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Sample records for defense review qdr

  1. Managing Quadrennial Defense Review Integration: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrader, John

    2001-01-01

    ...). The lessons learned from the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR 1997) included the need for leadership guidance and integration of analytic activities to sort through the myriad issues that are always confronting the Department of Defense...

  2. Quadrennial Defense Review, National Defense Authorizatin Act for Fiscal Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Objectives of Overall JS QDR Effort Develop a QDR process that will shape defense policies Ensure the process is strategy-based, not budget-based Define a force structure responsive to the national...

  3. The struggle against proliferation in the USA in the QDR 2006: the age of maturity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno; Payre, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The authors comment the content of the US Quadrennial Defence Review of 2006 (QDR 2006), and more particularly how this document addresses the struggle against proliferation. This struggle appears as a transverse issue within the main conventional pillars of the DoD's action (to defend homeland in depth, to prevent the acquisition and use of weapons of mass destruction by hostile actors, and to shape choices of countries at strategic crossroads). They recall that a previous release (QDR 2005) already set the principles and an age of maturity for the struggle against proliferation, and that an older release (QDR 2001) outlined the necessity for the USA to defend their homeland and allies against ballistic and cruise weapons (this meant the assignment of new means and weapons to conventional deterrence). Thus, the QDR 2006 defines means to be implemented and their operational structure, and therefore an almost definitive architecture for a new triad

  4. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  5. Dynamic Commitment: Wargaming Projected Forces Against the QDR Defense Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Clarence

    1997-01-01

    .... The Dynamic Commitment Wargame Series informed participants regarding the expected future demand on forces, such that Services were better able to articulate the effect of the examined force options...

  6. Cross calibration of QDR-2000 and QDR-1000 dual-energy X-ray densitometers for bone mineral and soft-tissue measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Gram, J; Hansen, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    ) and fan beam (FB) modes (n = 40-62) as a quality control measure. A total of 83 subjects (79 females and four males) with a wide range of bone mineral densities (BMD) were studied. There was a linear relationship between results with the QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 in SB mode, and between SB and FB mode...... device. Soft-tissue composition with FB (enhanced analysis protocol) on the QDR-2000 differed greatly from that obtained using SB (standard protocol). Lean tissue mass was 4 kg lower and fat mass 4 kg higher in FB mode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  7. QDR 4500A DXA overestimates fat-free mass compared with criterion methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tylavsky, Frances A; Lohman, Timothy; Blunt, Barbara A; Schoeller, Dale A; Fuerst, Thomas; Cauley, Jane A; Nevitt, Michael C; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    This study evaluated the accuracy with which the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (Hologic QDR 4500A) measured fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and hydration of FFM. In a study of 58 men and women (ages 70-79 yr), the QDR 4500A was found to provide a systematically higher estimate of FFM and

  8. Review of defense display research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulis, Robert W.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Morton, David C.; Shashidhar, Ranganathan

    2001-09-01

    Display research has comprised a substantial portion of the defense investment in new technology for national security for the past 13 years. These investments have been made by the separate service departments and, especially, via several Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the High Definition Systems (HDS) Program (which ended in 2001) and via the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Defense Production Act (DPA) Title III Program (efforts ended in 2000). Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These completed DARPA and DPA research and infrastructure programs are reviewed. Service investments have been and are being made to transition display technology; examples are described. Display science and technology (S&T) visions are documented for each service to assist the identification of areas meriting consideration for future defense research.

  9. What the QDR Ought to Say about Landpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    debates center on the missions, costs, or effectiveness, one should be wary of those critics pro- moting a new “Vietnam syndrome ,” arguing the United...States should never again go down the path it did over the last decade.6 Playing to this syndrome led directly to the problems encountered before...an even greater burden for the United States in allied and partner operations. 22 Frank G. Hoffman and Mike Noonan , “Defense Reorganization

  10. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Issue 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Journal (ARJ) print year. FROM THE EDITOR I am excited to announce the lineup of research articles for Issue 52 of the Defense Acquisition Review... identification and causality, and to prevent the variety generated by EA from reducing total product performance. From Amorphous to Defined: Balancing Risks...possible in this environment, and will allow better flow of strategic-level acquisition advice, including the identification of existing and

  11. Defense Planning In A Time Of Conflict: A Comparative Analysis Of The 2001-2014 Quadrennial Defense Reviews, And Implications For The Army--Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute...each QDR, including assessments from the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office, the Congressional Research Service...cuts in modernization, readiness, and other accounts . Force Planning To assist in planning the FY19 force structure, the 2014 QDR assessed the

  12. 75 FR 33237 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025) AGENCY: Defense.../Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information to the Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement..., February 23, 2006, moved requirements for Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (CIPR) from DFARS 242.7302 to...

  13. Review of flat panel display programs and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnade, Bruce; Schulze, Raymond; Henderson, Girardeau L.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    Flat panel display research has comprised a substantial portion of the national investment in new technology for economic and national security for the past nine years. These investments have ben made principally via several Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the continuing High Definition Systems Program, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Production Act Title III Program. Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These research programs are reviewed and opportunities for applications are described. Future technology development, transfer, and transition requirements are identified. Strategy and vision are documented to assist the identification of areas meriting further consideration.

  14. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  15. PTSD as a criminal defense: a review of case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Omri; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been offered as a basis for criminal defenses, including insanity, unconsciousness, self-defense, diminished capacity, and sentencing mitigation. Examination of case law (e.g., appellate decisions) involving PTSD reveals that when offered as a criminal defense, PTSD has received mixed treatment in the judicial system. Courts have often recognized testimony about PTSD as scientifically reliable. In addition, PTSD has been recognized by appellate courts in U.S. jurisdictions as a valid basis for insanity, unconsciousness, and self-defense. However, the courts have not always found the presentation of PTSD testimony to be relevant, admissible, or compelling in such cases, particularly when expert testimony failed to show how PTSD met the standard for the given defense. In cases that did not meet the standard for one of the complete defenses, PTSD has been presented as a partial defense or mitigating circumstance, again with mixed success.

  16. 5th International Conference OTEH 2012 - defense technology (Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Petar Đurković

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of all papers and events at the Fifth International ScientificConference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012 held in Belgrade, in the Military Technical Institute (VTI, from 18th to 19th September 2012.The paper review presents the Conference Sections by subjects and guest-lectureres as well as the institutions of all authors who actively participated at the Conference.About the ConferenceThe Fifth International Scientific Conference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012  was held in Belgrade in the Military Technical Institute in Žarkovo, from 18th to 19thSeptember 2012..The Conference program was organized in two plenary sessions and a working part which took place in four halls.In the plenary session, two key lectures were held by eminent experts from abroad. The first lecture entitled „An adaptive remeshing technique for 3D crack growth simulations”, was given by Dr Vincent Chiaruttini (ONERA Institute, Paris, France. The second one, „New Technologies for Advanced Defence Systems”, was held by Dr Filippo Neri (Virtualabs Company, Rome, Italy.Fifteen sessions were organised at the Conference. The authors presented their works in open discussions answering questions from the audience. The average number of attendees at each session was about 40.The papers were sorted by topic areas:Aerodynamics and flight dynamics: 12 papersAircraft: 23 papersWeapon systems, ammunition, energy materials, combat vehicles: 29 papersIntegrated sensor systems and robotic systems: 16 papersTelecommunication and information systems: 18 papersMaterials and technologies: 34 papersQuality, standardization, metrology, maintenance and exploitation: 11 papersOut of 163 submitted papers for this Conference, 145 papers were accepted and distributed in an electronic form on CDs to the present authors, co-authors, guests and invitees to the Conference. The number of participants with authors and co-authors was impressive - 243. The

  17. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  18. Components of Variance when Assessing the Reproducibility of Body Composition Measurements using Bio-Impedance and the Hologic QDR-2000 DXA Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hessov, Ib

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of measuring lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass(FM(DXA)), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with a Hologic QDR-2000 DXA scanner, and both fat free mass (FFM(bio)) and fat mass (FM(bio)) with an impedance meter. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess...

  19. Ensuring a Strong U.S. Defense for the Future: The National Defense Panel Review of the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    territorial disputes with China. We note recent moves to station U.S. forces in Darwin , the plan to station a number of Littoral Combat Ships in Singapore...Under Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (C) Charles “Chuck” Hagel Secretary of Defense Mara Karlin Principal Director for Strategy, Policy (P...Support Staff to the Panel Charles Arnold George Sinks U.S. Government Liaison Officers Lori Abele Chief of Staff, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense

  20. Defense Acquisition Initiatives Review: An Assessment of Extant Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Gene; Berteau, David; Christle, Gary; Mandelbaum, Jay; Diehl, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) to identify and analyze a subset of initiatives that the team finds to have potential for near term management emphasis that could provide visible improvements to the much criticized Defense acquisition system...

  1. Supporting the Information-Centric 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review: The Case for an Information Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Information Superiority is an overarching and integrating construct in both Joint Vision 2020 and the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review and is codified in both the 2000 National Security Strategy (NSS...

  2. Review of the President's Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request for the Defense Health Program's Private Sector Care Budget Activity Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fantone, Denise M; Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The Conference Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 2008 Department of Defense Appropriations bill directed us to review the President's fiscal year 2009 budget request for the Defense Health Program's...

  3. Defense Planning in a Time of Conflict: A Comparative Analysis of the 2001-2014 Quadrennial Defense Reviews, and Implications for the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    these risks, nor did it explore the potential trade-offs required to execute the revised QDR strategy . It did, however, note that the portfolio of... Corporation , Santa Monica, Calif. © Copyright 2018 RAND Corporation R® is a registered trademark. Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights...commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.html. The RAND Corporation is a research

  4. Review and Implementation Status of Prior Defense Business Board Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    key recommendation to appoint a single Fund Manager – Improved training programs, including eLearning , underway – Capabilities-Based Budgeting allowed...framework focused on et. al. enterprise enhancements, support for the Global War on Terror, progress on implementation of the Quadrennial Defense...Improve Global Mail Operations – MPSA in receipt of all industry responses by Aug 2006 – On December 12th MPSA will brief the Postal Oversight Board on

  5. Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Office of Management and Budget xviii Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices PSC Product and Service Code...themselves as minority-owned, women-owned, veteran- owned, or small disadvantaged businesses . The resulting database gives sourcing managers a tool for...REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A

  6. Psychological masochism: A systematic review of the literature on conflicts, defenses, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békés, Vera; Perry, J Christopher; Robertson, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological masochism to identify hypotheses for examination in clinical studies. We identified defenses, conflicts, and motives using standardized measures in 23 psychoanalytic papers. Three primary and three secondary subtypes of masochism emerged in the literature. Overall Gratification Inhibition (subtype I.1) was the "healthiest" form, associated with higher developmental level motives and neurotic defenses. The Global Conflict (I.2) was the least healthy form of masochism, consistent with personality disorder. It was associated with early developmental level motives and immature defenses, including depressive defenses, often associated with depression. Dominant Other (I.3) represented masochistic attachment problems, associated with early developmental level motives, object-related, image-distorting defenses, and narcissism. Of the secondary types, Separation-Abandonment (II.1) reflected object-related defenses, and separation-related motives. Rejection of Others (II.2) represented a sadistic-narcissistic form, associated with image-distorting and disavowal defenses, with both early and later developmental level motives. Finally, Sexual Pleasure vs. Guilt (II.3) was associated with autistic fantasy, and both early and later developmental level motives, suggesting a distinct traumatic origin and representing the juncture of sexual and psychological masochism. Analysts described six distinguishable types of masochism. Future studies should examine their validity.

  7. Defense Contract Audit Agency Reviews of Price Proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Auditors perform field pricing reviews of contractor price proposals when procurement office information is insufficient to perform the cost or price analysis needed to negotiate contract prices...

  8. External Quality Control Review of the Defense Information Systems Agency Audit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    We are providing this report for your information and use. We have reviewed the system of quality control for the audit organization of the Defense...audit organization encompasses the audit organization’s leadership, emphasis on performing high quality work, and policies and procedures established

  9. AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    wft*:¥A:ft:i:ft& OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL AV-8B REMANUFACTURE PROGRAM AS PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE DEFENSE ACQUISITION BOARD...Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994 B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/23/99 C. Report’s Point...NAVY FOR RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION SUBJECT: Audit Report on the AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense

  10. Prepublication Review of Government Employee Speech: A Case Study of the Department of Defense and United States Air Force Security/Policy Review Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Michael L.

    Since 1957 the Department of Defense has subjected all forms of speech of U.S. military personnel meant for publication to prepublication review based on security and policy criteria. The historical development of the Defense Department's prepublication review program and its specific implementation by the U.S. Air Force lead to questions of First…

  11. The QDR Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Couter, Jim

    1997-01-01

    .... Strategists have had to adjust to a baffling number of challenges. In Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Rwanda, and the Straits of Taiwan events did not fit neatly into familiar categories of demands on military power...

  12. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 16, Number 1, Issue 50, April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    ment, a “second-order change” is sought, which requires basic shifts in attitudes, beliefs, and cultural values (Bartunek & Moch , 1987, p. 484). A...Bartunek & Moch , 1987, p. 487). In terms of this article, one needs to think beyond the more sterile aspects of describing organizational change from a...address: mike.kotzian@dau.mil) AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY DEFENSE ACQUISITION REVIEW JOURNAL 50 April 2009 REFERENCES Bartunek, J., & Moch , M. (1987). First

  13. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ''review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992

  14. Estimating Supply-Chain Burdens in Support of Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    overtaken by the storm ( Drury & Clavin, 2007). A large part of the Germans’ war strategy was to disrupt supply traveling from the U.S. to the UK as well...February). Quadrennial defense review report. Retrieved from http://www.defense.gov/qdr/images/QDR_as_of_12Feb10_1000.pdf Drury , R., & Clavin, T

  15. Review of the all Source Analysis System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process-FY 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-20

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL REVIEW OF THE ALL SOURCE ANALYSIS SYSTEM AS A PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEFENSE...System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process--FY 1993 (Report No. 93-087) We are providing...appreciate the courtesies extended to the audit staff. If you have questions on this report, please contact Program Director Russell A. Rau at (703) 693

  16. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. PMID:27782052

  17. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fraga-Lamas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  18. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-10-05

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  19. The Trouble With Strategic Communication(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    .... There is no overarching U.S. government definition of strategic communication. There is, however, a Department of Defense definition as a result of the most recent Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR...

  20. Joint Stars and the Darkstar Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: An Operating and Support Cost Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SIKRA, JAMES

    1998-01-01

    With the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review's (QDR) reduction of Joint STARS aircraft from 19 to 13, the program will not be able to maintain the Department of Defense requirement to fully support two major theater wars (MTWs...

  1. Review of the Book “Defense Mechanisms. Coping Strategies. Self-Regulation”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoil Mavrodiev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This book deals with coping strategies and defense mechanisms as two kinds of self-regulation of human behaviour. The defense mechanisms are described with some examples of fiction books.

  2. Audit Oversight: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Office of Internal Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The Government Auditing Standards (GAS) require that an audit organization performing Government audits have an appropriate internal quality control system and undergo an external quality control review every 3 years by an organization...

  3. Review of Cyber-Physical Attacks and Counter Defense Mechanisms for Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Longfei; Rondon, Luis Puche; Moghadasi, Amir; Sarwat, Arif I.

