WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense technology area

  1. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  2. Influence of IR sensor technology on the military and civil defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Latika

    2006-02-01

    Advances in basic infrared science and developments in pertinent technology applications have led to mature designs being incorporated in civil as well as military area defense systems. Military systems include both tactical and strategic, and civil area defense includes homeland security. Technical challenges arise in applying infrared sensor technology to detect and track targets for space and missile defense. Infrared sensors are valuable due to their passive capability, lower mass and power consumption, and their usefulness in all phases of missile defense engagements. Nanotechnology holds significant promise in the near future by offering unique material and physical properties to infrared components. This technology is rapidly developing. This presentation will review the current IR sensor technology, its applications, and future developments that will have an influence in military and civil defense applications.

  3. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  4. Future directions of defense programs high-level waste technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, T.C.; Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.; Campbell, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been managing high-level waste from the production of nuclear materials for defense activities over the last forty years. An objective for the Defense Waste and Transportation Management program is to develop technology which ensures the safe, permanent disposal of all defense radioactive wastes. Technology programs are underway to address the long-term strategy for permanent disposal of high-level waste generated at each Department of Energy site. Technology is being developed for assessing the hazards, environmental impacts, and costs of each long-term disposal alternative for selection and implementation. This paper addresses key technology development areas, and consideration of recent regulatory requirements associated with the long-term management of defense radioactive high-level waste

  5. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  6. 75 FR 40857 - Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... regional innovation clusters, as well as experience fostering small business development and growth... from existing regional innovation clusters specializing in defense technologies to provide counseling... cluster areas and industries. SBA intends to make awards to multiple regional innovation clusters that can...

  7. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: National Security Missions: Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Nuclear Weapons Defense Systems Global Security Energy Facebook

  9. Current situation and countermeasures of the defense technology industry intellectual property management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fei

    2014-01-01

    In Defense technology industry is a strategic industry of our country, is an important foundation for China to achieve modernization of national defense, is also important driving force of our national economy. Intellectual property plays a very important role in the defense industry ' strengthen the basis of capacity, combining military and civilian, leapfrog development' strategy. Defense-related science, technology and industry advanced nature of intellectual property management and its ownership is a direct reflection of the capability of independent innovation and sustainable development of the defense industry. Therefore, how to make the effective protection and management of intellectual property rights in the Defense Industry has also become a new issue that we face. In this paper, by analyzing the status of the defense technology industry intellectual property management, at home and abroad, and other industry advanced experience in intellectual property management, put forward recommendations to strengthen our national defense science and technology industry intellectual property management. (author)

  10. Research on Network Defense Strategy Based on Honey Pot Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianchao; Hua, Ying

    2018-03-01

    As a new network security technology of active defense, The honeypot technology has become a very effective and practical method of decoy attackers. The thesis discusses the theory, structure, characteristic, design and implementation of Honeypot in detail. Aiming at the development of means of attack, put forward a kind of network defense technology based on honeypot technology, constructing a virtual Honeypot demonstrate the honeypot’s functions.

  11. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun; Han, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation

  12. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sangcheol [KEIT, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation.

  13. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  14. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Concepts for aircraft interior decon • Concepts for wide area/fixed site decon • Supercritical fluid-based decon for sensitive equipment; •Demo enzymatic ...and special purpose clothing; improved closure systems for ensembles; microencapsulated phase change materials for special purpose applications, and...development of microencapsulated phase change materials for heating and cooling in response to extreme temperature changes. Participants in this work are

  15. 75 FR 22753 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Deputy Secretary of Defense; the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics... complex technology problems facing the Department of Defense in such areas as research, engineering, and... official. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics shall be authorized to...

  16. Air defense planning for an area with the use of very short range air defense sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method of planning the deployment of very short-range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD around an area (‘protected area’ in order to protect it. A function dependent on the distance between the earliest feasible points of destroying targets and the centre of the protected area was taken as an objective function. This is a different indicator from those commonly used in the literature, and based on the likelihood of a defense zone penetration by means of an air attack (MAA: the kill probability of the MAA and the probability of area losses. The model constraints resulted directly from the restrictions imposed by real air defense systems and the nature of the area being defended. This paper assumes that the VSHORAD system operates as a part of a general, superordinate air defense command and control system based on the idea of network-centric warfare, which provides the VSHORAD system with a recognized air picture, air defense plans, and combat mission specifications. The presented method has been implemented. The final part of the paper presents the computational results. Keywords: optimal planning, air defense system, area installation protection, deployment of very short range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD

  17. Capitalization of Defense Technology Security Administration Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    ... $5.2 million in the Equipment in Use account on its trial balance. Starting with FY 1996, Defense Technology Security Administration financial data will be included in consolidated DoD financial statements...

  18. Changing Manufacturing Technology and Jobs in Defense Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Richard P.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on the current status of computer-assisted manufacturing, current employment, and plans for new technology in three defense-related industries: aircraft, shipbuilding, and ordnance. (SK)

  19. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... Over several decades, great disparities in the funding of defense research and technology by NATO members has produced a widening technological gap that threatens to become a divergence a condition...

  20. The Defense Science Board 2001 Summer Study on Defense Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    HIT” The threat of biological weapons arises in part from a decades-old megatrend in the life sciences. New advances in molecular biology, genetics...99 The Technology Landscape Today.................................... 101 Biological Warfare Defense...planning and programming, today’s environment comprises a broader, more diffuse set of concerns: terrorism, biological warfare, regional tensions

  1. Civilian applications for superconducting magnet technology developed for defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.A.; Klein, S.W.; Gurol, H.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy years after its discovery, superconducting technology is beginning to play an important role in the civilian sector. Strategic defense initiative (SDI)-related research in space- and ground-based strategic defense weapons, particularly research efforts utilizing superconducting magnet energy storage, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and superconducting pulsed-power devices, have direct applications in the civilian sector as well and are discussed in the paper. Other applications of superconducting magnets, which will be indirectly enhanced by the overall advancement in superconducting technology, include high-energy physics accelerators, magnetic resonance imaging, materials purifying, water purifying, superconducting generators, electric power transmission, magnetically levitated trains, magnetic-fusion power plants, and superconducting computers

  2. How Might Civilian Technology Firms Play A Role In The Defense Industrial Base Going Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology

  3. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James L. Jones

    2003-01-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more ''out-of-the-box'' solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed ''out-of-the-box'' solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense

  4. Analyzing Department of Defense's Use of Other Transactions as a Method for Accessing Non-Traditional Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilliland, John

    2001-01-01

    ... technological superiority To attract advanced technology companies that normally do not participate in defense business to the defense market, Congress provided a new contracting authority, Section 845...

  5. Review of defense display research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulis, Robert W.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Morton, David C.; Shashidhar, Ranganathan

    2001-09-01

    Display research has comprised a substantial portion of the defense investment in new technology for national security for the past 13 years. These investments have been made by the separate service departments and, especially, via several Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the High Definition Systems (HDS) Program (which ended in 2001) and via the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Defense Production Act (DPA) Title III Program (efforts ended in 2000). Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These completed DARPA and DPA research and infrastructure programs are reviewed. Service investments have been and are being made to transition display technology; examples are described. Display science and technology (S&T) visions are documented for each service to assist the identification of areas meriting consideration for future defense research.

  6. Defense Technology Objectives for the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan and the Defense Technology Area Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Technologies such as radar, jet engines, nuclear weapons, night vision, smart weapons, stealth, the Global Positioning System, and vastly more capable information management systems have changed warfare dramatically...

  7. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology and Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    utilizing these agent impermeable membranes. By FY98, develop and conduct physiological testing of a series of microencapsulated phase change materials...bases and depots, as well as civilian areas. By the end of FY02, demonstrate efficacy of enzymatic decontamination system for G and V-type nerve agents

  8. DEFENSE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Adopting Best Practices Can Improve Innovation Investments and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Defense Technology Development: Technology Transition Programs Support Military Users, but Opportunities Exist to Improve Measurement of Outcomes, GAO-13... LTE ), for cellular wireless communication applications. They also develop and commercialize numerous technologies used in handsets and tablets. They...17-499 Note: Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) are a tool that DOD, among others, uses to assess technology maturity. TRLs are measured on a scale

  9. The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China: Innovation, Defense Transformation, and China’s Place in the Global Technology Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Stockmann, Xiao Qiang. Changing Media, Changing China , New York: Oxford University Press, (01 2011) Dieter Ernst. Indigenous Innovation and...2211 China , science, technology, dual use, defense, security, innovation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...ABSTRACT Final Report: The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China : Innovation , Defense Transformation, and China’s

  10. 5th International Conference OTEH 2012 - defense technology (Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Petar Đurković

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of all papers and events at the Fifth International ScientificConference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012 held in Belgrade, in the Military Technical Institute (VTI, from 18th to 19th September 2012.The paper review presents the Conference Sections by subjects and guest-lectureres as well as the institutions of all authors who actively participated at the Conference.About the ConferenceThe Fifth International Scientific Conference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012  was held in Belgrade in the Military Technical Institute in Žarkovo, from 18th to 19thSeptember 2012..The Conference program was organized in two plenary sessions and a working part which took place in four halls.In the plenary session, two key lectures were held by eminent experts from abroad. The first lecture entitled „An adaptive remeshing technique for 3D crack growth simulations”, was given by Dr Vincent Chiaruttini (ONERA Institute, Paris, France. The second one, „New Technologies for Advanced Defence Systems”, was held by Dr Filippo Neri (Virtualabs Company, Rome, Italy.Fifteen sessions were organised at the Conference. The authors presented their works in open discussions answering questions from the audience. The average number of attendees at each session was about 40.The papers were sorted by topic areas:Aerodynamics and flight dynamics: 12 papersAircraft: 23 papersWeapon systems, ammunition, energy materials, combat vehicles: 29 papersIntegrated sensor systems and robotic systems: 16 papersTelecommunication and information systems: 18 papersMaterials and technologies: 34 papersQuality, standardization, metrology, maintenance and exploitation: 11 papersOut of 163 submitted papers for this Conference, 145 papers were accepted and distributed in an electronic form on CDs to the present authors, co-authors, guests and invitees to the Conference. The number of participants with authors and co-authors was impressive - 243. The

  11. Science and Technology of Nanostructures in the Department of Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murday, James S.

    1999-01-01

    The United States Department of Defense maintains a research and development program in nanostructures with special attention to miniaturization of information technology devices, nanostructured materials, and nanobiotechnology for detection of biological agents. This article provides a brief guide to those DoD funding officers and research scientists actively interested in nanostructures

  12. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... With only slight modifications (not additions) to current total defense expenditures, and using funds that will be available as they restructure their forces, European members could not only double their current investment but take significant strides to ensure that they are not left behind in a world dominated by technology.

  13. Problems and Mitigation Strategies for Developing and Validating Statistical Cyber Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    such as Firewalls , HTTP proxies, and application-level Attribute Based Ac- cess Control [1] to provide a layered defense in depth. The spe- cific...research and technology develop- ment in several areas including: cyber defense, synthetic biology, advanced design tools, AI learning, and quantum

  14. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  15. Roadmap Modeling and Assessment Approach for Defense Technology System of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced defense technology plays a crucial role in safeguarding national safety and development interests. Aiming to handle the problems of current research and development (R&D management approaches faced with the rocketing complexities of system of systems, the authors propose a novel roadmap modeling and assessment methodology through studying the driving forces of general technology development and analyzing realistic requirements of defense technology management in this article. First, a requirement decomposition framework is designed based on multi-view theories and text-mining tools are used to construct a multi-layer knowledge-flow network model. Second, the contribution rates of requirement elements at different levels are evaluated using a multi-criteria decision-making approach and the node importance is assessed based on the topological structure of multi-layer network. Third, it is utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches that illustrative examples of the technology requirements in maritime security strategy investigating and a dual-layer knowledge-flow network consists of patents that belong to the “Coherent Light Generator (CLC” classification from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database and the related academic papers from Web of Science. Finally, the contributions, potential applications, and drawbacks of this work are discussed and research outlooks are provided.

  16. Science and Technology vs. Defense and Security: Dual Use Consequences, a South American Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espona, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays we can say that science and technology are development driven forces in most countries, with some exceptions especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Even though, we have to take into account their link to and impact on defense and security and not only when it comes to WMD but also in the economy and academy areas, both in developed and developing countries. Within this framework, when we analyze the spread of technology and knowledge, it is important to consider: the media where it takes place (e.g. journals, internet, conferences, commercial agreements); which the actors involved are (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, commercial firms); and the motive why it occurs (e.g. scientific discoveries; commercial exchange; international agreements). Once known all these elements, which vary both intracountry and intercountry, we may have a deep and broad enough framework to consider which policies to take in order to foster scientific and technologic development without collaborating with state and non state WMD programs. Although we already have a legal framework to fight against WMD proliferation and terrorism, the diverse degree of success of such instruments makes it necessary to continue analyzing and debating ways to strengthen them and/or find new ones. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze how the phenomena of science and technology development and spread impacts on defense and security from a South American perspective, taking into account the particular differences among developed and developing countries. Among the primary findings we can mention the existing differences between countries when it comes to the place (military, academic or commercial ones) where the critical science and technology innovative developments take place; the origin of funding (private or governmental); the existence and fulfillment of plans to foster science and technology development; and the scientific community awareness in WMD topics. All these elements have a

  17. Defense Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    implementation of the services necessary to support transparent "information pull " operation of decision support systems. This infrastructure will be implemented...technology. Some aspects of this area such as user- pull , mobile and highly distributed operation, bandwidth needs and degree of securihy are Dol)-driven...by a variety of statutory requirements. R&D will provide enhanced mission effectiveness and maintenance of fragile ecosystems. The goalis to develop

  18. Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.K.; Moffitt, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

  19. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix II research laboratories and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This document contains summaries of the research facilities that support the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for FY 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: (1) Advanced materials sciences and technologies; chemistry and materials, explosives, special nuclear materials (SNM), and tritium. (2) Design sciences and advanced computation; physics, conceptual design and assessment, and computation and modeling. (3) Advanced manufacturing technologies and capabilities; system engineering science and technology, and electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components. Section I gives a brief summary of 23 major defense program (DP) research and technology facilities and shows how these major facilities are organized by program elements. Section II gives a more detailed breakdown of the over 200 research and technology facilities being used at the Laboratories to support the Defense Programs mission.

  20. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  1. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  2. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the…

  3. Defense Contractors SBIR/STTR Partnering Manual: A Primer on Technology Risk Management and Partnering Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, John R

    2008-01-01

    As the world looks increasingly to technology innovation to meet the challenges of defense, security, disaster relief and increased health, many in industry have come to identify this nation's SBIR...

  4. Photonic technology revolution influence on the defence area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Jacek; Litwin, Dariusz; Błocki, Narcyz; Daszkiewicz, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Revolutionary progress in the photonic technology provides the ability to develop military systems of new properties not possible to obtain with the use of classical technologies. In recent years, this progress has resulted in developing advanced, complex, multifunctional and relatively cheap Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC) or Hybrid Photonics Circuits (HPC) built of a collection of standardized optical, optoelectronic and photonic components. This idea is similar to the technology of Electronic Integrated Circuits, which has revolutionized the microelectronic market. The novel approach to photonic technology is now revolutionizing the photonics' market. It simplifies the photonics technology and enables creation of technological centers for designing, development and production of advanced optical and photonic systems in the EU and other countries. This paper presents some selected photonic technologies and their impact on such defense systems like radars, radiolocation, telecommunication, and radio-communication systems.

  5. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  6. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance

  7. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  8. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of Defensive Aid Suite Technology Using a Field Trial and Modelling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ...) community that Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) technologies can improve the protection of LAVs. A prototype DAS system was developed by DRDC Valcartier and tested in field trials held in 1995 and 1999...

  10. Department of Defense high power laser program guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Clifford H.

    1994-06-01

    The DoD investment of nominally $200 million per year is focused on four high power laser (HPL) concepts: Space-Based Laser (SBL), a Ballistic Missile Defense Organization effort that addresses boost-phase intercept for Theater Missile Defense and National Missile Defense; Airborne Laser (ABL), an Air Force effort that addresses boost-phase intercept for Theater Missile Defense; Ground-Based Laser (GBL), an Air Force effort addressing space control; and Anti-Ship Missile Defense (ASMD), a Navy effort addressing ship-based defense. Each organization is also supporting technology development with the goal of achieving less expensive, brighter, and lighter high power laser systems. These activities represent the building blocks of the DoD program to exploit the compelling characteristics of the high power laser. Even though DoD's HPL program are focused and moderately strong, additional emphasis in a few technical areas could help reduce risk in these programs. In addition, a number of options are available for continuing to use the High-Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF) at White Sands Missile Range. This report provides a brief overview and guidance for the five efforts which comprise the DoD HPL program (SBL, ABL, GBL, ASMD, HELSTF).

  11. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  12. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  14. Review of flat panel display programs and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnade, Bruce; Schulze, Raymond; Henderson, Girardeau L.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    Flat panel display research has comprised a substantial portion of the national investment in new technology for economic and national security for the past nine years. These investments have ben made principally via several Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the continuing High Definition Systems Program, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Production Act Title III Program. Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These research programs are reviewed and opportunities for applications are described. Future technology development, transfer, and transition requirements are identified. Strategy and vision are documented to assist the identification of areas meriting further consideration.

  15. New technologies and defense policy for the European theater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipis, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in what should be a reassuring phenomenon for America's European allies, US military planners think of applications of new technologies in new conventional weapons systems almost exclusively in the context of defending Western Europe. Given the global interests of the United States and the nature and location of emerging threats (as the Gulf war has so dramatically emphasized) this is a rather narrow base for US conventional weapons modernization planning. As recent events in Eastern Europe make clear, the cogency of America's defense policy may be dramatically undermined by the reduction of the Soviet threat. As yet, it is unclear to what extent the development of future conventional forces will be conducted with reference to America's participation in NATO

  16. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program 2 (DCERP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Assessing TMDL effectiveness using flow-adjusted concentrations:  A case study of the Neuse River , North Carolina. Environmental Science & Technology 37...activities, and data collection in the NRE Basin and New River by local stakeholder groups. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Monitoring...relationships between light penetration and solids/chl a levels. ArcGIS and spatial statistics will be used to estimate average bathymetric areas

  17. Nuclear criticality safety analysis summary report: The S-area defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) can process all of the high level radioactive wastes currently stored at the Savannah River Site with negligible risk of nuclear criticality. The characteristics which make the DWPF critically safe are: (1) abundance of neutron absorbers in the waste feeds; (2) and low concentration of fissionable material. This report documents the criticality safety arguments for the S-Area DWPF process as required by DOE orders to characterize and to justify the low potential for criticality. It documents that the nature of the waste feeds and the nature of the DWPF process chemistry preclude criticality

  18. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer and user. This

  19. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  20. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  1. DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Collection and Reporting of Information Technology Purchases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of Representatives by March 15,2002. Section 812 also directed us to issue a report to the congressional defense committees by January 31,2002, assessing the progress the Department of Defense (DOD...

