the overall autonomic nervous system. (paper)

  4. Simultaneously measured pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daluwatte, C; Yao, G [Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Miles, J H, E-mail: YaoG@missouri.edu [Child Health and Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the potential inter-relationship between two measures of autonomic nervous system: pupillary light reflex (PLR) and heart rate variability (HRV), in healthy children of 8–16 years old. PLR was measured at both dark- and light-adapted conditions with various stimulation intensities. Simultaneously measured HRV was obtained in five different PLR testing phases: before PLR test, light-adapted PLR test, dark adaptation, dark-adapted PLR test and after PLR test. The frequency domain HRV parameters measured during the PLR test were significantly different from those measured during rest. Both the regression analysis and factor analysis indicated that PLR and HRV parameters were not correlated, which suggests that they may provide complementary assessment of different aspects of the overall autonomic nervous system. (paper)

  5. Use of a supercontinuum white light in evaluating the spectral sensitivity of the pupil light reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Catherine; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian; Lall, Gurprit S.

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the spectral sensitivity of the pupillary light reflex in mice using a high power super continuum white light (SCWL) source in a dual wavelength configuration. This novel approach was compared to data collected from a more traditional setup using a Xenon arc lamp fitted with monochromatic interference filters. Irradiance response curves were constructed using both systems, with the added benefit of a two-wavelength, equivocal power, output using the SCWL. The variables applied to the light source were intensity, wavelength and stimulus duration through which the physiological output measured was the minimum pupil size attained under such conditions. We show that by implementing the SCWL as our novel stimulus we were able to dramatically increase the physiological usefulness of our pupillometry system.

  6. Methodological optimization of tinnitus assessment using prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, R J; Galazyuk, A V

    2012-11-16

    Recently prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) became a popular technique for tinnitus assessment in laboratory animals. This method confers a significant advantage over the previously used time-consuming behavioral approaches utilizing basic mechanisms of conditioning. Although this technique has been successfully used to assess tinnitus in different laboratory animals, many of the finer details of this methodology have not been described enough to be replicated, but are critical for tinnitus assessment. Here we provide detail description of key procedures and methodological issues that provide guidance for newcomers with the process of learning to correctly apply gap detection techniques for tinnitus assessment in laboratory animals. The major categories of these issues include: refinement of hardware for best performance, optimization of stimulus parameters, behavioral considerations, and identification of optimal strategies for data analysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reflexivity: The Creation of Liminal Spaces--Researchers, Participants, and Research Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosh, Guy; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2016-03-01

    Reflexivity is defined as the constant movement between being in the phenomenon and stepping outside of it. In this article, we specify three foci of reflexivity--the researcher, the participant, and the encounter--for exploring the interview process as a dialogic liminal space of mutual reflection between researcher and participant. Whereas researchers' reflexivity has been discussed extensively in the professional discourse, participants' reflexivity has not received adequate scholarly attention, nor has the promise inherent in reflective processes occurring within the encounter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  9. Exploring the practice of patient centered care: The role of ethnography and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Gorli, Mara; Moja, Lorenzo; Galuppo, Laura; Ripamonti, Silvio; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Patient centered care (PCC) is an essential dimension of healthcare systems' mission worldwide and is recognized as an important condition for ensuring the quality of care. Nonetheless, it is also acknowledged that various care providers perceive patient centeredness differently and that there remain several unanswered questions about the aspects of healthcare delivery that are linked to an actual achievement of PCC. In the paper, we categorize the current research on PCC into two streams ("dyadic" and "organizational") and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each. Despite their important contributions to healthcare services research, these approaches to PCC do not fully capture the network of practices and relationships constituting patients and providers' experiences within healthcare contexts. Therefore, we propose an alternative interpretation of PCC that integrates insights from "practice theories" and emphasizes the negotiated and local nature of patient centeredness, which is accomplished through the engagement of providers and patients in everyday care practices. To develop such interpretation, we propose a research approach combining ethnographic and reflexive methods. Ethnography can help achieve more nuanced descriptions of what PCC truly encapsulates in the care process by drawing attention to the social and material reality of healthcare contexts. Reflexivity can help disentangle and bring to surface the tacit knowledge spread in everyday care practices and transform it into actionable knowledge, a type of knowledge that may support services improvement toward PCC. We anticipate that such improvement is far from straightforward: an actual achievement of PCC may challenge the interests of different stakeholders and unsettle consolidated habits, hierarchies and power dynamics. This unsettlement, however, can also serve as a necessary condition for engaging in a participative process of internal development. We discuss the outcomes, limitations and

  10. Modulation of high-frequency vestibuloocular reflex during visual tracking in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, V. E.; Leigh, R. J.; Thomas, C. W.; Averbuch-Heller, L.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Discenna, A. O.; Dell'Osso, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Humans may visually track a moving object either when they are stationary or in motion. To investigate visual-vestibular interaction during both conditions, we compared horizontal smooth pursuit (SP) and active combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) of a target moving sinusoidally at 0.4 Hz in four normal subjects while the subjects were either stationary or vibrated in yaw at 2.8 Hz. We also measured the visually enhanced vestibuloocular reflex (VVOR) during vibration in yaw at 2.8 Hz over a peak head velocity range of 5-40 degrees/s. 2. We found that the gain of the VVOR at 2.8 Hz increased in all four subjects as peak head velocity increased (P modulation in vestibuloocular reflex gain occurred with increasing peak head velocity during a control condition when subjects were rotated in darkness. 3. During both horizontal SP and CEHT, tracking gains were similar, and the mean slip speed of the target's image on the retina was held below 5.5 degrees/s whether subjects were stationary or being vibrated at 2.8 Hz. During both horizontal SP and CEHT of target motion at 0.4 Hz, while subjects were vibrated in yaw, VVOR gain for the 2.8-Hz head rotations was similar to or higher than that achieved during fixation of a stationary target. This is in contrast to the decrease of VVOR gain that is reported while stationary subjects perform CEHT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  12. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  13. Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research—The FQS Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available By publishing two FQS issues on "Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research," we address a topic that is central for modern science. On the one hand, there are many demands from philosophy of science and there are numerous methods that aim at eliminating researchers' impact on the research process except in controlled treatments. On the other hand, the insight spread that researchers, in continuously interacting with those being researched, inevitably influence and structure research processes and their outcomes—through their personal and professional characteristics, by leaning on theories and methods available at a special time and place in their (sub- cultures, disciplines and nations. This is especially (but not exclusively true for qualitative research, because qualitative methods are less structured than quantitative methods, and qualitative researchers interact for most part very closely with research participants in their respective research fields. Are there any ways out of the dilemma between the hope of arriving at non-contaminated, valid, and reliable knowledge, on the one hand, and the threat of collecting trivial data, producing (unintentionally autobiographies, or repeating the same cultural prejudices prominent at a time or place, on the other hand? The articles that we introduce here attempt to give some (often provisional answers: by discussing more principally the relevance of subjectivity and reflexivity in and to the process of scientific knowledge construction and by offering possible theoretical frameworks; by examining the research process, using own empirical examples to show in which way (sub- cultural, social, professional, biographical, and personal characteristics influence what is perceived, interpreted and published; and by providing tools that can be used to highlight subjectivity in the research process in order to achieve new levels of understanding through reflexivity. We published the FQS 3(2 and

  14. Reflexive Standardization and Standardized Reflexivity : Development and use of innovations in healthcare practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Loon (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractHealthcare is inevitably confronted by many kinds of variation. For example, patients have multiple conditions and wish specific treatment, influencing their care trajectory as this results in different options for treatment or diagnosis (Eddy, 1984). Or different cultural

  15. Semiotic scaffolding of the social self in reflexivity and friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    scaffolding is a multi-level phenomenon. Focusing upon levels of semiosis specific to humans, the formation of the personal self and the role of friendship and similar interpersonal relations in this process is explored through Aristotle’s classical idea of the friend as ‘another self’, and sociologist...... Margaret Archer’s empirical and theoretical work on the interplay between individual subjectivity, social structure and interpersonal relations in a dynamics of human agency. It is shown that although processes of reflexivity and friendship can indeed be seen as instances of semiotic scaffolding...

  16. Reflexive reasoning for distributed real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and use of reflexive reasoning in real-time, distributed knowledge-based applications. Recently there has been a great deal of interest in agent-oriented systems. Implementing such systems implies a mechanism for sharing knowledge, goals and other state information among the agents. Our techniques facilitate an agent examining both state information about other agents and the parameters of the knowledge-based system shell implementing its reasoning algorithms. The shell implementing the reasoning is the Distributed Artificial Intelligence Toolkit, which is a derivative of CLIPS.

  17. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  18. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  19. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  20. Manual compression and reflex syncope in native renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ojima, Yoshie; Kagaya, Saeko; Aoki, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Tasuku

    2018-03-14

    Complications associated with diagnostic native percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) must be minimized. While life threatening major complications has been extensively investigated, there is little discussion regarding minor bleeding complications, such as a transient hypotension, which directly affect patients' quality of life. There is also little evidence supporting the need for conventional manual compression following PRB. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between minor and major complications incidence in patients following PRB with or without compression. This single-center, retrospective study included 456 patients (compression group: n = 71; observation group: n = 385). The compression group completed 15 min of manual compression and 4 h of subsequent strict bed rest with abdominal bandage. The observation group completed 2 h of strict bed rest only. The primary outcome of interest was transient symptomatic hypotension (minor event). Of the 456 patients, 26 patients encountered intraoperative and postoperative transient hypotension, which were considered reflex syncope without tachycardia. Univariate analysis showed that symptomatic transient hypotension was significantly associated with compression. This association remained significant, even after adjustment of covariates using multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio 3.27; 95% confidential interval 1.36-7.82; P = 0.0078). Manual compression and abdominal bandage significantly increased the frequency of reflex syncope during native PRB. It is necessary to consider the potential benefit and risk of compression maneuvers for each patient undergoing this procedure.