    2018-01-01

    The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a vital element in the current development of the smart grid. AMI technologies provide electric utilities with an effective way of continuous monitoring and remote control of smart grid components. However, owing to its increasing scale and cyber-physical nature, the AMI has been faced with security threats in both cyber and physical domains. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the crucial cyber-physical attacks and counter defense mecha...

  4. Review of Business-Class and First-Class Airfares Within the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed 20 transactions that were coded as business-class and first-class travel during the 2002 and 2003 calendar years for the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense (OIG DoD...

  5. Defense Systems Management Review. Volume 3, Number 2, Spring 1980. Managing the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    and no one did. As a result, many literally curled up and died, and for no known medical reason. Major Mayer ended a lecture on the subject with a plea...November 6, 1978. 10. Fred E. Rosell, Jr., "’ rip Report-Visit to Defense Documentation Center (DDC), May 16, 1978," Defense Systems Management College...easily expandable to splits among three or more producers. To do this for three companies, you must determine the split between Companies A and B as a

  6. Legal review on PTSD defense of adolescent patients in criminal cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is nothing new for Chinese society; however, Chinese courts are hesitated to accept the PTSD as a mental defense for adolescent patients. PTSD defense might be popular in future and court shall give proper weight to relevant factors. It is a big problem that there are no procedures or instructions for the connection between diagnosis and judgment. The paper illustrates the origination of PTSD and its development in USA with some relevant cases. Even the American courts consider PTSD as a problem. And there should be detailed regulations in China to keep pace with the development of science technology.

  7. 75 FR 57906 - Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... publication of this notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra L. Burrell, Chief, Human Resources Management Division, Defense Contract Audit Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 2133, Fort Belvoir... following are the names and titles of DCAA career executives appointed to serve as members of the DCAA...

  8. 76 FR 59664 - Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Date: Upon publication of this notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra L. Burrell, Chief, Human Resources Management Division, Defense Contract Audit Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 2133, Fort...(c)(4), the following are the names and titles of DCAA career executives appointed to serve as...

  9. The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Review of the Guidelines for Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    States–Japan alliance and to consider future steps to strengthen its functioning. Special thanks are due to Ambassador (Ret.) Rust Deming , Lieutenant...Defense Co- operation,” November 27, 1978, available at <http://fas.org/news/japan/sisin1e.htm>. 14 Interview with Ambassador Rust Deming . While it

  10. Review of the Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14) Defense Environmental International Cooperation (DEIC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    advanced by the U.S. team, and embraced by the participants, was to retrain approximately 20 percent of the military force to address ecologically ...the lead for the State Partnership Program with Chile . Discussions focused on environmental programs in both countries, as well as working group...sessions to develop collaborative plans for the next three to five years under the U.S.- Chile Defense Consultative Commission (DCC) in the areas of

  11. Prolonged Cycle Times and Schedule Growth in Defense Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    10, 1979. DAU—See Defense Acquisition University. Decker, Gilbert F., Louis C. Wagner, William H. Forster, David M. Maddox, George T. Singley, and...March 2008. Bibliography 77 Johnson, Collie J., “Pentagon Systems Acquisition Director Speaks to Graduates of APMC 99-1,” PM Magazine, May–June...1999, pp. 8–11. Kassing, David , R. William Thomas, Frank Camm, and Carolyn Wong, How Funding Instability Affects Army Programs, Santa Monica, Calif

  12. 75 FR 71564 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025... conducting a Contractor Insurance/Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information (PGI) to the... This final rule relocates requirements for Contractor Insurance/ Pension Review to DFARS 242.7302 from...

  13. Which Plant Proteins Are Involved in Antiviral Defense? Review on In Vivo and In Vitro Activities of Selected Plant Proteins against Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Musidlak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs bind to target RNAs via specialized RNA-binding domain and can directly or indirectly function in plant defense system against RNA viruses. Proteins involved in silencing machinery, namely Dicer-like (DCL proteins, Argonaute (AGO proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs confer innate antiviral defense in plants as they are able to degrade foreign RNA of viral origin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of plant proteins participating in antiviral defense. As a result we discuss proteins conferring plant antiviral resistance and their potential future applications in different fields of life including agriculture and medicine.

  14. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  15. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  16. Review: Waste-Pretreatment Technologies for Remediation of Legacy Defense Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, William R.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Johnson, Michael E.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Thompson, Major C.; Suggs, Patricia C.; Machara, N.

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for retrieving, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive waste that has been generated during the production of nuclear weapons in the United States. The vast bulk of this waste material is stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington State. The general strategy for treating the radioactive tank waste consists of first separating the waste into high-level and low-activity fractions. This initial partitioning of the waste is referred to as pretreatment. Following pretreatment, the high-level fraction will be immobilized in a glass form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The low-activity waste will be immobilized in a waste form suitable for disposal at the respective site. This paper provides a review of recent developments in the application of pretreatment technologies to the processing of the Hanford and Savannah River radioactive tank wastes. Included in the review are discussions of 1) solid/liquid separations methods, 2) cesium separation technologies, and 3) other separations critical to the success of the DOE tank waste remediation effort. Also included is a brief discussion of the different requirements and circumstances at the two DOE sites that have in some cases led to different choices in pretreatment technologies.

  17. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Commercial Activities Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... This report evaluated the Defense Finance and Accounting Service competitive sourcing process and reviewed the adequacy of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service management control program...

  18. Special Technology Area Review on Spintronics. Report of Department of Defense Advisory Group on Electron Devices Working Group B (Microelectronics)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbridge, Barry; Palkuti, Les; Wolf, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    ...) as it applies to nonvolatile memories and quantum-based logic and computing. In addition, the information provided at the STAR is expected to be of use to the Services and Department of Defense (DoD...

  19. Not a Pound for Air-To-Ground: A Historiographical Analysis on the Genesis of the Multi-Role Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Robert M. Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington D.C.: Department of Defense, 2010. http://www.defense.gov/qdr/images...dvs=1417624228343~272 (accessed 2 Dec 2014) Stevens, Donald, Bruce Davis, William Stanley, Daniel Norton, Rae Starr, Dnaiel Raymer , John Gibson

  20. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... They use terror, propaganda and indiscriminate violence in an attempt to subjugate the Muslim world under a radical theocratic tyranny while seeking to perpetuate conflict with the United States...

  1. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    DR Decision Review DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DRPM Direct Reporting Program Manager DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency...STE Special Test Equipment STEP Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process STLDD Software Top Level Design Document STP Software Test Plan STPR...established catalog or market prices for specific tasks under standard commercial terms and conditions; this does not include services sold based

  2. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  3. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  4. Risk assessment and ranking methodologies for hazardous chemical defense waste: a state-of-the-art review and evaluation. Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Rodricks, J.V.; St Hilaire, C.; Bras, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Task 1 of the Risk Assessment Evaluation Task under the Hazardous Chemical Defense Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of Task 1 was to identify, review, and evaluate the state-of-the-art tools and techniques available for ranking and evaluating disposal facilities. These tools were evaluated for their applicability to DOE's mixed hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites. Various ranking methodologies were reviewed and three were evaluated in detail. Areas that were found to be deficient in each ranking methodology were presented in the report. Recommendations were given for the development of an improved ranking methodology for use on DOE's sites. A literature review was then performed on the various components of a risk assessment methodology. They include source term evaluation, geosphere transport models, exposure pathways models, dose effects models, and sensitivity/uncertainty techniques. A number of recommendations have been made in the report based on the review and evaluation for the development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in evaluating mixed waste disposal sites

  5. Review of the President's Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request for the Defense Health Program's Private Sector Care Budget Activity Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fantone, Denise M; Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    ... Private Sector Care BAG. To do this, we reviewed (1) DOD's justification for the request for the Private Sector Care BAG, including the underlying estimates and the extent to which DOD considered historical information; and (2...

  6. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  7. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  8. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  9. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  10. Improving the Analysis Capabilities of the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model (STORM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    School OOA out of action OPNAV The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations QDR Quadrennial Defense Review SAM surface-to-air missile SCALA scalable...to the design. For this research, a program written in the SCALA programming language is used in order to generate each file. The programming code is

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach for Global Fleet Station Alternatives in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    reform and debt relief, specifically under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility ( PRGF ...President of the United States PRGF – Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility PVO – Private Voluntary Organization QDR – Quadrennial Defense Review R

  12. A Change in the Air: Strategic Innovation and the Combined Bomber Offensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    same lineup of enemies and allies throughout.‖7 The George W. Bush administration proclaimed in the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), that...the organization rather than forcing new ones. Posen argues, ―Changing enemies or allies may take less time than changing plans or procedures …[and

  13. Design and Acquisition of Software for Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-14

    embrace of iterative development has benefited bottom lines and cost , schedule, and testing performance, while the Department and its defense industrial...February 2018 CLEARED FOR OPEN PUBLICATION February 14, 2018 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OFFICE OF PREPUBLICATION AND SECURITY REVIEW...Force concluded that the Department of Defense would benefit from the implementation of continuous iterative development best practices as software

  14. Report of the Secretary of Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Management. Phase II: Review of the DoD Nuclear Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlesinger, James R; Carns, Michael P; Crouch, II, J. D; Gansler, Jacques S; Giambastiani, Jr., Edmund P; Hamre, John J; Miller, Franklin C; Williams, Christopher A; Blackwell, Jr, James A

    2008-01-01

    Incidents related to the Air Force's mishandling of nuclear weapons and components led to the creation of the Task Force in June 2008 to provide advice on nuclear matters for the Secretary of Defense...

  15. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrews, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    .... This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing...

  16. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  17. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  18. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  19. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  1. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  2. Photovoltaics in the Department of Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the history of photovoltaic use within the Department of Defense leading up to the installation of 2.1 MW of photovoltaics underway today. This history describes the evolution of the Department of Defense's Tri-Service Photovoltaic Review Committee and the committee's strategic plan to realize photovoltaic's full potential through outreach, conditioning of the federal procurement system, and specific project development. The Photovoltaic Review Committee estimates photovoltaic's potential at nearly 4,000 MW, of which about 700 MW are considered to be cost-effective at today's prices. The paper describes photovoltaic's potential within the Department of Defense, the status and features of the 2.1-MW worth of photovoltaic systems under installation, and how these systems are selected and implemented. The paper also documents support provided to the Department of Defense by the Department of Energy dating back to the late 70s. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  4. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  5. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  6. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rui Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20–24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  7. 75 FR 33752 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... extended an additional 30 days to provide additional time for interested parties to review the proposed... interested parties to review the proposed DFARS changes. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  8. Organizing the National Guard to Provide Effective Domestic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Secretary of Defense PA Public Affairs PJ Pararescueman QDR Quadrennial Defense Review RAMZ Rigging Alternate Method – Zodiac (Inflatable Boat...National Guard Bureau, 2010, p. 12). This area has increased over the years with this being the most common status of all NG forces. As a sign of...safety of U.S. citizens and U.S. persons  Protecting critical U.S. infrastructure  Providing humanitarian assistance during disaster response and

  9. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  10. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  12. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  13. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  14. 75 FR 11868 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Colorado Springs Marriott hotel, 5580 Tech Center Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80919. Written statements may.... Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... will review all timely submissions with the Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of...

  15. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... meeting will be held at the Doubletree Hotel Cocoa Beach, 2080 North Atlantic Avenue, Cocoa Beach, Florida.... Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... next open meeting. The Designated Federal Officer will review all timely submissions with the Defense...

  16. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  17. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  18. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  19. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  20. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  1. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  2. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  3. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  4. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guarda, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    .... First, this paper reviews the theory for establishing the concepts of defense expenditures and development/social expenditures, second, it analyzes the facts and possible relation in the expenses...

  5. Center for Homeland Defense and Security Homeland Security Affairs Journal

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS). The journal provides a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security.

  6. Quality Control Review of Berenson & Company LLP and the Defense Contract Audit Agency Riverside Research Institute Fiscal Year Ended November 30, 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smolenyak, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    .... We focused our review on the following qualitative aspects of the audit: due professional care, planning, supervision, independence, quality control, internal controls, substantive testing, general and specific compliance testing...

  7. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  8. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  9. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  10. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  11. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  12. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  13. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  14. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  15. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  16. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  17. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  18. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  19. Data Center Energy Efficiency Technologies and Methodologies: A Review of Commercial Technologies and Recommendations for Application to Department of Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    host multiple applications on a single server and split larger applications between multiple servers. If applications can be quickly and easily...improvements are often seen as leading to negative impacts on the organization that operates the DC. Another significant limiting factor for the DoD...34 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 31, pp. 622-638, 2014. [152] R. Miller, "Data Center Used to Heat Swimming Pool," Data Center Knowledge, 2

  20. Evaluation of 757 Species Under U.S. Endangered Species Act Review on U.S. Department of Defense Lands and their Potential Impact on Army Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Colligyrus n. sp. 2 Masked Duskysnail invertebrate Cordia rupicola Puerto Rico manjack plant Cordulegaster sayi Say’s Spiketail invertebrate Coreopsis...threatened and endangered plants and animals. Balancing threatened and endan- gered species (TES) management with training requirements is an increas...nation’s threatened and endangered plants and animals. A recent lawsuit settled by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) requires a review of 757

  1. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  3. Air Force Strategic Planning: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Raphael S. Cohen Air Force Strategic Planning Past, Present, and Future C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This... intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance QDR Quadrennial Defense Review TAC Tactical Air Command UAV unmanned aerial vehicles 1 1...Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000, p. 258. 5 U.S. Government Printing Office, Army Air Forces Field Manual: Employment of Aviation of the

  4. Assessment of Accelerated Acquisition of Defense Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Quadrennial Defense Review explicitly called for doubling production rates of ISR UAVs, including Global Hawk. By 2009, Global Hawks had logged over 25,000...Honeywell (Formerly AlliedSignal) turboprop engine, compared to the Predator’s 115 hp (86 kW) piston engine. The power increase allows the Reaper...on basic requirements subsequently translated into costs at least double initial estimates and years of schedule slippage. In other words a classic

  5. The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eMetraux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses.

  6. Assessment of Ukranian National Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    Romanian- Slovakian-Hungarian engineer battalion “Tisa”, as a rapid reaction force with the mission of natural disaster relief in the Carpathian region...threats (Army’s multifunctional NBC protection and engineer units) and experience of their using ( Chernobyl nuclear plant in 1986, humanitarian...man-made disasters was exemplified by the 2011 nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Moreover, based on the results of the Strategic Defense Review in Ukraine

  7. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  8. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  9. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  10. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  11. 77 FR 49440 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  12. 78 FR 52517 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  13. 76 FR 60473 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Services Agency, Defense Logistics Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OSD), Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY...

  14. 77 FR 54570 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review.... The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial summary rating of the senior executive's performance...

  15. Implementing Set Based Design into Department of Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The team employed a tailored waterfall process model in order to explore SBD applications in the support of defense acquisition and PORs. Figure 1...Engineering Model . Additionally, the team reviewed DOD case studies that implemented SBD. The SBD principles, along with the common themes from the...acquisition. 14. SUBJECT TERMS set based design, set based thinking, model based systems engineering, concurrent engineering, defense acquisition

  16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defense & Arms Control Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    security of the nation. The unicorn is the obvious symbol for this box. Even with a two percent of GDP or less defense budget, we will maintain our nuclear...systems is not going away. There are some unicorns in the defense herd and this would be a time to claim to be one. ACTIVITIES AND PERSONNEL Looking...macroeconomics and public finance is advisable. The subjects in the Forces and Force Analysis section will provide sufficient review of the technical

  17. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  18. Needed: Reincarnation of National Defense Education Act of 1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary M.; Miller, James R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical and current response of the United States to threats to its world leadership in scientific endeavors, with particular attention to the National Defense Education Act of 1958. The current status of the United States in mathematics, science, and engineering education is reviewed with respect to K-12 student…

  19. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level of...