  2. Technology for the long-term management of defense HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Knecht, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Management Plan of June 1983 includes a reference plan for the long-term management of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) high-level waste (HLW), with a goal of disposing of the annual output in 500 canisters a year by FY-2008. Based on the current vitrification technology, the ICPP base-glass case would produce 1700 canisters per year after FY-2007. Thus, to meet the DWMP goal processing steps including fuel dissolution, waste treatment, and waste immobilization are being studied as areas where potential modifications could result in HLW volume reductions for repository disposal. It has been demonstrated that ICPP calcined wastes can be densified by hot isostatic pressing to multiphase ceramic forms of high loading and density. Conversion of waste by hot isostatic pressing to these forms has the potential of reducing the annual ICPP waste production to volumes near those of the goal of the DWMP. This report summarizes the laboratory-scale information currently available on the development of these forms

  3. Convergence of emerging science and technology trends for defense, security, and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recent technological innovations have changed the landscape of traditional scientific research. Advances in the nano- and bio-sciences, and materials and information processing are driving innovations at a phenomenal rate, resulting in greater interest yet uncertainty in the chemical-biological threat environment, research and development and other fields of policy, and overall preparedness. Conversely, the synergy arising from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information processing and cognitive sciences (NBIC) offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary opportunities with many technological applications. Employing a new initiative termed 'Technology Foresight, Assessment, and Road-Mapping' (Tech-FARM TM ) - a multi dimensional futures-oriented approach for identification and management of emerging and/or disruptive science and technology. In literature similar initiative termed as GRAIN and BANG appear with similarity to NBIC - however Tech-FARM is comprehensive and an exhaustive method. Trans-disciplinary principles underlying NBIC convergence facilitates the development of visions and projections of future possible scientific and technological advances, environments, and productive collaborations for integrated, novel and/or unconventional solutions for 21 st century chem. -bio defense challenges. Incorporation of cognitive sciences refers to human performance enhancement in battlefield theatre. The dynamic relationship between contextual influence (socio-economical factors) and technological development is of critical consideration for S and T futures analyses. The Tech-FARM approach comprises three over-lapping practices of futures studies, including: foresight, the identification of future S and T development and their interaction with society and environment with the purpose of guiding actions to produce a more favorable future; assessment, which is concerned with the unintended, indirect, and delayed impacts of

  4. Application of quality function deployment in defense technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Estrella De Maria Forster

    1998-12-01

    program management concerns. The Q-PMM provided an improvement in defining the MOPs that would best describe the overall system MOEs. Both, MOP-MOE associations and a basis of comparison between the two ensembles were elucidated. Conclusion. The findings demonstrated QFD to be an effective approach to defense technology development.

  5. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  6. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  7. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  8. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  9. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification, the...

  10. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  11. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  12. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth's interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges

  13. 75 FR 10163 - Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...; (5) Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; (6) Under Secretary of..., Technology, and Logistics; (12) Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; (13) Principal Deputy... Defense Research and Engineering; (17) General Counsel of the Department of Defense, the Assistant...

  14. Active Computer Network Defense: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    sufficient base of knowledge in information technology can be assumed to be working on some form of computer network warfare, even if only defensive in...the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) to attack. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks are inherently resistant to...aims to create this part of information superiority, and computer network defense is one of its fundamental components. Most of these efforts center

  15. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Chris

    2002-08-01

    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at an ever increasing pace, uncooled infrared cameras are widely deployed serving society in meaningful ways; from preventative maintenance and process inspection to law enforcement and rescue operations. Following last years terrorist attacks in New York and Virginia, President Bush appointed Governor Ridge to lead federal coordination efforts for defense of the homeland. While uncooled microbolometer sensors served in Homeland Security long before September 2001, it is certain that new applications will be identified for surveillance, security, law enforcement and protection needs. In this paper we will describe advances in military uncooled infrared sensor technology and how these sensors can serve in the role of Homeland Defense. Developments in uncooled sensors that will be described include the rugged performance validation of a thermal weapon sight and head-mounted imager. We will look at those areas of Homeland Defense that are most likely to benefit from the application of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: a) search & rescue camera systems, b) handheld surveillance systems and c) hands-free camera systems.

  16. The US-Russia missile defense dialogue as a factor of the Russian defense policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Suslov

    2013-01-01

    To a big extent the Russian defense policy and, as a consequence, development of the Russian defense industrial complex, is determined by the prospects of the US missile defense policy and fate of the US-Russia negotiations in this area. As a cooperative solution seems improbable in the observable future, Russia plans to develop certain response measures of military nature, including creation of a new heavy ICBM, and to create its own missile defense by 2015. However, this policy does not see...

  17. TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION WITHIN A NATIONAL DEFENSE INSTITUTION FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecida de Araújo Querido Oliveira

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes in a National Defense Institution for Innovation, Technology and Science its tools of knowledge dissemination. The methodology contemplates the period of 2004 and 2005. Qualitative and quantitative information orientate the research in order to understand focal aspects on knowledge dissemination, in comparison with theoretical references of renowned authors and other elaborated research searching for elements to perform an organizational diagnosis, focused on the knowledge dissemination as well as on the forces which promote or obstruct the organizational development. Conclusions are that the tools of knowledge dissemination must suitable to spread the tacit knowledge in such a way as the explicit ones and that, in a National Defense Institution, other important aspects must be considered, a time that, being the spread knowledge of wrong form can, besides bringing damages for the organization, to compromise the national sovereignty.

  18. Cybersecurity:The Road Ahead for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    contested environment. Cybersecurity being treated as key “leader business ” is criti- cal to the overall cybersecurity posture of our DoD acquisi... Cybersecurity The Road Ahead for Defense Acquisition Steve Mills n Steve Monks Mills and Monks are professors of Program Management at the Defense...not only on adequate funding for leaps in technology but also on honing that technology to protect the capability against cybersecurity threats. The

  19. Student Papers on Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    895. 3. "Scientific Canvas" AWST, p. 19. 4. Halliday, p. 548. 5. William Shiner, Lasers (New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980), p. 21. - 30...and Design. New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980. U.S. Department of Defense. The Strategic Defense Ini- tiative: Defensive Technologies Study. Washington...Armageddon," Armed Forces Journal, February 1983, p. 30. 7. David Baker, The Shape of Wars to Come (Cambridge: Patrick Stephens , Ltd, 1981), p. 109

  20. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  1. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. ANALYSIS AND CONCEPTION DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION DEFENSE CID AND CLOUD PLATFORM ON THE BASE OF INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vishniakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two problems the use of intelligence technologies in information defense (ITID – creating specialized knowledge bases with threats simulation and high the security level in corporative nets and cloud computing are presented. The analysis of t wo directions of the second ITID problem: the intelligence decision support systems and the malt y-agent system use are given. As trends and conception development of intelligence technologies are the perfection of methods. models, architectures, and hard-sot ware tools for ITID in corporative systems and cloud computing.

  3. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  4. Special Technology Area Review on Spintronics. Report of Department of Defense Advisory Group on Electron Devices Working Group B (Microelectronics)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbridge, Barry; Palkuti, Les; Wolf, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    ...) as it applies to nonvolatile memories and quantum-based logic and computing. In addition, the information provided at the STAR is expected to be of use to the Services and Department of Defense (DoD...

  5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defense & Arms Control Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    security of the nation. The unicorn is the obvious symbol for this box. Even with a two percent of GDP or less defense budget, we will maintain our nuclear...systems is not going away. There are some unicorns in the defense herd and this would be a time to claim to be one. ACTIVITIES AND PERSONNEL Looking...macroeconomics and public finance is advisable. The subjects in the Forces and Force Analysis section will provide sufficient review of the technical

  6. The Art and Science of Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA - Logistics THE ART AND SCIENCE OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS...Government EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Art and Science of Defense Logistics Author: Major S. I. Schuler, USMC Research Questions: 1...00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigassi, R.; Eicher, H.; Steiner, P.; Ott, W.

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered

  8. Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-23

    provided to CRS by Semiconductor Industry, October, 2013. 33 Zachary Fryer- Biggs , “Looking Beyond Defense: Firms Grow Revenue—By Diversifying,” DefenseNews...was chartered based on the authority set forth in Section 854 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for 2007 (P.L. 109-364). See...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics John Young echoed this sentiment, stating “the enterprise will often pressure acquisition

  9. Low-level waste management program and interim waste operations technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy currently supports an integrated technology development and transfer program aimed at ensuring that the technology necessary for the safe management and disposal of LLW by the commercial and defense sectors is available. The program focuses on five technical areas: (1) corrective measures technology, (2) improved shallow land burial technology, (3) greater confinement disposal technology, (4) model development and validation, and (5) treatment methods for problem wastes. The results of activities in these areas are reported in the open literature and the Proceedings of the LLWMP Annual Participants Information Meeting

  10. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  11. Developing defensive aids suite technology on a virtual battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; DeMontigny-Leboeuf, Annie; Palmarini, Marc; Cantin, Andre

    2002-07-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment are limiting the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modeling and simulation. MATLAB is used as a quick prototyping tool to model DAS systems and facilitate transfer to other researchers. The DAS model can be transferred from MATLAB or programmed directly in ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces), which is used to construct the virtual battlefield. Through scripted input files, a fixed battle approach ensures implementation and analysis meeting the requirements of three different interests. These three communities include the scientists and engineers, military and operations research. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. A system can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. Further processing of the simulation can be used to optimize the vehicle for a specific mission. ModSAF will be used to analyze and plan trials and develop DAS technology for future vehicles. Survivability of a DAS-equipped vehicle can be assessed relative to a basic vehicle without a DAS. In later stages, more complete DAS systems will be analyzed to determine the optimum configuration of the DAS components and the effectiveness of a DAS-equipped vehicle for specific missions. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

  12. Acquisition: Allegations to the Defense Hotline on the Management of the Defense Travel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? This report concerns those managers who are specifically involved with managing the Defense Travel System, as well as those managing the development of information technology systems...

  13. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  14. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs

  15. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  16. Nuclear power technologies for application in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The tremendous social and political changes which have occurred during the recent decade in the former USSR made it possible to launch the process of commercialization of defense-related technologies in Russia. The so-called dual-use technologies are meant to be initially developed by the state for defense needs, but having a high commercial potential as well. To date, the process of such technology transfer from the state sector to a private one has been limited primarily by insufficient progress of the national private sector. Essentially, the main economic problem still remains the attraction of private capital for the promotion of dual-use technologies to the point at where they acquire commercially viable. A large number of advanced technologies are waiting to be commercialized. The report presented considers the prospects of civil use of some technologies related to the nuclear power area: space nuclear power systems, nuclear powered submarines and rector-pumped lasers. (author)

  17. The research and application of the NDP protocol vulnerability attack and the defense technology based on SEND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-05-01

    Neighbor discovery protocol (NDP) is the underlying protocol in the IPv6 protocol, which is mainly used to solve the problem of interconnection between nodes on the same link. But with wide use of IPV6, NDP becomes the main objects of a variety of attacks due to a lack of security mechanism. The paper introduces the working principle of the NDP and methods of how the SEND protocol to enhance NDP security defense. It also analyzes and summarizes the security threats caused by the defects of the protocol itself. On the basis of the SEND protocol, the NDP data packet structure is modified to enhance the security of the SEND. An improved NDP cheating defense technology is put forward to make up the defects of the SEND protocol which can't verify the correctness of the public key and cannot bind the MAC address.

  18. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  19. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  20. Forming the Research Component of the U.S. Defense Budget Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr V. Balyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the structure and principles of the defense spending for research and development in the U.S., as well as the main agencies and contractors involved. The article offers specific cases to illustrate the role of key players of the U.S. budgetary process, the U.S. President, Congress, Department of Defense, and their relations with the scientific community. Spending in this area is organized as a three-level structure, which includes development of new weapons systems, creation of military platforms and systemic integration of the armed forces. One of the most noteworthy participants on the weapons development level is the Defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA, which provides support for R&D projects able to facilitate technological breakthroughs and provide results applicable by the armed forces. The emphasis of the article is on the participation of the private sector on all levels of the defense spending and especially in the systemic integration. At this level even formulating the request becomes a highly challenging task, which demands involvement of the most highly qualified specialists and organizations. The authors analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the wide participation of commercial enterprises and provide cases illustrating possible conflicts between government and private actors and ways of their resolution.

  1. The Department of Defense’s Second Chasm in RFID-UID Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Lenders Program DFAR Defense Financial Accounting Regulation DoD Department of Defense DoDSIG Department of Defense Suppliers Information Guide EFT ...through electronic funds transfer ( EFT ). Additionally, CCR shares the data with federal government procurement and electronic business systems. (CCR...government contracting procedures. Additionally, the small business contractors can also tap into SBA resources to find out the latest news on

  2. N-1: Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Tour Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Group N-1 develops and provides training on nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies intended for nuclear material accounting and control to fulfill both international and domestic obligations. The N-1 group is located at Technical Area (TA)-35 in Buildings 2 and 27. Visitors to the area can observe developed and fielded NDA technologies, as well as the latest research efforts to develop the next generation of NDA technologies. Several areas are used for NDA training. The N-1 School House area typically is used for basic training on neutron- and gamma-ray-based NDA techniques. This area contains an assortment of gamma-ray detector systems, including sodium iodide and high-purity germanium and the associated measurement components. Many types of neutron assay systems are located here, including both standard coincidence and multiplicity counters. The N-1 School House area is also used for holdup training; located here are the mock holdup assemblies and associated holdup measurement tools. Other laboratory areas in the N-1 space are used for specialized training, such as waste NDA, calorimetry, and advanced gamma-ray NDA. Also, many research laboratories in the N-1 space are used to develop new NDA technologies. The calorimetry laboratory is used to develop and evaluate new technologies and techniques that measure the heat signature from nuclear material to determine mass. The micro calorimetry laboratory is being used to develop advanced technologies that can measure gamma rays with extremely high resolution. This technique has been proven in the laboratory setting, and the team is now working to cultivate a field-capable system. The N-1 group also develops remote and unattended systems for the tracking and control of nuclear material. A demonstration of this technology is located within one of the laboratory spaces. The source tracker software was developed by N-1 to monitor the locations and quantities of nuclear materials. This software is currently used to track

  3. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Software Technology Program Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    station control, and defense. c. Simulation Display Generator ( SDG ) [Patterson 83] I0 SDG supports the creation, display, modification, storage, and...34 Proceedings Trends and Applications 1981, IEEE, (May 28, 1981). [Parnas 86] Parnas, D.L., "When can Software be Trustworthy?" Keynote Address to Compass 󈨚

  4. Learning with and about Technology: A Middle School Nature Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learning with technology as well as about technology focuses on a case study of a middle school nature area that uses technology to extend accessibility of environmental data. Highlights include the design of Web pages to describe the nature area; file sharing software; and the use of videoconferencing. (LRW)

  5. Fusion connection: contributions to industry, defense, and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, T.; Woo, J.; Temkin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed

  6. Engineering research, development and technology: Thrust area report FY 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence, Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) conduct high quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. The thrust area leader is also responsible for carrying out the work that follows from the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program so that the results can be applied as early as possible to the needs of LLNL programs. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year, 1991. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results

  7. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  8. Department of Defense Joint Chemical and Biological Defense Program 2009 Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    private sector all partner with the DoD CBDP to fulfill its mission to provide CBRN defense capabilities in support of the National Military Strategies...Venezuelan, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis) delivered by electroporation which showed high efficacy in non-human primates. Developed five technology

  9. Defense Technology Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    ;Contents: VERTIGO Simulation; Education Reform of National Defense Academy; Artilleries and Ammunitions (4); Newly developed encryption algorithm (MISTY) that surpasses DES; CAS EXPO`95 in California USA; Underwater Weapons; Phaser Gun; and Japanese Missile.

  10. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization: Corporate Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ... requires a flexible yet focused approach to attain its mission; namely, to research, develop, acquire, and deploy systems and technologies which provide ballistic missile defense to include Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (OPALS...

  11. Artificial Intelligence: The Bumpy Path Through Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    we must prepare for. 2. AI Industry Leaders Throughout history many technological breakthroughs have occurred due to the guidance and curation of... technology demonstrations, and exercises that aim to capture technology -based lessons learned. Failure to address AI essentials causes problems in...defense acquisition: system requirements are impossible to define; transition of AI technology fails; testing cannot be evaluated with confidence; and

  12. Preparing South Africa for Cyber Crime and Cyber Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie Grobler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international scope of the Internet, the fast technological advances, the wide reach of technological usage and the increase in cyber-attacks require the South African administrative and legislative system to both intersect largely with the application and implementation of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any lagging administrative and legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive and enforceable treaties facilitating international cooperation with regard to cyber defense. The result is that many developing countries in particular, are either not properly aware, not well prepared, or adequately protected by both knowledge and legislation, in the event of a cyber-attack on a national level. Even if these countries realize the threats, the time to react is of such a long nature due to consultation and legislative processes, that the legal systems provide little support to ensure timeous and necessary counter-measures. This article will address this problem by looking at the impact of technological revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa at present does not have a coordinated approach in dealing with Cybercrime and does not have a comprehensive Cyber defense strategy in place. The structures that have been established to deal with Cyber security issues are inadequate to holistically deal with these issues. The development of interventions to address cybercrime requires a partnership between business, government and civil society. This article will provide an approach to

  13. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Counter Insurgency (COIN) Intelligence, Surveillance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... and what emerging science and technology would have the greatest intelligence potential in this type... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Counter... Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board Task...

  14. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  15. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C. [eds.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering.

  16. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering

  17. Decline of Civilian power in Japan's Defense Policy

    OpenAIRE

    SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫

    2006-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  19. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  20. A New Approach for the Design and Evaluation of Land Defense Concepts,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    possible innovations can be vast. For example, tanks are a bugaboo of "defensive defense" advocates. Yet the Israelis in the Golan Heights in 1973 found...1551-1556. Loser, Jochen, and Otto Buchorn, " Portfolio on Area-Distributed Defense as an Alternate Defense Policy for NATO in the 1990s

  1. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational support...

  2. Technology geography: a new area of scientific inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are four scientific areas, which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This paper shows how each of these four areas has its own central issues but also have specific parts that are

  3. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  4. Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...

  5. Technology Strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'; Technology Target Areas; TTA1 - environmental technology for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The OG21 Technology Target Area 1 (TTA 1) group has produced a strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'. A key aim of this work is to ensure that the operators on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) remain in a leading position with respect to environmental performance, while contributing to optimised resource recovery and value creation. This strategy focuses on environmental technology, which includes hardware, methods, software and knowledge. The TTA 1 group has agreed on a common vision: 'Norwegian oil and gas activities shall be leading in environmental performance, and Norway shall have the world leading knowledge and technology cluster within environmental technologies to support the zero harmful impact goals of the oil and gas industry.' Priorities have been made with emphasis on gaps that are considered most important to close and that will benefit from public research and development funding either for initialisation (primarily via the Petromaks and Climit programs) or acceleration (via Petromaks / Climit and particularly Demo 2000 where demonstration or piloting is required). The priorities aim to avoid technology gaps that are expected to be closed adequately through existing projects / programs or which are covered in other TTA strategies. The priority areas as identified are: Environmental impact and risk identification / quantification for new areas: Make quality assured environmental baseline data available on the web. Develop competence necessary to quantify and monitor the risks and risk reductions to the marine environment in new area ecosystems; Carbon capture and storage: Quantify environmental risks and waste management issues associated with bi-products from carbon capture processes and storage solutions. Develop and demonstrate effective carbon storage risk management, monitoring and mitigation technologies. Develop more cost and energy efficient power-from-shore solutions to reduce / eliminate CO{sub 2

  6. R and D areas for next generation desalination and water purification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Rao, I.S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, desalination and water purification technologies are expected to contribute significantly to ensure a safe, sustainable, affordable and adequate water supply. The cost of producing water from the current generation desalination technologies has declined over time at a rate of only approximately 4% per year. So we need to accelerate our research and development (R and D) activities with a near and long term objective for evolution of current generation desalination technology and to create revolutionary next generation advanced desalination and water purification technologies which will offer a promise of step reduction in cost of producing water. There are five broad technological areas-thermal technologies, membrane technologies, alternate technologies, concentrate management technologies, reuse and recycle technologies that encompass the spectrum of desalination technology. In this paper high priority research areas in all the above technologies areas are discussed to make decision about research direction that will help to mitigate our nation's future water supply challenges. (author)

  7. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L A; Chen, H L

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are of interest to the NIF Directorate but outside the scope of the NIF funding. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and to invent develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. Special efforts have been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power short-pulse solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers. LSandT activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project--LSandT led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 3ω optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)--LSandT personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LSandT continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy

  8. 76 FR 67154 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... to eight legacy Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory (STRL) Personnel Management Demonstration (demo) Project Plans resulting from section 1107(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act... flexibilities, modifying demo project plans, or executing Federal Register Notices has identified some areas for...