  1. Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Marc

    2013-09-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

  2. Cardiac effects of electrically induced intrathoracic autonomic reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1988-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the afferent components in one cardiopulmonary nerve (the left vagosympathetic complex at a level immediately caudal to the origin of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve) in acutely decentralized thoracic autonomic ganglionic preparations altered cardiac chronotropism and inotropism in 17 of 44 dogs. Since these neural preparations were acutely decentralized, the effects were mediated presumably via intrathoracic autonomic reflexes. The lack of consistency of these reflexly generated cardiac responses presumably were due in part to anatomical variation of afferent axons in the afferent nerve stimulated. As stimulation of the afferent components in the same neural structure caudal to the heart (where cardiopulmonary afferent axons are not present) failed to elicit cardiac responses in any dog, it is presumed that when cardiac responses were elicited by the more cranially located stimulations, these were due to activation of afferent axons arising from the heart and (or) lungs. When cardiac responses were elicited, intramyocardial pressures in the right ventricular conus as well as the ventral and lateral walls of the left ventricle were augmented. Either bradycardia or tachycardia was elicited. Following hexamethonium administration no responses were produced, demonstrating that nicotonic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms were involved in these intrathoracic cardiopulmonary-cardiac reflexes. In six of the animals, when atropine was administered before hexamethonium, reflexly generated responses were attenuated. The same thing occurred when morphine was administered in four animals. In contrast, in four animals following administration of phentolamine, the reflexly generated changes were enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Agentive reflexive clitics and transitive 'se' constructions in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Armstrong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structure of transitive sentences that contain a non-doubling reflexive clitic such as Juan se lavó todos los platos and María se leyó un libro. Though these are traditionally labelled unselected (non-core agreeing datives or aspectual datives, I argue that this label obscures a relevant difference between two classes of constructions. agentive reflexive clitic (= ARC constructions are characterized by a uniform set of effects on the external argument (= it must be an agent and the aspectual interpretation of the VP (= it must be an accomplishment. On the other hand, transitive se clitic (= TSC constructions do not impose any type of uniform restrictions on the kind of external argument they take or on the aspectual interpretation of the VP. I propose that the difference between these two constructions may be captured by treating se in the ARC construction as the realization of a special vDO head, based on an idea in Folli & Harley (2005, while se in the TSC construction is generated in the complement position of the verb and incorporates into V, forming a complex predicate, following work by De Cuyper (2006, MacDonald (2004, 2008 and MacDonald & Huidobro (2010. It is shown that many of the empirical and theoretical disagreements that plague the literature on the role of non-doubling se in transitive sentences have a simple solution given the new division established here

  4. Median sep and blink reflex in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflazoğlu, B; Somay, G; Us, O; Surardamar, A; Tanridağ, T

    2006-11-01

    Pathological disturbances of thyroid hormones is associated with central and peripheral nervous system disturbances. The aim of this study is to evaluate median nerve stimulated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and blink reflex of thyroid patients (hypo and hyperthyroidism). Median SEP was performed in 40 patients (21 with hyperthyroidism and 19 with hypothyroidism). We evaluated the latencies of N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 waves and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies. We compared the results of patients with the control group (26 persons). We found that the N20 latency was longer in patients with hyperthyroidism than in the control group and the difference was statistically significant. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding the N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 latencies and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies between hypothyroid patients and controls. We performed the blink reflex study in 28 of 40 patients (14 patients with hyperthyroidism and 14 patients with hypothyroidism). Comparing the R1, R2, CR2 (contralateral R2) latencies and durations of the patients and controls, we found that R2 and CR2 duration was shorter in patients with hyperthyroidism. This difference was statistically significant.

  5. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  6. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  8. Researching Reflexively With Patients and Families: Two Studies Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography to Collaborate With Patients and Families in Patient Safety Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Aileen; Wyer, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Patient safety research has to date offered few opportunities for patients and families to be actively involved in the research process. This article describes our collaboration with patients and families in two separate studies, involving end-of-life care and infection control in acute care. We used the collaborative methodology of video-reflexive ethnography, which has been primarily used with clinicians, to involve patients and families as active participants and collaborators in our research. The purpose of this article is to share our experiences and findings that iterative researcher reflexivity in the field was critical to the progress and success of each study. We present and analyze the complexities of reflexivity-in-the-field through a framework of multilayered reflexivity. We share our lessons here for other researchers seeking to actively involve patients and families in patient safety research using collaborative visual methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  10. Acquisition Planning at the Defense Communications Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    guidelines for interaction are developed under the leadership of DCA agencywide integrators with the participation of personnel from DCA, the Services...Communications System DCSO - Defense Communications System Organizatin . DDN - Defense Data Network DEC - Decision Making DG - Defense Guidance DIA - Defense

  11. Soleus H reflex extinction in controls and spastic patients: ordered occlusion or diffuse inhibition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgevoord, A. A.; Bour, L. J.; Koelman, J. H.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extinction of the soleus H reflex at higher stimulus intensities is commonly attributed to retrograde conduction of action potentials in motor axons. This study was designed to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the extinction. The decrease of the H reflex was quantified in a group

  12. The late blink reflex response abnormality due to lesion of the lateral tegmental field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B.W.; Koelman, J.H.T.M.; Majoie, C.B.L.; Holstege, G.

    We report on a blink reflex abnormality observed in two patients, which provides additional information on the central pathways mediating this reflex. Autopsy was performed in one patient and MRI in the other: In the first patient there was a small lesion at the dorsal middle third of the lateral

  13. The late blink reflex response abnormality due to lesion of the lateral tegmental field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Koelman, J. H.; Majoie, C. B.; Holstege, G.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a blink reflex abnormality observed in two patients, which provides additional information on the central pathways mediating this reflex. Autopsy was performed in one patient and MRI in the other. In the first patient there was a small lesion at the dorsal middle third of the lateral

  14. Erecting Closets and Outing Ourselves: Uncomfortable Reflexivity and Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Valenti, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    Feminist scholars and community psychologists have argued that reflexivity is a necessary component to conducting socially conscious research. Reflexivity, however, is rarely evident in community psychology. In this article, we share the uncomfortable realities that surfaced during a community-based research project in which we adapted and…

  15. Prevalence of Persistent Primary Reflexes and Motor Problems in Children with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, M.; Sheehy, N.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that some children with reading difficulties have underlying developmental delay and that this may be related to the persistence of primary reflexes. This study investigated the prevalence of persistent primary reflexes in the ordinary primary school population and how this related to other cognitive and social factors. Three…

  16. Intrapartum synthetic oxytocin reduce the expression of primitive reflexes associated with breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel A; Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother-infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother-infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent.

  17. Soleus H-reflex tests in causalgia-dystonia compared with dystonia and mimicked dystonic posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelman, J. H.; Hilgevoord, A. A.; Bour, L. J.; Speelman, J. D.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Dystonia in the causalgia-dystonia syndrome is characterized by a fixed dystonic posture. To identify involvement of central pathophysiologic mechanisms, we analyzed soleus H-reflex tests in five patients with causalgia-dystonia. Soleus H-reflex test results in these patients differed from those in

  18. Encouraging Reflexivity in Urban Geography Fieldwork: Study Abroad Experiences in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Fieldwork in urban geography courses can encourage reflexivity among students regarding the cities they encounter. This article outlines how student reflexivity was encouraged within a new international field research course in Singapore and Malaysia. Drawing on examples from students' field exercises written during an intensive and occasionally…

  19. The visual rooting reflex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de With, S. A. Jytte; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Stahl, Sherin S.; Anderson, George M.

    The rooting reflex has long been studied by neurologists and developmentalists and is defined as an orientation toward tactile stimulation in the perioral region or visual stimulation near the face. Nearly, all previous reports of the visual rooting reflex (VRR) concern its presence in adults with

  20. On reflexivity and the conduct of the self in everyday life: reflections on Bourdieu and Archer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Sadiya; Hogan, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a critique of the concept of reflexivity in social theory today and argues against the tendency to define agency exclusively in terms of reflexivity. Margaret Archer, in particular, is highlighted as a key proponent of this thesis. Archer argues that late modernity is characterized by reflexivity but, in our view, this position neglects the impact of more enduring aspects of agency, such as the routinization of social life and the role of the taken-for-granted. These concepts were pivotal to Bourdieu and Giddens' theorization of everyday life and action and to Foucault's understanding of technologies of the self. We offer Bourdieu's habitus as a more nuanced approach to theorizing agency, and provide an alternative account of reflexivity. Whilst accepting that reflexivity is a core aspect of agency, we argue that it operates to a backdrop of the routinization of social life and operates from within and not outside of habitus. We highlight the role of the breach in reflexivity, suggesting that it opens up a critical window for agents to initiate change. The article suggests caution in over-ascribing reflexivity to agency, instead arguing that achieving reflexivity and change is a difficult and fraught process, which has emotional and moral consequences. The effect of this is that people often prefer the status quo, rather than to risk change and uncertainty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  1. Cortical and spinal assessment - a comparative study using encephalography and the nociceptive withdrawal reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, I W; Gram, M; Hansen, T M

    2017-01-01

    solution in randomized order. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during rest and during immersion of the hand into ice-water. Electrical stimulation of the sole of the foot was used to elicit the nociceptive withdrawal reflex and the reflex amplitude was recorded. RESULTS: Data from thirty...

  2. Reflexivity and the Politics of Knowledge: Researchers as "Brokers" and "Translators" of Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprakash, Arathi; Mukhopadhyay, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper interrogates the ways in which "reflexivity" has proliferated as a normative methodological discourse in the field of international and comparative education. We argue that the dominant approach to reflexivity foregrounds the standpoints of researchers and their subjects in a way that does not attend to the situated,…

  3. Report of the Defense Science Board/Defense Policy Board Task Force On Theater Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... also tackled the controversial subject of the ABM Treaty and its effect on theater missile defenses Subsequent to its interim report, which expressed strong concerns about the demarcation path the US...

  4. An Intelligent Computerized Stretch Reflex Measurement System For Clinical And Investigative Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P. M.; Chutkow, J. G.; Riggs, M. T.; Cristiano, V. D.

    1987-05-01

    We describe the design of a reliable, user-friendly preprototype system for quantifying the tendon stretch reflexes in humans and large mammals. A hand-held, instrumented reflex gun, the impactor of which contains a single force sensor, interfaces with a computer. The resulting test system can deliver sequences of reproducible stimuli at graded intensities and adjustable durations to a muscle's tendon ("tendon taps"), measure the impacting force of each tap, and record the subsequent reflex muscle contraction from the same tendon -- all automatically. The parameters of the reflex muscle contraction include latency; mechanical threshold; and peak time, peak magnitude, and settling time. The results of clinical tests presented in this paper illustrate the system's potential usefulness in detecting neurologic dysfunction affecting the tendon stretch reflexes, in documenting the course of neurologic illnesses and their response to therapy, and in clinical and laboratory neurologic research.