  20. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  1. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  2. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  4. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201. (13) Missile Defense Agency. Missile Defense Agency... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Information Security Oversight Office's...

  5. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  6. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  8. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  9. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  10. Hitting the Sweet Spot: Glycans as Targets of Fungal Defense Effector Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Künzler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Organisms which rely solely on innate defense systems must combat a large number of antagonists with a comparatively low number of defense effector molecules. As one solution of this problem, these organisms have evolved effector molecules targeting epitopes that are conserved between different antagonists of a specific taxon or, if possible, even of different taxa. In order to restrict the activity of the defense effector molecules to physiologically relevant taxa, these target epitopes should, on the other hand, be taxon-specific and easily accessible. Glycans fulfill all these requirements and are therefore a preferred target of defense effector molecules, in particular defense proteins. Here, we review this defense strategy using the example of the defense system of multicellular (filamentous fungi against microbial competitors and animal predators.

  11. The Defense Systems Acquisition and Review Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-15

    34 or budget subimittal and explained. f. w.hen an OSD-generated PPES document, such as tK2 Issue Paper or PPJ, offers an alternative to the 9CP/ )SARC...cost objectives, and operating constraints. A mission need may result from a deficiency in existing agency capabilities or the decision to establish new...missions, capabilities; deficiencies , and needs and objectives related to acquisition programs, in consonance with Section 601(i) of the Congressional

  12. Defense policies under review / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitika-ala asekaitseministri Michele Flournoy 26. veebruaril toimunud kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja USA koostööst Afganistanis, NATO-Vene suhetest ning NATO-st üldiselt

  13. Defense Reutilization and Marketing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    H -3 E Responsibilities of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions (D R M s...at Defense electronic products which produce radiation Reutilization and Marketing Offices, para- when energized. Among the principal radi- graph F... Sporting Equipment 7820 Games , Toys, and Wheeled Goods 7830 Recreational and Gymnastic Equipment 7910 Floor Polishers and Vacuum Cleaning Equipment

  14. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The 600-Pound Gorilla: Why a Smaller Department of Defense Is in the Best Interest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    States Institute of Peace, 2010), 97, http://www.usip.org/files/qdr/IntroCompilation.pdf (accessed February 01, 2012). 70. Edward F. Bruner , Military...Institute Online. http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/victory-libya-no-model-us-foreign-policy. (accessed March 9, 2012). Bruner , Edward F

  16. Defensive Jurisprudence and Productivity Goals: Jabuticaba Consumerist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz Barros Barreto de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the application of so-called procedural defensive jurisprudence that values exacerbated rationalization of the judiciary activities, preventing the processing of judicial review in the higher courts, and its consequences in consumeristas indemnity processes. It analyzes the pressure to which judges are subjected, especially because of the need to comply with productivity goals. The construction work suggests the misconception of these imposed judicial policies to decrease the procedural stock since that attack the problem on screen superficially and do not solve the basic question.

  17. Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszkiewicz Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.

  18. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  19. 76 FR 5340 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Hilton Washington Dulles Hotel, 13869 Park Center Road, Herndon, Virginia, 20171 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health Board (DHB) Web site: http://www.ha.osd... the Defense Health Board until the next open meeting. The Designated Federal Officer will review all...

  20. 75 FR 26739 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Part 244...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Control Number 0704-0253) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense. ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  1. 78 FR 70025 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and Procedures AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Defensive Pessimism in Situ: Two Case Studies within a Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Alice H.; Swim, Terri Jo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, defensive pessimism is reviewed in relation to anxiety, self-esteem, expectations, self-regulation, and self-handicapping. Then, two case studies of American pre-service teachers in a mathematics classroom are provided that move the research beyond survey and correlational studies. In the case analyses, defensive pessimists'…

  3. Defense Nuclear Enterprise: DOD Has Established Processes for Implementing and Tracking Recommendations to Improve Leadership, Morale, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Department of Defense (DOD) has identified nuclear deterrence as its highest priority mission. In 2014, in response to several incidents involving the...nation’s nuclear deterrent forces and their senior leadership, the Secretary of Defense directed two reviews of DOD’s nuclear enterprise. These two...adversely affecting the nuclear deterrence mission. The reviews also made recommendations to address these problems. The National Defense Authorization

  4. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  5. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  6. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  7. 75 FR 59176 - DoD Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ..., VA 22060-6201. (13) Missile Defense Agency. Missile Defense Agency, Attention: MDA/DS, 7100 Defense... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 222 [DoD-2010-OS-0043; RIN 0790-AI62] DoD Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) Program AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Proposed...

  8. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  9. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  10. Colors and Some Morphological Traits as Defensive Mechanisms in Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans may be brightly colored or completely cryptic. Generally, in the former situation, we are dealing with aposematism, and the latter is an example of camouflage. However, these are only simple views of what such colorations really mean and which defensive strategy is implied. For instance, a brightly colored frog may be part of a mimicry ring, which could be either Batesian, Müllerian, or Browerian. These are only examples of the diversity of color-usage systems as defensive strategies. Unfortunately, reports on the use of colors as defensive mechanisms are widespread in the available literature, and the possible functions are rarely mentioned. Therefore, we reviewed the literature and added new data to this subject. Then, we the use of colors (as defensive mechanism into categories. Mimicry was divided into the subcategories camouflage, homotypy, and nondeceitful homotypy, and these groups were also subcategorized. Dissuasive coloration was divided into behavioral display of colors, polymorphism, and polyphenism. Aposematism was treated apart, but aposematic colorations may be present in other defensive strategies. Finally, we propose functions and forms of evolution for some color systems in post-metamorphic anurans and hope that this review can be the basis for future research, even on other animal groups.

  11. Who’s in Charge? Defense Policy Formation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Hongo , DPJ shows stress fractures under pressure of leadership, August 8, 2009, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090808f1.html (accessed...ballistic shield.” September 1, 2000. Jane’s International Defense Review. http://www4.janes.com/subscribe (accessed August 18, 2010). Hongo , Jun

  12. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  13. Acquisition Planning at the Defense Communications Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    guidelines for interaction are developed under the leadership of DCA agencywide integrators with the participation of personnel from DCA, the Services...Communications System DCSO - Defense Communications System Organizatin . DDN - Defense Data Network DEC - Decision Making DG - Defense Guidance DIA - Defense

  14. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors endash the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. The report is necessarily based on a limited review of the defense production reactors. It does not address whether any of the reactors are ''safe,'' because such an analysis would involve a determination of acceptable risk endash a matter of obvious importance, but one that was beyond the purview of the committee. It also does not address whether the safety of the production reactors is comparable to that of commercial nuclear power stations, because even this narrower question extended beyond the charge to the committee and would have involved detailed analyses that the committee could not undertake

  15. Report of the Defense Science Board/Defense Policy Board Task Force On Theater Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... also tackled the controversial subject of the ABM Treaty and its effect on theater missile defenses Subsequent to its interim report, which expressed strong concerns about the demarcation path the US...

  16. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  17. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  18. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of..., the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense... Director, Missile Defense Agency, independent advice and recommendations on all matters relating to missile...

  19. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  20. Vendor Payments-Operation Mongoose, Fort Belvoir Defense Accounting Office and Rome Operating Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    .... Due to the impending closure of the Defense Accounting Office at Fort Belvoir and the anticipated consolidation to the Rome Operating Location, New York, we did not perform a review of the management...

  1. Gender Issues: Analysis of Methodologies in Reports to the Secretaries of Defense and the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services to meet with trainees and trainers. These incidents also prompted the Secretary of the Army to establish the Senior Review Panel on Sexual Harassment...

  2. Defense Transformation a' la francaise and U.S. Interests. Strategic Forum, Number 233, September 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michel, Leo G

    2008-01-01

    ... requirements since the last comprehensive review in the mid-1990s. But President Nicolas Sarkozy, faced with a large budget deficit, is determined to meet those requirements without near-term increases in defense spending...

  3. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 17, Autumn/Winter 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    RMAF Defense Attaché Embassy of Malaysia RESCUING THE QDR PROCESS To the Editor—After reading your series of ar- ticles on the Quadrennial Defense Review...catastrophic results for both those at the sharp end of the spear and their nations. Pundits have even worse records. As we now know, Basil H. Lid- dell Hart...chief, Pacific Command, and formerly served as vice chief of naval operations. USS Nimitz and USS Independence off Japan. U .S . N av y (C hr is W

  4. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Issue 76, January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Algarín The Defense Acquisition Professional Reading List To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design Written and reviewed by Henry ...Arts & Press Randy Weekes Managing Editor Deputy Director, Visual Arts & Press Norene L. Taylor Assistant Editor Aleisha R. Jenkins -Bey Production...of Failure in Successful Design Written and reviewed by Henry Petroski p. 108 Statement of Ownership p. 110 Defense ARJ Guidelines for Contributors

  5. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  6. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  7. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  8. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  9. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  10. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  11. On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson’s, David Hume’s, and Adam Smith’s moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sent...

  12. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    individual policy activities. Subfunctions are assigned a numeric identifier (ending in a single digit ) related to the function to which they belong...operations, equipment repair, and maintenance of defense facilities, healthcare costs, and administration. 24% Military Personnel (MILPERS) Pay and

  13. Report on Defense Business Operations to the Congressional Defense Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Department’s strategic framework for planning and decision-making, and acknowledged the need to establish clear, actionable strategic goals and...Business Operations Department of Defense Business Transformation 5 2. Business Enterprise Priorities Six Business Enterprise Priorities ( BEPs ... framework products that facilitate the interoperability and integration of the operational activities, processes, data, information exchanges

  14. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  15. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to...] RIN 0750-AH52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY...

  16. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  17. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  18. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  19. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors - the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. This report examines the safety objective established by the Department of Energy for the production reactors and the process the Department of its contractors use to implement the objective; focuses on a variety of uncertainties concerning the production reactors, particularly those related to potential vulnerabilities to severe accidents; and identifies ways in which the DOE approach to management of the safety of the production reactors can be improved

  20. The Art and Science of Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA - Logistics THE ART AND SCIENCE OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS...Government EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Art and Science of Defense Logistics Author: Major S. I. Schuler, USMC Research Questions: 1...00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  1. Missile defense in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  2. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  3. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  4. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  5. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  6. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to... requirements for the support of military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and...

  7. Influence of IR sensor technology on the military and civil defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Latika

    2006-02-01

    Advances in basic infrared science and developments in pertinent technology applications have led to mature designs being incorporated in civil as well as military area defense systems. Military systems include both tactical and strategic, and civil area defense includes homeland security. Technical challenges arise in applying infrared sensor technology to detect and track targets for space and missile defense. Infrared sensors are valuable due to their passive capability, lower mass and power consumption, and their usefulness in all phases of missile defense engagements. Nanotechnology holds significant promise in the near future by offering unique material and physical properties to infrared components. This technology is rapidly developing. This presentation will review the current IR sensor technology, its applications, and future developments that will have an influence in military and civil defense applications.

  8. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Page 1 GAO-16-339R Ballistic Missile Defense 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 28, 2016 Congressional Committees Missile Defense... Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...funding efforts to develop a system to detect, track, and defeat enemy ballistic missiles. The current system—the Ballistic Missile Defense System

  9. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  10. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural ...... The Drosophila model (New York: Oxford University Press) .... second part of his big species book written from 1856–1858. (New ...

  11. Remote viewing of melter interior Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1986-01-01

    A remote system has been developed and demonstrated for continuous reviewing of the interior of a glass melter, which is used to vitrify highly radioactive waste. The system is currently being implemented with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The environment in which the borescope/TV unit is implemented combines high temperature, high ionizing radiation, low light, spattering, deposition, and remote maintenance

  12. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  13. Inherently Offensive: Airpower and the Dialectic with Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    detailed definition up front. Ted Hopf, writing in The American Political Science Review, argues, “the offense-defense balance consists of three elements...technology contributed to air power’s ability to maintain overwhelming offensive 12 Hopf, Ted . "Polarity...fighters and surface-to-air missile systems. John Patterson explains why this is true, “most fighter aircraft operate in the X - and Ku-bands because

  14. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and Mathematics at the Royal Institute of Tech- nology, Stockholm, Sweden; and Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg , Germany . viii ix SUMMARY...and analysis to influence policy debate and bridge the gap between military and academia. The Center for Strategic Leadership and Development...provide an overview of four different national approaches to cyber defense: those of Nor- way, Estonia, Germany , and Sweden. While provid- ing a

  15. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  16. 78 FR 55244 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... the membership of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES... rating of a senior executive's performance, the executive's response, and the higher level official's...

  17. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  18. Defense of a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  19. Impact of Childhood Malnutrition on Host Defense and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K; Zambruni, Mara; Melby, Christopher L; Melby, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    The global impact of childhood malnutrition is staggering. The synergism between malnutrition and infection contributes substantially to childhood morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric indicators of malnutrition are associated with the increased risk and severity of infections caused by many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Since childhood malnutrition commonly involves the inadequate intake of protein and calories, with superimposed micronutrient deficiencies, the causal factors involved in impaired host defense are usually not defined. This review focuses on literature related to impaired host defense and the risk of infection in primary childhood malnutrition. Particular attention is given to longitudinal and prospective cohort human studies and studies of experimental animal models that address causal, mechanistic relationships between malnutrition and host defense. Protein and micronutrient deficiencies impact the hematopoietic and lymphoid organs and compromise both innate and adaptive immune functions. Malnutrition-related changes in intestinal microbiota contribute to growth faltering and dysregulated inflammation and immune function. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the malnutrition-infection synergism, critical gaps in our understanding remain. We highlight the need for mechanistic studies that can lead to targeted interventions to improve host defense and reduce the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  2. Integrating the commercial and defense high level waste programs - A utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonto, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provided that disposal of high-level wastes resulting from defense activities be included in the authorized repository unless the President determined that separate facilities are required. President Reagan approved commingling of defense and civilian wastes on April 30, 1985. The impacts of this decision on the repository schedule, civilian spent fuel acceptance rates, and cost sharing are reviewed and recommendations for resolving these issues are presented

  3. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  4. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  5. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  6. REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... narrowing the gap between recommended treatment protocols in ... for pregnant women is complicated by the need to take into account the health and safety of both the ... meta-analysis as at July 2011 (which reviews the APR and other ... 0.82 - 3.18) and relative risk of birth defects in EFV-containing ART.

  7. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 623–634 ..... 4000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K. The processes (1b) are characterized in this paper via ..... Mihajlov, A. A., Sreckovic, V. A., Ignjatovic, L. M., Klyucharev, A. N. 2012, J. Cluster.

  8. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  9. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  10. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Defense, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In creating this report the Task Force gathered information by conducting site visits; communicating with numerous individuals, including victims; reviewing the Department of Defense survey data; reviewing Academy and Service policies, reports, and data; consulting with subject matter experts; and communicating with related committees and task…

  11. Report on Quality Control Review of Defense Contract Audit Agency and KPMG LLP Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133 Audit Report of SRI International, Fiscal Year Ended December 25, 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...), DoD, performed a quality control review to determine whether the FY 1999 report that SRI International submitted to the Single Audit Clearinghouse met the applicable reporting standards and OMB Circular A-133...