  9. 76 FR 5236 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services. OMB Control Number: 1405... of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: Actual export of defense technical data and defense... DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services; OMB Control Number 1405-0157...

  10. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Technology Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Flint, Stephanie; Pollack, Lawrence P.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR (trademark) EX, a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) instrument, is a portable, ruggedized unit that was designed for the Department of Defense (DoD) with its reagent chemistries traceable to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract beginning in 2002. The PCR instrument's primary function post 9/11 was to enable frontline soldiers and first responders to detect biological threat agents and bioterrorism activities in remote locations to include field environments. With its success for DoD, the instrument has also been employed by other governmental agencies including Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The RAZOR (Trademark) EX underwent stringent testing by the vendor, as well as through the DoD, and was certified in 2005. In addition, the RAZOR (trademark) EX passed DHS security sponsored Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays (SPADA) rigorous evaluation in 2011. The identification and quantitation of microbial pathogens is necessary both on the ground as well as during spaceflight to maintain the health of astronauts and to prevent biofouling of equipment. Currently, culture-based monitoring technology has been adequate for short-term spaceflight missions but may not be robust enough to meet the requirements for long-duration missions. During a NASA-sponsored workshop in 2011, it was determined that the more traditional culture-based method should be replaced or supplemented with more robust technologies. NASA scientists began investigating innovative molecular technologies for future space exploration and as a result, PCR was recommended. Shortly after, NASA sponsored market research in 2012 to identify and review current, commercial, cutting edge PCR technologies for potential applicability to spaceflight operations. Scientists identified and extensively evaluated three candidate technologies with the potential to function in microgravity. After a thorough voice-of-the-customer trade study and extensive functional and

  11. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  12. Defense.gov Special Report: Feds Feed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    defense for civilian personnel policy. Story Mark McCaffrey Featured at FFF Rally Capital Area Food Bank community. For more information visit the Capital Area Food Bank. The Corporation for National and Community Feds Feed Families Website Capital Area Food Bank What Others Are Doing FFF People, Pets and Paper

  13. Research on moving target defense based on SDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingyong; Wu, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    An address mutation strategy was proposed. This strategy provided an unpredictable change in address, replacing the real address of the packet forwarding process and path mutation, thus hiding the real address of the host and path. a mobile object defense technology based on Spatio-temporal Mutation on this basis is proposed, Using the software Defined Network centralized control architecture advantage combines sFlow traffic monitoring technology and Moving Target Defense. A mutated time period which can be changed in real time according to the network traffic is changed, and the destination address is changed while the controller abruptly changes the address while the data packet is transferred between the switches to construct a moving target, confusing the host within the network, thereby protecting the host and network.

  14. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into local board areas and establish local boards. There shall be at least one local board in each county...

  15. Hybrid network defense model based on fuzzy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    With sustained and rapid developments in the field of information technology, the issue of network security has become increasingly prominent. The theme of this study is network data security, with the test subject being a classified and sensitive network laboratory that belongs to the academic network. The analysis is based on the deficiencies and potential risks of the network's existing defense technology, characteristics of cyber attacks, and network security technologies. Subsequently, a distributed network security architecture using the technology of an intrusion prevention system is designed and implemented. In this paper, first, the overall design approach is presented. This design is used as the basis to establish a network defense model, an improvement over the traditional single-technology model that addresses the latter's inadequacies. Next, a distributed network security architecture is implemented, comprising a hybrid firewall, intrusion detection, virtual honeynet projects, and connectivity and interactivity between these three components. Finally, the proposed security system is tested. A statistical analysis of the test results verifies the feasibility and reliability of the proposed architecture. The findings of this study will potentially provide new ideas and stimuli for future designs of network security architecture.

  16. Demonstration of Airborne Wide Area Assessment Technologies at the Toussaint River, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foley, Jack; Wright, David

    2007-01-01

    ...) technology, a wide area assessment technology, to assist in the characterization of the shore and shallow areas in and around the Toussaint River relative to munitions contamination from historical...

  17. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Changes in social environment require adequate answers of all organizational systems, including defense systems and their logistic systems. Improvement of management in defense logistics involves good knowledge of management theory and practice, knowledge of the impact of ownership and market on management, knowledge of public and other macroeconomic sectors functioning, broader opening towards environment and the exchange of knowledge, information and lessons learned with international environment. The paper presents theoretical and practical knowledge that is prerequisite for improving the management of defense and the management of defense logistic systems.   Definition and the essence of management   Regarding its complexity and a lack of a comprehensive definition, the concept of management is nowadays considered in three ways: as a skill, as social categories - structure of management, as well as a theory - a scientific discipline. When we aanalyze the phenomenon of management, with respect to the historical aspect of its development, there is a necessity to distinguish between management as a scientific discipline and management practice.   Relation between organizational science and management In theory and practice, management is associated with the achievements of many other scientific fields. One of the areas closest to management is organizational science. Today, in the management theory and organization theory, the prevailing attitudes state that these two areas are non-separable and that they are focused on the explaination of the same phenomenon, with the same desire to improve effectivity and development of different purpose systems. There is no clear boundary between organizational science and management, both from theoretical and practical aspects.   Achievements and shortcomings of organizational schools   As a result of solving problems in real systems, a number of opinions and different organizational

  18. Offense-Defense Theory Analysis of Russian Cyber Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Internet and communications technologies IR international relations ISP Internet service provider RBN Russian Business Network Roskomnadzor Federal...Service for Supervision of Communications , Information Technology and Mass Media SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization SORM System for Operative...complexity of contributing factors, it may be more meaningful to calculate dyadic , rather than systemic offense-defense balance, and it is valuable to

  19. Broad Overview of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Opportunities for Department of Defense Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.; Antkowiak, M.; Butt, R.; Davis, J.; Dean, J.; Hillesheim, M.; Hotchkiss, E.; Hunsberger, R.; Kandt, A.; Lund, J.; Massey, K.; Robichaud, R.; Stafford, B.; Visser, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Developmental Program (SERDP)/Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) is the Department of Defense?s (DOD) environmental science and technology program focusing on issues related to environment and energy for the military services. The SERDP/ESTCP Office requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide technical assistance with strategic planning by evaluating the potential for several types of renewable energy technologies at DOD installations. NREL was tasked to provide technical expertise and strategic advice for the feasibility of geothermal resources, waste-to-energy technology, photovoltaics (PV), wind, microgrids, and building system technologies on military installations. This technical report is the deliverable for these tasks.

  20. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  1. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  2. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications, including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization, and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat to developing a radiological dispersal device, and, can be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and research purposes. An overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security is presented.

  3. Mixed waste focus area Department of Energy technology development needs identification and prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US DOE initiated a new approach in August, 1993 to environmental research and technology development. The key features of this new approach included establishment of five focus areas and three crosscutting technology programs, which overlap the boundaries of the focus areas. The five focus areas include the Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; High-Level Waste Tank Remediation, Landfill Stabilization, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Areas. The three crosscutting technologies programs include Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology; Efficient Separations and Processing; and Robotics. The DOE created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes. To accomplish this goal, the technology deficiencies must be identified and categorized, the deficiencies and needs must be prioritized, and a technical baseline must be established that integrates the requirements associated with these needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. These steps are described

  4. Ukraine - USA partnership for peace. AEMS project on development and improving of 'Defense' automated emergency management system of the Civil Defense Department of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    AEMS project is destined for the development and improving of 'Defense' system of the Civil Defense Department of Ukraine. 'Defense' system is destined for prevention and operation prognosis of emergencies of technological and natural character on the territory of Ukraine as well as for the elaboration of the solutions on protection and rescue of the population and national economy resources. The data are processed at national, regional, district and town levels. By the results of task solutions possible losses of human and material resources as well as necessary forces and means for removal of these consequences are defined. (R.P.)

  5. Survey of the Diversity and Defense-in-Depth Technologies for Application to NPP Digital I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, S. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, J. G.

    2011-09-01

    This report reviews the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) of the digital I and C (instrumentation and control) systems, diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) technologies and those practices in nuclear power plants. The report presents the diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. The report also presents assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies (Strategies A), (2) different approaches within the same technology (Strategies B), and (3) different architectures within the same technology (Strategies C). The grouping of diversity criteria combinations establishes baseline diversity usage and facilitates a systematic organization of strategic approaches for coping with CCF vulnerabilities. Effectively, these baseline sets of diversity criteria constitute appropriate CCF mitigating strategies for digital safety systems. The strategies represent guidance on acceptable diversity usage and can be applied directly to ensure that CCF vulnerabilities identified through a D3 assessment have been adequately resolved. Additionally, the report presents the framework of diversity usage tables are presented for capturing practices regarding diversity usage

  6. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  7. Meeting national challenges with science, engineering, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: national challenges; the Livermore Laboratory; national defense: preserving peace in a rapidly changing world; energy: clean and economic; environment: from the microscopic to the global; health: genetics and biomedicine; economy: bringing laboratory technology to the US market; education: sparking interest in science; and the Livermore Laboratory: a national resource

  8. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  9. Developing innovative environmental technologies for DOE needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Sewell, I.O.; DeGregory, J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental restoration and waste management activities at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are diverse and complex. Contamination at DOE sites and facilities includes radionuclides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, non-aqueous phase liquids, and heavy metals, among others. Soil and groundwater contamination are major areas of concern and DOE has focused very significant efforts in these areas. Relevant technology development activities are being conducted at DOE's own national laboratories, as well as through collaborative efforts with other federal agencies and the private sector. These activities span research and development (R ampersand D) of new concepts and techniques to demonstration and commercialization of mature technologies. Since 1990, DOE has also supported R ampersand D of innovative technologies through interagency agreements with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, and others

  10. An Initial Look at Technology and Institutions on Defense Industry Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driessnack, John

    2004-01-01

    .... We take an initial look at the industry, and highlight how these changes influenced transaction costs in the defense industry, more fully explain the forces driving consolidation, and provide greater...

  11. Defense Technology Opportunities for First Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Rodney; Bedard, Louis; Derrah, Scott; Boucher, Robert

    2004-01-01

    For this study, the US and Canadian governments assessed the potential for technology transfer of five technologies, which were developed to meet military requirements, to civilian first responders...

  12. National cyber defense high performance computing and analysis : concepts, planning and roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    There is a national cyber dilemma that threatens the very fabric of government, commercial and private use operations worldwide. Much is written about 'what' the problem is, and though the basis for this paper is an assessment of the problem space, we target the 'how' solution space of the wide-area national information infrastructure through the advancement of science, technology, evaluation and analysis with actionable results intended to produce a more secure national information infrastructure and a comprehensive national cyber defense capability. This cybersecurity High Performance Computing (HPC) analysis concepts, planning and roadmap activity was conducted as an assessment of cybersecurity analysis as a fertile area of research and investment for high value cybersecurity wide-area solutions. This report and a related SAND2010-4765 Assessment of Current Cybersecurity Practices in the Public Domain: Cyber Indications and Warnings Domain report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  13. Research on offense and defense technology for iOS kernel security mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sijun; Wu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    iOS is a strong and widely used mobile device system. It's annual profits make up about 90% of the total profits of all mobile phone brands. Though it is famous for its security, there have been many attacks on the iOS operating system, such as the Trident apt attack in 2016. So it is important to research the iOS security mechanism and understand its weaknesses and put forward targeted protection and security check framework. By studying these attacks and previous jailbreak tools, we can see that an attacker could only run a ROP code and gain kernel read and write permissions based on the ROP after exploiting kernel and user layer vulnerabilities. However, the iOS operating system is still protected by the code signing mechanism, the sandbox mechanism, and the not-writable mechanism of the system's disk area. This is far from the steady, long-lasting control that attackers expect. Before iOS 9, breaking these security mechanisms was usually done by modifying the kernel's important data structures and security mechanism code logic. However, after iOS 9, the kernel integrity protection mechanism was added to the 64-bit operating system and none of the previous methods were adapted to the new versions of iOS [1]. But this does not mean that attackers can not break through. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vulnerability of KPP security mechanism, this paper implements two possible breakthrough methods for kernel security mechanism for iOS9 and iOS10. Meanwhile, we propose a defense method based on kernel integrity detection and sensitive API call detection to defense breakthrough method mentioned above. And we make experiments to prove that this method can prevent and detect attack attempts or invaders effectively and timely.

  14. Effects of Gain/Loss Framing in Cyber Defense Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Nathan; Paul, Celeste; Gersh, John; Greenberg, Ariel; Piatko, Christine; Sperling, Scott; Spitaletta, Jason; Arendt, Dustin L.; Burtner, Edwin R.

    2016-10-24

    Cyber defense requires decision making under uncertainty. Yet this critical area has not been a strong focus of research in judgment and decision-making. Future defense systems, which will rely on software-defined networks and may employ ‘moving target’ defenses, will increasingly automate lower level detection and analysis, but will still require humans in the loop for higher level judgment. We studied the decision making process and outcomes of 17 experienced network defense professionals who worked through a set of realistic network defense scenarios. We manipulated gain versus loss framing in a cyber defense scenario, and found significant effects in one of two focal problems. Defenders that began with a network already in quarantine (gain framing) used a quarantine system more than those that did not (loss framing). We also found some difference in perceived workload and efficacy. Alternate explanations of these findings and implications for network defense are discussed.

  15. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-12-30

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification.

  16. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-01-01

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification

  17. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  18. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  19. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  20. Radionuclide separations and processing for defense water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the Department of Energy's Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP). This program sponsors research in advanced chemical separations for removal of radionuclides and hazardous components from radioactive defense wastes. Separations processing will reduce the volume of high-level waste that must be disposed of in a deep geological repository and will improve the quality of low-level wastes acceptable for near-surface disposal. DOE defense complex processing needs as well as technologies that are currently under development in the program are discussed

  1. [Brazilian technological output in the area of nursing: advances and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerich, Micheline Henrique Araujo da Luz; Vieira, Raquel Heloisa Guedes; Silva, Daniela Eda; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Meirelles, Betina Horner Shlindwein

    2011-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the patents registered in the nursing area, since these patents may be used as an indicator of the technological development in the area. It presents and discusses national technological productions, tracked through the "nursing" keyword, patented in the period from 1990-2009. This is a retrospective documental research, using, as a source, data from the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI). The information gathered is discussed in relation to the appropriation of the technologies, the incentive to develop them and register them as a source of knowledge in the nursing field, aiming the practice of care. Light and light hard technology productions are increasing in the nursing field. However, these are not registered and patented. The technological advance in the nursing field is emergent and needs policies for its development.

  2. Evaluation of wireless Local Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Charles L.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis is an in-depth evaluation of the current wireless Local Area Network (LAN) technologies. Wireless LAN's consist of three technologies: they are infrared light, microwave, and spread spectrum. When the first wireless LAN's were introduced, they were unfavorably labeled slow, expensive, and unreliable. The wireless LAN's of today are competitively priced, more secure, easier to install, and provide equal to or greater than the data throughput of unshielded twisted pair cable. Wireless LAN's are best suited for organizations that move office staff frequently, buildings that have historical significance, or buildings that have asbestos. Additionally, an organization may realize a cost savings of between $300 to $1,200 each time a node is moved. Current wireless LAN technologies have a positive effect on LAN standards being developed by the Defense Information System Agency (DISA). DoD as a whole is beginning to focus on wireless LAN's and mobile communications. If system managers want to remain successful, they need to stay abreast of this technology.

  3. Will technology make shelters obsolete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fears and hopes that shelters for civil defense might be made obsolete by technology fall along diametrically opposed paths. Along the pessimistic direction is the fear that strategic offensive weapons have become so numerous and terrible that no shelter program is worthwhile. This fear has been nurtured by the US deterrence policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), about which we will say more in the first part of this article. In the opposite direction along the optimistic path is the hope that active defensive technology will become so good that shelters will be unnecessary. Very few hold this viewpoint today, although there was a time during the development of antiballistic missiles (ABM) when such a hope was common. The recent emphasis on research and development of laser- and particle-beam weapons has again raised some hopes that defense against strategic missiles may become effective. Researchers will discuss the impact of defensive technology on shelters in Part II of this article

  4. Analysis of Land Subsidence Monitoring in Mining Area with Time-Series Insar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, N.; Wang, Y. J.

    2018-04-01

    Time-series InSAR technology has become a popular land subsidence monitoring method in recent years, because of its advantages such as high accuracy, wide area, low expenditure, intensive monitoring points and free from accessibility restrictions. In this paper, we applied two kinds of satellite data, ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2, to get the subsidence monitoring results of the study area in two time periods by time-series InSAR technology. By analyzing the deformation range, rate and amount, the time-series analysis of land subsidence in mining area was realized. The results show that InSAR technology could be used to monitor land subsidence in large area and meet the demand of subsidence monitoring in mining area.

  5. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  6. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations; Technologie-Monitoring - Weitere Bereiche - Vertiefungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigassi, R; Eicher, H [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Steiner, P; Ott, W [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered.

  7. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  8. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  9. A stakeholder involvement approach to evaluate and enhance technology acceptance: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's Plume Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Stein, S.L.; Serie, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major challenge in cleaning up its contaminated sites throughout the United States. One major area of concern is the plumes in soil and ground water which are contaminated with a myriad of different pollutants. DOE recently organized its plume-related problems into the Plume Focus Area. The mission of the Plume Focus Area is to enhance the deployment of innovative technologies for containing and cleaning up contaminant plumes in ground water and soil at all DOE sites. Environmental cleanup priorities for soil and ground water plumes are being defined and technology users have the challenge of matching current and innovative technologies to those priorities. By involving a range of stakeholders in the selection, demonstration, and evaluation of new technologies, the deployment of these technologies can be enhanced. If new plume cleanup technologies are to be deployable, they must improve on today's baseline technologies. The Sites' Coordination Team (SCT) of the Plume Focus Area develops and supports the implementation of methods for stakeholder involvement throughout the multiple steps that define focus area activities. Site-specific teams are being formed to carry out the strategy at each site, and the teams will work through Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) at each location. The SCT is responsible for identifying the site-specific stakeholder involvement teams, training the team members, preparing needed national-level guidance and strategies, helping the teams tailor a strategy for their particular site that meets the overall needs of the focus area, and facilitating inter-site coordination. The results will be used to develop national technology acceptance reports on the innovative technologies being funded and evaluated under the Plume Focus Area

  10. Options for Department of Defense Total Workforce Supply and Demand Analysis: Potential Approaches and Available Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax-deductible charitable contribution at...in Workforce Planning and Potential Modeling of Military Training, Land Defense Science and Technology Organisation , Australian Government Department...Technology Organisation , Australian Government Department of Defense, DSTO-TR-2037, 2007. Ward, D., “Workforce Demand Forecasting Techniques,” Human

  11. FINANCING OF THE FLOOD DEFENSE IN DABULENI-CETATE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin COSMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Danube River Basin has been frequently affected by floods in the last decades which often gained historical meanings, the latest being recorded in 2006 and 2013. The material losses were very high and on the Cetate-Dabuleni sector of the Danube river, after the floods of 2006 the dikes have been damaged and partially destroyed. In the end the Rast locality was almost total relocated. Following these events, we need to rebuild the flood defense infrastructure in the Lower Danube, but after the first assessment the costs are very high. With this paper we propose the ways of funding the flood protection works on the Lower Danube, research being done on the Cetate-Dabuleni Danube's sector.