  5. Reflexive anaphor resolution in spoken language comprehension: Structural constraints and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili eClackson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report results from an eye-tracking during listening study examining English-speaking adults’ online processing of reflexive pronouns, and specifically whether the search for an antecedent is restricted to syntactically appropriate positions. Participants listened to a short story where the recipient of an object was introduced with a reflexive, and were asked to identify the object recipient as quickly as possible. This allowed for the recording of participants’ offline interpretation of the reflexive, response times, and eye movements on hearing the reflexive. Whilst our offline results show that the ultimate interpretation for reflexives was constrained by binding principles, the response time and eye-movement data revealed that during processing participants were temporarily distracted by a structurally inappropriate competitor antecedent when this was prominent in the discourse. These results indicate that in addition to binding principles, online referential decisions are also affected by discourse-level information.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERSONALITY CORRELATES OF REFLEXIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PROFESSIONAL FORMATION OF THE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mayasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reflexive, the most important professional quality of a teacher's personality in the context of professional development. Reflexivity is a basic property of the individual, whereby the awareness and regulation of the subject of their activities. As a personal correlates of reflexivity studied mental stability, individual styles of decision making (vigilance and avoidance, spontaneity, emotional intelligence (empathy and the ability to manage emotions of other people. The paper conducts a comparative analysis of reflexivity and qualities correlated with her young teachers, working in the specialty from 1 to 5 years and students from different areas of training of pedagogical University. Obtained in the course of the empirical research results confirmed that the process of professional development of teachers is the development of these qualities. Were no significant differences in the indicators options system the reflexivity, alertness,spontaneity, empathy, which differ among teachers and students.

  7. Reflexive anaphor resolution in spoken language comprehension: structural constraints and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clackson, Kaili; Heyer, Vera

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an eye-tracking during listening study examining English-speaking adults’ online processing of reflexive pronouns, and specifically whether the search for an antecedent is restricted to syntactically appropriate positions. Participants listened to a short story where the recipient of an object was introduced with a reflexive, and were asked to identify the object recipient as quickly as possible. This allowed for the recording of participants’ offline interpretation of the reflexive, response times, and eye movements on hearing the reflexive. Whilst our offline results show that the ultimate interpretation for reflexives was constrained by binding principles, the response time, and eye-movement data revealed that during processing participants were temporarily distracted by a structurally inappropriate competitor antecedent when this was prominent in the discourse. These results indicate that in addition to binding principles, online referential decisions are also affected by discourse-level information. PMID:25191290

  8. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex a...

  9. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  10. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  11. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of..., the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense... Director, Missile Defense Agency, independent advice and recommendations on all matters relating to missile...

  12. The effect of mindfulness meditation on cough reflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E C; Brammer, C; Owen, E; Brown, N; Lowe, J; Johnson, C; Calam, R; Jones, S; Woodcock, A; Smith, J A

    2009-11-01

    Chronic cough is common, and medical treatment can be ineffective. Mindfulness is a psychological intervention that aims to teach moment-to-moment non-judgemental awareness of thoughts, feelings and sensations. 30 healthy subjects and 30 patients with chronic cough were studied in two sequential trials. For both studies, cough reflex sensitivity to citric acid (C5) was measured on two occasions, with urge to cough rated following each inhalation; between challenges subjects were randomised to (1) no intervention, (2) mindfulness or (3) no intervention but modified cough challenge (subjects suppress coughing). For the healthy volunteers, measures were 1 h apart and mindfulness was practised for 15 min. For the patients with chronic cough measures were 1 week apart and mindfulness was practised daily for 30 min. In healthy volunteers, median change (interquartile range (IQR)) in cough reflex sensitivity (logC5) for no intervention, mindfulness and suppression was +1.0 (0.0 to +1.3), +2.0 (+1.0 to +3.0) and +3.0 (+2.8 to +3.0) doubling concentrations (p = 0.003); there were significant reductions for both mindfulness (p = 0.043) and suppression (p = 0.002) over no intervention. In patients with cough, median change (IQR) in logC5 for no intervention, mindfulness training and voluntary suppression was 0.0 (-1.0 to +1.0), +1.0 (-0.3 to +1.0) and +1.0 (+1.0 to +2.0) doubling concentrations (p = 0.046); there was a significant reduction for suppression (p = 0.02) but not mindfulness (p = 0.35). Urge to cough did not change after mindfulness compared with control in either healthy subjects (p = 0.33) or those with chronic cough (p = 0.47). Compared with control, mindfulness decreased cough reflex sensitivity in healthy volunteers, but did not alter cough threshold in patients with chronic cough. Both groups were able to suppress cough responses to citric acid inhalation.

  13. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  14. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflex reading epilepsy: effect of linguistic characteristics on spike frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Dima; Lassonde, Maryse; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Denault, Carole; Macoir, Joël; Rouleau, Isabelle; Béland, Renée

    2011-04-01

    Reading epilepsy is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by reading. Several cases have been described in the literature, but the pathophysiological processes vary widely and remain unclear. We describe a 42-year-old male patient with reading epilepsy evaluated using clinical assessments and continuous video/EEG recordings. We administered verbal, nonverbal, and reading tasks to determine factors precipitating seizures. Linguistic characteristics of the words were manipulated. Results indicated that reading-induced seizures were significantly more numerous than those observed during verbal and nonverbal tasks. In reading tasks, spike frequency significantly increased with involvement of the phonological reading route. Spikes were recorded predominantly in left parasagittal regions. Future cerebral imaging studies will enable us to visualize the spatial localization and temporal course of reading-induced seizures and brain activity involved in reading. A better understanding of reading epilepsy is crucial for reading rehabilitation in these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflexivity, Knowledge and the Management of Potential Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In this article I will interpret John Deweys perspective on reflective thinking as if he were a philosopher of innovation management. From his pragmatist point of departure, the problems involved in knowledge-processes relevant to innovation are analysed and reconceptualised. On the basis...... of the analysis I attempt to identify some categories of general applicability when understanding, designing, and managing radical innovation processes. These categories are useful to conceptualise and talk about innovation, when knowledge is taken seriously, and when managing innovation is also understood...... as managing the production of new knowledge, that is of making the unjustified justified, and the unknown known. Keywords: Reflexivity, reflective thought, radical innovation, innovation management, potential innovation, Plato, John Dewey, epistemology, knowledge....

  17. Repetitive exposure: Brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of massed repetition on the modulation of the late positive potential elicited during affective picture viewing were investigated in two experiments. Despite a difference in the number of repetitions across studies (from 5 to 30), results were quite similar: the late positive potential continued to be enhanced when viewing emotional, compared to neutral, pictures. On the other hand, massed repetition did prompt a reduction in the late positive potential that was most pronounced for emotional pictures. Startle probe P3 amplitude generally increased with repetition, suggesting diminished attention allocation to repeated pictures. The blink reflex, however, continued to be modulated by hedonic valence, despite massive massed repetition. Taken together, the data suggest that the amplitude of the late positive potential during picture viewing reflects both motivational significance and attention allocation. PMID:20701711

  18. Who's arguing? A call for reflexivity in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Dunn, Michael

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we set forth what we believe to be a relatively controversial argument, claiming that 'bioethics' needs to undergo a fundamental change in the way it is practised. This change, we argue, requires philosophical bioethicists to adopt reflexive practices when applying their analyses in public forums, acknowledging openly that bioethics is an embedded socio-cultural practice, shaped by the ever-changing intuitions of individual philosophers, which cannot be viewed as a detached intellectual endeavour. This said, we argue that in order to manage the personal, social and cultural embeddedness of bioethics, philosophical bioethicists should openly acknowledge how their practices are constructed and should, in their writing, explicitly deal with issues of bias and conflict of interest, just as empirical scientists are required to do.

  19. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeqi, I.; Solaty kia, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first show that there are some gaps in the fixed point theorems for fuzzy non-expansive mappings which are proved by Bag and Samanta, in [Bag T, Samanta SK. Fixed point theorems on fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inf Sci 2006;176:2910-31; Bag T, Samanta SK. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inform Sci 2007;177(3):3271-89]. By introducing the notion of fuzzy and α- fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces, we obtain some results which help us to establish the correct version of fuzzy fixed point theorems. Second, by applying Theorem 3.3 of Sadeqi and Solati kia [Sadeqi I, Solati kia F. Fuzzy normed linear space and it's topological structure. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press] which says that any fuzzy normed linear space is also a topological vector space, we show that all topological version of fixed point theorems do hold in fuzzy normed linear spaces.

  20. Another cause for conductive hearing loss with present acoustic reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Charles S; Zanation, Adam M; Buchman, Craig A

    2008-11-01

    There are numerous potential causes of conductive hearing loss (HL). It is important to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete examination, including audiometric testing and radiographic evaluation when necessary. In this report, we present a patient with an intact tympanic membrane, no history of ear disease or trauma who as an adult developed progressive, conductive HL because of an anomalous course of a dehiscent facial nerve. In the patient with a conductive HL and at least partially intact reflexes, superior semicircular canal dehiscence, fracture of the stapes superstructure proximal to the tendon, other third window phenomena, and now dehiscence of the facial nerve resulting in decreased mobility of the ossicular chain must be considered.

  1. Nursing management of reflex anoxic seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neal; Kerr-Liddell, Rowan; Challis, Louise; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2017-04-13

    Children who present with transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) are often first seen in emergency departments (EDs). Reflex anoxic seizure (RAS), vasovagal syncope and prolonged respiratory apnoea are benign, syncopal events that can be generally managed by explanation and reassurance. RAS is a short, paroxysmal, self-reverting episode of asystole that is triggered by pain, fear or anxiety and is caused by increased vagal response. It is an important differential diagnosis in pre-school age children who present with T-LOC, but is often underdiagnosed and can sometimes be misdiagnosed as epilepsy. Nurses working in EDs are among the first healthcare professionals to see children in acute settings and should therefore be aware of RAS, the presenting features and management options. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of RAS, includes an illustrative case study and discusses the role of ED nurses.