  12. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  13. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  14. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  15. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  16. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  17. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  18. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  19. Student Papers on Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    895. 3. "Scientific Canvas" AWST, p. 19. 4. Halliday, p. 548. 5. William Shiner, Lasers (New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980), p. 21. - 30...and Design. New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980. U.S. Department of Defense. The Strategic Defense Ini- tiative: Defensive Technologies Study. Washington...Armageddon," Armed Forces Journal, February 1983, p. 30. 7. David Baker, The Shape of Wars to Come (Cambridge: Patrick Stephens , Ltd, 1981), p. 109

  20. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  1. Status of DOE defense waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program

  2. Active Computer Network Defense: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    sufficient base of knowledge in information technology can be assumed to be working on some form of computer network warfare, even if only defensive in...the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) to attack. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks are inherently resistant to...aims to create this part of information superiority, and computer network defense is one of its fundamental components. Most of these efforts center

  3. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  4. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Victor A. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Bldg. 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    front-end of the process reaps rewards far more efficiently than attempts to assuage and mitigate the concerns of those parties after the fact and there are a number of tools Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has deployed that render transparency an ally in this context. The makers, applicators, and beneficiaries of policies and decisions will all benefit from strong administrative records which document decisional choices in an open and transparent manner and from timely, up-front management of concerns of interested parties. The strongest defense to decisional challenges is an ability to demonstrate the basis of the decision and the reason(s) that the decision was chosen over other alternatives. Providing a sound basis for defending challenges rather than avoiding or fighting over them allows the deciding entity the greatest opportunity to produce value for its customer. Often, a transparent process that invites public participation and is open for public review and comment will thwart challenge genesis. An entity that has to devote resources to defending its choices obviously cannot utilize those resources to further its mission. (authors)

  5. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    the process reaps rewards far more efficiently than attempts to assuage and mitigate the concerns of those parties after the fact and there are a number of tools Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has deployed that render transparency an ally in this context. The makers, applicators, and beneficiaries of policies and decisions will all benefit from strong administrative records which document decisional choices in an open and transparent manner and from timely, up-front management of concerns of interested parties. The strongest defense to decisional challenges is an ability to demonstrate the basis of the decision and the reason(s) that the decision was chosen over other alternatives. Providing a sound basis for defending challenges rather than avoiding or fighting over them allows the deciding entity the greatest opportunity to produce value for its customer. Often, a transparent process that invites public participation and is open for public review and comment will thwart challenge genesis. An entity that has to devote resources to defending its choices obviously cannot utilize those resources to further its mission. (authors)

  6. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  7. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  8. Defense Business Operations Fund Inventory Record Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether inventory amounts on the FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements were presented fairly in accordance...

  9. Defense Agency Travel Payments at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center management controls over payments to Defense agency personnel for temporary duty and local travel...

  10. Report to the Congressional Defense Committees: Status of the Department of Defense's Business Transformation Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...). It directs the Secretary of Defense to provide the Congressional Defense Committees with an annual report on the Department's business transformation efforts and compliance with the requirements of the law...

  11. For a NATO defensive deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy

  12. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  13. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  14. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  15. Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective M A R C H 2 8 , 2 0 1 6...Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective Visit us at www.dodig.mil... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE DIRECTOR, DEFENSE HEALTH AGENCY SUBJECT: Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service

  16. GNF Defense in Depth Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingenfelter, Andrew A.; Schneider, Robert J.; Cantonwine, Paul E.; Moore, Brian; Rea, John; Crawford, Douglas C. [Global Nuclear Fuel, P.O. Box 780 M/C H25, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF) has designed, fabricated, and placed into operation more than 9 million fuel rods in approximately 135 thousand assemblies. Customer satisfaction has always compelled GNF to reduce fuel rod failures (defined here as fuel rods that breach or leak in service), However, increasing success with and subsequent expectations for economic performance of nuclear reactor plants have raised broader Industry emphasis on fuel reliability. In 2005, GNF established its Defense-in-Depth (DID) Program for the purpose of focusing attention on the many aspects of fuel design, fabrication, performance, and utilization that affect fuel reliability as well as on the key methods that govern the utilization of GNF fuel. The Program is structured to address each of the identified in-service, fuel failure mechanisms. This paper provides a summary of GNF fuel performance, following previous updates. This paper will discuss recent GNF fuel reliability and channel performance, GNF2 introduction status, and methods. GNF's more recent fuel experience includes approximately 3.8 million GE11/13 (9x9) and GE12/14 (10x10) fuel rods, well over half of which are the GE12/14 design. (Those figures also include roughly 25,000 recently-introduced GNF2 fuel rods.) Reliability, expressed as annual, observed fuel failure rates (i.e., number of rods failed each year divided by the number of opportunities, or fuel rods in service), has improved for each year since 2005. The GNF fuel failure rate for years leading up to 2007 and 2008 has been on the order of 5 to 7 ppm (excluding the corrosion events of 2001-2003), and as of this writing (January 2009) the current in-service failure has decreased to around 1.5 ppm. Failures in GE14 fuel rod failures have been primarily due to debris-fretting (> 60%), with other failures being duty-related or yet undetermined. The only failure observed in GNF2 to date was a single, early-life debris failure in a bundle not equipped with GNF

  17. Salivary mucins in host defense and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Shapiro Frenkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucus forms a protective coating on wet epithelial surfaces throughout the body that houses the microbiota and plays a key role in host defense. Mucins, the primary structural components of mucus that creates its viscoelastic properties, are critical components of the gel layer that protect against invading pathogens. Altered mucin production has been implicated in diseases such as ulcerative colitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, which highlights the importance of mucins in maintaining homeostasis. Different types of mucins exist throughout the body in various locations such as the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and female genital tract, but this review will focus on mucins in the oral cavity. Salivary mucin structure, localization within the oral cavity, and defense mechanisms will be discussed. These concepts will then be applied to present what is known about the protective function of mucins in oral diseases such as HIV/AIDS, oral candidiasis, and dental caries.

  18. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  19. The US-Russia missile defense dialogue as a factor of the Russian defense policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Suslov

    2013-01-01

    To a big extent the Russian defense policy and, as a consequence, development of the Russian defense industrial complex, is determined by the prospects of the US missile defense policy and fate of the US-Russia negotiations in this area. As a cooperative solution seems improbable in the observable future, Russia plans to develop certain response measures of military nature, including creation of a new heavy ICBM, and to create its own missile defense by 2015. However, this policy does not see...

  20. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the…

  1. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating... Directory: Defense Logistics Agency Headquarters, Andrew T. McNamara Building, 8725 John J. Kingman Road...

  2. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  3. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...

  4. 75 FR 43156 - Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Missile Defense Agency (MDA), DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Under the... Defense announces that the Missile Defense Advisory Committee will meet on August 4 and 5, 2010, in...

  5. Website Fingerprinting Defenses at the Application Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubin Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Website Fingerprinting (WF allows a passive network adversary to learn the websites that a client visits by analyzing traffic patterns that are unique to each website. It has been recently shown that these attacks are particularly effective against .onion sites, anonymous web servers hosted within the Tor network. Given the sensitive nature of the content of these services, the implications of WF on the Tor network are alarming. Prior work has only considered defenses at the client-side arguing that web servers lack of incentives to adopt countermeasures. Furthermore, most of these defenses have been designed to operate on the stream of network packets, making practical deployment difficult. In this paper, we propose two application-level defenses including the first server-side defense against WF, as .onion services have incentives to support it. The other defense is a lightweight client-side defense implemented as a browser add-on, improving ease of deployment over previous approaches. In our evaluations, the server-side defense is able to reduce WF accuracy on Tor .onion sites from 69.6% to 10% and the client-side defense reduces accuracy from 64% to 31.5%.

  6. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  7. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  8. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  9. Defense program pushes microchip frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, K.

    1985-05-01

    The very-high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) program of the Department of Defense will have a significant effect on the expansion of integrated circuit technology. This program, which is to cost several hundred million dollars, is accelerating the trend toward higher-speed, denser circuitry for microchips through innovative design and fabrication techniques. Teams in six different American companies are to design and fabricate a military useful 'brassboard' system which would employ chips developed in the first phase of the VHSIC program. Military objectives envisaged include automatic monitoring of displays in tactical aircraft by means of an artificial intelligence system, a brassboard used in airborne electronic warfare system, and antisubmarine warfare applications. After a fivefold improvement in performance achieved in the first phase, the second phase is concerned with a further 20-fold increase. The entire VHSIC program is, therefore, to produce a 100-fold gain over the state of the art found when the program started.

  10. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, ''walk-away safe'' design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (OandM) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  11. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  12. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  13. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross......-fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...

  14. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  15. Status of defense radioactive waste disposal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. As a byproduct to their activities, nuclear production facilities have generated, and will continue to generate, certain radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed and disposed of in a safe and cost-effective manner. Compliance with all applicable Federal and State regulations is required. This paper describes the principal elements that comprise Defense Programs' approach to waste management and disposal. The status of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste disposal is set forth. Defense Programs' activities in connection with the environmental restoration of inactive facilities and with the safe transport of waste materials are summarized. Finally, the principal challenges to realizing the goals set for the defense waste program are discussed in terms of regulatory, public acceptance, technical, and budget issues

  16. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  17. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  18. 76 FR 61346 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Department of Defense Office of Inspector General, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service (SES...

  19. 75 FR 67696 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Performance Review Board (PRB) of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise Thornburg, DFAS SES Program Manager, Defense Finance and...

  20. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: National Security Missions: Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Nuclear Weapons Defense Systems Global Security Energy Facebook

  2. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  3. HOMA: Israel's National Missile Defense Strategy (Abridged Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lailari, Guermantes

    2002-01-01

    ... (Hebrew for Fortress Wall), Chapter 1 discusses the fundamentals of missile defense and the reason why Israel's missile defense system affects US national security interests, Chapter 2 describes Israel's missile defense...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 247 - DoD Command Newspaper and Magazine Review System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD Command Newspaper and Magazine Review System... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES AND CIVILIAN ENTERPRISE PUBLICATIONS Pt. 247, App. E Appendix E to Part 247—DoD Command Newspaper and Magazine Review...

  5. Accounting for Unliquidated Obligations for the Defense Fuel Supply Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) Columbus Center, Columbus, Ohio, and the Defense Fuel Supply Center share responsibility for accurate accounting information and financial reporting...

  6. Selected General Controls Over the Defense Business Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Defense Business Management System performs appropriation accounting, cost accounting, personnel, payroll, manpower, and management information functions for the Navy, the Air Force, five Defense...

  7. Defense Contract Management Command Capitalization of Fixed Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service had implemented effective management control procedures and complied with laws...

  8. FY 1997 Financial Reporting by The Defense Automated Printing Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The accuracy of information in the financial systems and reported on financial statements is the joint responsibility of the Defense Automated Printing Service and the Defense Logistics Agency...

  9. DOE Defense Program (DP) safety programs. Final report, Task 003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 003 of Subcontract 9-X52-W7423-1 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE Defense Program (DP) Safety Programs. The effort included the identification of appropriate safety requirements, the refinement of a DP-specific Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Format and Content Guide (FCG) and Comprehensive Review Plan (CRP), incorporation of graded approach instructions into the guidance, and the development of a safety analysis methodologies document. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective is provided here

  10. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  11. Why even good defenses may be bad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    The current debate over whether an effective ballistic missile defense (BMD) is technically feasible and whether it could be developed and deployed has left most of the advocacy up to those supporting a BMD program. The author emphasizes the issues beyond technical feasibility in his conclusion that assured destruction may still be preferable to perfect defense in terms of reducing the probability of nuclear war. After examining a number of possible scenarios involving the US and Soviet Union, the positions of allies, and the possibility of clandestine bombs, he sees no reason to expect that a defense system would be less vulnerable or have fewer uncertainties. 29 references

  12. Should the Department of Defense Transfer the Defense Logistics Agency's Map Functions to the Defense Working Capital Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... The functions cost about $25 million annually and are funded by operations and maintenance (O&M) dollars. This study analyzed if the functions should be transferred to the Defense Working Capital Fund...

  13. Capitalization of Defense Technology Security Administration Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    ... $5.2 million in the Equipment in Use account on its trial balance. Starting with FY 1996, Defense Technology Security Administration financial data will be included in consolidated DoD financial statements...

  14. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 1630.2(r) defining direct threat.) (c) Other...) Conflict with other Federal laws. It may be a defense to a charge of discrimination under this part that a...

  15. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization: Corporate Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ... requires a flexible yet focused approach to attain its mission; namely, to research, develop, acquire, and deploy systems and technologies which provide ballistic missile defense to include Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (OPALS...

  16. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  17. Defensive Swarm: An Agent Based Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    32  1.  System Dynamics .........................................................................33  2.  Variables...CONSIDERATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................83  1.  Prolonged Time of Operations ....................................................83...LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  Unmanned Aircraft System ..........................................................................8  Figure 2.  Defensive

  18. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  19. Defense Science Board Task Force on Mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuttle, Jr, William G

    2005-01-01

    .... national security objectives as it is today. Both the 2001 and 2005 National Defense Strategy objectives place greater emphasis than in the past on the nation's worldwide commitments, increasing the demand for responsive forces capable...

  20. Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Public Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FUDS Public GIS dataset contains point location information for the 2,709 Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties where the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is...

  1. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  2. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense: An Administration Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert

    1995-01-01

    ...: "What is our strategy?" What the Clinton Administration is doing with regard to strategic offensive systems provides an instructive context for what we re now trying to do on the strategic defensive side...

  4. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2004-01-01

    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  5. Lease vs. Purchase in Defense Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hensley, Carlton L; Tinjum, Archie L

    2008-01-01

    With declining budgets and consolidation in the defense industry, should competition between prime and sub-prime contractors be fostered through innovative lease arrangements similar to the Navy's TAKX...

  6. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    deploying advanced air defense systems18, such as the Russian S-300 and S-500, and concealing them in hardened, camouflaged sites, such as extensive... Russian objections to the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and fund homeland defense priorities.39 Furthermore, the PTSS system was also... Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Capability Becomes Operational,” Jane’s Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2011. 55 Joseph W. Kirschbaum, REGIONAL MISSILE

  7. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to ...

  8. Defense Acquisition Reform, 19602009: An Elusive Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    the seven largest economies of the world (United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, and Italy ).11 Major weapon systems...the Federal Acquisition Regulation.96 95 Ibid., pp. 20, 21. 96 Joseph Ferrara , “DoD’s 5000 Documents: Evolution and Change in Defense Acquisition...Wayne Smith. How Much Is Enough: Shaping the Defense Program, 1961–1969. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. Ferrara , Joseph. “DoD’s 5000 Documents

  9. Integrating the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Procedures , DoD Manual 4140.01, Volumes 1 through 11, draft as of March...this is summarized in R. Glenn Richey, Jr., Anthony S. Roath, Judith M. Whipple , and Stanley E. Fawcett, “Exploring a Governance Theory of Supply...of this report, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Procedures (Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logis- tics and Materiel Readiness, DoD Manual

  10. A New Department of Defense Framework for Efficient Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liberato, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ...) capabilities support to civilian authorities during emergencies. Hurricane Katrina added to this national attention on the role the Department of Defense should play in responding to emergencies...