  12. Indicators of the development of defense logistics as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice, there are several approaches in discussing the achieved level of development of a scientific discipline. One group of them concentrates on external indicators of the development of a scientific discipline, i.e. its research network, while the other group analyzes the science structure, i.e. its elements. The achieved level of the development of the defense system and its (external and internal environment, general knowledge on the development and the systematic treatment of science as well as the present situation in the society require an insight into the internal and external indicators of the development of defense logistics as a scientific discipline (Defense Science. General knowledge on the creation, development and interdependence of sciences as well as internal and external indicators of the achieved development level of Defense Logistics show that it should be developed in the network environment as a multidisciplinary science, in close cooperation with other special disciplines of logistics, within defense science. It could thus contribute to the improvement of the defense as an important public function as well as to closer contacts of the scientific disciplines dealing with technical systems and technologies with the so-called. orthodox military disciplines.

  13. Awareness and using of medical students about mobile health technology in clinical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar; Hachesu, Peyman Rezaei; Esfahani, Mahtab Kasayi; Rezazadeh, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Necessity of data transmission and getting contact with specialists is so evident in impassable regions. In order to solve such problems, there are different solutions one of which is mobile health technology. Being small and user-friendly, easy to enter data and having low expense are some of its advantages. This study aims to define the association between awareness of medical students in clinical stage about mobile health technology application and the rate of their using this technology in educational hospital of Isfahan in 2011. The study is a cross-sectional analytical application research. Sixty medical students were selected as samples from a society of 240 medical students. A researcher-made questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included 21 multiple choice and 15 yes no questions, which were corrected to reach a score. A researcher-made checklist with 5-fold Likert scale was used to define the rate of applying such technology. The reliability of questionnaire was confirmed through a test-retest. The collected data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software in descriptive and deductive statistics level. The highest percentage of awareness about mobile health technology among medical students in the clinical stage of Azzahra educational hospital is 45.6 in nature areas, and their lowest percentage of awareness is 17.8 in the infrastructure area. In addition, their mean awareness of all areas is 54.4. The highest percentage of using mobile health technology by medical students is 14.6 in the education area, and their lowest percentage of usage is 6.8 in the treatment area. Their mean usage of all areas is 9.4 as well. The rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology is not favorable. Except for treatment, there is no significant association between the rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology.

  14. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  15. Assessment of Gari Processing Technologies in Oja-Iya Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess gari processing technologies in Oja-Iya Area of Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and observation methods. Highest percentages of gari processors procure their raw materials from farmers and market places.

  16. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  17. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  18. Survey on radon concentration of civil air defense shelter in Hengyang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Quan; Ma Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the radon concentration of civil air defense shelter was surveyed in Hengyang area, where there is higher background of radon concentration. If civil air defense shelter is not pressure-tight, the average radon concentration is about 55.9 -167.3 Bq/m 3 , lower than the intervened quantity: 200 Bq/m 3 , which is given by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP). Maybe radon protection is not needed with the ventilation of civil air defense shelter like that. The radon concentration of airtight civil air defense shelter change along with the season, which is lower in spring and higher in autumn. The results can be a reference for using civil air defense shelter during the time of peace or war. (authors)

  19. Siemens technology transfer and cooperation in the nuclear fuel area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, H.-P.; Fuchs, J. H.; Rothenbuecher, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Siemens is a full-range supplier in the area of nuclear power generation with broad experience and activities in the field of nuclear fuel. Siemens has developed advanced fuel technology for all types fuel assemblies used throughout the world and has significant experience worldwide in technology transfer in the field of nuclear fuel. Technology transfer and cooperation has ranged between the provision of mechanical design advice for a specific fuel design and the erection of complete fabrication plants for commercial operation in 3 countries. In the following the wide range of Siemens' technology transfer activities for both fuel design and fuel fabrication technologies are shown

  20. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  1. Emerging electro-optical technologies for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Ser, W.; Er, Meng H.; Chan, Philip

    1999-11-01

    Technological breakthroughs in the field of imaging and non- imaging sensor sand the related signal processors helped the military users to achieve 'force multiplication'. Present day 'smart-weapon systems' are being converted to 'brilliant-weapon systems' to bridge the gap until the most potent new 'fourth generation systems' come on line based on nanotechnology. The recent military tactics have evolved to take advantage of ever improving technologies to improve the quality and performance over time. The drive behind these technologies is to get a first-pass-mission-success against the target with negligible collateral damage, protecting property and the lives of non-combatants. These technologies revolve around getting target information, detection, designation, guidance, aim-point selection, and mission accomplishment. The effectiveness of these technologies is amply demonstrated during recent wars. This paper brings out the emerging trends in visible/IR/radar smart-sensors and the related signal processing technologies that lead to brilliant guided weapon systems. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview to the readers about futuristic systems. This paper also addresses various system configurations including sensor-fusion.

  2. Development of fusion fuel cycles: Large deviations from US defense program systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, James Edward, E-mail: james.klein@srnl.doe.gov; Poore, Anita Sue; Babineau, David W.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • All tritium fuel cycles start with a “Tritium Process.” All have similar tritium processing steps. • Fusion tritium fuel cycles minimize process tritium inventories for various reasons. • US defense program facility designs did not minimize in-process inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Fusion energy research is dominated by plasma physics and materials technology development needs with smaller levels of effort and funding dedicated to tritium fuel cycle development. The fuel cycle is necessary to supply and recycle tritium at the required throughput rate; additionally, tritium confinement throughout the facility is needed to meet regulatory and environmental release limits. Small fuel cycle development efforts are sometimes rationalized by stating that tritium processing technology has already been developed by nuclear weapons programs and these existing processes only need rescaling or engineering design to meet the needs of fusion fuel cycles. This paper compares and contrasts features of tritium fusion fuel cycles to United States Cold War era defense program tritium systems. It is concluded that further tritium fuel cycle development activities are needed to provide technology development beneficial to both fusion and defense programs tritium systems.

  3. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  4. The defense waste processing facility: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Fulmer, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Fascility (DWPF) will be the nation's first production scale facility for immobilizing high-level waste for disposal. It will also be the largest facility of its kind in the world. The technology, design, and construction efforts are on schedule for ''hot'' operation in fiscal year 1990. This paper provides a status report on the DWPF technology, design, and construction, and describes some of the challenges that have arisen during design and construction

  5. Wireless body area networks technology, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2011-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli

  6. Awareness and Using of Medical Students About Mobile Health Technology in Clinical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar; Hachesu, Peyman Rezaei; Esfahani, Mahtab Kasayi

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Necessity of data transmission and getting contact with specialists is so evident in impassable regions. In order to solve such problems, there are different solutions one of which is mobile health technology. Being small and user-friendly, easy to enter data and having low expense are some of its advantages. This study aims to define the association between awareness of medical students in clinical stage about mobile health technology application and the rate of their using this technology in educational hospital of Isfahan in 2011. Method The study is a cross-sectional analytical application research. Sixty medical students were selected as samples from a society of 240 medical students. A researcher-made questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included 21 multiple choice and 15 yes no questions, which were corrected to reach a score. A researcher-made checklist with 5-fold Likert scale was used to define the rate of applying such technology. The reliability of questionnaire was confirmed through a test–retest. The collected data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software in descriptive and deductive statistics level. Findings The highest percentage of awareness about mobile health technology among medical students in the clinical stage of Azzahra educational hospital is 45.6 in nature areas, and their lowest percentage of awareness is 17.8 in the infrastructure area. In addition, their mean awareness of all areas is 54.4. The highest percentage of using mobile health technology by medical students is 14.6 in the education area, and their lowest percentage of usage is 6.8 in the treatment area. Their mean usage of all areas is 9.4 as well. Conclusion The rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology is not favorable. Except for treatment, there is no significant association between the rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology. PMID:24058250

  7. Technology demonstrations in the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three large-scale demonstration projects sponsored jointly by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), and the three US Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices that successfully offered to deactivate or decommission (D ampersand D) one of its facilities using a combination of innovative and commercial D ampersand D technologies. The paper also includes discussions on recent technology demonstrations for an Advanced Worker Protection System, an Electrohydraulic Scabbling System, and a Pipe Explorer trademark. The references at the conclusion of this paper should be consulted for more detailed information about the large-scale demonstration projects and recent technology demonstrations sponsored by the DDFA

  8. Sandia technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Sandia is a DOE multiprogram engineering and science laboratory with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. We have major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. Our principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. Selected unclassified technical activities and accomplishments are reported here. Topics include advanced manufacturing technologies, intelligent machines, computational simulation, sensors and instrumentation, information management, energy and environment, and weapons technology.

  9. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  11. Survey of Small Business Barriers to Department of Defense Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    the Better Buying Power initiatives is to increase small business participation in Department of Defense contracting. The department has had mixed...create and maintain world-class weapon systems. Department leadership has pushed for increased small business roles and opportunities through the Better...meet. One way to increase small business participation in defense contracts is to focus reform efforts in areas that small businesses perceive as

  12. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  13. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  14. Information Literacy Education on College of Technology at Kyushu Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, Kazutake; Ikeda, Naomitsu; Irie, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Yoichi; Oshima, Shunsuke; Murayama, Koichi; Taguchi, Hirotsugu

    Recently, the importance of an engineering education increases by the development of the information technology (IT) . Development of the information literacy education is important to deal with new IT in the education on college of technology. Our group investigated the current state of information literacy education on college of technology at Kyushu area and the secondary education. In addition, we investigated about the talent whom the industrial world requested. From these investigation results, this paper proposed cooperation with the elementary and secondary education, enhancement of intellectual property education, introduction of information ethics education, introduction of career education and enhancement of PBL to information literacy education on college of technology.

  15. 77 FR 782 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... private or public sector corporations or organizations; and (b) a wealth of top-level, global business..., economics, technology and healthcare. Board members shall be appointed by the Secretary of Defense, with...

  16. INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF UKRAINIAN DEFENSE LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazhа Y.P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The management and evaluation of defense land was revealed in the article. Specific institution is the military institutе in the institutional framework for defense land. A special regime and zoning, evaluation, payment and exclusion conditions were established for these lands. The market economy has changed the land-property relations in the country. Lands for defense used only in the framework that established the state. Recently there was a tendency of land release this subcategory. This has led to their misuse, belonging to other owners. The research problem consists of the setting clear boundaries of defense land and legal regulation mechanisms of land relations. Public ownership rights applies only to the defense lands. They are located only in the state ownership. The subject is the state that implements ownership (right to possess, use and dispose of the lands of Defense. It ensures the defense of the country and territory for military sites, airfields, parts, ammunition depots. Functional use of defense land is divided into public (military schools, socio-cultural (health centers, recreation centers, industrial (military and industrial objects, residential (cantonment, commercial (commissary, special (military installations, transport ( carpark, bridges, engineering (antennas, radars, storage (defense deport. The land for military unit were given for permanent use with the justification of the project design documentation sizes. The military part of the land for permanent use with the justification sizes by the project design documentation. Safety, security and other areas are created around military and other defense installations. There are restricted areas, prohibited areas. They have a special regime. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real estate. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real

  17. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  18. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE's Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina

  19. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Page 1 GAO-16-339R Ballistic Missile Defense 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 28, 2016 Congressional Committees Missile Defense... Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...funding efforts to develop a system to detect, track, and defeat enemy ballistic missiles. The current system—the Ballistic Missile Defense System

  20. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  1. Coordinating technology introduction and entrepreneurial activities in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.E.; Pennink, B.J.W.; Simatupang, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    © Copyright 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. The main purpose of this research is to investigate how technology introduction projects in rural areas should be coordinated in order to achieve local economic development and the role of social capital and entrepreneurial activities. Characteristics

  2. An analysis of CDTN performance in the reactors technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The author makes an analysis of CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) performance in the reactors technology area, showing difficulties and failures, but emphasizing the particular competence and capacity acquired in this area, as for example: the capacity in codes and methods are of neutronic calculations and nuclear projects, experimental thermohydraulic program, tests services in components and the others. (C.M.) [pt

  3. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  4. Fires, A Joint Professional Bulletin for US Field & Air Defense Artillerymen. May-June 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of a new commissary. The lifestyle center will incorporate retail areas with brand-name stores, casual dining and a six-screen cinema . There also...with their Republic of Korea counterparts. Yama Sakura. Yama Sakura is a bilateral US and Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force exercise focus- ing on... Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force readiness and interoperability. Key focus areas for fires elements in previous years have included joint targeting

  5. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  6. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs

  7. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  8. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  9. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  10. The Development of the US National Missile Defense and its Impact on the International Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Parshkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the US officials' point of view on the development of its national missile defense. The major threat to international security is the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the former Soviet Union made huge efforts to reduce and limit offensive arms. However, presently the proliferation of ballistic missiles spreads all over the world, especially in the Middle East, because of the ballistic missile technology falling into the hands of hostile non-state groups. Missile defenses can provide a permanent presence in a region and discourage adversaries from believing they can use ballistic missiles to coerce or intimidate the U.S. or its allies. With the possible attack regional missile defense systems will be promptly mobilized to enhance an effective deterrent. The ultimate goal of such large-scale missile defense deployment is to convince the adversaries that the use of ballistic missiles is useless in military terms and that any attack on the United States and its allies is doomed to failure. The United States has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of allies, including United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Israel, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy and many others. The Missile Defense Agency also actively participates in NATO activities to maximize opportunities to develop an integrated NATO ballistic missile defense capability. The initiative of the development of US BMD naturally belongs to the United States. That country has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities, exceeding by far those of the other NATO members combined.

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  12. Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Report No. D-2009-104 September 21, 2009 Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology ...Defense (Networks and Information Integration)/DOD Chief Information Officer DRMS Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service IT Information

  13. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  15. Defense Logistics: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Address Challenges in Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Jack E. Edwa appendix III. t rds Director, Defense Capabilities and Managemen Page 36 GAO-11-569 Defense Logistics List of Committees...Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302... operations . DOD faces asset visibility challenges due, in part, to a lack of interoperability among information technology

  16. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  17. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  18. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  19. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  20. From Comprehensive Defense to Resilient City: Strategic Conception of Shanghai’s City Security in the New Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Tingting; Li Min

    2017-01-01

    The trend of climate warming and deeper globalization is adding new content to urban risks in Shanghai, resulting in the adaption of traditional comprehensive defense planning to the new environment. Based on the resilient city theory, this paper proposes a transition for Shanghai from an original comprehensive defense to a resilient city vision through strategic framework and approaches from the three aspects of engineering technology, spatial defense, and social governance in the New Normal age. Meanwhile, it suggests that Shanghai should use information technology to enhance the level of risk monitoring and to improve engineering design standards; strengthen the resilience from the scales of “life circle-urban circle-municipal administrative area”; and innovate as well as improve the social safety governance.

  1. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    applications for recovering from disaster and trauma Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Develops and delivers advanced TBI-specifi c treatment...specifically aimed at developing cognitive and motor therapy tools using videogame technology, game-based PH outreach tools and support tools for children of...Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Annual Report 2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No

  2. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  3. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States); Lesperance, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L. [EnvironIssues (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  4. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization adaptive structures program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Michael; Sater, Janet M.

    In the currently envisioned architecture none of the Strategic Defense System (SDS) elements to be deployed will receive scheduled maintenance. Assessments of performance capability due to changes caused by the uncertain effects of environments will be difficult, at best. In addition, the system will have limited ability to adjust in order to maintain its required performance levels. The Materials and Structures Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has begun to address solutions to these potential difficulties via an adaptive structures technology program that combines health and environment monitoring with static and dynamic structural control. Conceivable system benefits include improved target tracking and hit-to-kill performance, on-orbit system health monitoring and reporting, and threat attack warning and assessment.

  5. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  6. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  7. Defense Weather Satellites: DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    and compare the operational effectiveness and life cycle costs of potential solutions. This testimony is based on a report GAO issued in March...Technology, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10 a.m. ET Thursday, July 7, 2016 GAO-16-769T United States...Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives July 2016 DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition

  8. Defense AT&L. Volume 40, Number 3, May-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    of Defense Technology and the Lessons of History IGA Robert Ranquet, IHEDN, Paris The United States has long relied on tech-nology to secure...Gen. Vincent Desportes, latest commandant of the French National War College, puts it in his recent book, La Guerre Probable ( Paris , 2008: Economica...engineering, he served as manager of the nuclear propul- sion department of the French navy’s pri- mary shipbuilding unit, the Brest division of the

  9. Russia and NATO Missile Defense: The European Phased Adaptive Approach Experience, 2009-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Volume I, 1945-1955. Ft. McNair, Washington, DC: US Army Center of Military History , 2009. Defense Science Board. Science and Technology Issues of...but were not the only contributing factors. Budgetary constraints, technological issues, and reassessments of threats also led to modifications in the...design for adaptability to benefit from technological innovations and to meet the evolving needs for Alliance protection in the international security

  10. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  12. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  13. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    part of the cost of an area-wide programme will be fighting the target pest away from the commercial production - before the commercial crops are susceptible - on wild or alternate hosts or abandoned orchards, untreated host plants in homeowners' gardens, etc. In most cases, area-wide insect control will be the responsibility of a separate organisation hired by the producers. A separate organisation can plan an aggressive offense against the target pest population over the entire area. High technology systems can be effectively utilised to plan the population management programme. Included will be satellite imagery to detect alternate hosts, sensitive methods to detect movement of the pest populations, computer programmes to predict changes in the pest insect population based on biological parameters, a systems approach to utilise natural enemies on an area-wide basis, genetic analysis to detect the development of resistance and utilisation of systems to delay the development of resistance over the total area. Further, area-wide programmes encourage the use of specialised methods of insect control that are not effective or are not used on a farm by farm basis. These include the sterile insect technique (SIT), male annihilation, inundative releases of parasites, mating inhibitors, large-scale trap cropping with very attractive plants, treatment of alternate hosts on public lands and hosts in private gardens, etc. The objective of area-wide control is to reduce the pest population within the target area to a non-economic level. This is accomplished by attacking the entire insect pest population in the target area. Conventional insect control attempts to protect the plant or animal, is carried out by individual producers over a small area with little planning, is short-term, low technology and is a reactive (defense) approach to insect control. Area-wide insect control attempts to reduce the pest population to a non-economic level over a large area involving many

  14. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  15. Wireless local area network. A new technology of network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yunjun; Zhao Zongtao

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), including the concept, history, characters and the foreground of its development, it also narrates in detail the several key techniques used to implement IEEE802.11 WLAN, and ideas on key technology of future progress in wireless LAN field have also been presented. (authors)

  16. Technology: the imbalance of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Teller writes that modern warfare is increasingly dominated by technology; here again, the United States is in danger of losing its lead over the Soviets. As we have failed to take advantage of our technical superiority, the Russians have moved ahead of us in rocketry, nuclear submarines, and anti-satellite technology. We ignore chemical and biological warfare: the Soviets do not. Teller feels the US should push ahead on producing the neutron bomb and the cruise missile - although, to inhibit escalation, we should announce that we would never be the first to use atomic weapons except within an invaded area - and we should spend more on civil defense and research and development. But in our dealings with other nations, the USSR, for example, we should shun treaties that are based on prohibition and seek those that promote cooperation. In the free world, the elimination of secrecy should be a constant goal. The only effective antidote to military technology is a technology for peace. We cannot afford to give up the hope for a peaceful world order

  17. Analisis Teori Offense-Defense Pada Reformasi Kebijakan Pertahanan Jepang Dalam Dinamika Keamanan Di Asia Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Alghifari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will seek to demonstrate how the use of Offense-Defense Theory can best explain the Japan’s new defense reform legislation that enables the country to play a more comprehensive global security role commensurate with its capabilities, resources, national interests, and international responsibilities. Through this offense-defense lens, it will be argued that Japan’s new defense reform legislation is a response to the growing dominance of ‘offensive’ behaviour by the neighbouring countries in East Asia. This paper will then elaborate more about the elements that are used in the offense-defense theory to analyze the ‘offense’ dominance that prompts East Asian states behave aggressively and defensively including Japan. Furthermore, this paper will explain why Japan is currently playing the ‘defensive’ role to counter the growing dominance of ‘offense’ in East Asia through the four variables of offense-defense balance; military doctrine and technology, geographical considerations, social and political order, and diplomatic arrangements. Thus, we will see that Japan holds the key to the offense-defense and security balance in the increasingly hostile environment in East Asia.