  2. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlappi Mark

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This review details the anatomy and interactions of the postural and somatosensory reflexes. We attempt to identify the important role the nervous system plays in maintaining reflex control of the spine and posture. We also review, illustrate, and discuss how the human vertebral column develops, functions, and adapts to Earth's gravity in an upright position. We identify functional characteristics of the postural reflexes by reporting previous observations of subjects during periods of microgravity or weightlessness. Background Historically, chiropractic has centered around the concept that the nervous system controls and regulates all other bodily systems; and that disruption to normal nervous system function can contribute to a wide variety of common ailments. Surprisingly, the chiropractic literature has paid relatively little attention to the importance of neurological regulation of static upright human posture. With so much information available on how posture may affect health and function, we felt it important to review the neuroanatomical structures and pathways responsible for maintaining the spine and posture. Maintenance of static upright posture is regulated by the nervous system through the various postural reflexes. Hence, from a chiropractic standpoint, it is clinically beneficial to understand how the individual postural reflexes work, as it may explain some of the clinical presentations seen in chiropractic practice. Method We performed a manual search for available relevant textbooks, and a computer search of the MEDLINE, MANTIS, and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases from 1970 to present, using the following key words and phrases: "posture," "ocular," "vestibular," "cervical facet joint," "afferent," "vestibulocollic," "cervicocollic," "postural reflexes," "spaceflight," "microgravity," "weightlessness," "gravity," "posture," and "postural." Studies were selected if they specifically tested any or

  3. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    2012-02-01

    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  4. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  5. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2lr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Eckert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1 in five different static arm positions and, 2 before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT or similar (FLEX to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  6. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    pronounced at intermediate environmental conditions. Optimizing single traits generally leads to a more pronounced response of the defense traits, which implies that studying single traits leads to an overestimation of their response to predation. Behavioral defense and morphological defense compensate......Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  7. From Incidental, Mechanically-Induced Arrhythmias to Reflex-Defined Arrhythmogenicity: On The Track of The Ternary Reflex System Resemblance to The "Infancy" of New Era or Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirbys, Petras

    2016-01-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias remains a matter of intense investigation. Though evolving, the contemporary explanations do not encompass all aspects of arrhythmogenicity. An improved understanding of arrhythmia substrate is needed to augment therapeutic capabilities. Our observation and literature sources demonstrate relatively high incidence of transitory arrhythmias which are non-intentionally generated by the endocardial lead/catheter manipulation. These findings are interesting and potentially may crystallize the reflex-dependent proarrhythmic cardiac activity. Herein we suggest the "reflexogenic arrhythmogenicity" concept extending an overall spectrum of known hypotheses. Cardiovascular reflex action can be categorized into three-tiered levels - intra-cellular, inter-cellular and inter-organic. The first two levels of the triplicate system reside within the cardiac anatomical landmarks (in fact intramurally, intra-organically), however the third one implicates central (cerebral) activity which boomerangs back via centripetal and centrifugal connections. These levels likely compose synoptic ternary reflex set system which may be validated in future studies. To hypothesize, coordinated mutual reciprocity of reflex activity results in stabilization of heart rhythm in robust heart. Any stressful cardiac event may lead to the shift of the rhythm toward unfavorable clinical entity probably via the loss of the influence of dominant reflex. Overall, an interaction and likely intrinsic inter-tiered competition along with possible interplay between physiological and pathological reflexes may be treated as contributing factors for the inception and maintaining of arrhythmias and cardiac performance as well. These assumptions await further documentation. If such a tenet were recognized, the changes in the clinical approach to arrhythmia management might be anticipated, preferably by selective reflex suppression or

  8. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  9. Contribution of laser Doppler flowmetry with venoarteriolar reflex, cold, and rewarming testing, and intravital capillaroscopy to diagnose Raynaud's phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jan Zeman,1 Oksana Turyanytsya,1 Vojtĕch Kapsa,2 Mojmír Eliáš3 1Department of Clinical Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital Bulovka, 2Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, 3Kooperativa a.s., Pobrezni, Prague, Czech Republic Background: The early differential diagnosis of Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP is crucial for the prognosis and therapy of these patients. In our microcirculatory laboratory, we use intravital capillaroscopy (IC, plethysmography (P, and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF for examining acrosyndromes. We combine LDF with venoarteriolar reflex test, cold test, and rewarming test to achieve more reliable diagnoses of acrosyndromes. Patients and methods: We examined LDF and IC according to a strict protocol using a battery of tests (venoarteriolar reflex test, cold test, rewarming test applied to five different groups of people and compared their results: healthy controls, primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (PRP, systemic scleroderma, vibration white finger, and peripheral artery occlusive disease. Our tests included 340 individuals (72 patients plus 268 controls. Results: Although all tests provided some differences between controls and patients, only the rewarming test offered significant results for differential diagnoses. Conclusion: IC and LDF combined with the battery of tests (venoarteriolar reflex test, cold test, rewarming test under standard conditions can be used as reliable tools to distinguish between PRP and some types of secondary RP (especially in the case of systemic scleroderma, vibration white fingers, or peripheral artery occlusive disease; RPs with organic occlusions of the small arteries causing the diseases. Our methodology can help to distinguish between other types of RP, as well. Keywords: Raynaud’s phenomenon, acrosyndrome, laser Doppler flowmetry, intravital capillaroscopy, scleroderma, vibration white finger, peripheral artery occlusive disease

  10. Changes in H-Reflex Recruitment After Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation With Multiple Electrode Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kuck

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS is an electro-modulatory tool with possible application in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. TsDCS generates a small electric field, aiming to induce lasting, functional neuromodulation in the targeted neuronal networks. Earlier studies have shown significant modulatory effects after application of lumbar tsDCS. However, for clinical application, a better understanding of application specific factors is required. Our goal was to investigate the effect of different electrode configurations using lumbar spinal tsDCS on spinal excitability. We applied tsDCS (2.5 mA, 15 min in 10 healthy subjects with three different electrode configurations: (1 Anode and cathode placed over vertebra T11, and the posterior left shoulder respectively (LSC-S (one polarity, and (2 Both electrodes placed in equal distance (ED (7 cm above and below vertebra T11, investigated for two polarities (ED-Anodal/Cathodal. The soleus H-Reflex is measured before, during and after tsDCS in either electrode configuration or a sham condition. To account for genetic predispositions in response to direct current stimulation, subject BDNF genotype was assessed. Stimulation in configuration ED-Cathodal induced an amplitude reduction of the H-reflex, 30 min after tsDCS with respect to baseline, whereas none of the other configurations led to significant post intervention effects. BDNF genotype did not correlate with post intervention effects. Furthermore, we failed to replicate effects shown by a previous study, which highlights the need for a better understanding of methodological and subject specific influences on tsDCS outcome. The H-reflex depression after tsDCS (Config. ED-Cathodal provides new insights and may foster our understanding of the working mechanism of tsDCS.

  11. Modulation of the startle reflex by heat pain: does threat play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Hofmann, C; Lautenbacher, S

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the startle reflex is potentiated by phasic, but not by tonic, heat pain, although the latter is seen as more strongly associated with emotional responses and more similar to clinical pain. The threat value of pain might be a decisive variable, which is not influenced alone by stimulus duration. This study aimed at comparing startle responses to tonic heat pain stimulation with varying degrees of threat. We hypothesized that the expectation of unpredictable temperature increases would evoke higher threat and thereby potentiate startle compared with the expectation of constant stimulation. Healthy, pain-free subjects (n = 40) underwent painful stimulation in two conditions (low/high threat) in balanced order. The only difference between the two conditions was that in the high-threat condition 50% of the trials were announced to include a short further noxious temperature increase at the end. Startle tones were presented prior to this temperature increase still in the phase of anticipation. We observed startle potentiation in the high-threat compared with the low-threat condition, but only in those participants who took part first in the high-threat condition. Habituation could not account for these findings, as we detected no significant decline of startle responses in the course of both conditions. Our results suggest that subjective threat might indeed be decisive for the action of pain on startle; the threat level appears not only influenced by actual expectations but also by previous experiences with pain as threatening or not. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Adaptation to sensory-motor reflex perturbations is blind to the source of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Todd E; Landy, Michael S

    2012-01-06

    In the study of visual-motor control, perhaps the most familiar findings involve adaptation to externally imposed movement errors. Theories of visual-motor adaptation based on optimal information processing suppose that the nervous system identifies the sources of errors to effect the most efficient adaptive response. We report two experiments using a novel perturbation based on stimulating a visually induced reflex in the reaching arm. Unlike adaptation to an external force, our method induces a perturbing reflex within the motor system itself, i.e., perturbing forces are self-generated. This novel method allows a test of the theory that error source information is used to generate an optimal adaptive response. If the self-generated source of the visually induced reflex perturbation is identified, the optimal response will be via reflex gain control. If the source is not identified, a compensatory force should be generated to counteract the reflex. Gain control is the optimal response to reflex perturbation, both because energy cost and movement errors are minimized. Energy is conserved because neither reflex-induced nor compensatory forces are generated. Precision is maximized because endpoint variance is proportional to force production. We find evidence against source-identified adaptation in both experiments, suggesting that sensory-motor information processing is not always optimal.

  13. Soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixue; Gao, Yingji; Ji, Lixin; Bai, Wanshan

    2018-05-01

    The clinical value of soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach was investigated. A total of 80 cases with unilateral L5-S1 disc herniation between January 2015 and October 2016 were randomly divided into control group (without soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40) and observation group (with soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40). Results showed that the operation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (Ph after operation, the amplitude of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was significantly lower than that in healthy side (Ph postoperatively, the latency of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was shorter than that of healthy side (PH-reflex latency in soleus muscle were significantly lower (PH-reflex monitoring can effectively reduce the damage to the nerve roots under percutaneous endoscopic intervertebral endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, improve the accuracy of surgery, reduce the complications, shorten the operation time and reduce the surgical bleeding, which is more beneficial to patients smooth recovery.