  11. Acquisition: Allegations to the Defense Hotline on the Management of the Defense Travel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Defense Travel System was envisioned as a general support system designed to make business travel quicker, easier, and more efficient by providing automated commercial and Government travel...

  12. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    supporting documentation for reviews that the U.S. Forces-Afghanistan conducted beginning in November 2011 of planned or ongoing contingency ...12 Contingency basing includes the planning , designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing of a non-enduring location...2016). Background Definition of “ Contingency Construction” Project Page 7 GAO-16-406 Defense Infrastructure statutory authority

  13. 78 FR 17993 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... policies, regulations, and technical issues affecting defense trade. The purpose of the meeting will be to... discussed: review of the current definitions of technical data, as well as the control language applied in... statement to the committee in writing. As seating is limited to 125 persons, those wishing to attend the...

  14. The Spiritual Healing "Defense" in Criminal Prosecutions for Crimes against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews state statutes that were used as a defense in cases in which seriously ill children were treated exclusively by spiritual healing practices. Such cases involve questions concerning the constitution, and the rights of parents, children, and the state. There is a trend toward legislative restrictions of the use of spiritual healing as a…

  15. 77 FR 13571 - Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... matters, ACCJC interactions, and a review of previous BoV recommendations. Agenda: Summary--March 21--The... Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: March 21, 2012. Time of Meeting... Institute Foreign Language Center in response to the agenda. All written statements shall be submitted to...

  16. 75 FR 38493 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... (from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m.). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Thayer Hotel, 674 Thayer Road, West...: Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... casualties requiring transfusion, and the Joint Theater Trauma System, as well as the review of the...

  17. U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy in an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    arsenal. London, UK: Sphere. (Original work published 1981). Kalinina, N., & Kozyulin, V. (2010, Winter). Russian defense industry: Feet of clay ...Mirages over the Andes: Peru , France, the United States, and military jet procurement in the 1960s. The Pacific Historical Review, 71(2), 269–300

  18. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  19. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  20. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cometary Defense with Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lubin, P. M.; Hughes, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary impacts pose a long-term hazard to humans on Earth. Due to their comparative rarity, most planetary defense schemes neglect the comet threat, choosing instead to focus exclusively on mitigating asteroid impacts. Methods like kinetic impactors may be suitable for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), both of which are characterized by low inclination orbits and short orbital periods which favor early detection—characteristics ideal for an interception mission. In contrast, Halley-type comets (HTCs) and long-period comets (LPCs) are often found in high inclination orbits rarely more than 2 yr prior to reaching Earth's orbit. Unless discovered and identified in a prior apparition—often centuries or millennia earlier, if ever—timely interception of a threatening HTC or LPC is improbable even with preparation, with missions demanding delta-v budgets often in excess of 30 km/s. Active comets, however, are already naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar-driven sublimation of volatiles. Further deflection may be achieved by supplementing the solar radiation with an artificial directed energy source such as by one or more laser arrays positioned on or near Earth. Simulations were developed with models derived from the known solar nongravitational perturbations of typical comets. Results suggest that a diffraction-limited 500 m array operating at 10 GW for 10 min/day may be sufficient to divert a typical active 500 m comet from an impact given 1 yr. A larger 1 km array operating at 100 GW for 100 s/day is similarly effective. Care must be taken to ensure the target remains intact throughout the deflection period due to comets' low compressive strength and resulting propensity for disintegration at high incident flux.

  2. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil defense...

  3. 75 FR 9588 - Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Law 94-409, notice is hereby given that the Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, will meet on...

  4. 1984 Defense Financial and Investment Review (DFAIR). Survey of Defense Procurement Personnel Results and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    to be neither too high, nor too low. They agreed that the flexible progress payment model is too complex to administer, Very few agreed that the flow...Progress Payment Rate ....................... 133 Flexible Progress Payment Model ................... 146 Flow Down of Financing Provisions...Flexible Progress Payment Model A plurality (45%) of all respondents agreed that the flexible progress payment model is too

  5. Defense Financial and Investment Review. Appendix 4. Part 2. Survey of Defense Procurement Personnel Narrative Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    business contractor which is receiving 100% flexible progress payments as computed by Progress Payment Model and approved by Headquarters. o The present...EPA clauses or indemnification. A request for increased progress payments wias motivated by the new flexible progress payments model . Both requests...Capital investment. * 40. The flexible progress payment model is: a) ___Too complex to administer. b) ___Too beneficial to the contractor. c

  6. Defense Headquarters: Improved Data Needed to Better Identify Streamlining and Cost Savings Opportunities by Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2014.13 We obtained documentary and testimonial evidence from senior officials in the Office of the Deputy Chief Management Officer to determine the...reviews. OSD Organizational Delayering Initiative This review of OSD-related organizations is intended to reduce layers of management and staff. As...Defense Program IGCA Inherently Governmental / Commercial Activities ODCMO Office of the Deputy Chief Management Officer OSD Office of the

  7. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventory and review schedule (Report Control... OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.8 Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). (a) Information in each DoD Component's...

  8. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  9. Defense Dollars and Sense: A Common Cause Guide to the Defense Budget Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mark

    Designed to increase public awareness of military spending, this 5-part guide examines the process and problems of preparing the national defense budget. The publication begins with a brief overview of the 1984 defense budget. Major military programs, trends in budgeting, and key concerns in budget formulation are explored. Graphs and charts…

  10. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Defense Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... applications under the DoD Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program for new mentor-prot[eacute]g[eacute] agreements and the date mentors may incur costs and/or receive credit towards fulfilling their small business...

  11. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Defense Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2012-D024) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... applications under the DoD Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Pilot Program for new mentor-prot[eacute]g[eacute] agreements and the date mentors may incur costs and/or receive credit towards fulfilling their small business...

  12. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the "Other Defense Organizations" Receiving Department 97 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to assess internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations and to review and evaluate the adjustments to the FY 1996 "Other Defense Organizations" financial statements...

  13. Defense Logistics: Army and Marine Corps Cannot Be Assured That Equipment Reset Strategies Will Sustain Equipment Availability While Meeting Ongoing Operational Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Schmitt, David A; Brown, Renee; Cristinzio, Frank; Hartig, Luke; Helt, Brent; Rogers, Donna M; Song, Yong; Storts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    .... Because of the potential for equipment reset costs to affect the Department of Defense's (DoD) future budget requirements and related readiness concerns, GAO initiated this review under the Comptroller General's authority...

  14. Personal Services and Benefits Expenses in The FY 1996 Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position of the Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Specifically, we reviewed the DoD Chief Financial Officers Other Defense Organizations Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position for the year ended September 30, 1996, to determine whether...

  15. The Revenge of the Melians: Asymmetric Threats and the Next QDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    agents are even more volatile and susceptible to biodegradation and corruption than chemical agents. They are also more difficult to dis- perse over a wide...recent movies and books, such as The Cobra Event by Richard Preston, have highlighted this threat, and it joins nuclear attack at the most-dangerous

  16. QDR 2001: Strategy-Driven Choices for America’s Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    McKenzie, Jr., USMC; Lieutenant Colonel Philip M. Ruhlman , USAF; Lieutenant Colonel John J. Spinelli, USA; and Captain Sam J. Tangredi, USN. Their...one chosen by their service: Lieutenant Colonel Frank McKenzie, USMC; Lieutenant Colonel Philip Ruhlman , USAF; Lieutenant Colonel John Spinelli, USA

  17. Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure Data Collection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-19

    VXW-ÄVAVKVX’AWXW/XVXV:*: OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL SUMMARY REPORT ON THE AUDIT OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY 1995 DEFENSE BASE REALIGNMENT...FOR DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure...the data that DLA provides to support recommendations for the 1995 Commission. The specific objective for the audits was to determine whether the

  18. Review of the Tritium Extraction Facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, R.W.; Bamdad, F.; Blackman, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent executive branch agency responsible for technical safety oversight of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense nuclear facilities. One of DNFSB's responsibilities is the review of design and construction projects for DOE's defense nuclear facilities to ensure that adequate health and safety requirements are identified and implemented. These reviews are performed with the expectation that facility designs are being developed within the framework of a site's Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program. This paper describes the application of ISM principles in DNFSB's ongoing review of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) design/construction project

  19. Review of the Tritium Extraction Facility Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald W. Barton; Farid Bamdad; Joel Blackman

    2000-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent executive branch agency responsible for technical safety oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense nuclear facilities. One of DNFSB's responsibilities is the review of design and construction projects for DOE's defense nuclear facilities to ensure that adequate health and safety requirements are identified and implemented. These reviews are performed with the expectation that facility designs are being developed within the framework of a site's Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program. This paper describes the application of ISM principles in DNFSB's ongoing review of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) design/construction project

  20. Immune defense and host life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Marlene; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2002-10-01

    Recent interest has focused on immune response in an evolutionary context, with particular attention to disease resistance as a life-history trait, subject to trade-offs against other traits such as reproductive effort. Immune defense has several characteristics that complicate this approach, however; for example, because of the risk of autoimmunity, optimal immune defense is not necessarily maximum immune defense. Two important types of cost associated with immunity in the context of life history are resource costs, those related to the allocation of essential but limited resources, such as energy or nutrients, and option costs, those paid not in the currency of resources but in functional or structural components of the organism. Resource and option costs are likely to apply to different aspects of resistance. Recent investigations into possible trade-offs between reproductive effort, particularly sexual displays, and immunity have suggested interesting functional links between the two. Although all organisms balance the costs of immune defense against the requirements of reproduction, this balance works out differently for males than it does for females, creating sex differences in immune response that in turn are related to ecological factors such as the mating system. We conclude that immune response is indeed costly and that future work would do well to include invertebrates, which have sometimes been neglected in studies of the ecology of immune defense.

  1. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  2. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  3. Precipitation affects plant communication and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Enrico; Mancuso, Stefano; Karban, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Anti-herbivore defense shows high levels of both inter- and intraspecific variability. Defending against herbivores may be costly to the plant when it requires a tradeoff in allocation between defense and other missed opportunities, such as reproduction. Indeed, the plastic expression of defensive traits allows the plant to invest resources in defense only when the risk of being damaged actually increases, avoiding wasted resources. Plants may assess risk by responding to volatile cues emitted by neighbors that are under attack. Most plastic responses likely depend on environmental conditions. In this experiment, we investigated the effect of water availability on resistance induced by volatile cues in sagebrush. We found that plants receiving additional water over summer and/or volatile cues from neighbor donor plants showed reduced herbivore damage compared to control plants. Interestingly, we found no evidence of interactions between additional water and volatile cues. We performed an inferential analysis comparing historical records of the levels of herbivore damage during different years that had different temperature and precipitation accumulations. Results confirmed findings from the experiment, as the regression model indicated that sagebrush was better defended during wetter and hotter seasons. Reports from the literature indicated that sagebrush is extremely sensitive to water availability in the soil. We suggest that water availability may directly affect resistance of herbivory as well as sensitivity to cues of damage. Costs and benefits of allocating resources to defensive traits may vary with environmental conditions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Bagot, Rose; Parent, Carine; Nesbitt, Cathy; Bredy, Timothy W; Caldji, Christian; Fish, Eric; Anisman, Hymie; Szyf, Moshe; Meaney, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behavior on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. In mammals, these effects appear to 'program' emotional, cognitive and endocrine systems towards increased sensitivity to adversity. In environments with an increased level of adversity, such effects can be considered adaptive, enhancing the probability of offspring survival to sexual maturity; the cost is that of an increased risk for multiple forms of pathology in later life.

  5. Preserving the ABM treaty: a critique of the Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.; Farley, P.J.; Holloway, D.

    1984-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposal for long-term research and development on a leak-proof defense capability conflicts with the past 15 years of Soviet-American strategic relations and arms control negotiations. It represents a unilateral change, and will elicit a Soviet response based on how the Soviets think their own security may be affected. Whether the SDI transcends or enhances defense, it raises basic issues involving the US-Soviet strategic relationship. Emphasizing the central bearing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 the author reviews these issues and questions about the technical and strategic grounds of the proposal. Three recommendations are to limit the SDI program to a search for scientific possibilities, to consult with the Soviets on the ABM Treaty, and to recognize that the ABM Treaty will enhance security more than the SDI. 58 references

  6. The pathogen-actin connection: A platform for defense signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, B; Henty, Jessica L; Porter, K J; Staiger, Chris J

    2011-09-08

    The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of cytoplasmic polymers, plays a central role in numerous fundamental processes, such as development, reproduction, and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As a platform for innate immune responses in mammalian cells, the actin cytoskeleton is a central component in the organization and activation of host defenses, including signaling and cellular repair. In plants, our understanding of the genetic and biochemical responses in both pathogen and host that are required for virulence and resistance has grown enormously. Additional advances in live-cell imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics have markedly altered our view of actin turnover in plants. In this review, we outline current knowledge of host resistance following pathogen perception, both in terms of the genetic interactions that mediate defense signaling, as well as the biochemical and cellular processes that are required for defense signaling.

  7. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun; Han, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation

  8. Defensive medicine: No wonder policymakers are confused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    Discussions regarding defensive medical practice often result in proposals for public policy actions. Such proposals generally are premised on assumptions about defensive medicine, namely, that it (a) is driven by physicians' legal anxieties, (b) constitutes bad medical practice, (c) drives up health care costs, (d) varies depending on a jurisdiction's particular tort law climate, (e) depends on medical specialty and a physician's own prior experience as a malpractice defendant, and (f) is a rational response to actual legal risks confronting physicians. This article examines a sample of recent literature focusing on defensive medicine and finds that the messages conveyed vary widely, helping to explain the confusion experienced by many policymakers trying to improve the quality and affordability of health care.

  9. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  11. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sangcheol [KEIT, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation.

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Oncology clinicians' defenses and adherence to communication skills training with simulated patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mathieu; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    -12 participants) and have a minimal duration of at least 3 days in order to be effective. Several systematic reviews evaluated the impact of CST on clinicians' communication skills [9-11]. Effectiveness of CST can be assessed by two main approaches: participant-based and patient-based outcomes. Measures can be self-reported, but, according to Gysels et al. [10], behavioral assessment of patient-physician interviews [12] is the most objective and reliable method for measuring change after training. Based on 22 studies on participants' outcomes, Merckaert et al. [9] reported an increase of communication skills and participants' satisfaction with training and changes in attitudes and beliefs. The evaluation of CST remains a challenging task and variables mediating skills improvement remain unidentified. We recently thus conducted a study evaluating the impact of CST on clinicians' defenses by comparing the evolution of defenses of clinicians participating in CST with defenses of a control group without training [13]. Defenses are unconscious psychological processes which protect from anxiety or distress. Therefore, they contribute to the individual's adaptation to stress [14]. Perry refers to the term "defensive functioning" to indicate the degree of adaptation linked to the use of a range of specific defenses by an individual, ranging from low defensive functioning when he or she tends to use generally less adaptive defenses (such as projection, denial, or acting out) to high defensive functioning when he or she tends to use generally more adaptive defenses (such as altruism, intellectualization, or introspection) [15, 16]. Although several authors have addressed the emotional difficulties of oncology clinicians when facing patients and their need to preserve themselves [7, 17, 18], no research has yet been conducted on the defenses of clinicians. For example, repeated use of less adaptive defenses, such as denial, may allow the clinician to avoid or reduce distress, but it also

  14. 32 CFR 13.4 - Duties and responsibilities of the defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSIONS RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHIEF DEFENSE COUNSEL, DETAILED DEFENSE COUNSEL, AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNSEL § 13.4 Duties and responsibilities of the defense. (a) Regular duties. The Defense shall perform... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties and responsibilities of the defense. 13.4...

  15. 77 FR 76938 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Contracting Activity Updates (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Security Cooperation Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Missile... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 202 RIN 0750-AH81 Defense...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is...

  16. The journal of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B. B. S.; Peitersen, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense (www.JMedCBR.org) is a peer-reviewed scientific online journal focusing on the biology, chemistry, physiology, toxicology and treatment of exposure to threat agents. JMedCBR provides a central international forum for the publication of current research and development information on medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, as well as training, doctrine, and problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. JMedCBR is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Chem-Bio Technologies Directorate as part of its scientific outreach program in chemical and biological defense solutions for the Department of Defense. In addition to scientific and medical research, JMedCBR hosts an archive of related papers from authors in the field. Although organized into annual issues, articles are published on the web continuously. The complete JMedCBR is published electronically and is made available to the scientific community free of charge. JMedCBR is committed to providing its readers with quality scientific information and critical analyses. All submissions are peer-reviewed by an editorial board of recognized and respected international scientists who represent expertise in different aspects of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense. Contributions to JMedCBR must be original works of the author(s) and must not have been previously published or simultaneously submitted to other publications. The author(s) transfer the copyright of articles published in JMedCBR to the journal. A copyright transfer form must accompany each manuscript submission. For more information on submitting to JMedCBR, see the Authors' Guide, available at http://www.jmedcbr.org/authorGuide.html.(author)

  17. Jasmonates induce both defense responses and communication in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazunori; Abe, Hiroshi; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (jasmonates, JAs) are phytohormones with essential roles in plant defense against pathogenesis and herbivorous arthropods. Both the up- and down-regulation of defense responses are dependent on signaling pathways mediated by JAs as well as other stress hormones (e.g. salicylic acid), generally those involving the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors via protein modification and epigenetic regulation. In addition to the typical model plant Arabidopsis (a dicotyledon), advances in genetics research have made rice a model monocot in which innovative pest control traits can be introduced and whose JA signaling pathway can be studied. In this review, we introduce the dynamic functions of JAs in plant defense strategy using defensive substances (e.g. indole alkaloids and terpenoid phytoalexins) and airborne signals (e.g. green leaf volatiles and volatile terpenes) in response to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens as well as above-ground and below-ground herbivores. We then discuss the important issue of how the mutualism of herbivorous arthropods with viruses or bacteria can cause cross-talk between JA and other phytohormones to counter the defense systems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  19. Management Review: Progress and Challenges at the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    with safety and worklife problems (warehousing schemes, replacement or improvement of equipment, loading dock shelters, and employee orientation systems... balances . Accuracy of DCASR Contingent The contingent liability record is one of the more important records Liability Records maintained by DCASRs because...needed for making management decisions and for certifying to the accu- racy of ULO balances . Problems in Data Reported to Based on our interviews with

  20. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 14, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    customer focus can be deduced from the Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) movement. The CRM advocates believe that the key to... relationship is formed, it must be managed (Boulding, et al., 2005). At its foundation, CRM demands the accumulation of a tremendous amount of data...According to CRM , a relationship with the customer cannot be established unless the firm knows and understands the customer . This knowledge

  1. Hypermedia Laboratory, Defense Applied Information Technology Center; Review for 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    self-repair, self-guidance, and reproduction, in following the rules of biological systems; this barely exists in the most sophisticated artificial...Quelques exemples de ces changements peuvent etre cites: cf. J. Naisbitt - Megatrends . ten new directions transforming our lives, entre autres...Naisbitt. among others, in his Megatrends ; Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives, as follows. Digitization: Today more and more, documents are created

  2. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 14, Number 3, Dec 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    accounting for nearly half of the DoD’s total annual expenditures ( Apgar & Keane, 2004, p. 45). Equally significant has been the dramatic increase in service...for contract management responsibilities is exemplified by guidelines provided in the Army’s own doctrinal manual , noting that “there is no...Army Field Manual (FM) 3-100, 2003). Existing doctrinal guidelines for managing deployed contractors were described by one recent GAO report as

  3. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 16, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    workers; additional control or work motivation must come from within the individual ( Herzberg , Mausner, & Snyderman, 2003; Manz & Sims, 1980; Sergiovanni...Thoresen & Mahoney, 1974), intrinsic motivation theory (e.g., Deci and Ryan, 1985), and social cognitive theory (e.g., Bandura, 1986), self-leader...reason. In M. Hollis & S . Lukes (Eds.), Rationality and relativism, 48–66. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Hatch, M. J. (1997). Organization theory : Modern, symbolic

  4. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 16, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    acquisition workforce is reaching a point at which change— rapid, relentless change—will become the norm. The global marketplace and the billions of con...rapidly changing our professional and personal behavior. Oehlert works for the Research and Development Branch of the eLearning Technology Center at...arguably strategi- cally important conflicts emerged around the world. Put differently, the global security environment shifted dramatically during

  5. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 1, Issue 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2010 | 1 5 0 stYle We will require you to submit your final draft of the manuscript, especially citations (endnotes instead of footnotes), in the...format specified in two specific style manuals. The ARJ follows the author (date) form of citation . We expect you to use the Publication Manual of the...a reference librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard formulas of citations may provide incomplete information in

  6. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 2, Issue 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    especially citations (endnotes instead of footnotes), in the format specified in two specific style manuals. The ARJ follows the author (date) form of... citation . We expect you to use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) and the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard formulas

  7. Independent Review of the Defense Logistics Agencys Roles and Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    3,000 3,500 C-5 F-15 C-130 KC-135 B-1 B-52 E-3 N IIN / N SN s BoM Items Ordered BoM Items Not Ordered Orders Not on BoM Warner- Robbins ALC Tinker... Tony Poleo Fred Pribble Michael Scott BG Steven Shapiro Brig Gen Giovanni Tuck Col Rex Adee Linda Barnett Matthew Beebe CDR Tim Benesh COL...DeVincentis Lt Gen (Ret) Kathleen Gainey RADM (Ret) Mark Heinrich CAPT (Ret) Stuart Jones Eric Peltz Marc Robbins This page is intentionally blank

  8. The Cyber Defense Review. Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Humanist - Buffalo 56 (3):18-9. Barrett, Louise, S Peter Henzi, and David Lusseau. 2012. “Taking sociality...market for which Nortel was preparing its major and existential launch. In 2010, the CTO of the former Nortel was publicly listed as working for

  9. Internal safety review team at Comanche Peak SES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D [Comanche Peak Steam Electric Staion, Texas Utilities, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentations describes the following issues: levels of defense in depth; internal safety review organizations; methods used to perform safety assessment; safety committee review; quality verification; root cause analysis; human performance program; industry operating experience.

  10. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  11. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  12. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Brutscher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD- affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.

  13. Towards a European Defense Identity Compatible with NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estrella

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI is a common but not defined goal, due to disagreements among Europeans on its political content. Reasons to explain this are related to the resistance to the idea of a European defense authority, fears of German hegemony, and the conviction that Europe is uncapable of defending herselfwithout the assistance of the United States. Estrella states that, with the end of the Cold War, some arguments opposing ESDI lost weight. However, the evolution and restructuring of NATO is not the product of European initiative, but rather an element of the U.S.strategy in Europe. Moreover, while the U.S. has a global strategy, Europe has not yet defined its security interests neither globally nor regionally. The author reviews the steps undertaken by NATO and the WEU towards further collaboration and the development of a European identity. He wonders whether there is enough political will either in Europe or the U.S. to overcome archaic views on trans-atlantic relations and narrow concepts about the future of Europe.

  14. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  15. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its business unit Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems, is a German defense contractor. (2) Tognom AG Tognum AG owned the MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH before... Friedrichshafen provided engines for many ships of the German Navy and for German battle tanks, such as the Leopard I and Leopard II. MTU refers to the

  16. The Transferability and Retraining of Defense Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Carl H.

    This study was undertaken to describe any special barriers to the transfer of engineers from defense to commercial work, and to evaluate retraining and reorientation techniques that might help ease the transfer. Interviews and questionnaires were used to obtain data from about 2,100 engineers and 100 managers in 14 industries. Characteristics,…

  17. Pathogen Pressure Puts Immune Defense into Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which organisms can protect themselves from disease depends on both the immune defenses they maintain and the pathogens they face. At the same time, immune systems are shaped by the antigens they encounter, both over ecological and evolutionary time. Ecological immunologists often

  18. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  19. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  20. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  1. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  2. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  3. Defense.gov - Special Report - Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    reduce vulnerability to cyber-attack attempts that occur regularly and are likely to continue for the together to protect cyberspace. U.S. Cyber Command Preparations Under Way WASHINGTON, March 16, 2010 - Preparations for the formal establishment of U.S. Cyber Command, which will operate and defend the Defense

  4. Department of Defense Education Activity. An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Defense, 2004

    2004-01-01

    DoDEA operates 223 public schools in 16 districts located in seven states, Puerto Rico, Guam, and 13 foreign countries to serve the children of military service members and Department of Defense civilian employees. Approximately 104,935 students are enrolled in DoDEA schools, with approximately 73,200 students in the DoDDS system, and…

  5. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  6. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Innovation in the Defense Acquisition Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    uni- versities in the fields of innovation and entrepreneurship . Many books and articles have been written on innovation, perhaps none more well...partners has been the possible loss of freedom to make their own IR&D invest- ment decisions. That was never my intent . I once ran a major defense

  8. Iraqi Civil Defense Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Angelina; O'Connor, Kevin; Rawal, Yogin

    2007-01-01

    .... The assessment team included two engineers/inspectors and three auditors/inspectors. The overall objective of the project was to fully renovate the Civil Defense Headquarters and other buildings on the site to become a fully operational and usable facility.

  9. DefenseLink Special: Veterans Day 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    information so we can address your issue or question. U.S. Department of Defense Header Image (click to return especially important this year as America's military members put their lives in danger to protect the country Service. Story Cities Carry ASY Banner to Honor Past, Present Veterans WASHINGTON, Nov. 8, 2006 - Veterans

  10. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...

  11. Purchases of Consumable Items Transferred to the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1995-01-01

    Defense Management Report Decision 926, "Consolidation of Inventory Control Points," included a recommendation to transfer all consumable items managed by the Military Departments to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA...

  12. DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Collection and Reporting of Information Technology Purchases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of Representatives by March 15,2002. Section 812 also directed us to issue a report to the congressional defense committees by January 31,2002, assessing the progress the Department of Defense (DOD...

  13. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant.

  14. Basic Dimensions of Financial Condition within the Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowden, Craig

    1998-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this thesis was to analyze financial data from a sample of defense industry firms in order to determine the basic dimensions of financial condition in the defense industry...

  15. Information Management Principles Applied to the Ballistic Missile Defense System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koehler, John M

    2007-01-01

    .... Similarly several military systems with the single mission of missile defense have evolved in service stovepipes, and are now being integrated into a national and global missile defense architecture...

  16. Acquisition: Acquisition of Targets at the Missile Defense Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary L; Meling, John E; James, Harold C; Haynes, Christine L; Heller, Brad M; Pomietto, Kenneth M; Bobbio, Jaime; Chang, Bill; Pugh, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? Missile Defense Agency program managers who are responsible for the acquisition and management of targets used to test the Ballistic Missile Defense System should be interested in this report...

  17. Department of Defense Strategic Plan for Advanced Distributed Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...), requires the Secretary of Defense to develop a strategic plan for guiding and expanding distance learning initiatives within the Department of Defense, to include a provision for the expansion...

  18. Cash Management in the Defense Working Capital Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... (formerly the Defense Business Operations Fund) was identified during our audit of the Fund Balance With Treasury Account of the FY 1996 Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  19. Defense White Papers in the Americas: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cope, John

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the October 2000 Defense Ministerial of the Americas (DMA) in Manaus Brazil and at the request of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS...

  20. Procurement of Contract Reconciliation Services by the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate DLA's procedures for contracting with NSI to reconcile contracts before their transfer from the Defense Contract Administration Services Regions to the Defense Finance Center...

  1. Computer Network Defense and Attack: Information Warfare in the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Carole

    2001-01-01

    .... This paper will discuss current computer network defense and attack policy in the context of ends, ways and means, explain what is lacking in current policy and offer recommendations for improvement...

  2. Defense Acquisitions: Missile Defense Acquisition Strategy Generates Results but Delivers Less at a Higher Cost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... For example, the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) element successfully conducted its first end-to-end test of one engagement scenario, the element s first successful intercept test since 2002...

  3. The Defense Production Act of 1950: Vital Defense and Emergency Acquisition Authority for 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruane, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The September 11th attacks should inspire the government acquisition community to carefully study the Defense Production Act of 19502 to ensure that its powerful authorities over the civilian economy...

  4. DEFENSE-ATTACK INTERACTION OVER OPTIMALLY DESIGNED DEFENSE SYSTEMS VIA GAMES AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes defense systems taking into account the strategic interactions between two rational agents; one of them is interested in designing a defense system against purposeful attacks of the other. The interaction is characterized by a sequential game with perfect and complete information. Reliability plays a fundamental role in both defining agents' actions and in measuring performance of the defense system for which a series-parallel configuration is set up by the defender. The attacker, in turn, focuses on only one defense subsystem in order to maximize her efficiency in attacking. An algorithm involving backward induction is developed to determine the equilibrium paths of the game. Application examples are also provided.

  5. Acquisition: Allegations to the Defense Hotline on the Management of the Defense Travel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? This report concerns those managers who are specifically involved with managing the Defense Travel System, as well as those managing the development of information technology systems...

  6. Challenges in Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing: Analysis of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Edward

    2003-01-01

    ... $2 billion in expenditures per year, DFAS itself is a sizable portion of the DoD infrastructure Second, we believe the pricing issues that DFAS confronts are similar to those faced by other Defense Working Capital Fund (DWCF...

  7. THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

  8. Concept of a nuclear defense and disarmament; Concept d'une defense nucleaire et desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandperrier, Catherine

    2011-02-09

    Today, disarmament and proliferation control stakes have to deal with the economical and political interests of the development of the civil and military nuclear industry. This book addresses the question of the future of the nuclear defense in France and in the rest of the world at a time when two trends, the abolitionist one and the traditional one, are in opposition. Between disarmament and nuclear exaggeration, tomorrow's defense strategy will have to find its way. (J.S.)

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Simulation Package Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to immobilize high level liquid radioactive waste into safe, stable, and manageable solid form. The complexity and classification of the facility requires that a performance based operator training to satisfy Department of Energy orders and guidelines. A major portion of the training program will be the application and utilization of Process Simulation Packages to assist in training the Control Room Operators on the fluctionality of the process and the application of the Distribution Control System (DCS) in operating and managing the DWPF process. The packages are being developed by the DWPF Computer and Information Systems Simulation Group. This paper will describe the DWPF Process Simulation Package Life Cycle. The areas of package scope, development, validation, and configuration management will be reviewed and discussed in detail

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  11. Overview on new diode lasers for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Joerg

    2012-11-01

    Diode lasers have a broad wavelength range, from the visible to beyond 2.2μm. This allows for various applications in the defense sector, ranging from classic pumping of DPSSL in range finders or target designators, up to pumping directed energy weapons in the 50+ kW range. Also direct diode applications for illumination above 1.55μm, or direct IR countermeasures are of interest. Here an overview is given on some new wavelengths and applications which are recently under discussion. In this overview the following aspects are reviewed: • High Power CW pumps at 808 / 880 / 940nm • Pumps for DPAL - Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers • High Power Diode Lasers in the range market.

  12. Department of Defense Agency Financial Report for FY 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    able to distribute resources across hospitals and clinics within a market to meet the needs of the entire population of eligible beneficiaries. In...WRAMC), Washington, DC. This entailed construction of a new community hospital and a dental clinic at Fort Belvoir and an expansion of the National...Department of Defense DSB Defense Science Board DSS Defense Security Service DTM Directive-type Memorandum DTS Defense Travel System EBF Education

  13. Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-23

    provided to CRS by Semiconductor Industry, October, 2013. 33 Zachary Fryer- Biggs , “Looking Beyond Defense: Firms Grow Revenue—By Diversifying,” DefenseNews...was chartered based on the authority set forth in Section 854 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for 2007 (P.L. 109-364). See...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics John Young echoed this sentiment, stating “the enterprise will often pressure acquisition

  14. Defense-in-depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.G.; Kelly, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report fulfills part of the requirements of References 2 and 3 by documenting a Defense-In-Depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF). This evaluation was performed using methodology similar to that used in an evaluation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It differs because the DWPF evaluation was based on an existing Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) while NWTF's is based on a Preoperational Process Hazards Review (PHR) (Ref. 1). The accidents in the Process Hazards Review (PHR) were reviewed to determine those that might have significant consequences. Significance was based on the findings of the PHR, The facility design was reviewed to determine the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and administrative controls available before and after each accident. From this was developed a list of the Lines of Defense (LODs) available to contain the hazard associated with the accident. A summary of these LODs is given in Appendix C. Items are tabulated that are suggested for consideration in the functional classification as worker protection items. The specific criteria used in the evaluation is given in the methodology section of this report. The results are documented in Appendices A, B, C, and D

  15. The Plant Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Play Important Roles in Defense against Pathogens and Insect Pest Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are toxic N-glycosidases that depurinate eukaryotic and prokaryotic rRNAs, thereby arresting protein synthesis during translation. RIPs are widely found in various plant species and within different tissues. It is demonstrated in vitro and in transgenic plants that RIPs have been connected to defense by antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and insecticidal activities. However, the mechanism of these effects is still not completely clear. There are a number of reviews of RIPs. However, there are no reviews on the biological functions of RIPs in defense against pathogens and insect pests. Therefore, in this report, we focused on the effect of RIPs from plants in defense against pathogens and insect pest attacks. First, we summarize the three different types of RIPs based on their physical properties. RIPs are generally distributed in plants. Then, we discuss the distribution of RIPs that are found in various plant species and in fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. Various RIPs have shown unique bioactive properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and insecticidal activity. Finally, we divided the discussion into the biological roles of RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. This review is focused on the role of plant RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insect attacks. The role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects is being comprehended currently. Future study utilizing transgenic technology approaches to study the mechanisms of RIPs will undoubtedly generate a better comprehending of the role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects. Discovering additional crosstalk mechanisms between RIPs and phytohormones or reactive oxygen species (ROS against pathogen and insect infections will be a significant subject in the field of biotic stress study. These studies are helpful in revealing significance of genetic control that can

  16. Priming Arabidopsis for defense : Molecular and ecological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, M.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Plants are capable to enhance basal defense strategies against harmful organisms upon the perception of certain stimuli. This enhanced resistance is not necessarily accompanied by direct activation of defenses, but often depends on a sensitization of the plant tissue to express defenses faster

  17. 76 FR 72245 - Implementation of Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $25,000,000 or more (currently required for amounts of $14... equipment sold under a contract in the amount in the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia and the Defense Trade...

  18. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... 215 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability... adding a section at 215.300 with a reference to Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy...

  19. 12 CFR 411.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 411.500 Section 411.500 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 411.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered...

  20. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification, the...

  1. Management Data Used to Manage the Defense Logistics Agency Supply Management Division of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    The Defense Logistics Agency Supply Management Division (the Division) of the Defense Business Operations Fund provides supplies and logistics services to DoD Components and other (Government agencies...

  2. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 2, DAU 183

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turk, Wayne; Wynn, Michael W; Schaeffer, Mark D; Walsh, John; Kratz, Louise A; Ward, Dan; Brown, David; McVay, Tammi

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  3. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 1, DAU 182

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gadeken, Owen C; Quaid, Chris; Ward, Dan; Liss, Steven; Lambert, Cathy; Li, Alan; Parmer, Shailesh; Hurt, Hayden; Sumpter, LeAntha; Malnick, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  4. Defense AT&L Magazine: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 34, Number 3, DAU 184

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chedister, Robert W; Leach, Richard; Route, Ronald; Knott, Claudia; Turk, Wayne; Quaid, Chris; Ward, Dan; Geurts, James F

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  5. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 5, DAU 181

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynn, Michael; Gadeken, Owen C; Triggs, Marcia; Wengrowski, Bruno S

    2004-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  6. Defense AT&L Magazine A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 6, DAU 181

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, John F; Ronis, Sheila R; Vann, Sandy; Sylvester, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  7. Defense AT&L Magazine: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Volume 33, Number 4, DAU 180

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan, Harry W; Pezzano, Anthony; Burke, Peter; Davis, Jerry; Vanleer, Keisha; Howe, Keith B; Rippere, Richard B; Ward, Daniel; McGrath, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    .... As the flagship publication of the Defense Acquisition University, Defense AT AND L also disseminates information on training and education, continuous learning, and e-Learning to those acquisition...

  8. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  9. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence University. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of...

  10. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and systems, even monopolistic ) essence of the supply side of the defense market . There are only a few suppliers that can meet today’s complex...DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  11. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. A Framework for Increasing Defense Production by Reducing Perceived Opportunity Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    advertising. Traditionally defense marketing and advertising focused on decision makers within the defense conuunity and Congress. While it appears that...focus may be- starting to change, marketing and advertising remain highly directed and concentrated in defense oriented media. marketing was oriented to

  12. Defensive behaviours in innovation teams: how project teams discuss defensiveness and its relationship with innovation resilience behaviour and project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.; Vuuren, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Project team members and project leaders of innovation projects were interviewed about the possible presence of defensive behaviours within the team. While investigating defensive behaviour can be done validly by observation techniques, to talk about defensiveness within a team often leads to

  13. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  14. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oxenstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  15. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 10 years of research, development, and testing, the US Department of Energy is building a new facility which will prepare high-level radioactive waste for permanent disposal. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, known as the DWPF, will be the first production-scale facility of its kind in the United States. In the DWPF, high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Savannah River Plant will be processed into a solid form, borosilicate glass, suitable for permanent off-site geologic disposal. With construction beginning in the fall of 1983, the DWPT is scheduled to be operational in 1989. By 2005, the DWPF will have immobilized the backlog of high-level waste which has been accumulating in storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant since 1954. Canisters of the immobilized waste will then be ready for permanent disposal deep under the ground, safely isolated from the environment

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 4, Issue 79, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    avoid conflicting expectations. The book ends with the ninth step, which offers new managers an approach they refer to as “The Four Pillars of Self...University Dr. William T. Eliason Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy Dr. J. Ronald Fox Harvard Business School Mr...and Layout The C3 Group &Schatz Publishing Group CONTENTS | Featured Book Reviews A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University October 2016

  18. Defense Science Board 2005 Summer Study on Transformation: A Progress Assessment. Volume 2. Supporting Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Banking Mr. Robert Luby, IBM Dr. Robert Lucky, Telcordia Technologies Mr. William Lynn, Raytheon Mr. Dave Oliver, EADS North America GOVERNMENT...MAY 2005 Central Command (CENTCOM) COL Peter Zielinski CENTCOM Office of Force Transformation (OFT) Review of COCOM Experimentation COL Richard...for Defense Analyses Mr. Patrick McCarthy, U.S. Joint Forces Command Mr. Stephen Moore, U.S. Joint Forces Command MAY 10, 2005 COL Peter Zielinski

  19. Defense AR Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Issue 52, October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Journal (ARJ) print year. FROM THE EDITOR I am excited to announce the lineup of research articles for Issue 52 of the Defense Acquisition Review... identification and causality, and to prevent the variety generated by EA from reducing total product performance. From Amorphous to Defined: Balancing Risks in...possible in this environment, and will allow better flow of strategic-level acquisition advice, including the identification of existing and

  20. Stuart Johnson: NATO on eesti julgeolekugarantii / Stuart Johnson ; interv. Margus Kolga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Mõjukas USA julgeolekuanalüütik tutvustab Ühendriikide kaitsepoliitika dokumenti "Quadrennial Defence Review 2006" (QDR). Ettevalmistus reeglitega sõjaks. Venemaa, Hiina ja India tulevik. Soovitused Eestile

  1. Stuart Johnson: NATO on Eesti julgeolekugarantii / intervjueerinud Margus Kolga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    USA julgeolekuanalüütik tutvustab Ühendriikide kaitsepoliitika dokumenti "Quadrennial Defence Review 2006" (QDR). Ettevalmistus reeglitega sõjaks. Venemaa, Hiina ja India tulevik. Soovitused Eestile

  2. 75 FR 77849 - Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense; Missile Defense Agency (MDA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the... Defense announces that the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory...

  3. 75 FR 77848 - Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense; Missile Defense Agency (MDA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the... Defense announces that the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral System...

  5. Strategic nuclear policy and ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The article explains the problems of the antirockets (ABM) as they were part of the presentation Salt I 1972. It is a translation from the English of a publication of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute in London. A topical analysis of the strategic nuclear policy of the two superpowers and their attitudes in the question of ballistic missile defense are given by means of two monographies. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc.), and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure). Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corr...

  7. Compatible Goals: Defense and Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-22

    Remedial Action Site. AD-P004 146 Treatment of Wastewater (Red Water ) Resulti g from TNT Trinitrotoluene) Purification. AD-P004 147 Location of Volatile... Availabilit C040e3 _Vafl" -,ior OEC 5 1984 Ths document has been appeoved Dist Spool.A distribution.Is unlimiedL..... .. . COMFATABLE GOALS : DEFENSE AND...surface water to the same good biological quality as the water entering the installation. 4. Conserve fossil fuel energy to the highest degree possi

  8. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    activities, splash points and Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) operations) and non-military Base activities (e.g., sewage treatment , storm water runoff and...We will measure the metabolism of benthic microalgae, the water column, eelgrass, and any dominant macroalgae by developing series of photosynthesis...activities (storm water control and sewage treatment ). Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Research Plan DCERP Research Plan 32 September 19

  9. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  10. Defense Logistics Standard Systems Functional Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    the design of retaillintermediate-level data bases to support end-user requisition control files. The wholesale system could then be restructured to... organza - Sale tions, the residual is sold Sales and merchandising responsibility rests Vitl the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions Those...File (DDF) advanced by ANSI Technical Committee X3L5 and ISO TC97/SC15 • The Data Extraction, Processing, and Restructuring System (EXPRESS) designed by

  11. Landscape Variation in Plant Defense Syndromes across a Tropical Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores shape tropical rainforest biodiversity, yet community- and landscape-scale patterns of plant defense and the phylogenetic and environmental factors that may shape them are poorly known. We measured foliar defense, growth, and longevity traits for 345 canopy trees across 84 species in a tropical rainforest and examined whether patterns of trait co-variation indicated the existence of plant defense syndromes. Using a DNA-barcode phylogeny and remote sensing and land-use data, we investigated how phylogeny and topo-edaphic properties influenced the distribution of syndromes. We found evidence for three distinct defense syndromes, characterized by rapid growth, growth compensated by defense, or limited palatability/low nutrition. Phylogenetic signal was generally lower for defense traits than traits related to growth or longevity. Individual defense syndromes were organized at different taxonomic levels and responded to different spatial-environmental gradients. The results suggest that a diverse set of tropical canopy trees converge on a limited number of strategies to secure resources and mitigate fitness losses due to herbivory, with patterns of distribution mediated by evolutionary histories and local habitat associations. Plant defense syndromes are multidimensional plant strategies, and thus are a useful means of discerning ecologically-relevant variation in highly diverse tropical rainforest communities. Scaling this approach to the landscape level, if plant defense syndromes can be distinguished in remotely-sensed data, they may yield new insights into the role of plant defense in structuring diverse tropical rainforest communities.

  12. Defensive measures against hostile takeovers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the corporate takeover regime and defensive measures against hostile takeover bids in Slovenia. Although takeover legislation does not differentiate between hostile and friendly takeover, it prescribes the limitation of powers for the management of the target company, with the intention of preventing the use of defensive measures against the hostile takeover. In light of an expected rise in hostile takeover bids in Slovenia, the Corporate Act and the Takeover Act are analysed and accordingly the array of possible preventive measures as well as ad-hoc measures against hostile bids identified and evaluated for their anti-takeover effectiveness. A hostile takeover in Slovenia usually involves a hostile public tender offer at a substantial premium over the prevailing market price for a substantial percentage of the target company’s stock. Managers of target companies use in takeover battles a variety of defensive tactics, which could be controversial because they pose a conflict of interest for management. Duty of neutrality of the management of the target company during takeover process is therefore discussed in connection with the limitation of use of applicable ad hoc defence mechanisms in that period.

  13. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth's interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges

  14. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise.

  15. Frendak to phenis to breivik: an examination of the imposed insanity defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, William Donald; Alam, Farzana; Gazula, Lalitha; Embrack, Harold; Nathani, Milankumar; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The imposition of the insanity defense is a complicated psycho-legal scenario. Globally, definitions of insanity differ from country to country. In a multitude of cases, a determination of insanity at the time of a criminal act means the offender will not be considered responsible for his or her action(s). In many jurisdictions, concerns have been raised that the insanity defense has been used to mitigate punishment, usually after a particularly heinous crime. In this review, the authors use three cases - Frendak, Phenis, and Breivik to demonstrate how the imposition of the insanity defense has been used for legal purposes in the past and present. In an effort to give more background to each of the above-mentioned cases, the writers have provided some details to aid comprehension. The authors offer recommendations for the ethical forensic evaluator unburdened by partisan allegiance and invested in the search for truth. This review article relies on peer-reviewed articles available from PubMed, Meharry Online Library, and legal dictionaries. We also cross-referenced reputable news sources to ensure the validity of the facts we present.

  16. FRENDAK to PHENIS to BREIVIK: An Examination of the Imposed Insanity Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Donald Richie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The imposition of the insanity defense is a complicated psycho-legal scenario. Globally, definitions of insanity differ from country to country. In a multitude of cases, a determination of insanity at the time of a criminal act means the offender will not be considered responsible for his or her action(s. In many jurisdictions, concerns have been raised that the insanity defense has been used to mitigate punishment, usually after a particularly heinous crime. In this review, the authors use three cases - FRENDAK, PHENIS, and BREIVIK to demonstrate how the imposition of the insanity defense has been used for legal purposes in the past and present. In an effort to give more background to each of the above-mentioned cases, the writers have provided some details to aid comprehension. The authors offer recommendations for the ethical forensic evaluator unburdened by partisan allegiance and invested in the search for truth. This review article relies on peer-reviewed articles available from PubMed, Meharry Online Library and legal dictionaries. We also cross-referenced reputable news sources to ensure the validity of the facts we present.

  17. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad R. Ordonez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that form the first barrier of defense against fungal infections. These include host defense peptides, like LL-37 and defensins that can neutralize fungi by direct killing of the pathogen, and collectins, such as surfactant protein A and D, that can aggregate fungi and stimulate phagocytosis. In addition, these molecules have immunomodulatory activities which can aid in fungal clearance from the lung. However, existing observations are based on in vitro studies which do not reflect the complexity of the lung and its airway surface liquid. Ionic strength, pH, and the presence of mucus can have strong detrimental effects on antifungal activity, while the potential synergistic interplay between soluble effector molecules is largely unknown. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on soluble effector molecules that contribute to antifungal activity, the importance of environmental factors and discuss the future directions required to understand the innate antifungal defense in the lung.

  18. Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

    2014-04-01

    Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars.

  19. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Soledad R.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that form the first barrier of defense against fungal infections. These include host defense peptides, like LL-37 and defensins that can neutralize fungi by direct killing of the pathogen, and collectins, such as surfactant protein A and D, that can aggregate fungi and stimulate phagocytosis. In addition, these molecules have immunomodulatory activities which can aid in fungal clearance from the lung. However, existing observations are based on in vitro studies which do not reflect the complexity of the lung and its airway surface liquid. Ionic strength, pH, and the presence of mucus can have strong detrimental effects on antifungal activity, while the potential synergistic interplay between soluble effector molecules is largely unknown. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on soluble effector molecules that contribute to antifungal activity, the importance of environmental factors and discuss the future directions required to understand the innate antifungal defense in the lung. PMID:29163395

  20. Principles of Defense-in-depth philosophy applied in NPP engineering management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guangwei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Defense-in-depth Concept in nuclear and radiation safety, Defense-in-depth Concept for design management of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is developed in this paper to analyze the feasibility and importance of the application of the basic principle: Defense-in-depth concept in NPP systems performed during the design control of NPP. This paper focuses on the NPP engineering management process, and according to the analysis of such process, 5 principles of Defense-in-depth Concept applied in NPP design management are raised: (1) preventing the non-conformities of design via effective design quality management system; (2) discovering and correcting non-conformities of design quality in time via design checkup and design review meeting; (3) carrying out timely analysis and treatment against design non-conformities which have been transferred to construction phase; (4) Assessing and judging the severe non-conformities in construction phase, putting forward treatment opinions and remedies accordingly so as to avoid the existence of such non-conformities in physical construction of NPP; (5) Paying 'return-visit' and performing 'post-assessment' for NPP design to assess the designed functions and safety of NPP comprehensively. (author)

  1. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, from vision to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    When the Savannah River Plant began operation in the early 1950's producing nuclear materials for the National defense, liquid, highly radioactive waste was generated as a by-product. Since that time the waste has been stored in large, carbon steel tanks that are buried underground. In 1960 one of the tanks developed a leak, and before recovery measures could be taken, about 25-gallons of radioactive salt solution had overflowed the secondary liner and seeped into the soil surrounding the tank. Significant improvements to the tanks were made, but constant surveillance was still required. Thus, the opinion began forming that storage of the mobile, highly radioactive waste in tanks was not a responsible long-term practice. So in the late 1960's the Savannah River Laboratory began research to find a suitable long-term solution to the waste disposal problem. Several alternative waste forms were evaluated, and in 1972 the first Savannah River waste was vitrified on a laboratory scale. By the mid-1970's, the DuPont Company, prime contractor at the Savannah River Plant, began to develop a vision of constructing America's first vitrification plant to immobilize the high level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This vision was later championed by DuPont in the form of a vitrification plant called the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Today, the DWPF processes Savannah River High Level Waste sludge turning it into a solid, durable waste form of borosilicate glass. The DWPF is the world's largest vitrification facility. It was brought to reality through over 25-years of research and 13-years of careful construction, tests, and reviews at a cost of approximately $3 billion dollars

  2. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  3. Building Partnerships by Design or by Default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Florida Incursions 1810- 1819 ................................................................................ 10  Spanish-American War 1898-1901...Department of Defense, QDR Execution Roadmap Building Partnership Capacity Report (Washington DC: Department of Defense, 22 May 2006), 4. 1...weapons, making total war between these nations certain suicide for the aggressor and attacked alike. What is required, to avoid war with China for

  4. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  5. 75 FR 6669 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A request for public comments was..., Washington, DC 20405. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Review, in all...

  6. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  7. Reagan Defense Forum: The Third Offset Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-07

    guided weapons as you do, and have a homefield advantage. How would you do that? And the LRRDPP really, really did a great job in looking at that...The second thing was the Defense Science Board summer study on autonomy . To a person, every single person on the summer study said, we can’t prove...it, but we believe we are at an inflection point at an artificial intelligence and autonomy . How might we use that as an advantage in an offset

  8. Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R ampersand D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R ampersand D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy

  9. Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    repudiates what func- tional personnel hold dear—that their hurdles are vital to some moral or ethical responsibility to protect or safeguard...94 Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Summer 2016 Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition Col David L. Peeler Jr., USAF Abstract The desire to...examples and lessons from private business sectors would serve DOD interests well. ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ Acquisition reform! No other two words so stress or trouble

  10. Indian Defense Procurements: Advantage Russia or USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    premiers of both the countries. The recent visit of President Obama saw Mr. Modi breaking the protocol to greet him with a bear hug on his arrival at New...between Russia and US. 56 Ritesh Srivastava, India caught between Russia and US. 57 Ankit Panda , “Pakistan Courts Both US and Russia on Defense...www.indiatvnews.com/business/india/-india-invites-japan-to-join-rs-50000-crore- submarine-project-17058.html (accessed 3 February 2015). Panda , Ankit. “Pakistan

  11. Multicellular oxidant defense in unicellular organisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, M; Eaton, J W

    1992-01-01

    Although catalase is thought to be a major defense against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the catalase activity within individual Escherichia coli fails to protect against exogenous H2O2. Contrary to earlier reports, we find that dilute suspensions of wild-type and catalase-deficient E. coli are identical in their sensitivity to H2O2, perhaps because even wild-type, catalase-positive E. coli cannot maintain an internal/external concentration gradient of this highly diffusible oxidant. However, con...

  12. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  13. Federal Aviation Administration's behavioral research program for defense against hijackings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, J T; Pickrel, E W

    1975-04-01

    Behavioral research has been significant contributions to the government's successful program for defense against hijackers. Today's boarding gate defenses have a leading role in that program, but they were rejected until creation of the behavioral profile made selective search feasible. Metal detectors now make search of all travelers practical but with increasing involvement of boarding gate employees, so a behavioral program is used to monitor their performance. Experience shows that some persons have penetrated boarding gate defenses, so another requirement was in-flight defenses. Flightpersonnel had defeated some past hijackers, so a behavioral analysis of past hijackings was used to identify tactics for in-flight defense. These were incorporated into training programs and distributed to all U.S. airlines, many government organizations, and foreign carriers. Research continues for updating these and developing new courses for special needs, such as defense against gangs.

  14. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  15. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  16. The Defense Science Board 2001 Summer Study on Defense Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    HIT” The threat of biological weapons arises in part from a decades-old megatrend in the life sciences. New advances in molecular biology, genetics...99 The Technology Landscape Today.................................... 101 Biological Warfare Defense...planning and programming, today’s environment comprises a broader, more diffuse set of concerns: terrorism, biological warfare, regional tensions

  17. Department of Defense Joint Chemical and Biological Defense Program 2009 Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    private sector all partner with the DoD CBDP to fulfill its mission to provide CBRN defense capabilities in support of the National Military Strategies...Venezuelan, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis) delivered by electroporation which showed high efficacy in non-human primates. Developed five technology

  18. 77 FR 39125 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... market research/industry communication. In 2008, the Office of Management and Budget and Office of... unique or brand name specifications, and enhancing acquisition planning. In 2010, the Government... strategic defense capabilities, because of a shift to ``lowest price possible.'' Further, according to this...

  19. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S. concluded the DTC Treaties with Australia and... respondent commended the Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) Council on recognizing the importance of the... established a Management Board to resolve such issues, adopted a detailed management plan, and conducted...

  20. 76 FR 11361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Preservation of Tooling for Major Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... the ``preservation and storage of unique tooling associated with the production of hardware for a... agrees with the concept to sustain capability and supportability to the extent needed under major weapons... tooling associated with the production of hardware for a major defense acquisition program. DoD thinks...

  1. Who Pays for National Defense? Financing Defense Programs in the United States, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Uk; Bohte, John

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on military expenditures in the United States have primarily focused on the extent to which guns versus butter trade-offs are prevalent without examining this relationship in the context of how other fiscal policy tools are used to pay for defense. Using annual data from 1947-2007, this study examines the relative importance of…

  2. Applying Rapid Acquisition Policy Lessons for Defense Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    import- ing Silicon Valley- style innovation practices to its acquisition process, it is im- portant to assess an organization’s ability to...these efforts. Keywords: defense acquisition, defense procurement, rapid acquisition, de- fense innovation, program management , organizational culture...Device De- feat Organization, JIEDDO, Rapid Equipping Force, REF Silicon Valley- style innovation is a hot topic in the Department of De-fense (DOD). For

  3. Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    adjusted the limits on defense and non-defense spending —each time adjusting only the limits for the two succeeding years. 13 Nevertheless, each of... employee hour worked . The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the ECI which is computed from compensation cost data collected from a sample of jobs...with $9.6 billion in mandatory spending , brought the Administration’s total FY2017 National Defense budget request to $619.5 billion. In shaping the

  4. Ukraine's Foreign Policy: from Military Doctrine to Defense Security One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович Кузьмук

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of reforming and developing Ukraine’s Armed Forces on the basis of the analysis of the key provisions of the Strategic defense bulletin adopted in 2012. The author proposes the ways of solving this problem and substantiates the transition in the defense planning from the military doctrine to the doctrine of Ukraine’s security and defense.

  5. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 2. Western European Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    3a - vDE Or 4EPORT 13b 󈨋M COvERED :W)AE OF REPOR~ r or ay 5~ COu.N. *Technical :ROM 821201 -o 8451" 1984, May 16"a 238" 0y 5-I o. * 6 Su POLEMETARY...34 International Defense Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1979). 82. Geneste, Colonel Marc. ’La Bataille Terrestre Nuc1~aire,5 Strategie, (July-September 1976). 83.t, u...Strategi- gues, Nucl~aires Tactiques, Terrestres Maritimes et Aeriennes,’ Le Figaro, April 21, 1983. 182. Everts, Philip P. ’Reviving Unilateralism

  6. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  7. Enhancing U.S. Defenses Against Terrorist Air Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Air Force, law enforcement authorities, the Federal Aviation Administration, airport security personnel, and many other agencies share responsibility for closing gaps in our national air defenses...

  8. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  9. Comprehensiveness of the FY 1996 Other Defense Organizations Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center consistently and accurately compiled financial data received from field accounting...

  10. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the United States... 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  11. Veiled Normalization: The Implications of Japanese Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    Japan's development of a missile defense system has been accompanied by the acquisition of potentially offensive military assets, an increased command and control capability, significant restructuring...

  12. Lasers and particle beam for fusion and strategic defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Fusion Energy consists of the edited transscripts of a symposium on the applications of laser and particle beams to fusion and strategic defense. Its eleven papers discuss these topics: the Strategic Defense Initiative; accelerators for heavy ion fusion; rf accelerators for fusion and strategic defense; Pulsed power, ICF, and the Strategic Defense Initiative; chemical lasers; the feasibility of KrF lasers for fusion; the damage resistance of coated optic; liquid crystal devices for laser systems; fusion neutral-particle beam research and its contribution to the Star Wars program; and induction linacs and free electron laser amplifiers for ICF devices and directed-energy weapons

  13. Competition: A Means to Transform the Defense Industrial Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... The defense acquisition process and its industrial base comprise a significant economic institution in need of transformation to ensure that research, development, and acquisition efforts remain...

  14. Achieving RCRA compliance in DOE defense waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankhauser, W.A.; Shepard, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generates significant volumes of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) through its defense-related activities. Defense RMW is co-regulated by DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/State agencies in accordance with requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). This paper highlights some of the problems encountered in co-regulation and discusses achievements of the defense waste management program in integrating RCRA requirements into RMW operations. Defense waste sites are planning facility modifications and major new construction projects to develop treatment, storage and disposal capacity for existing RMW inventories and projected needs

  15. Accounting for Defense Logistics Agency Supply Management Receivables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    .... For this part of the audit, we determined whether Defense Logistics Agency supply management receivables were accurately accounted for, classified, and reported in the Statement of Financial Position...

  16. Air defense planning for an area with the use of very short range air defense sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method of planning the deployment of very short-range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD around an area (‘protected area’ in order to protect it. A function dependent on the distance between the earliest feasible points of destroying targets and the centre of the protected area was taken as an objective function. This is a different indicator from those commonly used in the literature, and based on the likelihood of a defense zone penetration by means of an air attack (MAA: the kill probability of the MAA and the probability of area losses. The model constraints resulted directly from the restrictions imposed by real air defense systems and the nature of the area being defended. This paper assumes that the VSHORAD system operates as a part of a general, superordinate air defense command and control system based on the idea of network-centric warfare, which provides the VSHORAD system with a recognized air picture, air defense plans, and combat mission specifications. The presented method has been implemented. The final part of the paper presents the computational results. Keywords: optimal planning, air defense system, area installation protection, deployment of very short range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD

  17. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  18. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  19. Toxin-mediated effects on the innate mucosal defenses: implications for enteric vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Francis, David H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    mucosal barrier as a key step in enteric pathogen survival. We review key observations relevant to the roles of LT and cholera toxin in protective immunity and the effects of these toxins on innate mucosal defenses. We suggest either that toxin-mediated fluid secretion mechanically disrupts the mucus...... layer or that toxins interfere with innate mucosal defenses by other means. Such a breach gives pathogens access to the enterocyte, leading to binding and pathogenicity by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and other organisms. Given the common exposure to LT(+) ETEC by humans visiting or residing...... unexpectedly broad protective effects against LT(+) ETEC and mixed infections when using a toxin-based enteric vaccine. If toxins truly exert barrier-disruptive effects as a key step in pathogenesis, then a return to classic toxin-based vaccine strategies for enteric disease is warranted and can be expected...

  20. Volatile Semiochemical Mediated Plant Defense in Cereals: A Novel Strategy for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanuel Tamiru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved highly intriguing ways of defending themselves against insect attacks, including through emission of defense volatiles. These volatiles serve the plant’s defense by directly repelling phytophagous insects and/or indirectly through attracting natural enemies antagonistic to the herbivores. Several laboratory studies established the potential of improving plant resistance against insect attacks by manipulating the plant-derived volatile semiochemicals emissions. Yet, more efforts need to be conducted to translate the promising laboratory studies to fight economically-important crop pests under real field conditions. This is needed to address an increasing demand for alternative pest control options driven by ecological and environmental costs associated with the use of broad-spectrum insecticides. The practical examples discussed in this review paper demonstrate the real prospect of exploiting an inducible and constitutive plant volatile semiochemicals for developing novel and ecologically-sustainable pest management strategies to protect cereal crops from damaging insect pests.