  18. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  19. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of..., the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense... Director, Missile Defense Agency, independent advice and recommendations on all matters relating to missile...

  20. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy; Rapport annuel 2003. Information et sante, defense, energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  1. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  2. Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    COVERED (From - To) 07/31/17 to 04/09/18 Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future Colonel Heather A...efficient and expeditious fielding of technologically superior capabilities. In today’s environment, it is commonplace for private industry to be the...first to develop and deploy technologies that can be adopted for defense systems. The result is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is largely a

  3. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  4. Historical evolution and technology impact in the area of the health and the nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Couto Carvalho Barra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study it is of exploratory and descriptive character. One is about bibliographical research carried through on the basis of the analysis and interpretation of articles, dissertations and thesis produced between 1994 the 2004. We investigate the contributions of researchers that had focused the historical evolution of the technology in the area of the health and the nursing. Of a total of 39 articles, 03 selected dissertations and 02 thesis, we construct for analysis two categories: Technological evolution in the area of the health: hard technology e; Technological evolution in the Nursing: technology leavening and has led. This study it allowed to affirm us that a critical and reflexive position is necessary on the use of the technology, searching an adequacy to the necessities of the patient as a whole and that, independent of the use of the high technology, fits to the nurse to keep this together humanized presence to the sick people.

  5. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  6. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

  7. Defense AT&L. Volume 44, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    integrated web applications. These apps will share the same map engine, chat function, and secure underlying data, decreasing training time for soldiers...security challenges. Revital - izing technology innovation must be at the forefront of this strategy in order to answer President Obama’s call to action...workforce will have available a num- ber of tools on business. defense.gov/ apps —a man- agement system to track performance and goaling. Buying

  8. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.

  9. Area- and energy-efficient CORDIC accelerators in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, U.; Noll, T. G.

    2012-09-01

    The COordinate Rotate DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is a well known versatile approach and is widely applied in today's SoCs for especially but not restricted to digital communications. Dedicated CORDIC blocks can be implemented in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies at very low area and energy costs and are attractive to be used as hardware accelerators for Application Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs). Thereby, overcoming the well known energy vs. flexibility conflict. Optimizing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers to reduce the hardware complexity is an important research topic at present. In such receivers CORDIC accelerators can be used for digital baseband processing (fixed-point) and in Position-Velocity-Time estimation (floating-point). A micro architecture well suited to such applications is presented. This architecture is parameterized according to the wordlengths as well as the number of iterations and can be easily extended for floating point data format. Moreover, area can be traded for throughput by partially or even fully unrolling the iterations, whereby the degree of pipelining is organized with one CORDIC iteration per cycle. From the architectural description, the macro layout can be generated fully automatically using an in-house datapath generator tool. Since the adders and shifters play an important role in optimizing the CORDIC block, they must be carefully optimized for high area and energy efficiency in the underlying technology. So, for this purpose carry-select adders and logarithmic shifters have been chosen. Device dimensioning was automatically optimized with respect to dynamic and static power, area and performance using the in-house tool. The fully sequential CORDIC block for fixed-point digital baseband processing features a wordlength of 16 bits, requires 5232 transistors, which is implemented in a 40-nm CMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 1560 μm2 only. Maximum clock frequency from circuit

  10. Network speech systems technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, C. J.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents work performed during FY 1981 on the DCA-sponsored Network Speech Systems Technology Program. The two areas of work reported are: (1) communication system studies in support of the evolving Defense Switched Network (DSN) and (2) design and implementation of satellite/terrestrial interfaces for the Experimental Integrated Switched Network (EISN). The system studies focus on the development and evaluation of economical and endurable network routing procedures. Satellite/terrestrial interface development includes circuit-switched and packet-switched connections to the experimental wideband satellite network. Efforts in planning and coordination of EISN experiments are reported in detail in a separate EISN Experiment Plan.

  11. Inherently Offensive: Airpower and the Dialectic with Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    detailed definition up front. Ted Hopf, writing in The American Political Science Review, argues, “the offense-defense balance consists of three elements...technology contributed to air power’s ability to maintain overwhelming offensive 12 Hopf, Ted . "Polarity...fighters and surface-to-air missile systems. John Patterson explains why this is true, “most fighter aircraft operate in the X - and Ku-bands because

  12. The Identification of Technology Platforms and Innovation Areas with High Regional Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Urbančíková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the process of identification of the technological platforms and innovation areas with high regional impact. The aim is to discover future fields of technological innovation which are having a high qualitative and quantitative demand of high potentials. The research has been undertaken within project Innovative Development of European Areas by fostering transnational Knowledge Development – IDEA/ 2CE1175P1 funded by Central Europe Programme. The aim of IDEA project is the development of an adequate strategy which enables the small and medium sized enterprises in the regions of Central Europe to face the increasing demand of high potentials with tested methods and instruments. The target group of IDEA project are so called “high potentials” in the engineering and scientific sector where future-oriented technologies are one of the main sources of innovation.

  13. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  14. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  15. Interoperability In Multi-Layered Active Defense:The Need For Commonality And Robustness Between Active Defense Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    into areas where there is no access to maritime platforms. Sea-based interceptor platforms have the ability to intercept targets at each stage of the...argues that the most efficient concept for integrating active defense weapon systems is a multi- layered architecture with redundant intercept ...faster data transfer and will prevent data loss. The need for almost 100% interception successes is increasing as the threat becomes more

  16. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  17. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  18. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  19. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  20. mHealth Application Areas and Technology Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Haitham; Marschollek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous and enormous spread of mobile technologies, mHealth has evolved as a new subfield of eHealth. While eHealth is broadly focused on information and communication technologies, mHealth seeks to explore more into mobile devices and wireless communication. Since mobile phone penetration has exceeded other infrastructure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), mHealth is seen as a promising component to provide pervasive and patient-centered care. The aim of our research work for this paper is to examine the mHealth literature to identify application areas, target diseases, and mHealth service and technology types that are most appropriate for LMICs. Based on the 2011 WHO mHealth report, a combination of search terms, all including the word "mHealth", was identified. A literature review was conducted by searching the PubMed and IEEE Xplore databases. Articles were included if they were published in English, covered an mHealth solution/intervention, involved the use of a mobile communication device, and included a pilot evaluation study. Articles were excluded if they did not provide sufficient detail on the solution covered or did not focus on clinical efficacy/effectiveness. Cross-referencing was also performed on included articles. 842 articles were retrieved and analyzed, 255 of which met the inclusion criteria. North America had the highest number of applications (n=74) followed by Europe (n=50), Asia (n=44), Africa (n=25), and Australia (n=9). The Middle East (n=5) and South America (n=3) had the least number of studies. The majority of solutions addressed diabetes (n=51), obesity (n=25), CVDs (n=24), HIV (n=18), mental health (n=16), health behaviors (n=16), and maternal and child's health (MCH) (n=11). Fewer solutions addressed asthma (n=7), cancer (n=5), family health planning (n=5), TB (n=3), malaria (n=2), chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=2), vision care (n=2), and dermatology (n=2). Other solutions targeted stroke, dental

  1. Fact Sheet: FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) DOD Reform Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    ought to be adopted, in part stemming from differing views on the nature of the organizational challenges besetting the Department of Defense. The...House Armed Services Committee formally expresses its diagnosis of the defense reform challenge in H.Rept. 114-537, stating: The committee recognizes...this critical organizational framework, while still preserving its spirit and intent. For example, we can see in some areas how the pendulum between

  2. "Homeland Defense: At Risk as a Result of Civil Support?"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brickhouse, Tonja

    2003-01-01

    This research effort is an attempt by the author to examine the broad area of military support to civil authorities and the potential for a significant demand on Department of Defense (DoD) resources...

  3. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary, initiate a search through the Military Police Desk. Permit holders who fail to call out twice... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94 Area...

  4. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  5. Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective M A R C H 2 8 , 2 0 1 6...Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective Visit us at www.dodig.mil... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE DIRECTOR, DEFENSE HEALTH AGENCY SUBJECT: Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service

  6. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  7. ’Point of Injury’ Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-17

    Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics March 17,2012 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD) Defense...Contract: April 25, 2011 Short Title of Work: "Point of Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics " Contract Expiration Date...SBIR PHASE I OPTION REPORT: Point of Injury, Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics . W31P4Q-1 l-C-0222 (UNCLASSIFIED) P.I

  8. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  9. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.

    1999-01-01

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  10. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  11. Application of local area network technology in an engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, A.D.; Sokolowski, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of local area network technology in an engineering environment. Mobil Research and Development Corporation Engineering, Dallas, texas has installed a local area network (LAN) linking over 85 microcomputers. This network, which has been in existence for more than three years, provides common access by all engineers to quality output devices such as laser printers and multi-color pen plotters; IBM mainframe connections; electronic mail and file transfer; and common engineering program. The network has been expanded via a wide area ethernet network to link the Dallas location with a functionally equivalent LAN of over 400 microcomputers in Princeton, N.J. Additionally, engineers on assignment at remote areas in Europe, U.S., Africa and project task forces have dial-in access to the network via telephone lines

  12. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  13. Using Organizational Systems Theory to Improve Defense Acquisition and Warfighter Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    .... Hence, this MBA study employed a systems approach to more credibly pinpoint improvement areas in the Defense Acquisition System through the use of systems theory and an organizational systems model...

  14. Strategy alternatives for homeland air and cruise missile defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric M; Payne, Michael D; Vanderwoude, Glenn W

    2010-10-01

    Air and cruise missile defense of the U.S. homeland is characterized by a requirement to protect a large number of critical assets nonuniformly dispersed over a vast area with relatively few defensive systems. In this article, we explore strategy alternatives to make the best use of existing defense resources and suggest this approach as a means of reducing risk while mitigating the cost of developing and acquiring new systems. We frame the issue as an attacker-defender problem with simultaneous moves. First, we outline and examine the relatively simple problem of defending comparatively few locations with two surveillance systems. Second, we present our analysis and findings for a more realistic scenario that includes a representative list of U.S. critical assets. Third, we investigate sensitivity to defensive strategic choices in the more realistic scenario. As part of this investigation, we describe two complementary computational methods that, under certain circumstances, allow one to reduce large computational problems to a more manageable size. Finally, we demonstrate that strategic choices can be an important supplement to material solutions and can, in some cases, be a more cost-effective alternative. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to... requirements for the support of military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and...

  16. 76 FR 2151 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... day-long workshop on the pros and cons of the defense-in-depth strategy for cyber security. The... Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. ACTION: Call for participation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program on behalf of the SCORE Committee. Background...

  17. 75 FR 71647 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Discussions Prior to Contract Award (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) to revise the DoD source... misunderstood requirements. DoD notes the potential disadvantages of this proposed change in increased time to...

  18. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  19. Holding the Edge: Maintaining the Defense Technology Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    psychological , with the shedding of isolationist technology that is close or equal to that of the United attitudes and inhibitions. Reaction by European States...are directed toward aleveling could work against what should be a good common set of enabling technologies, with applica- leeida carld work aanst

  20. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rui Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20–24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  1. 78 FR 15935 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The Office of Management and... construction contract in Spain has adequate insurance coverage. Affected Public: Businesses or other for profit... construction contract in Spain. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. [FR Doc. 2013...

  2. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal review on PTSD defense of adolescent patients in criminal cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is nothing new for Chinese society; however, Chinese courts are hesitated to accept the PTSD as a mental defense for adolescent patients. PTSD defense might be popular in future and court shall give proper weight to relevant factors. It is a big problem that there are no procedures or instructions for the connection between diagnosis and judgment. The paper illustrates the origination of PTSD and its development in USA with some relevant cases. Even the American courts consider PTSD as a problem. And there should be detailed regulations in China to keep pace with the development of science technology.

  4. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.

  5. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  6. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  7. Automative Technology Objectives [and] Automotive Technology: Basic Textbooks and Instructional Materials. Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides program objectives for instructors teaching automotive technology courses in junior and senior high Department of Defense Dependents Schools. The manual begins with a description of the automotive technology courses offered in the Dependents Schools, and a list of instructor expectations. Following is the main part of the…

  8. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY...

  9. Novel naval technologies: Sustaining or disrupting naval doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kulve, Haico; Smit, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    The defense sector is generally known to be simultaneously conservative and enthusiastic about novel technologies. Uptake of new technologies by the military may differ depending on the perceived impact of new technologies. Introduction of technological changes can sustain or disrupt doctrine and

  10. 76 FR 6637 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth Is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... the pros and cons of the Defense-in-Depth strategy for cyber security. The workshop will be held March... Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. ACTION: Call for participation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... notice is issued by the National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology...

  11. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, B S; Lee, J S; Sim, C M [and others

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility.

  12. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Sim, C. M.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility

  13. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  14. Ensuring a Strong U.S. Defense for the Future: The National Defense Panel Review of the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    territorial disputes with China. We note recent moves to station U.S. forces in Darwin , the plan to station a number of Littoral Combat Ships in Singapore...Under Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (C) Charles “Chuck” Hagel Secretary of Defense Mara Karlin Principal Director for Strategy, Policy (P...Support Staff to the Panel Charles Arnold George Sinks U.S. Government Liaison Officers Lori Abele Chief of Staff, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense

  15. An observational study of defensible space in the neighbourhood park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzukhi, M. A.; Afiq, M. A.; Zaki, S. Ahmad; Ling, O. H. L.

    2018-02-01

    The planning of neighborhood park is important to provide space for interaction, leisure, and recreation among residents in any neighbourhood area. However, on an almost daily basis, newspapers report inappropriate incidents such as snatch theft, robbery and street attack that occurred in the neighborhood park. These cases reflect the significance of physical planning and design of neighborhood park that directly affect the safety and comfort of the users. Thus, this study attempts to engage with the defensible space concept in ensuring the security elements be applied in the planning of the recreational area. This study adopts a qualitative method form of research that is retrofitted to an observational study. The observational study is significant for revealing the condition of a neighbourhood park in the ‘real-world,’ in which direct observation is conducted on Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana. The observer focused on four elements or variables of defensible space concept including the provision of facilities in the neighborhood park, territoriality, surveillance, image and milieu. The findings revealed that the planning of Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana does not deliberate the defensible space elements, which may contribute to the crime activities in the park. In these circumstances, the planning of neighbourhood park needs to include proposals for the implementation of defensible space in response to the challenges underpinned by crime problems. Besides, the awareness among the residents needs to be emphasized with the support from local authorities and other organizations to manage and sustain the safety environment in the neighborhood park.

  16. DEFENSE-ATTACK INTERACTION OVER OPTIMALLY DESIGNED DEFENSE SYSTEMS VIA GAMES AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes defense systems taking into account the strategic interactions between two rational agents; one of them is interested in designing a defense system against purposeful attacks of the other. The interaction is characterized by a sequential game with perfect and complete information. Reliability plays a fundamental role in both defining agents' actions and in measuring performance of the defense system for which a series-parallel configuration is set up by the defender. The attacker, in turn, focuses on only one defense subsystem in order to maximize her efficiency in attacking. An algorithm involving backward induction is developed to determine the equilibrium paths of the game. Application examples are also provided.

  17. Cooperative Autonomous Resilient Defense Platform for Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Mohamed Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) entail the tight integration of and coordination between computational and physical resources. These systems are increasingly becoming vital to modernizing the national critical infrastructure systems ranging from healthcare, to transportation and energy, to homeland security and national defense. Advances in CPS technology are needed to help improve their current capabilities as well as their adaptability, autonomicity, efficiency, reliability, safety and usabili...

  18. Developing Information Technology for Vocational Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas Significance, Problems, and Countermeasures: The Case of the Wuling Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.

  19. Instrumentation requirements for radiological defense of the U.S. population in community shelters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Gant, K.S.

    1978-08-01

    Estimates are made of requirements for instruments for radiological defense of the U.S. population in the event of a nuclear attack. A detailed Community Shelter Plan posture is developed for each of 42,000 Standard Location Areas. Travel distance from residence to shelter in urban areas is limited to approximately 1 mile. Sixty percent of the U.S. population is sheltered in home basements, thirty-one percent in National Shelter Survey shelters, and nine percent is in neither. Three minimum allocations of instruments are developed. Allocation A, one radiological defense set per shelter, is essentially the same as the current civil defense allocations but is found to be inadequate for about 100,000 shelters having more than 100 occupants. Allocation B requires 3.4 million new dosimeters based on estimated shelter occupancy and provides a minimum instrumentation for radiological defense but not enough instruments to maintain individual dose records. Allocation C would require 18.1 million new dosimeters and would provide adequate instrumentation to maintain dose records for all shelter occupants

  20. Expeditionary Air Base Defense: Historical Cases and Modern Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    203. 50 As violence in Iraq’s urban areas surged in 2006, IDF attacks against Balad Air Base reached their peak, with approximately 475...defense operations when appropriate, but it is not a singular solution for quickly or completely reducing violence in the area of air bases. The case of...forces “drawing from the units available.”3 This is appropriate for small combat outposts ( COP ) or forward operating bases (FOB) in lower threat

  1. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  2. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  3. Parabrachial complex glutamate receptors modulate the cardiorespiratory response evoked from hypothalamic defense area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Casares, A; López-González, M V; Peinado-Aragonés, C A; González-Barón, S; Dawid-Milner, M S

    2012-08-16

    To characterize the possible role of glutamate in the interaction between Hypothalamic Defense Area (HDA) and Parabrachial complex (PBc) nuclei, cardiorespiratory changes were analyzed in response to electrical stimulation of the HDA (1 ms pulses, 30-50 μA given at 100 Hz for 5s) before and after the microinjection of the nonspecific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (50 nl, 5 nmol), NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (50 nl, 50 nmol), non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX (50 nl, 50 nmol) or metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MCPG (50 nl, 5 nmol) within the PBc. HDA stimulation evoked an inspiratory facilitatory response, consisting of an increase in respiratory rate (pHDA stimulation. Similarly, the magnitude of the tachycardia and the pressor response was decreased after the microinjection of MK-801 (pHDA stimulation but the respiratory response persisted unchanged after MK-801 or CNQX microinjection into the lPB. Kynurenic acid within the medial parabrachial region (mPB) abolished the tachycardia (pHDA stimulation. MK-801 and CNQX microinjection in this region decreased the magnitude of the tachycardia (pHDA stimulation was not changed after the microinjection of kynurenic acid, MK-801 or CNQX within the mPB. No changes were observed in the cardiorespiratory response evoked to HDA stimulation after MCPG microinjection within lPB and mPB. These results indicate that glutamate PBc receptors are involved in the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the HDA. The possible mechanisms involved in these interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology as a Craft of Deceit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.