  14. Emotion, reflexivity and social change in the era of extreme fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Debra J

    2018-05-09

    Reflexivity is an important sociological lens through which to examine the means by which people engage in actions that contribute to social reproduction or social elaboration. Reflexivity theorists have largely overlooked the central place of emotions in reflexive processing, however, thus missing opportunities to enhance our understanding of reflexivity by capitalizing on recent scholarship on emotions emanating from other fields of inquiry. This paper explores the role of emotion in reflexivity, with a qualitative analysis of social responses to hydraulic fracturing in Alberta, Canada, utilizing narrative analysis of long-form interviews with rural landowners who have experienced direct impacts from hydraulic fracturing, and have attempted to voice their concerns in the public sphere. Based on interviews with a selection of two interview participants, the paper highlights the means by which emotions shape reflexivity in consequential ways, beginning with personal and highly individualized emotional responses to contingent situations, which then factor into the social interactions engaged in the pursuit of personal projects. The shared emotional context that emerges then plays a substantial role in shaping outcomes and their implications for social stasis or change. This study exemplifies the extent to which reflexive processing in response to breaches in the social order can be emotionally tumultuous affairs, constituting a significant personal toll that many may be unwilling to pay. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  15. Emotional Dissonance and Burnout: The Moderating Role of Team Reflexivity and Re-Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Marie; Truchot, Didier

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to better understand the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout by exploring the buffering effects of re-evaluation and team reflexivity. The study was conducted with a sample of 445 nurses and healthcare assistants from a general hospital. Team reflexivity was evaluated with the validation of the French version of the team reflexivity scale (Facchin, Tschan, Gurtner, Cohen, & Dupuis, 2006). Burnout was measured with the MBI General Survey (Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). Emotional dissonance and re-evaluation were measured with the scale developed by Andela, Truchot, & Borteyrou (2015). With reference to Rimé's theoretical model (2009), we suggested that both dimensions of team reflexivity (task and social reflexivity) respond to both psychological necessities induced by dissonance (cognitive clarification and socio-affective necessities). Firstly, results indicated that emotional dissonance was related to burnout. Secondly, regression analysis confirmed the buffering role of re-evaluation and social reflexivity on the emotional exhaustion of emotional dissonance. Overall, results contribute to the literature by highlighting the moderating effect of re-evaluation and team reflexivity in analysing the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Monosynaptic Stretch Reflex Fails to Explain the Initial Postural Response to Sudden Lateral Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mühlbeier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postural reflexes are essential for locomotion and postural stability, and may play an important role in the etiology of chronic back pain. It has recently been theoretically predicted, and with the help of unilateral perturbations of the trunk experimentally confirmed that the sensorimotor control must lower the reflex amplitude for increasing reflex delays to maintain spinal stability. The underlying neuromuscular mechanism for the compensation of postural perturbations, however, is not yet fully understood. In this study, we applied unilateral and bilateral sudden external perturbations to the trunk of healthy subjects and measured the muscular activity and the movement onset of the trunk. We found that the onset of the trunk muscle activity is prior to, or coincident with, the onset of the trunk movement. Additionally, the results of our experiments imply that the muscular response mechanism integrates distant sensory information from both sides of the body. These findings rule out a simple monosynaptic stretch reflex in favor of a more complex polysynaptic postural reflex mechanism to compensate postural perturbations. Moreover, the previously predicted negative correlation between reflex delay and reflex gain was also confirmed for bilateral perturbations.

  17. Evaluating Red Reflex and Surgeon Preference Between Nearly-Collimated and Focused Beam Microscope Illumination Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionni, Robert J; Pei, Ron; Dimalanta, Ramon; Lubeck, David

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the intensity and stability of the red reflex produced by ophthalmic surgical microscopes with nearly-collimated versus focused illumination systems and to assess surgeon preference in a simulated surgical setting. This two-part evaluation consisted of postproduction surgical video analysis of red reflex intensity and a microscope use and preference survey completed by 13 experienced cataract surgeons. Survey responses were based on bench testing and experience in a simulated surgical setting. A microscope with nearly-collimated beam illumination and two focused beam microscopes were assessed. Red reflex intensity and stability were greater with the nearly-collimated microscope illumination system. In the bench testing survey, surgeons reported that the red reflex was maintained over significantly greater distances away from pupillary center, and depth of focus was numerically greater with nearly-collimated illumination relative to focused illumination. Most participating surgeons (≥64%) reported a preference for the microscope with nearly-collimated illumination with regard to red reflex stability, depth of focus, visualization, surgical working distance, and perceived patient comfort. The microscope with nearly-collimated illumination produced a more intense and significantly more stable red reflex and was preferred overall by more surgeons. This is the first report of an attempt to quantify red reflex intensity and stability and to evaluate surgically-relevant parameters between microscope systems. The data and methods presented here may provide a basis for future studies attempting to quantify differences between surgical microscopes that may affect surgeon preference and microscope use in ophthalmic surgery.

  18. Propranolol, but not naloxone, enhances spinal reflex bladder activity and reduces pudendal inhibition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of β-adrenergic and opioid receptors in spinal reflex bladder activity and in the inhibition induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or tibial nerve stimulation (TNS). Spinal reflex bladder contractions were induced by intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after an acute spinal cord transection (SCT) at the thoracic T9/T10 level. PNS or TNS at 5 Hz was applied to inhibit these spinal reflex contractions at 2 and 4 times the threshold intensity (T) for inducing anal or toe twitch, respectively. During a cystrometrogram (CMG), PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P reflex bladder contractions. After administering propranolol (3 mg/kg iv, a β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist), the effects of 2T and 4T PNS on bladder capacity were significantly (P reflex bladder contractions or PNS inhibition. At the end of experiments, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg iv, a ganglionic blocker) significantly (P reflex bladder contractions. This study indicates an important role of β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptors in pudendal inhibition and spinal reflex bladder activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Shall consist of brass castings, rolled brass, rod brass, tubing and 26 Honey . miscellaneous yellow brasses, including plated brass. Must be free of...surveillance. (See torns include: dry cough , irritation of throat and OSHA 1910.1025) tightness of chest leading to difficulty in breath- (1) Lead...selected conditions, e.g., styrene- up the cure of a compound when added in minor acrylonitrile copolymer resins blended with butadi- quantity as compared

  20. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  1. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  2. On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson’s, David Hume’s, and Adam Smith’s moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sent...

  3. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    individual policy activities. Subfunctions are assigned a numeric identifier (ending in a single digit ) related to the function to which they belong...operations, equipment repair, and maintenance of defense facilities, healthcare costs, and administration. 24% Military Personnel (MILPERS) Pay and

  4. Report on Defense Business Operations to the Congressional Defense Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Department’s strategic framework for planning and decision-making, and acknowledged the need to establish clear, actionable strategic goals and...Business Operations Department of Defense Business Transformation 5 2. Business Enterprise Priorities Six Business Enterprise Priorities ( BEPs ... framework products that facilitate the interoperability and integration of the operational activities, processes, data, information exchanges

  5. Learning reflexively from a health promotion professional development program in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades, reflexivity has received much attention in the professional education and training literature, especially in the public health and health promotion fields. Despite general agreement on the importance of reflexivity, there appears to be no consensus on how to assess reflexivity or to conceptualize the different forms developed among professionals and participants of training programs. This paper presents an analysis of the reflexivity outcomes of the Health Promotion Laboratory, an innovative professional development program aimed at supporting practice changes among health professionals by fostering competency development and reflexivity. More specifically, this paper explores the difference between two levels of reflexivity (formative and critical) and highlights some implications of each for practice. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with participants from two intervention sites. Results showed that involvement in the Health Promotion Laboratory prompted many participants to modify their vision of their practice and professional role, indicating an impact on reflexivity. In many cases, new understandings seem to have played a formative function in enabling participants to improve their practice and their role as health promoters. The reflective process also served a critical function culminating in a social and moral understanding of the impacts on society of the professionals' practices and roles. This type of outcome is greatly desired in health promotion, given the social justice and equity concerns of this field of practice. By redefining the theoretical concept of reflexivity on two levels and discussing their impacts on practice, this study supports the usefulness of both levels of reflexivity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hip proprioceptors preferentially modulate reflexes of the leg in human spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onushko, Tanya; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Stretch-sensitive afferent feedback from hip muscles has been shown to trigger long-lasting, multijoint reflex responses in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These reflexes could have important implications for control of leg movements during functional activities, such as walking. Because the control of leg movement relies on reflex regulation at all joints of the limb, we sought to determine whether stretch of hip muscles modulates reflex activity at the knee and ankle and, conversely, whether knee and ankle stretch afferents affect hip-triggered reflexes. A custom-built servomotor apparatus was used to stretch the hip muscles in nine chronic SCI subjects by oscillating the legs about the hip joint bilaterally from 10° of extension to 40° flexion. To test whether stretch-related feedback from the knee or ankle would be affected by hip movement, patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration were delivered when the hip was either extending or flexing. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) and joint torques were recorded from both legs. Patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration both elicited reflex responses local to the knee or ankle, respectively, and did not influence reflex responses observed at the hip. Rather, the movement direction of the hip modulated the reflex responses local to the joint. The patellar tendon reflex amplitude was larger when the perturbation was delivered during hip extension compared with hip flexion. The response to Achilles vibration was modulated by hip movement, with an increased tonic component during hip flexion compared with extension. These results demonstrate that hip-mediated sensory signals modulate activity in distal muscles of the leg and appear to play a unique role in modulation of spastic muscle activity throughout the leg in SCI. PMID:23615544

  7. Turtle Flexion Reflex Motor Patterns Show Windup, Mediated Partly by L-type Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied. We studied windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, evoked with weak mechanical and electrical stimulation of the dorsal hindlimb foot skin and assessed via a hip flexor (HF nerve recording, in spinal cord-transected and immobilized turtles in vivo. We found that an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine, applied at concentrations of 50 μM or 100 μM to the hindlimb enlargement spinal cord, significantly reduced windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, while lower concentrations of nifedipine had no such effect. Nifedipine similarly reduced the amplitude of an individual flexion reflex motor pattern evoked by a stronger mechanical stimulus, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to each flexion reflex as well as to multisecond summation of flexion reflex responses in turtles. We also found that we could elicit flexion reflex windup consistently using a 4-g von Frey filament, which is not usually considered a nociceptive stimulus. Thus, it may be that windup can be evoked by a wide range of tactile stimuli and that L-type calcium channels contribute to multisecond temporal summation of diverse tactile stimuli across vertebrates.

  8. Semilinear inclusions with nonlocal conditions without compactness in non-reflexive spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedetti, I.; Väth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2016), s. 613-636 ISSN 1230-3429 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : weak measure of noncompactness * weakly condensing map * semilinear differential inclusion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016 http://www.apcz.pl/czasopisma/index.php/TMNA/article/view/TMNA.2016.061

  9. Ablation of Cerebellar Nuclei Prevents H-Reflex Down-Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2005-01-01

    While studies of cerebellar involvement in learning and memory have described plasticity within the cerebellum, its role in acquisition of plasticity elsewhere in the CNS is largely unexplored. This study set out to determine whether the cerebellum is needed for acquisition of the spinal cord plasticity that underlies operantly conditioned…

  10. Immediate effects of the toe spreader on the tonic toe flexion reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saca, L R; Catlin, P A; Segal, R L

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the use of a toe spreader to inhibit the tonic toe flexion reflex (TTFR) immediately alters temporal-distance gait characteristics, plantar surface contact, or muscle activity in the limb exhibiting the TTFR of subjects with hemiparesis secondary to supraspinal lesion. Eighteen adults with hemiparesis secondary to supraspinal lesions served as subjects for the standing portion of the study. Sixteen of the subjects participated in the gait portion of the study. The study was a randomized, within-subject, between-conditions comparison consisting of standing and gait phases, with four conditions for each phase (shoe off, toe spreader off/on, shoe on, toe spreader off/on). Measures performed were ink footprint gait analysis and integrated electromyography from the limb exhibiting the TTFR. Presence of the TTFR was reduced significantly with the use of the toe spreader. Velocity and cadence were increased significantly by use of the toe spreader. The toe spreader may be a useful treatment option for improving gait. The clinical significance of these findings, however, will depend on the functional context of toe-spreader use.

  11. Experimental study of the reflooding of a constricted tube in the REFLEX rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.K.; Elliott, D.F.; Britton-Jones, K.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Winfrith experimental programme in support of the PWR is focussed on fuel thermal and hydraulic performance under hypothetical accident conditions, and includes studies of reflooding heat transfer of single tubes and fuel rod clusters under simulated accident conditions, aimed at improving understanding of the processes involved and providing data for code development and validation. The work described is part of a study of the possible effects of clad ballooning on ECCS effectiveness. During a large loss of coolant accident the primary circuit will depressurise and the core will overheat. The Zircaloy fuel cladding may swell, partially blocking the coolant passages by the formation of local ''balloons''. An experiment was carried out in the REFLEX single tube reflooding rig, to study, in a simple geometry, the effect of the partial blockage of the tube on the fluid flow and heat transfer during reflooding. The blockage consisted of a tapering entrance with a flow area 60 percent less than the unconstricted tube, and a tapering exit. The flow could be viewed through windows. 66 refloods were carried out over a pressure range of 1 to 4 bar. Results of these tests are presented. (U.K.)

  12. SEVERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF COMPARED LAW ON SELF-DEFENSE (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Criminal legislations of other States regulate self-defense in approximately similar manners, without major differences as compared to the conditions required by the Romanian law-maker to be fulfilled in order for the offence to become justifiable/exempt from liability. In this study, we chose to make a comparison in respect of self-defense from the perspective of 18 States1 around the world and, in the end, we will summarize several conclusions on the extent to which the Romanian law-maker could draw inspiration from their legislations.

  13. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Climate change Yes 18.0 13.9 22.1 No 78.1 73.8 82.5 Don’t know 3.8 2.1 6.4 Poor condition of the infrastructure Yes 58.3 53.2 63.4 No 39.0...the pole itself – was corroded and covered with salt, dust and debris. The salt and dirt formed a conductive layer on the insulator that can create a...GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments Page 84 GAO-17-27 Defense Infrastructure Defense Infrastructure: Changes in Funding Priorities and

  14. High-power ion beam generation with an inverse reflex tetrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasour, J.A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Golden, J.; Kapetanakos, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new reflexing-electron ion source is described. The device produces a unidirectional ion beam with relatively high efficiency even when the applied magnetic field exceeds the self-field. This new source operates at a low, constant impedance during much of the applied voltage pulse and is better matched to available high-power, low-impedance generators than previous reflexing-electron devices. Proton pulses with peak current approx.500 kA have been produced with the inverse reflex tetrode coupled to the Gamble II generator

  15. Functionality of the contralateral biceps femoris reflex response during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of the body in order to maintain dynamic equilibrium during walking. Therefore, we hypothesized that if we suddenly slowed the treadmill participants were walking on, the cBF reflex would be inhibited because the necessity to break the forward progression of the body would be decreased. Conversely, if we...... the treadmill velocity was altered concurrently or 50 ms after knee perturbation onset. These results, together with the finding that the cBF reflex response is under some cortical control [1], strongly suggest a functional role for the cBF reflex during walking that is adaptable to the environmental situation....

  16. Fixed Pupillary Light Reflex due to Peripheral Neuropathy after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU after liver transplantation. About an hour later after the ICU admission, she had no pupillary light reflex. Both pupils were also fixed at 5 mm. Patients who undergo liver transplantation are susceptible to neurologic disorders including hepatic encephalopathy, thromboembolism and intracranial hemorrhage. Abnormal pupillary light reflex usually indicates a serious neurologic emergency in these patients; however, benign neurologic disorders such as peripheral autonomic neuropathy or Holmes-Adie syndrome should also be considered. We experienced a case of fixed pupillary light reflex after liver transplantation diagnosed as peripheral autonomic neuropathy.

  17. Role of the cerebellum and the vestibular apparatus in regulation of orthostatic reflexes in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doba, N.; Reis, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of the fastigial nucleus and the vestibular nerves (eighth cranial nerves) to the orthostatic reflexes in anesthetized, paralyzed cats was studied. Bilateral lesions of the rostral fastigial nucleus resulted in impairment of the reflex changes in blood pressure, femoral arterial flow, and resistance evoked by head-up tilting to 30 deg or 60 deg. The rostral fastigial nucleus, which might be triggered by the vestibular apparatus, appears to participate in concert with the baroreceptors in the initiation and possibly the maintenance of the orthostatic reflexes.

  18. Influence of stimulus intensity on the soleus H-reflex amplitude and modulation during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    -reflex methodology itself. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to study the effect on the soleus H-reflex during walking and running using stimulus intensities normally considered too high (up to 45% Mmax). Using M-waves of 25-45% Mmax as opposed to 5-25% Mmax showed a significant suppression...... of the peak H-reflex during the stance phase of walking, while no changes were observed during running. No differences were observed regarding modulation pattern. So a possible use of too high stimulus intensity cannot explain the differences mentioned. The surprising result in running may be explained...

  19. Research progress of the relationship between abnormal vestibular reflexes and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is an agnogenic structural scoliosis occurring in adolescence, and the main diagnostic criteria is coronal Cobb angle >10°in total spine X-ray. Studies have shown that AIS may be associated with abnormal postural reflexes, vestibular system is an important component of postural reflexes and its mechanism in the occurrence and development of scoliosis has received wide attention in recent years. In the study, the research progress on the role of abnormal vestibular reflexes in the pathogenesis of AIS was mainly introduced to help the clinicians better understand the pathogenesis of AIS and provide new ideas for AIS study.

  20. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  1. THE PROGNOSIS OF RUSSIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTED THROUGH REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kapustina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of investigation the major internal and external factors which influence the development of the defense industry, as well as the results of regression analysis which quantitatively displays the factorial contribution in the growth rate of Russian defense industry. On the basis of calculated regression dependences the authors fulfilled the medium-term prognosis of defense industry. Optimistic and inertial versions of defense product growth rate for the period up to 2009 are based on scenario conditions in Russian economy worked out by the Ministry of economy and development. In conclusion authors point out which factors and conditions have the largest impact on successful and stable operation of Russian defense industry.

  2. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  3. Promoter-Based Integration in Plant Defense Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Gaudinier, Allison; Tang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A key unanswered question in plant biology is how a plant regulates metabolism to maximize performance across an array of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. In this study, we addressed the potential breadth of transcriptional regulation that can alter accumulation of the defensive...... glucosinolate metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A systematic yeast one-hybrid study was used to identify hundreds of unique potential regulatory interactions with a nearly complete complement of 21 promoters for the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. Conducting high-throughput phenotypic...... validation, we showed that >75% of tested transcription factor (TF) mutants significantly altered the accumulation of the defensive glucosinolates. These glucosinolate phenotypes were conditional upon the environment and tissue type, suggesting that these TFs may allow the plant to tune its defenses...

  4. Transgenerational Effects Alter Plant Defense and Resistance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defense. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defense for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of inter-annual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defense makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. PMID:28102915

  5. Reflexivity in midwifery research: the insider/outsider debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jennifer; Schmied, Virginia; Sheehan, Athena

    2012-02-01

    To explore the challenges of conducting an observational study of postnatal interactions, between midwives and women, when the researcher was a midwife observing in familiar midwifery settings. Participant observation conducted by researchers who are themselves midwives raises questions regarding the influence of 'identity' and 'insider' knowledge on the conduct of such projects. The insider/outsider status of researchers has been explored in other disciplines, yet this is an area which is underdeveloped in the midwifery literature where few attempts have been made to subject this issue to sustained analysis. A qualitative study (investigating the provision of breast-feeding support in the first week after birth) provided the opportunity for reflexive exploration of the tensions faced by midwife researchers. Two maternity units in New South Wales, Australia. Participants included 40 midwives and 78 breast-feeding women. Possessing 'insider' midwifery knowledge was advantageous in the 'getting in' and 'fitting in' phases of this research study however unanticipated role ambiguity, and moral and ethical challenges, arose as a result of this 'insider' knowledge and status. Prolonged periods of observation challenged the midwife researcher's preconceived ideas and early decisions about the advantages and disadvantages of being an 'insider' or an 'outsider' in the research setting. Reflexive analysis of insider/outsider experiences revealed the middle ground which participant observers tend to navigate. Whilst professional insider knowledge and status offered many advantages, especially at the first study setting, some of the inherent embodied, and socially constructed features of the 'midwife' observer role, were unanticipated. Cultural competence, in these observational study settings, translated into role ambiguity, and at times, culturally entrenched role expectations. Midwifery observation of clinical practice, for research, or practice development purposes

  6. Managing Quadrennial Defense Review Integration: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrader, John

    2001-01-01

    ...). The lessons learned from the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR 1997) included the need for leadership guidance and integration of analytic activities to sort through the myriad issues that are always confronting the Department of Defense...

  7. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  8. Glutamatergic neurotransmission from melanopsin retinal ganglion cells is required for neonatal photoaversion but not adult pupillary light reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Delwig

    Full Text Available Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs in the eye play an important role in many light-activated non-image-forming functions including neonatal photoaversion and the adult pupillary light reflex (PLR. MRGCs rely on glutamate and possibly PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide to relay visual signals to the brain. However, the role of these neurotransmitters for individual non-image-forming responses remains poorly understood. To clarify the role of glutamatergic signaling from mRGCs in neonatal aversion to light and in adult PLR, we conditionally deleted vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2 selectively from mRGCs in mice. We found that deletion of VGLUT2 in mRGCs abolished negative phototaxis and light-induced distress vocalizations in neonatal mice, underscoring a necessary role for glutamatergic signaling. In adult mice, loss of VGLUT2 in mRGCs resulted in a slow and an incomplete PLR. We conclude that glutamatergic neurotransmission from mRGCs is required for neonatal photoaversion but is complemented by another non-glutamatergic signaling mechanism for the pupillary light reflex in adult mice. We speculate that this complementary signaling might be due to PACAP neurotransmission from mRGCs.

  9. Comparison between the effects of lisinopril and losartan on the cougn reflex in anesthetized and awake rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, D; Cinelli, E; Bongianni, F; Evangelista, S; Pantaleo, T

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in cough induction between losartan and lisinopril in both anaesthetized and awake rabbits, i.e., under conditions in which the influences of higher brain areas on the cough reflex are strongly reduced or abolished. Losartan (500 μg/kg), lisinopril (100 μg/kg) and NaCl 0.9% saline solution (vehicle) were administered by intravenous injections. Animals were randomly assigned to the different experimental treatments. The cough reflex was induced by chemical (citric acid) and/or mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. In anaesthetized rabbits, losartan and lisinopril caused similar hypotensive effects. Lisinopril, but not losartan, increased the cough response induced by both mechanical and chemical stimulation due to increases in the cough number, i.e. the number of coughs induced by each stimulation challenge. In awake animals, only lisinopril significantly increased the cough number. The results support the notion that cough potentiation induced by losartan, and possibly other sartans, is lower than that induced by most angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors despite the reduction or complete absence of higher brain functions. In this connection, the comparison between present results and our previous findings on ramipril and zofenopril shows that losartan and zofenopril display similar cough-inducing potency, much lower than that of lisinopril and ramipril.

  10. The Art and Science of Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA - Logistics THE ART AND SCIENCE OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS...Government EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Art and Science of Defense Logistics Author: Major S. I. Schuler, USMC Research Questions: 1...00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Missile defense in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  12. Oculocardiac reflex elicited by orbital floor fracture and inferior globe displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau M. Pham

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions and importance: The oculocardiac reflex can precipitate marked bradycardia and hypotension in the setting of trauma with significant orbital and maxillofacial injury. Prompt identification and management with vagolytic agents or definitive surgical intervention may prevent morbidity or mortality.

  13. Palateless custom bar supported overdenture: A treatment modality to treat patient with severe gag reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwarjeet Singh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Palateless custom bar supported overdenture procedure can be successfully used for the management of patients with severe gag reflex with improved denture retention, stability, chewing efficiency and comfort of the patient.

  14. Computer simulation model of reflex e-beam systems coupled to an external circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.; Stavinoha, P.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of ions and relativistic electrons in various high-voltage reflexing systems (reflex diodes and triodes) was investigated numerically by means of 1 1/2-dimensional PIC simulation model OREBIA. Its perfected version OREBIA-REX also accounts for system coupling to an external power source circuit, thus yielding the currents and applied voltage self-consistently. Various modes of operation of reflex diode and triode were studied using both models. It is shown that neglecting the influence of the external circuit can lead to seve--re overestimation of both ion currents and electron accumulation rates. In coupled systems with ions repeated collapses of impedance due to electron-ion relaxation processes are observed. The current and voltage pulses calculated for several reflex diodes and triodes with and without ions are presented. (J.U.)

  15. How Can Hypnodontics Manage Severe Gag Reflex for Root Canal Therapy? A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Mohsen; zarenejad, Nafiseh; Parirokh, Masoud; Zahedpasha, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, severe involuntary gagging can have a severe impact on treatment procedure. There are many ways to ease the gag reflex, one of which is hypnosis. A 34-year-old male was referred for root canal treatment of a molar tooth. He had not received any dental treatments for the past nine years due to fear of severe gag reflex. Three hypnotic sessions based upon eye fixation, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery techniques were spent for psychosomatic management. The gag reflex was controlled and reduced to a normal level, and the required dental treatments including root canal therapy and restoration were performed successfully. This report shows that hypnosis can control gag reflex for dental treatments. PMID:27141226

  16. Cultural Reflexivity and the Nostalgia for Glocal Consumer Culture: Insights from a Multicultural Multiple Migration Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Kjeldgaard, Dannie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate consumption discourses in contexts characterized by multiple cultures and intercultural contacts, as multicultural contacts and multiple migrations challenge existing consumer acculturation models based on a dualistic process of acculturation....... This chapter explores empirically the character of cultural reflexivity and its expression in consumers’ discourses. Given that nostalgia is one prominent dimension of the migration conceptualization, we seek to understand how the role of nostalgia changes in contexts where consumers are decreasingly...... – On the basis of these findings, the article discusses cultural reflexivity in terms of naturalization and cultivation narratives (Wilk, 1999), proposing shifts between reflexive and routinized consumption practices as basis for consumers’ cultural reflexivity. Originality/value of chapter – The contribution...

  17. Role of the brain stem in tibial inhibition of the micturition reflex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Matthew C; Slater, Rick C; Shen, Bing; Xiao, Zhiying; Wang, Jicheng; Lee, Andy; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the role of the brain stem in inhibition of bladder reflexes induced by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) in α-chloralose-anesthetized decerebrate cats. Repeated cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed by infusing saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to elicit normal or overactive bladder reflexes, respectively. TNS (5 or 30 Hz) at three times the threshold (3T) intensity for inducing toe movement was applied for 30 min between CMGs to induce post-TNS inhibition or applied during the CMGs to induce acute TNS inhibition. Inhibition was evident as an increase in bladder capacity without a change in amplitude of bladder contractions. TNS applied for 30 min between saline CMGs elicited prolonged (>2 h) poststimulation inhibition that significantly (P reflexes but are not involved in inhibition of normal bladder reflexes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Gaze stabilization reflexes in the mouse: New tools to study vision and sensorimotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Alphen (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Gaze stabilization reflexes are a popular model system in neuroscience for connecting neurophysiology and behavior as well as studying the neural correlates of behavioral plasticity. These compensatory eye movements are one of the simplest motor behaviors,

  19. Defensiveness versus remediation: self-theories and modes of self-esteem maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, A David; Dweck, Carol S

    2008-05-01

    How people maintain and repair their self-esteem has been a topic of widespread interest. In this article, the authors ask, What determines whether people will use direct, remedial actions, or defensive actions? In three studies, they tested the hypothesis that a belief in fixed intelligence (entity theory) would produce defensiveness, whereas a belief in improvable intelligence (incremental theory) would foster remediation. In each study, participants assigned to the entity condition opted for defensive self-esteem repair (downward comparison in Studies 1 and 3; a tutorial on already mastered material in Study 2), but those in the incremental condition opted for self-improvement (upward comparison in Studies 1 and 3; a tutorial on unmastered material in Study 2). Experiment 3 also linked these strategies to self-esteem repair; remedial strategies were the most effective in recovering lost self-esteem for those in the incremental condition, whereas defensive strategies were most effective for those in the entity condition.

  20. An Analysis of the Competitive Strategy in the Industry Providing a Defense System of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melone, James

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the 1996 Defense Science Board Report on Vertical Integration and DoD's 1999 report on Price Based Acquisition recommend that DoD take steps to further understanding of competitive conditions...

  1. Experimental verification of the dominant microwaves from the reflexing electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.W.; Chen, C.Y.; Hwong, C.S.; Guung, T.C.; Tung, K.N.; Hou, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    At a fixed diode voltage and a cathode-anode gap of 4.5 mm, the frequency of the dominant microwaves scales approximately one-fourth of the diode current for the diode current from 3.7 to 4.9 kA, showing that the dominant microwaves are not generated from the oscillating virtual cathodes. The most persuasive result is that the frequency of the dominant microwaves is kept almost constant as the diode current increases from 4.9 to 7.5 kA, which indicates that these microwaves are generated from the oscillations of the reflexing electrons. The frequency of the dominant microwaves for the overall range of the diode current is 8.0 - 8.5 GHz and the maximum peak power of the microwaves is --40 MW. The complete spectra of the microwaves at various diode current is presented and the components contributed from the oscillations of the virtual cathodes in each spectrum are pointed out

  2. Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Excitatory Cardiovascular Reflexes during Electroacupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Somatic afferent stimulation activates neurons in the hypothalamic PVN. Parvocellular PVN neurons project to sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular regions of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulates the median nerve (P5-P6) to modulate sympathoexcitatory responses. We hypothesized that the PVN and its projections to the rVLM participate in the EA-modulation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular responses. Cats were anesthetized and ventilated. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were monitored. Application of bradykinin every 10-min on the gallbladder induced consistent pressor reflex responses. Thirty-min of bilateral EA stimulation at acupoints P5-P6 reduced the pressor responses for at least 60-min. Inhibition of the PVN with naloxone reversed the EA-inhibition. Responses of cardiovascular barosensitive rVLM neurons evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation were reduced by EA and then restored with opioid receptor blockade in the PVN. EA at P5-P6 decreased splanchnic evoked activity of cardiovascular barosensitive PVN neurons that also project directly to the rVLM. PVN neurons labeled with retrograde tracer from rVLM were co-labeled with μ-opioid receptors and juxtaposed to endorphinergic fibers. Thus, the PVN and its projection to rVLM are important in processing acupuncture modulation of elevated blood pressure responses through a PVN opioid mechanism. PMID:27181844

  3. Confluence and Contours: Reflexive Management of Environmental Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soane, Emma; Schubert, Iljana; Pollard, Simon; Rocks, Sophie; Black, Edgar

    2016-06-01

    Government institutions have responsibilities to distribute risk management funds meaningfully and to be accountable for their choices. We took a macro-level sociological approach to understanding the role of government in managing environmental risks, and insights from micro-level psychology to examine individual-level risk-related perceptions and beliefs. Survey data from 2,068 U.K. citizens showed that lay people's funding preferences were associated positively with beliefs about responsibility and trust, yet associations with perception varied depending on risk type. Moreover, there were risk-specific differences in the funding preferences of the lay sample and 29 policymakers. A laboratory-based study of 109 participants examined funding allocation in more detail through iterative presentation of expert information. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed a meso-level framework comprising three types of decisionmakers who varied in their willingness to change funding allocation preferences following expert information: adaptors, responders, and resistors. This research highlights the relevance of integrated theoretical approaches to understanding the policy process, and the benefits of reflexive dialogue to managing environmental risks. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Reflex Marine celebrates 10. anniversary of FROG crew transfer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    Reflex Marine developed the initial 3-person FROG crew transfer device in response to the main risks identified from incidents involving traditional rope baskets for personnel transfer: falling, collisions, hard landings, and immersion. To address these issues, the FROG was developed with 4-point harnesses, a protective shell, shock-absorbing landing feet, and self-righting capability. As a result of industry demand for a higher capacity transfer device, the company introduced 6- and 9-man versions of the FROG. The perceptions and reality of marine transfers have changed greatly over the past decade, from the design of the device to vessel specifications and increased focus on crane operations. Marine transfers offer a low-risk alternative to helicopter transfers. The TORO, a low-cost crew transfer capsule launched in February 2009, fits into a standard shipping container, providing significant logistical advantages. The TORO can carry 4 passengers, offer protection from side impacts and hard landings, and is buoyant and self-righting. Most of the units are being used by major oil and gas companies, but offshore wind turbines are an emerging source of demand for the crew transfer system. 3 figs.

  5. Increased auditory startle reflex in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mirte J; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominal pain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23 control subjects (14 girls; mean age, 12.3 years) using a case-control design. The activity of 6 left-sided muscles and the sympathetic skin response were obtained by an electromyogram. We presented sudden loud noises to the subjects through headphones. Both the combined response of 6 muscles and the blink response proved to be significantly increased in patients with abdominal pain compared with control subjects. A significant increase of the sympathetic skin response was not found. Comorbid anxiety disorders (8 patients with abdominal pain) or Rome III subclassification did not significantly affect these results. This study demonstrates an objective hyperresponsivity to nongastrointestinal stimuli. Children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders may have a generalized hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reflex tetrode for producing an efficient unidirectional ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.; Kapetanakos, C.A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Pasour, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A reflex tetrode device for efficiently generating intense, pulsed unidirectional ion beams is disclosed. The device includes two thin, semitransparent anodes spaced from a real cathode which is maintained at ground potential. The first anode is spaced from and faces the real cathode. The second anode is spaced a short distance from the first anode and a virtual cathode is formed beyond the second anode when a sufficiently high electron current flows from the real cathode and through the anodes. The anodes are ring-like or disc-like structures secured to the edges of a support member with their planes perpendicular to the axis of the device between the real and virtual cathodes. The anode structure (i.e., the support member together with the two anodes) is connected to a pulsed high-voltage generator which is operated in positive polarity. Consequently, both anodes are at the same positive potential. The first anode, because of its material, does not readily form an ionic plasma when electrons pass through it, but the second anode does

  7. The influence of iris color on the pupillary light reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, O; Schoetzau, A; Sugimoto, K; Zulauf, M

    1998-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of iris color on the pupillary light reflex (PLR) in normal healthy volunteers. Pupil perimetry was performed on 50 healthy volunteers with the Octopus 1-2-3 automated perimeter. Within the 30-deg visual field, 33 test locations were investigated four times. Stimulus parameters were Goldmann size V (1.72 degrees), intensity 1632 cd/m2, stimulus time 200 ms, background illumination 0 cd/m2, and interstimulus interval 3 s. Pupillometric parameters studied were initial pupil size, amplitude (magnitude of pupillary contraction), latency time, contraction time, pre-PLR movement, contraction velocity, and redilation velocity. Pupillometric parameters were investigated by analysis of variance by the independent variables blue and brown irides. Iris color (blue vs brown) influenced statistically significantly (P movement (0.328 mm2/s vs 0.325 mm2/s). Pupillary contraction amplitude and velocity depended on iris color, whereas pupil size and latency time were independent of iris color. Therefore, iris color might be considered when, evaluating pupillary movements in pupil perimetry.

  8. Critical reflexivity in financial markets: a Hawkes process analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bercot, Nicolas; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    We model the arrival of mid-price changes in the E-mini S&P futures contract as a self-exciting Hawkes process. Using several estimation methods, we find that the Hawkes kernel is power-law with a decay exponent close to -1.15 at short times, less than ≈ 103 s, and crosses over to a second power-law regime with a larger decay exponent ≈-1.45 for longer times scales in the range [ 103,106 ] seconds. More importantly, we find that the Hawkes kernel integrates to unity independently of the analysed period, from 1998 to 2011. This suggests that markets are and have always been close to criticality, challenging a recent study which indicates that reflexivity (endogeneity) has increased in recent years as a result of increased automation of trading. However, we note that the scale over which market events are correlated has decreased steadily over time with the emergence of higher frequency trading.

  9. Uma Reflexão sobre Autoria Acadêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar elementos para um debate sobre a ética das práticas de autoria no campo científico brasileiro. Os autores utilizam exemplos ilustrativos para explorar as práticas de pseudoautoria, estabelecendo relações entre essas práticas, as coerções oriundas do campo acadêmico e o habitus dos agentes sociais. Foi elaborada uma definição preliminar do que seja autoria a fim de possibilitar a discussão sobre dois problemas centrais, que são: a lógica de “colocar o nome” e o plágio. Uma das principais contribuições deste trabalho repousa na reflexão orientada para a construção de uma prática aperfeiçoada de autoria, possibilitando a crítica e a autocrítica dos agentes do meio acadêmico sobre algumas práticas problemáticas de autoria.

  10. Games on Games. Game Design as Critical Reflexive Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Caruso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Can video game design be compared to more formalized practices of scientific research or speculation within game studies? And, by virtue of an intellectual leap that in itself calls for discussion, can video games be considered as an efficient vehicle for the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge, in the same way in which papers, conference presentations, and books are? What Ratto defines as critical making (2011, the practice of producing artifacts of different sorts in order to supplement and extend critical reflection, may apply to video games as well. Forms of research through design (Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, 2007, of carpentry (Bogost, 2012, and speculative design (Dunne and Raby, 2013 have been analyzed, discussed, and maybe most importantly, put into practice in different fields of cultural and scientific production. To address this gap and to map the current (and future state of self-reflexive games, we asked both researchers and designers to imagine an application of these concepts to video games. Paraphrasing Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, what does research through game design might mean? What epistemological insights can we derive from the act of designing, making and playing video games?

  11. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR, and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in PVN in regulating the AAR.Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin.Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR.

  12. Musicogenic reflex seizures in epilepsy with glutamic acid decarbocylase antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falip, M; Rodriguez-Bel, L; Castañer, S; Miro, J; Jaraba, S; Mora, J; Bas, J; Carreño, M

    2018-02-01

    Musicogenic reflex seizures (MRS) are a rare form of seizures described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), mainly of unknown etiology. Epilepsy with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) is a form of autoimmune epilepsy for which no specific semiology has been described. To retrospectively review the incidence of MRS in the general epileptic population and in the series of patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab and to describe its clinical and paraclinical characteristics. Patients recorded between January 2010 and January 2016 in the Database of Bellvitge Hospital Epilepsy Unit were reviewed. From a group of 1510 epileptic patients, three reported MRS (0.0019%) (two patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab and one patient with cryptogenic TLE). The incidence of MRS in patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab was 2 of 22 (9%). Both patients had a normal magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), but FDG-PET showed medial temporal lobe hypometabolism (unilateral or bilateral) in both and also in the insula in one of them. MRS (recorded via video-EEG[electroencephalography] in one patient) arose from the right temporal lobe. MRS may be a distinctive seizure type in patients with epilepsy and antiGADab. Determination of GAD-ab should be carried out in all cases of MRS, even those with normal structural MRI. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reflex reticular myoclonus: relationship to some brainstem pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rektor, I; Kadanka, Z; Bednarik, J

    1991-04-01

    Two patients with reflex reticular myoclonus [RRM] were tested electrophysiologically and pharmacologically. In one of the cases the underlying disease was chronic Lyme borreliosis. In the other, the RRM attacks may have been associated with procarbazine therapy applied for Hodgkin's disease. No cortical lesion could be demonstrated either clinically or electrophysiologically [EEG, averaged EEg preceeding the jerks, SSEP]. An EMG analysis of the jerks revealed the shortest latency in the muscles innervated by the accessory nerve. The latencies became longer in a more rostral muscle [masseter], as well as in a more caudal one, the muscles innervated by the facial nerve were spared. it is presumed that the complete movement pattern of the myoclonus residues in the jerk generating structure. RRM in the described cases differs from the startle by sparing the facial nerve and from the Papio papio baboon non-epileptic myoclonus by the activating effect of physostigmine. A partial therapeutic effect was achieved with a serotonine precursor, but a GABAergic therapy proved to be the most effective.

  14. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  15. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  16. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  17. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to... requirements for the support of military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: REFLEX II. Properties of the survey (Boehringer+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, H.; Chon, G.; Collins, C. A.; Guzzo, L.; Nowak, N.; Bobrovskyi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Like REFLEX I, the extended survey covers the southern sky outside the band of the Milky Way (|bII|>=20°) with regions around the Magellanic clouds excised (3 in LMC, 3 in SMC). The total survey area after this excision amounts to 4.24 steradian (or 13924°2) which corresponds to 33.75% of the sky. Different from REFLEX I, we use the refined RASS product RASS III (Voges et al. 1999, Cat. IX/10). (2 data files).

  19. Periodic modulation of repetitively elicited monosynaptic reflexes of the human lumbosacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Danner, Simon M.; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury, epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord at 2 Hz evokes unmodulated reflexes in the lower limbs, while stimulation at 22–60 Hz can generate rhythmic burstlike activity. Here we elaborated on an output pattern emerging at transitional stimulation frequencies with consecutively elicited reflexes alternating between large and small. We analyzed responses concomitantly elicited in thigh and leg muscle groups bilaterally by epidural...

  20. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin–NTS, lingual muscle–NTS and lingual muscle–Pa5–NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures. PMID:19124539