    This essay briefly presents the evolution of technology and the resulting warnings that many prominent writers have offered in defense of an analytic inquiry into man's interaction with technology. Various ways in which technology has been used to manipulate people are described, e.g., Vietnam, Watergate, the CIA, the Tuskegee Study, Subliminal…

  5. The growth of materials processing in space - A history of government support for new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  6. Defense Agency Travel Payments at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center management controls over payments to Defense agency personnel for temporary duty and local travel...

  7. Research and Application of Virtual Simulation Technology in the Aerospace Bearing Design and Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in aerospace and other fields, its performance directly affects the production efficiency and safety. Nowadays, virtual simulation technology has become an indispensable part of intelligent manufacturing field. As a virtual simulation technology, FEA has been widely used in bearing design. China needs to import many aerospace bearings every year in aerospace area, Chinese national defense and other high precision technology is limited because the blockade of advanced bearing technology. We can use dynamics modeling and virtual simulation technology to achieve the predictive design, and strive to achieve foreign level. In this paper, the author proposed a method of bearing design based on virtual simulation technology. The factors of bearing which affect the dynamic characteristics are considered, the process of design bearing based on virtual simulation is also considered. According to the different design parameters, the simulation results are used to verify the rationality, these can reduce the cost and improve the reliability. The virtual simulation technology is applied to design the 7016C angular contact ball bearing which used in aerospace area, and supported decision-making in structure design and data analyze. Finally, The feasibility of this method is verified by experiments..

  8. A Status Report on the Major Accounting and Management Control Deficiencies in the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... Defense Business Operations Fund. The Defense Business Operations Fund was established as a revolving fund in FY 1992 and consisted of business areas such as Supply Management and Depot Maintenance...

  9. The Chinese Defense Economy’s Long March from Imitation to Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Tai Ming

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, China’s defense science, technology, and innovation (DSTI) system has been vigorously developing a comprehensive set of innovation capabilities that will eventually allow it to join the world’s top tier of military technological powers. Ample access to financial, human, and research resources; strong political support; inflows of foreign technologies and know-how; and the introduction of advanced modes of governance, market competition, and...

  10. An outline of military technological dynamics as restraints for acquisition, international cooperation and domestic technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Renato Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectation that technological returns from defense expenditure through acquisition, international cooperation and domestic research would further national development underappreciates the different technological dynamic of the armed services. This paper outlines the technological dynamic the stems from fighting in the air, at sea and on land, exemplifying consequences for the case of acquisition.

  11. Activities in department of energy hazardous and mixed waste defense waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    In January 1986, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP) created the Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) was assigned the responsibility for supporting DOE Headquarters (HQ) in planning nationally integrated activities for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act/Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (RCRA/CERCLA/SARA) compliance. In turn, ORO created the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Support Contractor Office (HAZWRAPSCO) to assist with the expanded lead assignment. The HAZWRAPSCO activities are currently supported by three distinct DOE-HQ funding elements: the Environmental Restoration Program, the Hazardous Waste Compliance Technology Program, and the Hazardous Waste Research and Development R and D Program. The Environmental Restoration Program is discussed in the paper, entitled The DOE Defense Program for Environmental Restoration

  12. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries’ Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    stment, technology transfer, and countertrade , which entails barter, counter-purchase, and buyback. : those that ar ended. During the Cold War...overseas investment, technology transfer, and countertrade . Each of these areas is briefly described in the remainder of this section. 18 Co...and a foreign entity. 19 Countertrade . In addition to the types of offset defined above, various types of commercial countertrade arrangements

  13. Laser Science and Technology Program Annual Report-2002 NIF Programs Directorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L; Chen, H L

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are consistent with the goals of the NIF Directorate and develop state-of-the-art capabilities. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and (d) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. LSandT activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project-LSandT led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 30.1 optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)-LSandT personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LSandT continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy-LSandT continued development of kW- to MW-class, diode-pumped, solid-state laser (DPSSL). (4) Department of Defense (DoD)-LSandT continued development of a 100 kw-class solid-state heat-capacity laser

  14. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  15. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios /Facilities Contract Audit Technology Partnerships Sandia collaborates with industry, small businesses

  17. Technology trends in selected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.

    1990-01-01

    Besides the issues of international consequences of science and technology developments (including information technology, biotechnology, materials technology, nuclear technology, space technology) the following topics were touched only briefly: energy and uses of nuclear power, environmental issues, and matters such as the comprehensive test-ban treaty and the way ahead -more perhaps a phased approach than a single step. The limited time available did not allow considering the role of the United Nations and any other institutional forms in these matters. There is conviction that there was enough historical evidence to suggest that there will be a need for a plurality of institutions, with different geographical, and maybe even political, imperatives. In summary, a conference such as this one at Sendai can offer the United Nations advice on the dynamics of change in sectors of science and technology, of the impact of such changes on matters related to international security - military, economic and the environment. There is belief in the maximum diffusion of science and technology with the minimum discrimination but at the same time dissemination consistent with international security. The value of co-operative efforts in research and development, in the removal of asymmetries in the international system. The removal of such asymmetries would constitute a significant step on the way ahead, to a more just and lasting equilibrium between States

  18. After Globalization Future Security in a Technology Rich World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmartin,T J

    2001-08-17

    Over the course of the year 2000, five workshops were conducted by the Center for Global Security Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on threats to international security in the 2015 to 2020 timeframe due to the global availability of advanced technology. These workshops focused on threats that are enabled by nuclear, missile, and space technology; military technology; information technology; bio technology; and geo systems technology. The participants included US national leaders and experts from the Department of Energy National Laboratories; the Department of Defense: Army, Navy, Air Force, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; the Department of State, NASA, Congressional technical staff, the intelligence community, universities and university study centers, think tanks, consultants on security issues, and private industry. For each workshop the process of analysis involved identification and prioritization of the participants' perceived most severe threat scenarios (worst nightmares), discussion of the technologies which enabled those threats, and ranking of the technologies' threat potentials. The threats ranged from local/regional to global, from intentional to unintended to natural, from merely economic to massively destructive, and from individual and group to state actions. We were not concerned in this exercise with defining responses to the threats, although our assessment of each threat's severity included consideration of the ease or difficulty with which it might be executed or countered. At the concluding review, we brought the various workshops' participants together, added senior participant/reviewers with broad experience and national responsibility, and discussed the workshop findings to determine what is most certain or uncertain, and what might be needed to resolve our uncertainties. This paper summarizes the consenses and

  19. Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS): mothers' and children's responses to the stresses of missile attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, L; Laor, N; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study furthers the validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS) as a measure of children's defensive behavior. Participants were 81 mothers who assessed the defense style (CADS) of their 8- to 10-year-old children, as well as their own defense style and level of object relations. Five years earlier, the mothers had rated their children's symptom level and personality after the missile attacks during the Gulf War. The original factor structure of the CADS was replicated for the most part. Self-oriented and other-oriented defenses were related to the children's early personality and symptomatic reaction, as well as to their mother's defense style and level of object relations. The CADS factors correlated with the defenses of the Defense Mechanisms Manual. The results provide further validation of the CADS and suggest possible areas of implementation, such as longitudinal examination of defenses, psychopathology screening, and therapeutic improvement.

  20. Lean principles and defense information technology acquisition: An investigation of the determinants of successful application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules reductions. Additionally, the study set out to determine what potential critical success factors (CSF's) were documented in the secondary data captured for each release, and extracted the variables used in the decision making for acceptability of fielding. In evaluating lean applicability to the high variability environment of USAF IT acquisitions, the research was conducted using non-experimental quantitative methods of archival secondary data. The sample for this case study was compiled from a USAF office that had implemented these techniques in pre-development, development and testing, and fielding phases. Based on the research data, acquisitionists and lean practitioners are inherently interconnected. Therefore, an understanding that critical success factors (CSFs) are integral to successful lean application in DoD IT acquisitions is crucial. Through a combination of synergistic alignments, plyometric CSFs were discovered to maximize the effects of each single CSF to produce rapid results in defense IT acquisitions. These include: (1) Enterprise Incorporation, (2) Team Trust, (3) Transformational Leadership, (4) Recursive Improvement, (5) Integrated Synergy, (6) Customer-Centric Culture and (7) Heuristic Communication.

  1. Encouraging environmentally strategic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Having moved beyond its initial absorption with controlling new technology, environmental policy today must focus more strongly on promoting the development and adoption of new technologies. World Resource Institute's (WRI) ongoing study of 'environmentally strategic technology' is addressed to this fundamental policy issue. The study proposes criteria for identifying such technology, offers a specific list, suggests the kinds of public policy changes necessary to encourage their development and finally presents a comparison of critical technology lists (from the White House, the European Community, Japan and the US Department of Defense). (TEC)

  2. Defense AT and L. Volume 41, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    own specialty. To paraphrase Abraham Maslow : If all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. Systems engineers are supposed to take a...technology, and logistics face in the austere times we have entered. We will have to provide the ser- vices and products our warfighters need and...understanding of: (1) the constraints we must live within; (2) a willingness to prioritize our needs and accept less than we Defense AT&L: November–December

  3. A STUDY ON DEFENSE ACQUISITION MODELS WITH AN EMERGING MARKET PERSPECTIVE. THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Topcu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, the static environment, characteristic of the bipolar world, has changed quickly into a dynamic and complicated environment with new actors. These changes have also affected the countries’ armed forces and new approaches to procurement/acquisition come into progress. After the Cold War, countries have focused on responding to changing threats with their decreasing defense budgets. In this study, acquisition models and their effects on Turkey’s technology acquisition and defense industry are evaluated. The evaluation is performed based on criteria such as contribution to national economy, customization, acquisition cost, time and risk, life cycle cost, and technology acquisition. Major acquisition models in this study are determined as direct procurement, production under license, joint venture, indigenous development, production via international consortium. Finally, it is observed that the best model is indigenous development while the others will serve as technology acquisition for indigenous development.

  4. Status of GAO Recommendations to the Department of Defense (Fiscal Years 2001-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-11

    Name-Brand, Fast - Food Restaurants 5 GAO-01-943 Defense Manufacturing Technology Program: More Joint Projects and Tracking of Results Could...Oversight of Contractors under Foreign Influence Is Sufficient 6 2 GAO-05-456 Interagency Contracting: Franchise Funds Provide Convenience, but Value to

  5. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  6. The journal of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B. B. S.; Peitersen, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense (www.JMedCBR.org) is a peer-reviewed scientific online journal focusing on the biology, chemistry, physiology, toxicology and treatment of exposure to threat agents. JMedCBR provides a central international forum for the publication of current research and development information on medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, as well as training, doctrine, and problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. JMedCBR is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Chem-Bio Technologies Directorate as part of its scientific outreach program in chemical and biological defense solutions for the Department of Defense. In addition to scientific and medical research, JMedCBR hosts an archive of related papers from authors in the field. Although organized into annual issues, articles are published on the web continuously. The complete JMedCBR is published electronically and is made available to the scientific community free of charge. JMedCBR is committed to providing its readers with quality scientific information and critical analyses. All submissions are peer-reviewed by an editorial board of recognized and respected international scientists who represent expertise in different aspects of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense. Contributions to JMedCBR must be original works of the author(s) and must not have been previously published or simultaneously submitted to other publications. The author(s) transfer the copyright of articles published in JMedCBR to the journal. A copyright transfer form must accompany each manuscript submission. For more information on submitting to JMedCBR, see the Authors' Guide, available at http://www.jmedcbr.org/authorGuide.html.(author)

  7. "Infotonics Technology Center"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, L. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States); Boysel, M. B. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States); Smith, D. R. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States)

    2004-09-30

    During this grant period July 15, 2002 thru September 30, 2004, the Infotonics Technology Center developed the critical infrastructure and technical expertise necessary to accelerate the development of sensors, alternative lighting and power sources, and other specific subtopics of interest to Department of Energy. Infotonics fosters collaboration among industry, universities and government and operates as a national center of excellence to drive photonics and microsystems development and commercialization. A main goal of the Center is to establish a unique, world-class research and development facility. A state-of-the-art microsystems prototype and pilot fabrication facility was established to enable rapid commercialization of new products of particular interest to DOE. The Center has three primary areas of photonics and microsystems competency: device research and engineering, packaging and assembly, and prototype and pilot-scale fabrication. Center activities focused on next generation optical communication networks, advanced imaging and information sensors and systems, micro-fluidic systems, assembly and packaging technologies, and biochemical sensors. With targeted research programs guided by the wealth of expertise of Infotonics business and scientific staff, the fabrication and packaging facility supports and accelerates innovative technology development of special interest to DOE in support of its mission and strategic defense, energy, and science goals.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Pathfinder Radar ISR and Synthetic Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radar (SAR) Systems Sandia National Laboratories Exceptional service in the national interest ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios

  9. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  10. The strategic value of industrial radiation manufacturing and processing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappas, W.J.; Silverman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Planned and projected budget cuts over the next many years will reduce the number of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and the diversity and quantity of their armaments and systems. Consequently, there is a requirement for the deployment of more effective defense equipment and their more efficient operation. Concomitant with this challenge is an opportunity for innovative technologies that can, at a lower cost, produce new, stronger, more durable materials-and do so with less environmental impact. Radiation processing offers this potential for (a) creating significant cost savings and performance advantages in a broad range of defense materials; (b) destroying and detoxifying dangerous chemicals, ordnance, and rocket propellants; (c) cleaning noxious gaseous effluents; and (d) purifying contaminated water. Radiation technology has the potential to immediately affect defense materials and, in the short and long terms, US industrial international competitiveness

  11. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5....5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective Service System employed in an area office will be referred to as the area office staff. ...

  12. Novel Technology for Wide-Area Screening of ERC-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Long-term use of high explosives (HE) on DoD training ranges and other defense installations has in some cases resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater with residues of HE and explosive-related compounds (ERCs...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Procurement:

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios Contract Audit Working with Sandia Construction and Facilities Sandia establishes contracts to support

  14. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 555 - Director of Defense Research and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be limited to 3% of the professional man-years at that laboratory unless expressed approval of the... function at the National Science Foundation shall not exceed two man-years per year through FY 76, subject... definition where existing Defense technology offers a unique potential solution. ...

  16. On limiting technology by negotiated agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesale, Albert

    1983-10-01

    The substance of my remarks tonight will be far narrower in scope than the prescribed title of my talk would indicate. This reflects two considerations: first, this topical meeting is focused on technologies associated with nuclear weapons systems; and, second, President Reagan recently (i.e., on March 23, 1983) called for ``a program to counter the awesome Soviet missile threat with measures that are defensive.'' In light of these considerations, I will concentrate tonight on the case of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a countinuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement? Why limit ABM systems? After all, such systems are defensive in nature, not offensive. Defensive systems are intended to protect people and the things of value to them. It is the offensive systems that cause death and destruction. Why don't we just go ahead and deploy the best available ABM system, and develop and test even better systems for deployment in the future?

  17. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  18. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign

  19. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  20. The Spanish Contribution to European Security and Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Sanz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The author examines Spain’s material and intellectual contributions to European security and defense. In the first place, he provides an overview of the changes in the personal qualifications of the Spanish Armed Forces and in the mentality of the military officials in adapting to the work of international organisms and to cooperation in broadlydefined schemes of security. On this point, he highlights the Spanish contribution to the missions carried out by the United Nations, OSCE and the WEU. With respect to NATO, Félix Sanz analyzes the Spanish participation before and after this country’s integrationin military structure and in the operative plans of the Alliance. Sanz also underscores the contribution made to multinational forces such as Eurocorps, Eurofor/Euromarfor, the Italian-Spanish amphibious force and, in the future, the European air group. He discussesSpain’s support for other bilateral forums for security, in particular the relation with the United States. In the area of intellectual contributions, the author underlines this country’sinterest in bringing about a convergence of defense forces, Spain’s support for a multinational military and its willingness to collaborate in the design of European defense.

  1. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan E. Havko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA, which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  2. 32 CFR 552.25 - Entry regulations for certain Army training areas in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Hawaii. 552.25 Section 552.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... Regulations for Certain Army Training Areas in Hawaii § 552.25 Entry regulations for certain Army training areas in Hawaii. (a) Purpose. (1) This regulation establishes procedures governing the entry onto...

  3. Overview of nanotechnology and its applicability to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Allison; Stevens, Rick; Thorson, Kevin; Whaley, Gregory J.

    2005-08-01

    Advances in a wide variety of nanotechnologies are expected to substantially benefit future military weapon systems. The technology development cycle for military platforms requires a given technology to reach a defined state of maturity before its use in a deployable system. Nanotechnologies such as quantum dots and carbon nanotubes, while showing great promise of performance benefits, are still considered too immature for immediate use. Defense contractors are in active research of applications of nanoscale engineered materials and devices and are beginning to engage nanotechnology suppliers for future military platforms.

  4. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  5. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  6. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1995--September 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Hatcher, P.; Knicker, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-21

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through the Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Mixture Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, preparation of the Phase I final report continued. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included initiating a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work started on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filter device will be used to demonstrate a more compact and efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Coal preparation and utilization activities, and the economic analysis were completed and work focused on preparing the final report. Work on Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on selecting incentives for commercialization of coal using technologies, community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  7. The dynamics of fear: The defense cascade - La dinámica del miedo: la cascada defensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of defense reactions has become in the last years one of the most relevant ways to advance knowledge on the psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of fear and anxiety. The antecedents of these studies are rooted in the work of Pavlov on the unconditioned reflexes of orienting and defense and on the work of Cannon on the fight or flight response, giving rise to two different approaches to defense: the attentional and the motivational. These two approaches have been difficult to reconcile in the past. However, in the last years new data have been accumulated on defense reactions which are facilitating the integration of both traditions. Part of these data refers to the cardiac defense response. Recent research in this area has shown that cardiac defense is a complex pattern of heart rate changes with two accelerative/decelerative sequential components, with both sympathetic and parasympathetic physiological mediation, and with both attentional and motivational significance. In this context, an attentional-motivational model of cardiac defense has been proposed. The model postulates an attentional defense phase –analogous to the freezing response- associated with the first acceleration/deceleration and a motivational defense phase –analogous to the fight/flight response- associated with the second acceleration/deceleration.

  8. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Xu Rongsheng; Yu Chuansong; Wu Chunzhen

    2003-01-01

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  9. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II

  10. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  11. The Effect of Defense R&D Expenditures on Military Capability and Technological Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    as France, divide the expenditure between the civilian (power plants ) and the defense (weapons) sectors (Brzoska, 2005). Finally, enterprise...0.007092 0.008992092 114 Cuba 0.00617 0.007823069 115 Montenegro 0.005834 0.007397048 116 Rwanda 0.005678 0.007199252 117 Jamaica 0.005405 0.00685311...0.0001794 126 1043716034 121 Gabon 0.0001527 127 9138902194 81 Brunei Darussalam 0.0001447 128 14141361533 75 Montenegro 0.0001332 129 1292862098

  12. Fiscal Year 1985 Congressional budget request. Volume 1. Atomic energy defense activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Contents include: summaries of estimates by appropriation, savings from management initiatives, staffing by subcommittee, staffing appropriation; appropriation language; amounts available for obligation; estimates by major category; program overview; weapons activities; verification and control technology; materials production; defense waste and by-products management; nuclear safeguards and security; security investigations; and naval reactors development.

  13. Study of flood defense structural measures priorities using Compromise Programming technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Jeong, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent climate change of global warming has led to the frequent occurrence of heavy regional rainfalls. As such, inundation vulnerability increases in urban areas with high population density due to the low runoff carrying capacity. This study selects a sample area (Janghang-eup, the Republic of Korea), which is one of the most vulnerable areas to flooding, analyzing the urban flood runoff model (XP-SWMM) and using the MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) technique to establish flood protection structural measures. To this end, we compare the alternatives and choose the optimal flood defense measure: our model is utilized with three flood prevention structural measures; (i) drainage pipe construction; (ii) water detention; and (iii) flood pumping station. Dividing the target area into three small basins, we propose flood evaluations for an inundation decrease by studying the flooded area, the maximum inundation depth, the damaged residential area, and the construction cost. In addition, Compromise Programming determines the priority of the alternatives. As a consequent, this study suggests flood pumping station for Zone 1 and drainage pipe construction for Zone 2 and Zone 3, respectively, as the optimal flood defense alternative. Keywords : MCDM; Compromise Programming; Urban Flood Prevention; This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-DP-2013-62] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  14. Potential means of support for materials processing in space. A history of government support for new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  15. Japan's shift to a proactive defense architecture: Challenges faced by industry, government, and society

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hoyoon

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a result of the changing security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Japan is shifting to a more proactive defense policy, as outlined in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG). This thesis investigates the challenges faced by Japan's industry, government, and society in meeting the NDPG objectives. To do this, this thesis probes the following problem areas: difficulties with indigenous production of weapons systems, inability...

  16. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  17. 3D Visualization of Urban Area Using Lidar Technology and CityGML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dragana; Govedarica, Miro; Jovanovic, Dusan; Radulovic, Aleksandra; Simeunovic, Vlado

    2017-12-01

    3D models of urban areas have found use in modern world such as navigation, cartography, urban planning visualization, construction, tourism and even in new applications of mobile navigations. With the advancement of technology there are much better solutions for mapping earth’s surface and spatial objects. 3D city model enables exploration, analysis, management tasks and presentation of a city. Urban areas consist of terrain surfaces, buildings, vegetation and other parts of city infrastructure such as city furniture. Nowadays there are a lot of different methods for collecting, processing and publishing 3D models of area of interest. LIDAR technology is one of the most effective methods for collecting data due the large amount data that can be obtained with high density and geometrical accuracy. CityGML is open standard data model for storing alphanumeric and geometry attributes of city. There are 5 levels of display (LoD0, LoD1, LoD2, LoD3, LoD4). In this study, main aim is to represent part of urban area of Novi Sad using LIDAR technology, for data collecting, and different methods for extraction of information’s using CityGML as a standard for 3D representation. By using series of programs, it is possible to process collected data, transform it to CityGML and store it in spatial database. Final product is CityGML 3D model which can display textures and colours in order to give a better insight of the cities. This paper shows results of the first three levels of display. They consist of digital terrain model and buildings with differentiated rooftops and differentiated boundary surfaces. Complete model gives us a realistic view of 3D objects.

  18. Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure Data Collection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-19

    VXW-ÄVAVKVX’AWXW/XVXV:*: OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL SUMMARY REPORT ON THE AUDIT OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY 1995 DEFENSE BASE REALIGNMENT...FOR DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure...the data that DLA provides to support recommendations for the 1995 Commission. The specific objective for the audits was to determine whether the

  19. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  20. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  1. Military Operating Area Boundaries: Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An Operating Area (OPAREA) Complex boundary is the bounded area in which national defense training exercises and system qualification tests are routinely conducted....

  2. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  3. Defense AT&L (Volume 34, Number 5, September-October 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    swings open and a squat , cylindrical object negotiates itself over the threshold and then trundles into the officer’s quar- ters. In a metallic...nology. Defense AT&L: September-October 2005 50 U.S. Army Spc . Paul Miller, from the 9th Area Medical Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., loads

  4. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, ''walk-away safe'' design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (OandM) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  5. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  6. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H L; Hackel, L A

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced solid-state lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the Nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to ensure activation success. LSandT provides the NIF Programs with core competencies and supports its economic viability. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in fiscal year (FY) 2001 have been threefold: (1) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance lasers and optics performance for NIF, (2) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DoD), and (3) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and U.S. industry. Special efforts have also been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers

  7. Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, William S.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV systems. The term metropolitan area network (MAN) can be used to describe this overall network. This paper discusses the technical components needed to provision these services as well as provides some perspectives on integration issues. Architecture at the headend and in the backbone is discussed, as well as specific service definitions and the technology issues associated with each. The TCP/IP protocol is suggested as a primary protocol to be used throughout the MAN.

  8. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  9. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  10. On the importance of analyzing flood defense failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Işıl Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood defense failures are rare events but when they do occur lead to significant amounts of damage. The defenses are usually designed for rather low-frequency hydraulic loading and as such typically at least high enough to prevent overflow. When they fail, flood defenses like levees built with modern design codes usually either fail due to wave overtopping or geotechnical failure mechanisms such as instability or internal erosion. Subsequently geotechnical failures could trigger an overflow leading for the breach to grow in size Not only the conditions relevant for these failure mechanisms are highly uncertain, also the model uncertainty in geomechanical, internal erosion models, or breach models are high compared to other structural models. Hence, there is a need for better validation and calibration of models or, in other words, better insight in model uncertainty. As scale effects typically play an important role and full-scale testing is challenging and costly, historic flood defense failures can be used to provide insights into the real failure processes and conditions. The recently initiated SAFElevee project at Delft University of Technology aims to exploit this source of information by performing back analysis of levee failures at different level of detail. Besides detailed process based analyses, the project aims to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in deformation as a function of the hydrodynamic loading using satellite radar interferometry (i.e. PS-InSAR in order to examine its relation with levee failure mechanisms. The project aims to combine probabilistic approaches with the mechanics of the various relevant failure mechanisms to reduce model uncertainty and propose improvements to assessment and design models. This paper describes the approach of the study to levee breach analysis and the use of satellites for breach initiation analysis, both adopted within the SAFElevee project.

  11. Acquisition Planning at the Defense Communications Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    guidelines for interaction are developed under the leadership of DCA agencywide integrators with the participation of personnel from DCA, the Services...Communications System DCSO - Defense Communications System Organizatin . DDN - Defense Data Network DEC - Decision Making DG - Defense Guidance DIA - Defense

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R ampersand D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R ampersand D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy

  13. Comparative analysis of the application of different Low Power Wide Area Network technologies in power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sui, Hong; Liao, Xing; Li, Junhao

    2018-03-01

    Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies developed rapidly in recent years, but the application principle of different LPWAN technologies in power grid is still not clear. This paper gives a comparative analysis of two mainstream LPWAN technologies including NB-IoT and LoRa, and gives an application suggestion of these two LPWAN technologies, which can guide the planning and construction of LPWAN in power grid.

  14. A review of the available technologies for sealing a potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Richardson, A.M.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the availability of technologies to seal underground openings. The technologies are needed to seal the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Technologies are evaluated for three basic categories of seal components: backfill (general fill and graded fill), bulkheads, and grout curtains. Not only is placement of seal components assessed, but also preconditioning of the placement area and seal component durability. The approach taken was: First, review selected sealing case histories (literature searches and site visits) from the mining, civil, and defense industries; second, determine whether reasonably available technologies to seal the potential repository exist; and finally, identify deficiencies in existing technologies. It is concluded that reasonably available technologies do exist to place backfill, bulkheads, and grout curtains. Technologies also exist to precondition areas where seal components are to be placed. However, if final performance requirements are stringent for these engineered structures, some existing technologies may need to be developed. Deficiencies currently do exist in technologies that demonstrate the long-term durability and performance of seal components. Case histories do not currently exist that demonstrate the placement of seal components in greatly elevated thermal and high-radiation environments and in areas where ground support (rock bolts and concrete liners) has been removed. The as-placed, in situ material properties for sealing materials appropriate to Yucca Mountain are not available

  15. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area's (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE's technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders

  17. Department of Defense Base Closure and Realignment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Polygriph Instituite (I)ODP) to Fort Lzonard Wood, Misouri. Transfer as’countability for Peiham Range and other ,required training support faciities...federal civilian homeowners who, through no fault of their own, face a financial loss when selling their homes in an area where real estate values have...Defense determines that the financial re- sources available to the community (by grant or otherwise) for such purposes are inadequate, and may use

  18. Program summary for the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is the lead Federal agency responsible for planning and implementing the programs that ensure safe and efficient management of nuclear wastes from both civilian and defense activities. Within the Department, three offices share this responsibility: the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. This document summarizes the programs managed by the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

  19. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  20. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  1. Everyday life innovation potential: when technology has to make sense. Citizens living in high-risk areas for health, using health-promoting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    ) to contribute, along with other health professionals, in dealing with the problem of inequality in health. In this study health promoting technologies for adult citizens living in high risk areas of health, is chosen as one particular area of interest for occupational therapists within the field of health...

  2. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications; or (2) Is protected at all times by... recommendation from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the... assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to...

  3. THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

  4. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil defense...

  5. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  6. Missile defense in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  7. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  8. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  9. A Study on the Defensive Stance and Position of Handball Goalkeepers: Facing a Forward Jump Shot Made from 9 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Suk

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the defensive stance and calculate an optimal defense position for goalkeepers while blocking forward jump shots made from a distance of 9 m. Nine men's handball matches were recorded and 78 video clips were selected for analysis. These are the top class goalkeepers, which included players from the national team and reserve team of Korea. The goalkeeper's actual defensive position was significantly different from instructional suggestions; the width of both feet of the goalkeeper was approximately 2.5 times the width of the shoulders, and the hands were at waist height. The goalkeeper's actual defense position was about 1.10 (± 0.3) m from the goal line and also significantly different than instructional material (0.75 m). The optimal defense position, which was calculated from the goalkeeper's actual movement, was 1.44 m from the goal line, because the ratio of goalkeeper's defensive area in relation to the total area to be defended is highest at this point. In summary, we recommended that handball goalkeepers move forward, about a half step (0.34 m), when defending a forward jump shot made from 9 m, and instructional material should be modified according to the findings from this study.

  10. Vehicle-network defensive aids suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John

    2005-05-01

    Defensive Aids Suites (DAS) developed for vehicles can be extended to the vehicle network level. The vehicle network, typically comprising four platoon vehicles, will benefit from improved communications and automation based on low latency response to threats from a flexible, dynamic, self-healing network environment. Improved DAS performance and reliability relies on four complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics, laser detection and radar. Long-range passive threat detection and avoidance is based on dual-purpose optics, primarily designed for manoeuvring, targeting and surveillance, combined with dazzling, obscuration and countermanoeuvres. Short-range active armour is based on search and track radar and intercepting grenades to defeat the threat. Acoustic threat detection increases the overall robustness of the DAS and extends the detection range to include small calibers. Finally, detection of active targeting systems is carried out with laser and radar warning receivers. Synthetic scene generation will provide the integrated environment needed to investigate, develop and validate these new capabilities. Computer generated imagery, based on validated models and an acceptable set of benchmark vignettes, can be used to investigate and develop fieldable sensors driven by real-time algorithms and countermeasure strategies. The synthetic scene environment will be suitable for sensor and countermeasure development in hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The research effort focuses on two key technical areas: a) computing aspects of the synthetic scene generation and b) and development of adapted models and databases. OneSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure

  11. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  12. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Accounts Payable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios and Facilities Contract Audit Working with Sandia Accounts Payable Invoice processing Electronic

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Integrated Military Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Capabilities Facilities

  15. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  16. UNIPOLAR, BIPOLAR OR MULTIPOLAR INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM? THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN, Gökhan

    2008-01-01

    International system can be defined as a complex system of systems that is comprised of economic, political, scientific, technological and military systems. It is hard to analyze this complex system. It is even harder to forecast its future. Nonetheless, there are factors such as the defense industry and military power that affect the dynamics of the international system much more than other factors. After the Revolution in Military Affairs, which transformed the military paradigm, significa...

  17. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  18. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes a study of possible offshore wind energy locations, technologies, and levelized cost of energy in the state of California between 2015 and 2030. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the federal agency responsible for regulating renewable energy development on the Outer Continental Shelf. It is based on reference wind energy areas where representative technology and performance characteristics were evaluated. These reference areas were identified as sites that were suitable to represent offshore wind cost and technology based on physical site conditions, wind resource quality, known existing site use, and proximity to necessary infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to assist energy policy decision-making by state utilities, independent system operators, state government officials and policymakers, BOEM, and its key stakeholders. The report is not intended to serve as a prescreening exercise for possible future offshore wind development.

  19. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Ali, A.; Akmal, N.; Yaqoob, S.; Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  20. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  1. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  2. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Current Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios Suppliers iSupplier Account Accounts Payable Contract Information Construction and Facilities Contract Audit

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Contract Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios Audit iSupplier Account Accounts Payable Contract Information Construction and Facilities Contract Audit

  5. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  7. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  8. New Products and Technologies, Based on Calculations Developed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Vertan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following statistics, currently prosperous and have high GDP / capita, only countries that have and fructify intensively large natural resources and/or produce and export products massive based on patented inventions accordingly. Without great natural wealth and the lowest GDP / capita in the EU, Romania will prosper only with such products. Starting from the top experience in the country, some patented, can develop new and competitive technologies and patentable and exportable products, based on exact calculations of developed areas, such as that double shells welded assemblies and plating of ships' propellers and blade pump and hydraulic turbines.

  9. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  10. Estimated Impacts of Sequestration-Level Funding: United States Department of Defense Fiscal Year 1015 Budget Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Prepositioned Stocks, and Environmental Restoration. The other O&M portfolio indirectly supports Service readiness by funding such areas as training and...and administration. The portfolio also supports intelligence programs and defense-wide activities, such as the Defense Health Program, Special...2.0) (1.6) (1.1) (0.9) (5.7) SUMMARY OF MILCON Under BCA levels, the MILCON accounts would decline to allow for the rebalancing of resources

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semi-annual report, March 28, 1996--September 27, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scarone, A.W. [and others

    1996-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included continuing bench-scale tests to identify an NO{sub x} reduction catalyst which is appropriate for industrial boiler applications. In addition, installation of a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler started. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was procured for installation on the demonstration boiler. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations,surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  12. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  13. European Diversification and Defense Market Assessment, 2nd Edition: A Comprehensive Guide for Entry into Overseas Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The region possesses a number of well diversified economies that exhibit growing demand for high technology products in commercial and defense sectors and, thus, provides a wide variety of trade opportunities for U.S. firms...

  14. Information Technology Management: Select Controls for the Information Security of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truex, Kathryn M; Lamar, Karen J; Leighton, George A; Woodruff, Courtney E; Brunetti, Tina N; Russell, Dawn M

    2006-01-01

    ... to the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network should read this report to reduce the risk of interruption, misuse, modification, and unauthorized access to information in the system...

  15. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ''review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992

  16. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 24, Number 1, Jan/Feb 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Aircraft Sustainment Group Tony Henderson 309th Software Maintenance Group Lt. Col. Brian Hermann, Ph.D. Defense Information Systems Agency Lt. Col...Solutions, Inc. Gordon Sleve Robbins Gioia LLC Larry Smith Software Technology Support Center Dr. John Sohl Weber State University Elizabeth Starrett OO-ALC

  17. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and systems, even monopolistic ) essence of the supply side of the defense market . There are only a few suppliers that can meet today’s complex...DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  18. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  19. Report to the Congressional Defense Committees: Status of the Department of Defense's Business Transformation Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...). It directs the Secretary of Defense to provide the Congressional Defense Committees with an annual report on the Department's business transformation efforts and compliance with the requirements of the law...

  20. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  1. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  2. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  3. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross......-fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...

  4. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  5. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  6. Defense Dollars and Sense: A Common Cause Guide to the Defense Budget Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mark

    Designed to increase public awareness of military spending, this 5-part guide examines the process and problems of preparing the national defense budget. The publication begins with a brief overview of the 1984 defense budget. Major military programs, trends in budgeting, and key concerns in budget formulation are explored. Graphs and charts…

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  8. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  9. Website Fingerprinting Defenses at the Application Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubin Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Website Fingerprinting (WF allows a passive network adversary to learn the websites that a client visits by analyzing traffic patterns that are unique to each website. It has been recently shown that these attacks are particularly effective against .onion sites, anonymous web servers hosted within the Tor network. Given the sensitive nature of the content of these services, the implications of WF on the Tor network are alarming. Prior work has only considered defenses at the client-side arguing that web servers lack of incentives to adopt countermeasures. Furthermore, most of these defenses have been designed to operate on the stream of network packets, making practical deployment difficult. In this paper, we propose two application-level defenses including the first server-side defense against WF, as .onion services have incentives to support it. The other defense is a lightweight client-side defense implemented as a browser add-on, improving ease of deployment over previous approaches. In our evaluations, the server-side defense is able to reduce WF accuracy on Tor .onion sites from 69.6% to 10% and the client-side defense reduces accuracy from 64% to 31.5%.

  10. Technology Assessment for Powertrain Components Final Report CRADA No. TC-1124-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarz, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gough, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    LLNL utilized its defense technology assessment methodologies in combination with its capabilities in the energy; manufacturing, and transportation technologies to demonstrate a methodology that synthesized available but incomplete information on advanced automotive technologies into a comprehensive framework.

  11. ACCESSING FEDERAL DATA BASES FOR CONTAMINATED SITE CLEAN-UP TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (Roundtable) eveloped this publication to provide information on accessing Federal data bases that contain data on innovative remediation technologies. The Roundtable includes representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD), En...

  12. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. A Framework for Increasing Defense Production by Reducing Perceived Opportunity Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    advertising. Traditionally defense marketing and advertising focused on decision makers within the defense conuunity and Congress. While it appears that...focus may be- starting to change, marketing and advertising remain highly directed and concentrated in defense oriented media. marketing was oriented to

  13. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  14. Modernization of the Defense Sector. Principles and Characteristics of the Argentine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Supply of Common Items (Pro- grama de Abastecimiento Conjunto de Insumos Comunes , PACIC) was created and implemented. Such program is intended to...institutionalize proc- esses for the unification and strengthening of the scientific and technological system of defense, in order to achieve a more flexible...the moderniza- tion process currently under way grants a central role to enhancing capabilities of the Institute of Scientific and Technical Research

  15. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  16. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-05

    become a closed group within a determined area, especially in the countryside. The economy, dominated by the mining industry (mainly by the bauxite ...indicators Uruguay 1997 – 2006 34 Given the current diplomatic and economic situation, by offering early retirement incentives , the government has...of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government

  17. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr-Andres, Christina B.

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is intended to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) consists of three tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, and Technology Verification. As currently conceived, the ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. This report covers activities during the first 6 months of the 3-year ETA program

  18. 32 CFR 147.15 - Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.15 Guideline M—Misuse of Information technology systems. (a) The... ability to properly protect classified systems, networks, and information. Information Technology Systems...

  19. Report of the Defense Science Board/Defense Policy Board Task Force On Theater Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... also tackled the controversial subject of the ABM Treaty and its effect on theater missile defenses Subsequent to its interim report, which expressed strong concerns about the demarcation path the US...

  20. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  1. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the possibility of the defense industry works as mechanism of regional integration.

  2. The New Structure of Brazilian Ministry of Defense: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    in the prominent northeast were called “ Trampoline to Victory.”3 Because of difficulties with mobilization, preparation and training at American...technology. These three departments of the Joint Staff of Armed Forces will be headed by general officers of the last rank in active duty from each Service...primarily on human resources. The leadership process 21 is guaranteed with Minister Nelson Jobim as head of the Ministry of Defense in the next

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  4. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

  5. Technology Area Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Michael; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size.and cost.with delta-V makes missions that require large total impulse cost prohibitive. Led by NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center, a team from government, industry, and academia has developed a flight demonstration mission concept of an integrated electrodynamic (ED) tethered satellite system called PROPEL: \\Propulsion using Electrodynamics.. The PROPEL Mission is focused on demonstrating a versatile configuration of an ED tether to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation, enable new classes of missions currently unaffordable or infeasible, and significantly advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to an operational level. We are also focused on establishing a far deeper understanding of critical processes and technologies to be able to scale and improve tether systems in the future. Here, we provide an overview of the proposed PROPEL mission. One of the critical processes for efficient ED tether operation is the ability to inject current to and collect current from the ionosphere. Because the PROPEL mission is planned to have both boost and deboost capability using a single tether, the tether current must be capable of flowing in both directions and at levels well over 1 A. Given the greater mobility of electrons over that of ions, this generally requires that both ends of the ED tether system can both collect and emit electrons. For example, hollow cathode plasma contactors (HCPCs) generally are viewed as state-of-the-art and high TRL devices; however, for ED tether applications important questions remain of how efficiently they can operate as both electron collectors and emitters. Other technologies will be highlighted that are being investigated as possible alternatives to the HCPC such as Solex that generates a plasma cloud from a solid material (Teflon) and electron emission (only) technologies such as cold-cathode electron field emission or photo-electron beam generation (PEBG) techniques

  6. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  7. Smart Home Communication Technologies and Applications: Wireless Protocol Assessment for Home Area Network Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago D. P. Mendes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Home Area Networks (HAN communication technologies for smart home and domestic application integration. The work is initiated by identifying the application areas that can benefit from this integration. A broad and inclusive home communication interface is analysed utilizing as a key piece a Gateway based on machine-to-machine (M2M communications that interacts with the surrounding environment. Then, the main wireless networks are thoroughly assessed, and later, their suitability to the requirements of HAN considering the application area is analysed. Finally, a qualitative analysis is portrayed.

  8. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating... Directory: Defense Logistics Agency Headquarters, Andrew T. McNamara Building, 8725 John J. Kingman Road...

  9. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  10. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  11. Cone penetrometer: Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) provides cost-effective, real-time data for use in the characterization of the subsurface. Recent innovations in this baseline technology allow for improved access to the subsurface for environmental restoration applications. The technology has been improved by both industry and government agencies and is constantly advancing due to research efforts. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (formerly Technology Development) has contributed significantly to these efforts. This report focuses on the advancements made in conjunction with DOE's support but recognizes Department of Defense (DOD) and industry efforts

  12. 77 FR 68740 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iv) Military Department: Missile Defense Agency (VAA) (v... Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD) Ballistic Missile Defense System contains classified..., forward deployable terminal missile defense system that represents significant technological advances. The...

  13. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  15. 32 CFR 13.4 - Duties and responsibilities of the defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSIONS RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHIEF DEFENSE COUNSEL, DETAILED DEFENSE COUNSEL, AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNSEL § 13.4 Duties and responsibilities of the defense. (a) Regular duties. The Defense shall perform... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties and responsibilities of the defense. 13.4...

  16. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...

  17. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving a...

  18. Site characterization in connection with the low level defense waste management site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, C.; Davis, J.; French, R.; Raker, S.

    1984-09-01

    The Site Characterization Report for the Defense Low Level Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site deals with the FY80-FY84 DRI activities. The areas that have been studied include geology, hydrology, unsaturated flow, soil and soil water chemistry, flood hazard, and economics-demographics. During this time the site characterization effort focussed on the following items as requested by NVO: geological and hydrological limitations to greater depth disposal of radioactive waste; potential for tectonic, seismic or volcanic activity (extent and frequency which these processes significantly affect the ability of the disposal operation to meet performance objectives); the possibility of groundwater intrusion into the waste zone, and its significance; topography of the RWMS with significance to drainage and flood potential (100-year flood plain, coastal high-hazard area or wetland); upstream drainage which may require modification to avoid erosion; population growth and future development; and the presence or absence of economically significant natural resources which, if exploited, would result in failure to meet performance objectives. The items mentioned above are dealt with in the description of activities and results in the body of the report. Extensive references, 32 figures, 20 tables

  19. Operational radioactive defense waste management plan for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Operational Radioactive Defense Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site establishes procedures and methods for the safe shipping, receiving, processing, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. Included are NTS radioactive waste disposition program guidelines, procedures for radioactive waste management, a description of storage and disposal areas and facilities, and a glossary of specifications and requirements

  20. Integrating technology education concepts into China's educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Faxian

    The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.

  1. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  2. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  3. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Defense Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... applications under the DoD Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program for new mentor-prot[eacute]g[eacute] agreements and the date mentors may incur costs and/or receive credit towards fulfilling their small business...

  4. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described

  5. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  6. Army National Guard Air Defense Artillery Modernization: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-15

    plan to replace Stinger Under Armor (SUA) for the ARNG, and no guarantee that the BSFV will be in the future ARNG force, divisional assets will remain...Ballistic Missile SUA Stinger Under Armor TAA Total Army Analysis TAAD Theater Area Air Defense TASM Tactical Air-to-Surface Missiles TBM Tactical

  7. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  8. Defense AT and L Magazine. Volume 47, Number 2, March-April 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Corporation , can provide other acqui- sition organizations with valuable insight into how best to conduct LFT&E on their respective programs. LFT&E Lessons...Technology, Engineering, Test and Evaluation, Finance , Lo- gisticians and Contracting. In order to improve the survivability of our Department of Defense... corporate business strategy, a company typically will determine what it is good at and then use that core competency as a competitive ad- vantage to grow

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  10. Revisiting the Concept and Implementation of Defense-in-Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngsung

    2013-01-01

    The subsequent tsunami, with its maximum wave height greater than the design basis, invalidated all layers of the Fukushima NPP. This raises the question on which of the philosophy or the implementation of DID fell short at Fukushima. This paper suggests several complements necessary to the concept of DID and new application practice in a wide variety of safety related objectives/areas/events. Since its conception, DID appears to have been successfully applied to the design and operation but less to the site, external events, resource requirements, the unexpected impacts of organization, etc. Thus, the horizontal as well as vertical application of DID is suggested. Here, the latter application means repeated questions of 'What if this fails?' and the former one means the application of DID to all the applicable objectives, which can be a real defense-in-width. It is widely accepted that defense-in-depth (DID) has been the core of safety philosophy in nuclear safety regulation. Its concept has been developed and refined over many years to go beyond physical barriers and design practices. The historical development of the concept led to a general structure of four physical barriers and five successive levels of defense. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) showed that multiple levels of defense could fail at the same time, demonstrated how these could work and how some were challenged, and gave the chance of the concept and implementation being improved. This paper examines the traditional concept and implementation strategies of DID, identifies some weaknesses in that, and suggest some complements and new approach to improving the application of DID

  11. Department of Defense, Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States and Selected Areas, Fiscal Year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Defense Reform Initiative to move to paper-free business operations, future editions of this publication will only be available through the Internet . All...applicable maps when all of their facilities are returned to the host nation. INTERNET AVAILABILITY Information presented in the Atlas is available through...Description Amount 1. IDEMITSU KOSAN CO. LTD. $78,597 Fuel Oils $70,854 2. KIT PAR COMERCIO DE PARAFUSOS 77,080 Electric Services 77,080 3. TOKYO

  12. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  13. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    individual policy activities. Subfunctions are assigned a numeric identifier (ending in a single digit ) related to the function to which they belong...operations, equipment repair, and maintenance of defense facilities, healthcare costs, and administration. 24% Military Personnel (MILPERS) Pay and

  14. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  15. Sandia Technology: Engineering and science accomplishments, February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is one of the Department of Energy`s primary research and development laboratories. Our essential mission is to support the national interests of the US in defense, energy, and the environment. Managed by Martin Marietta Corporation for DOE, Sandia focuses its resources on problems of national interest that require the integration of science and technology for their solution. We all hope that this period of sweeping alterations in international affairs will result in a successful transition from the Cold War to a period of sustainable global security and prosperity. In the meantime, our nation`s interests are best served by continued commitment to Sandia`s traditional responsibilities. Nonetheless, as momentous developments are reshaping the world, Sandia is also changing from its beginning as a closed operation concentrating on classified defense programs, Sandia has become a more accessible resource that focuses on research and development partnerships with industry and universities as a way to ensure continued success in DOE`s evolving core mission area of nuclear weapons, energy, environment, and the basis sciences. Through these collaborative efforts, Sandia and its partners are also benefiting the economic competitiveness of our nation. Sandia places a special emphasis on working with small businesses as both technology transfer partners and suppliers of goods and services. We are also reaching out the the larger community surrounding Sandia, striving to provide technological solution and accurate information to meet community needs. We believe that the dialogue we are creating will benefit Sandia, the community, and the nation. Our goal is to render `` exceptional service in the national interest`` by returning maximum value on the investment in the labs. As you review this document, look for new ways in which Sandia can contribute to the solution of problems facing our nation.

  16. Management of Hanford Site non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to provide radiologically, and industrially safe and cost-effective management of the non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site. The proposed action would place the Hanford Site's non-defense production reactor SNF in a radiologically- and industrially-safe, and passive storage condition pending final disposition. The proposed action would also reduce operational costs associated with storage of the non-defense production reactor SNF through consolidation of the SNF and through use of passive rather than active storage systems. Environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with existing non-defense production reactor SNF storage facilities have been identified. DOE has determined that additional activities are required to consolidate non-defense production reactor SNF management activities at the Hanford Site, including cost-effective and safe interim storage, prior to final disposition, to enable deactivation of facilities where the SNF is now stored. Cost-effectiveness would be realized: through reduced operational costs associated with passive rather than active storage systems; removal of SNF from areas undergoing deactivation as part of the Hanford Site remediation effort; and eliminating the need to duplicate future transloading facilities at the 200 and 400 Areas. Radiologically- and industrially-safe storage would be enhanced through: (1) removal from aging facilities requiring substantial upgrades to continue safe storage; (2) utilization of passive rather than active storage systems for SNF; and (3) removal of SNF from some storage containers which have a limited remaining design life. No substantial increase in Hanford Site environmental impacts would be expected from the proposed action. Environmental impacts from postulated accident scenarios also were evaluated, and indicated that the risks associated with the proposed action would be small

  17. Support technologies to cater for rockbursts and falls of ground in the immediate face area, volume 1.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnk, A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Support technologies to cater for rockbursts and falls of ground in the immediate face area Volume I A. Daehnke, E. Acheampong, N. Reddy, K.B. Le Bron and A.T. Haile Research agency: CSIR Mining Technology Project number: GAP...

  18. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 2, DAU 183

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turk, Wayne; Wynn, Michael W; Schaeffer, Mark D; Walsh, John; Kratz, Louise A; Ward, Dan; Brown, David; McVay, Tammi

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  19. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 1, DAU 182

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gadeken, Owen C; Quaid, Chris; Ward, Dan; Liss, Steven; Lambert, Cathy; Li, Alan; Parmer, Shailesh; Hurt, Hayden; Sumpter, LeAntha; Malnick, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  20. Defense AT&L Magazine: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 3, DAU 184

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chedister, Robert W; Leach, Richard; Route, Ronald; Knott, Claudia; Turk, Wayne; Quaid, Chris; Ward, Dan; Geurts, James F

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  1. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 5, DAU 181

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynn, Michael; Gadeken, Owen C; Triggs, Marcia; Wengrowski, Bruno S

    2004-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  2. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 6, DAU 181

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, John F; Ronis, Sheila R; Vann, Sandy; Sylvester, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  3. Defense AT&L Magazine: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 4, DAU 180

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan, Harry W; Pezzano, Anthony; Burke, Peter; Davis, Jerry; Vanleer, Keisha; Howe, Keith B; Rippere, Richard B; Ward, Daniel; McGrath, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  4. Role of the parabrachial complex in the cardiorespiratory response evoked from hypothalamic defense area stimulation in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Casares, Amelia; López-González, Manuel Víctor; Peinado-Aragonés, Carlos Antonio; Lara, José Pablo; González-Barón, Salvador; Dawid-Milner, Marc Stefan

    2009-07-07

    To analyze the role of parabrachial complex (PBc) in the modulation of cardiorespiratory response evoked from the hypothalamic defense area (HDA), cardiorespiratory changes were analyzed in spontaneously breathing anesthetised rats in response to electrical stimulation of the HDA (1 ms pulses, 30-50 microA, 100 Hz for 5 s) before and after the microinjection of muscimol (50 nl, 0.25 nmol, 5 s) within the PBc. HDA stimulation evoked an inspiratory facilitatory response, consisting of an increase in respiratory rate (pHDA stimulation (pHDA stimulation. The respiratory response persisted unchanged. Finally, extracellular recording of putative neurons from these regions were obtained during HDA stimulation to confirm functional interaction between HDA and parabrachial regions. 105 pontine cells were recorded during HDA stimulation, 57 from the lPB and 48 from the mPB-KF. In mPB-KF 34/48 (71%) and in lPB 38/57 (67%) cells were influenced from HDA. The results indicate that neurons from different regions of the PBc have an important function in mediating the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the HDA. The possible mechanisms involved in these interactions are discussed.

  5. 32 CFR 37.110 - What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... investment agreements (TIAs)? 37.110 Section 37.110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)? TIAs are assistance instruments used to stimulate or support research. As discussed in appendix B to this part, a TIA may be either a...

  6. HOMA: Israel's National Missile Defense Strategy (Abridged Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lailari, Guermantes

    2002-01-01

    ... (Hebrew for Fortress Wall), Chapter 1 discusses the fundamentals of missile defense and the reason why Israel's missile defense system affects US national security interests, Chapter 2 describes Israel's missile defense...

  7. Applications of Artificial Intelligence to the Strategic Defense Initiative’s Battle Management/Command and Control Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    technology issue is expected to take years of research (20:11). According to Lt Gen James A. Abrahamson, director of the SDI organization heading up...from occurring (14:79). A Wqhite House Panel known as the (Dr. James ) Fletcher Defensive Technologies Study Group has pointed out that, in the past...Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Volume I. Los Altos CA: WilliamKaufmann Inc., 1981. 5. Basden , Andrew. "On the Application of Expert Systems,N

  8. Process technology for vitrification of defense high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Vitrification in borosilicate glass is now the leading worldwide process for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. Each vitrification project, however, has its unique mission and technical challenges. The Defense Waste Vitrification Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant will concentrate and vitrify a large amount of relatively low-power alkaline waste. Process research and development for the DWPF have produced significant advances in remote chemical operations, glass melting, off-gas treatment, slurry handling, decontamination, and welding. 6 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  9. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. PMID:27782052

  10. 78 FR 32637 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project, Department of... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project, Department of the Army, Army Research, Development and...

  11. SPEEDUP modeling of the defense waste processing facility at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model has been developed for the dynamic simulation of batch process operations within the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The DWPF chemically treats high level waste materials from the site tank farm and vitrifies the resulting slurry into a borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The DWPF consists of three major processing areas: Salt Processing Cell (SPC), Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and the Melt Cell. A fully integrated model of these process units has been developed using the SPEEDUP trademark software from Aspen Technology. Except for glass production in the Melt Cell, all of the chemical operations within DWPF are batch processes. Since SPEEDUP is designed for dynamic modeling of continuous processes, considerable effort was required to device batch process algorithms. This effort was successful and the model is able to simulate batch operations and the dynamic behavior of the process. The model also includes an optimization calculation that maximizes the waste content in the final glass product. In this paper, we will describe the process model in some detail and present preliminary results from a few simulation studies

  12. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  13. Addressing service delivery in rural areas through deployment of information and communication technology platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foko, Thato E

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available deployment of ICT Platforms in the rural areas. The contribution of ICT Platform adds to the important notion of access which enhances service delivery. This is seen through the Technology Acceptance Models used in this paper. The main research methodology...

  14. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  15. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  16. Letter Report. Defense Waste Processing Facility Pour Spout Heaters - Conceptual Designs and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Sundaram; JM Perez, Jr.

    2000-09-06

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) identified a major task to address performance limitations and deficiencies of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now in its sixth year of operation. Design, installation, testing, monitoring, operability, and a number of other characteristics were studied by research personnel collaboratively at a number of facilities: Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Because the potential limiting feature to the DWPF was identified as the pour spout/riser heater, researches on alternative design concepts originally proposed in the past were revisited. In the original works, finite element modeling was performed to evaluate temperature distribution and stress of the design currently used at the DWPF. Studies were also made to define the requirements of the design and to consider the approaches for remote removal/replacement. Their heater type/location, their remotely replaceable thermocouples, and their capabilities for remote handling characterized the five alternative designs proposed. Review comments on the alternative designs indicated a relatively wide range of advantages and disadvantages of the designs. The present report provides an overview of the design criteria, modeling results, and alternative designs. Based on a review of the past design optimization activities and an assessment of recent experience, recommendations are proposed for future consideration and improvement.

  17. Letter Report. Defense Waste Processing Facility Pour Spout Heaters - Conceptual Designs and Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, S.K.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) identified a major task to address performance limitations and deficiencies of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now in its sixth year of operation. Design, installation, testing, monitoring, operability, and a number of other characteristics were studied by research personnel collaboratively at a number of facilities: Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Because the potential limiting feature to the DWPF was identified as the pour spout/riser heater, researches on alternative design concepts originally proposed in the past were revisited. In the original works, finite element modeling was performed to evaluate temperature distribution and stress of the design currently used at the DWPF. Studies were also made to define the requirements of the design and to consider the approaches for remote removal/replacement. Their heater type/location, their remotely replaceable thermocouples, and their capabilities for remote handling characterized the five alternative designs proposed. Review comments on the alternative designs indicated a relatively wide range of advantages and disadvantages of the designs. The present report provides an overview of the design criteria, modeling results, and alternative designs. Based on a review of the past design optimization activities and an assessment of recent experience, recommendations are proposed for future consideration and improvement

  18. Educational Technology--The White Elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    A ten year experiment in educational technology sponsored under Title VII of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale educational systems which can extend education to all while permitting the individualization of instruction without significant increase in cost (through television, computer systems,…

  19. Defensive behaviours in innovation teams: how project teams discuss defensiveness and its relationship with innovation resilience behaviour and project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.; Vuuren, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Project team members and project leaders of innovation projects were interviewed about the possible presence of defensive behaviours within the team. While investigating defensive behaviour can be done validly by observation techniques, to talk about defensiveness within a team often leads to

  20. 12 CFR 411.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 411.500 Section 411.500 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 411.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered...