WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense production site

  1. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  2. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  3. Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Public Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FUDS Public GIS dataset contains point location information for the 2,709 Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties where the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is...

  4. Contaminants at Arctic formerly used defense sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DO Carpenter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine if the source of contaminants at formerly used defense sites (FUDS in Alaska were deposited as a result of military occupancy or from long-­-distance transport. This determination largely influences whether remediation will occur, and, if so, to what extent. For this reason, plant samples (rinsed and unrinsed and sediment cores were collected at military and remote sites on St. Lawrence Island (SLI and Norton Sound, Alaska during the summers of 2002, 2006, and 2007 and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants. On St. Lawrence Island sediment core samples were collected at the Northeast Cape FUDS, also a traditional fishing/hunting camp, and were sectioned and analyzed for concentrations of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners, Mirex, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB, Mercury and Cesium-­-137 (137Cs. Differences in the total concentrations and distributions of PCB congeners, Mirex, DDE and Mercury in sediment cores and in plants collected from the two SLI and three Norton Sound mainland formerly used defense sites indicate the majority of the contaminants found can be temporally related to releases during military occupancy and subsequent redistribution of contaminants. Contaminants in plant samples at the SLI sites are elevated relative to the two remote sites located on St. Lawrence Island and the three mainland Norton Sound FUDS at Elim, Unalakleet, and Wales. The concentrations, lateral and vertical distribution of the total PCBs, and congener-­-specific differences in sediments and plants readily differentiate locally derived from globally transported contaminants. The relative contaminant concentrations in sediment cores and between rinsed and unrinsed plants collected from the NEC FUDS indicate contaminants were remobilized and redistributed during recent site remediation activities.

  5. Optimal defense strategy: storage vs. new production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Emi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2002-12-07

    If hosts produce defense proteins after they are infected by pathogens, it may take hours to days before defense becomes fully active. By producing defense proteins beforehand, and storing them until infection, the host can cope with pathogens with a short time delay. However, producing and storing defense proteins require energy, and the activated defense proteins often cause harm to the host's body as well as to pathogens. Here, we study the optimal strategy for a host who chooses the amount of stored defense proteins, the activation of the stored proteins upon infection, and the new production of the proteins. The optimal strategy is the one that minimizes the sum of the harm by pathogens and the cost of defense. The host chooses the storage size of defense proteins based on the probability distribution of the magnitude of pathogen infection. When the infection size is predictable, all the stored proteins are to be activated upon infection. The optimal strategy is to have no storage and to rely entirely on new production if the expected infection size n(0) is small, but to have a big storage without new production if n(0) is large. The transition from the "new production" phase to "storage" phase occurs at a smaller n(0) when storage cost is small, activation cost is large, pathogen toxicity is large, pathogen growth is fast, the defense is effective, the delay is long, and the infection is more likely. On the other hand, the storage size to produce for a large n(0) decreases with three cost parameters and the defense effectiveness, increases with the likelihood of infection, the toxicity and the growth rate of pathogens, and it is independent of the time delay. When infection size is much smaller than the expected size, some of the stored proteins may stay unused.

  6. Analysis of Defense Products Contract Trends, 1990-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Analysis of Defense Products Contract Trends , 1990–2014 Andrew Hunter—is a senior fellow in the International Security Program and director of the Defense...a decade, the Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has analyzed and reported on trends ...countervailing trend of divestments, including Northrop Grumman’s divestment of its shipbuilding business into Huntington Ingalls Industries. As

  7. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Taís M.; Machado, Glauco

    2015-01-01

    Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs) would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF). We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders) than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group. PMID:26331946

  8. Analysis of Defense Products Contract Trends, 1990-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    updated, including those for back years. As a consequence, the dollar totals for a given year may have changed since the data was downloaded...classified in FPDS. • All dollar figures are in constant 2014 dollars . csis.org/diig | Defense Products Contract Obligations by Component, 2008-2014 3...in then-year dollars ). • Upon further investigation, CSIS discovered that these missing obligations are a mix of contracts entirely missing from

  9. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  10. Interwar U.S. and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Selected investment price indexes for Japan . ................... 19 Figure 7. Japanese defense expenditure in constant yen terms. Amounts are...CIM D0007249.A /Final June 2003 Interwar U.S. and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure William D. O’Neil 4825 Mark Center...and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  11. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  12. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Logistics Agency. (a) Agencies shall be governed by the provisions of this § 101-26.602 in satisfying... petroleum products from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. (b) The Defense Logistics Agency has been...

  14. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection for 125I production activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, T; Potter, C A

    2001-08-01

    Not all operational radiation protection situations lend themselves to simple solutions. Often a Radiation Protection Program must be developed and implemented for difficult situations. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection was developed for 125I production activities. Defense in depth relies on key radiation protection elements that tend to be mutually supportive and in combination provide reasonable assurance that the overall desired level of protection has been provided. For difficult situations, defense in depth can provide both a reasonable and appropriate approach to radiation protection.

  15. Peptidoglycan from fermentation by-product triggers defense responses in grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly under attack from a variety of microorganisms, and rely on a series of complex detection and response systems to protect themselves from infection. Here, we found that a by-product of glutamate fermentation triggered defense responses in grapevine, increasing the expression of defense response genes in cultured cells, foliar chitinase activity, and resistance to infection by downy mildew in leaf explants. To identify the molecule that triggered this innate immunity, we fractionated and purified candidates extracted from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a bacterium used in the production of amino acids by fermentation. Using hydrolysis by lysozyme, a silkworm larva plasma detection system, and gel filtration analysis, we identified peptidoglycan as inducing the defense responses. Peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus also generated similar defensive responses.

  16. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  17. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  18. SIMULATION OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Batkovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodological frameworkand tools for manag-ing the strategic development ofproduction created by the defense-industrial complexof Russia. A model of the development strategy ofproducing the products is worked out, the backgroundand stability of the simulation results are analyzed.

  19. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  20. Product Lifecycle Management: A Collaborative Tool for Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    a lot of effort training its employees on how to analyze, improve, and document its processes. They utilize low tech solutions such as Kanban cards...While Kanban cards are common in manufacturing processes, they are in effect, the message that signals depletion of product, parts or inventory

  1. Sleeping site use of the white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus: The role of predation risk, territorial defense, and proximity to feeding sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayong LI; Qihai ZHOU; Xiaoping TANG; Henglian HUANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    We collected data on sleeping site use from two groups of white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus living in Fusui Nature Reserve, China between August 2007 and July 2008. This information was used to test several hypotheses regarding ultimate causes of sleeping site use in this primate. White-headed langurs slept either in caves (17 sites) or on a cliff ledge (one site). They used all sleeping sites repeatedly, and reused some of them on consecutive nights; three nights was the longest consecutive use of any one sleep site. We suggest that langurs use sleeping sites to make approach and attack by predators difficult, and to increase their own familiarity with a location so as to improve chances for escape. Langurs' cryptic behaviors with an increased level of vigilance before entering sleeping sites may also help in decreasing the possibility of detection by predators. Group 1 spent more sleeping nights in the central area of their territory than expected; in contrast, group 2 spent more sleeping nights in the periphery of their territory, which overlaps with that of another groups, than expected. The position of sleeping site relative to the last feeding site of the day and the first feeding site of the subsequent morning indicated a strategy closer to that of a multiple central place forager than of a central place forager. These results suggest that territory defense and food access may play an important role in sleeping site use of white-headed langurs.

  2. Significance of melatonin in antioxidative defense system: reactions and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Reiter, R J; Qi, W B; Karbownik, M; Calvo, J R

    2000-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent endogenous free radical scavenger, actions that are independent of its many receptor-mediated effects. In the last several years, hundreds of publications have confirmed that melatonin is a broad-spectrum antioxidant. Melatonin has been reported to scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (HO(.)), nitric oxide (NO(.)), peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(-).) and peroxyl radical (LOO(.)), although the validity of its ability to scavenge O(2)(-). and LOO(.) is debatable. Regardless of the radicals scavenged, melatonin prevents oxidative damage at the level of cells, tissues, organs and organisms. The antioxidative mechanisms of melatonin seem different from classical antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. As electron donors, classical antioxidants undergo redox cycling; thus, they have the potential to promote oxidation as well as prevent it. Melatonin, as an electron-rich molecule, may interact with free radicals via an additive reaction to form several stable end-products which are excreted in the urine. Melatonin does not undergo redox cycling and, thus, does not promote oxidation as shown under a variety of experimental conditions. From this point of view, melatonin can be considered a suicidal or terminal antioxidant which distinguishes it from the opportunistic antioxidants. Interestingly, the ability of melatonin to scavenge free radicals is not in a ratio of mole to mole. Indeed, one melatonin molecule scavenges two HO. Also, its secondary and tertiary metabolites, for example, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine and 6-hydroxymelatonin, which are believed to be generated when melatonin interacts with free radicals, are also regarded as effective free radical scavengers. The continuous free radical scavenging potential of the original molecule (melatonin) and its metabolites may be defined as a

  3. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  4. Green Products and Services from the Defense Logistics Agency: Support for Environmental Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    further information please call our toll free number 1-800-352-2852 Defense Supply Center Philadelphia Biobased Plastic Flatware • Biobased resin... Biobased Plastic Flatware Offered by JWOD NIB/NISH Partner: L C Industries Product Description NSN Biobased Dining Packet...Remanufactured Toner Cartridges • Vehicular Wet Battery Program • Heavy Equipment Procurement Program • Energy Efficient Lighting • Biobased Fuels • Biobased

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...

  6. Honey and propolis production, hygiene and defense behaviors of two generations of Africanized honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Conceição Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic characters of honeybees, relevant to beekeepers, can be evaluated by studying correlations between them, and the correlated characteristics can be evaluated in the short term to assist in monitoring of annual genetic progress. This work therefore aims to evaluate the production of honey and propolis, the hygiene and defensive behaviours of two generations of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae, to estimate the correlations between them and their heritability. We used 30 Langstroth beehives in apiaries in Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil. We used a method of drilling pupae to evaluate hygiene behaviour and the velveteen ball method to test defensive behaviour. We selected ten colonies which had the best honey and propolis production, and which produced F1 queens that were then transferred to beehives at an experimental farm, in order to observe honey and propolis production, hygiene and defence behaviours of their female offspring. The estimated differences for each characteristic between the generations, the correlations between them within each generation and their heritability suggest that selection of colonies based on propolis production was more efficient at maintaining this high production than was selection based on honey production according to the performance of the colonies for this characteristic. The selected behavioural characteristics can be used to enhance performance, but not for improving yield characteristics evaluated.

  7. Sleeping site use of the white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus: The role of predation risk, territorial defense, and proximity to feeding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong LI, Qihai ZHOU, Xiaoping TANG, Henglian HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We collected data on sleeping site use from two groups of white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus living in Fusui Nature Reserve, China between August 2007 and July 2008. This information was used to test several hypotheses regarding ultimate causes of sleeping site use in this primate. White-headed langurs slept either in caves (17 sites or on a cliff ledge (one site. They used all sleeping sites repeatedly, and reused some of them on consecutive nights; three nights was the longest consecutive use of any one sleep site. We suggest that langurs use sleeping sites to make approach and attack by predators difficult, and to increase their own familiarity with a location so as to improve chances for escape. Langurs’ cryptic behaviors with an increased level of vigilance before entering sleeping sites may also help in decreasing the possibility of detection by predators. Group 1 spent more sleeping nights in the central area of their territory than expected; in contrast, group 2 spent more sleeping nights in the periphery of their territory, which overlaps with that of another groups, than expected. The position of sleeping site relative to the last feeding site of the day and the first feeding site of the subsequent morning indicated a strategy closer to that of a multiple central place forager than of a central place forager. These results suggest that territory defense and food access may play an important role in sleeping site use of white-headed langurs [Current Zoology 57 (3: 260–268, 2011].

  8. Report of Findings: Lake Superior Classified Barrel Disposal Site. Defense Environmental Restoration Program for Formerly Used Defense Sites. Project No. E05MN025501

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Affairs Office 6Y wp . ’ Sto O NATURAL RESOURCES Anthony & fadi January 18, 19TT S.dewy pox 4%0 MAOISON, WISCONSIN 53701 IN REPLY REFER TO: 1600 Colonel...the drums, mVA 4 were settino ot deaignated places on the production line. At so time during the )andlim.. or treaporLin of the scrap did 2 see anyone

  9. Cleanup Summary Report for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Fiscal Year 2007, Task 6.7, U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site), Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-28

    This letter serves as notice of completion for cleanup of the U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site) as specified in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Fiscal Year 2007 Statement of Work, Task 6.7. The U12u-Tunnel Legacy Site is located near the intersection of the U12u-Tunnel access road and the U12n-Tunnel access road in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (see Figure 1). The site encompasses 1.2 acres and was used to store miscellaneous mining equipment and materials that were used to support DTRA testing in Area 12. Field activities commenced February 11, 2008, and were completed February 20, 2008. Radiological surveys were performed on a drill jumbo and all material stored at the site. The drill jumbo was relocated to U12p-Tunnel portal and consolidated with other critical mining equipment for future use or storage. Ten truck loads of solid waste (53 tons) were shipped to the Nevada Test Site, Area 9 U10c Sanitary Landfill for disposal. No hazardous or radiological waste was generated at this site.

  10. DMPD: The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17544561 The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defens...e. Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P, Feng D. Biochimie. 2007 Jun-Jul;89(6-7):843-55. Epub 2007 May 8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The rol...e of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense. PubmedID 17544561 Title The role

  11. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Department of Defense Military Bases and Department of Energy Facilities for Siting a Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of US Department of Defense (DOD) military base sites and DOE sites for possible powering with an SMR; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for several sample sites. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is demonstrate the capability to characterize specific DOD and DOE sites to identify any particular issues associated with powering the sites with an SMR using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  12. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  13. Sites of Sign-Production and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Ana Tupan

    2016-01-01

    T.S. Eliot’s query in The Waste Land, “Who is the third who walks always beside you?” may be said to sum up the hermeneutic situation of any language act, whether of sign production or interpretation. Whereas traditional topoi of expressionist aesthetics, such as the artist’s subjectivity, empirical psychology, truthfulness, intentionality, etc. have become irrelevant in the heteroglottic discourse of the most famous dirge on the decaying West, Eliot’s awareness of the matrical role of cultur...

  14. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  15. Engineering oxidative stress defense pathways to build a robust lipid production platform in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Microbially derived lipids have recently attracted renewed interests due to their broad applications in production of green diesels, cosmetic additives, and oleochemicals. Metabolic engineering efforts have targeted a large portfolio of biosynthetic pathways to efficiently convert sugar to lipids in oleaginous yeast. In the engineered overproducing strains, endogenous cell metabolism typically generates harmful electrophilic molecules that compromise cell fitness and productivity. Lipids, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, are highly susceptible to oxygen radical attack and the resulting oxidative species are detrimental to cell metabolism and limit lipid productivity. In this study, we investigated cellular oxidative stress defense pathways in Yarrowia lipolytica to further improve the lipid titer, yield, and productivity. Specifically, we determined that coupling glutathione disulfide reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with aldehyde dehydrogenase are efficient solutions to combat reactive oxygen and aldehyde stress in Y. lipolytica. With the reported engineering strategies, we were able to synchronize cell growth and lipid production, improve cell fitness and morphology, and achieved industrially-relevant level of lipid titer (72.7 g/L), oil content (81.4%) and productivity (0.97 g/L/h) in controlled bench-top bioreactors. The strategies reported here represent viable steps in the development of sustainable biorefinery platforms that potentially upgrade low value carbons to high value oleochemicals and biofuels. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1521-1530. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. European legal developments in product safety and liability: the role of customer complaint management as a defensive marketing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Ko; de Ruyter, J.C.; Brack, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    In view of recent European legal developments, our purpose in this article is to position customer complaint management as an essential instrument for a defensive marketing strategy, specifically to prevent legal problems in the fields of product liability and product safety.

  17. European legal developments in product safety and liability: the role of customer complaint management as a defensive marketing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de Ko; Brack, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    In view of recent European legal developments, our purpose in this article is to position customer complaint management as an essential instrument for a defensive marketing strategy, specifically to prevent legal problems in the fields of product liability and product safety.

  18. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa State Of Nigeria: A Geographic Information System (GIS) ... FUTY Journal of the Environment ... This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and ...

  19. Sites of Sign-Production and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Tupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available T.S. Eliot’s query in The Waste Land, “Who is the third who walks always beside you?” may be said to sum up the hermeneutic situation of any language act, whether of sign production or interpretation. Whereas traditional topoi of expressionist aesthetics, such as the artist’s subjectivity, empirical psychology, truthfulness, intentionality, etc. have become irrelevant in the heteroglottic discourse of the most famous dirge on the decaying West, Eliot’s awareness of the matrical role of cultural semiosis allows us to place him among the founding fathers of semiotic aesthetics. The anagnorisis episode in The Waste Land is one of appropriate reading of the body of Christ through knowledge of the crucifixion scene and associated symbolism.Rooted in the insights of Charles Peirce Sanders and Charles Morris, and enlarged by post-war contributors, such as Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Michael B. Hardt, Richard Rudner, Foucault, Vattimo, Baudrillard and Deleuze, the semiotic, cultural materialist, or genetic approach  to art makes interpretation dependent on a mediating third (Peirce: the Interpretant, which is variously related to context, regime of signification, episteme, schemata, generic convention, structure of feeling, triangulation of desire ...

  20. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  1. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage of already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.

  2. Defense suppression benefits herbivores that have a monopoly on their feeding site but can backfire within natural communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Alba, J.M.; Simoni, S.; Villarroel, C.A.; Stoops, M.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Schuurink, R.C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Kant, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plants have inducible defenses to combat attacking organisms. Hence, some herbivores have adapted to suppress these defenses. Suppression of plant defenses has been shown to benefit herbivores by boosting their growth and reproductive performance. Results: We observed in field-grown toma

  3. Environmental Contamination: Lessons Learned from the Cleanup of Formerly Used Defense and Military Munitions Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    with a potential threat to health or the environment–– was also found on the site. Perchlorate is known to cause health problems in certain...and is highly soluble. Exposure to perchlorate affects the human thyroid, and certain levels of exposure may result in hyperthyroidism in adults...DOD and if hazards caused by DOD’s use may be present. If the Corps determines that the property was owned or controlled by DOD but does not find

  4. FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interaction sites required for defense signaling activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Koller

    Full Text Available Signaling initiation by receptor-like kinases (RLKs at the plasma membrane of plant cells often requires regulatory leucine-rich repeat (LRR RLK proteins such as SERK or BIR proteins. The present work examined how the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptor FLS2 builds signaling complexes with BAK1 (SERK3. We first, using in vivo methods that validate separate findings by others, demonstrated that flg22 (flagellin epitope ligand-initiated FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interactions can proceed independent of intracellular domain interactions. We then explored a candidate SERK protein interaction site in the extracellular domains (ectodomains; ECDs of the significantly different receptors FLS2, EFR (MAMP receptors, PEPR1 (damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP receptor, and BRI1 (hormone receptor. Repeat conservation mapping revealed a cluster of conserved solvent-exposed residues near the C-terminus of models of the folded LRR domains. However, site-directed mutagenesis of this conserved site in FLS2 did not impair FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions, and mutations in the analogous site of EFR caused receptor maturation defects. Hence this conserved LRR C-terminal region apparently has functions other than mediating interactions with BAK1. In vivo tests of the subsequently published FLS2-flg22-BAK1 ECD co-crystal structure were then performed to functionally evaluate some of the unexpected configurations predicted by that crystal structure. In support of the crystal structure data, FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions were no longer detected in in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments after site-directed mutagenesis of the FLS2 BAK1-interaction residues S554, Q530, Q627 or N674. In contrast, in vivo FLS2-mediated signaling persisted and was only minimally reduced, suggesting residual FLS2-BAK1 interaction and the limited sensitivity of co-immunoprecipitation data relative to in vivo assays for signaling outputs. However, Arabidopsis plants

  5. Site Team Review: Petition for Degree-Granting Authority by National Defense University, School for Information Resources Management (iCollege)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    On November 3, 2010, a site team from the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI) and the U.S. Department of Education conducted a visit to National Defense University's (University) School for Information Resources Management (IRMC or iCollege) at Ft. McNair in Washington, DC. The purpose of the visit was to…

  6. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  7. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  8. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  9. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.

  10. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    Full Text Available A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, elastase and rhamnolipids and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor.

  11. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    WORLDWIDE APRIL 2016 REGIONAL SEA LEVEL SCENARIOS FOR COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT: COVER PHOTOS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: - Overwash of the island of Roi-Namur on...J.A., S. Gill, J. Obeysekera, W. Sweet, K. Knuuti, and J. Marburger. 2016. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COASTAL SITES WORLDWIDE REGIONAL SEA LEVEL SCENARIOS FOR COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT: 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 17D08 Alexandria, VA

  12. Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammoniums

    1999-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) subcommittee on ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plans.'' The NERAC subcommittee has asked for a reply to a number of questions regarding (1) ''How well does the Department of Energy (DOE) infrastructure sme the need for commercial and medical isotopes?'' and (2) ''What should be the long-term role of the federal government in providing commercial and medical isotopes?' Our report addresses the questions raised by the NERAC subcommittee, and especially the 10 issues that were raised under the first of the above questions (see Appendix). These issues are related to the isotope products offered by the DOE Isotope Production Sites, the capabilities and condition of the facilities used to produce these products, the management of the isotope production programs at DOE laboratories, and the customer service record of the DOE Isotope Production sites. An important component of our report is a description of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor at the Hbford Site and the future plans for its utilization as a source of radioisotopes needed by nuclear medicine physicians, by researchers, and by customers in the commercial sector. In response to the second question raised by the NERAC subcommittee, it is our firm belief that the supply of isotopes provided by DOE for medical, industrial, and research applications must be strengthened in the near future. Many of the radioisotopes currently used for medical diagnosis and therapy of cancer and other diseases are imported from Canada, Europe, and Asia. This situation places the control of isotope availability, quality, and pricing in the hands of non-U.S. suppliers. It is our opinion that the needs of the U.S. customers for isotopes and isotope products are not being adequately served, and that the DOE infrastructure and facilities devoted to the

  13. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  14. Groundwater modeling of the proposed new production reactor site, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Andersen, P.F.; Spalding, C.P.; Davis, D.H.

    1990-01-05

    This report addresses groundwater modeling performed to support the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is being prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE). The EIS pertains to construction and operation of a new production reactor (NPR) that is under consideration for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Three primary issues are addressed by the modeling analysis: (1) groundwater availability, (2) changes in vertical hydraulic gradients as a result of groundwater pumpage, and (3) migration of potential contaminants from the NPR site. The modeling indicates that the maximum pumpage to be used, 1000 gpm, will induce only minor drawdown across SRS. Pumpage of this magnitude will have a limited effect on the upward gradient from the Cretaceous into the Tertiary near Upper Three Runs Creek. Potentiometric surface maps generated from modeled results indicate that horizontal flow in the water table is either towards Four Mile Creek to the north or to Pen Branch on the south. Particle tracking analysis indicates that the primary flow paths are vertical into the Lower Tertiary Zone, with very little lateral migration. Total travel times from the NPR site to the edge of the model (approximately 3 miles) is on the order of 50 years. The flow direction of water in the Lower Tertiary Zone is relatively well defined due to the regional extent of the flow system. The Pen Branch Fault does not influence contaminant migration for this particular site because it is in the opposite direction of Lower Tertiary Zone groundwater flow. 20 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Do children’s cognitive advertising defenses reduce their desire for advertised products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2009-01-01

    In both the academic and societal debates, it is widely assumed that cognitive advertising defenses can reduce children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. Empirical evidence supporting this crucial assumption is however missing. It is precisely this gap that the present study aims to fill In a

  16. Do children's cognitive advertising defenses reduce their desire for advertised products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In both the academic and societal debates, it is widely assumed that cognitive advertising defenses can reduce children's susceptibility to advertising effects. Empirical evidence supporting this crucial assumption is however missing. It is precisely this gap that the present study aims to fill In a

  17. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  18. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  19. Multi level Programming in Multi Site Production Systems Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bakhshizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the significance of the Supply Chain Management Systems and the due planning related to it, cause that researcher has gathered data on various modeling types about Multi Site Production planning Systems that are actually Supply Chains located in different places geographically. It is worth noting that the presented models are of very short history and they are just under the focus of study after 80's. In the present article, the writer has surveyed the Multi Level Programming Model and after studying the nature and application of such mathematical planning and its due relevance to the subject under the study, the Multi Site Production Systems were selected. It is completely obvious that the active elements in a Supply Chain may not be in total agreement and cooperation with each other and also they may not be in complete opposition with each other, therefore the modeling of the above mentioned systems does not seem to be proper through a usual one-zero or linear planning. The significant points in Multi Level Programming Model are: First, it is hierarchical and therefore it is more efficient in supply chains in which some active elements are more influential and powerful than the others. Second, in this system the decision makers in the upper levels determine their goals and decisions and ask the lower levels of the organization to optimize the goals separately. The lower-level decision makers would present their decisions to the upper-levels and the decisions would be reformed or modified by them, considering the general interests of the organization. The process continues to an optimal or a more satisfactory solution.Thus, the researcher has presented his analytical model (which is itself a consideration of just two steps of this chain: production and supply based on a two-level planning model and has eventually tested his model in a car company

  20. Defense Security Enterprise Architecture (DSEA) Product Reference Guide. Revision 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    benefits of cross-department vetting. In the use case. a U.S. military service member...users can add external data sources to their view in common web service formats (KML, KMZ, WMS , and GeoRSS). Other capabilities within OneView include...USNORTHCOM and active participation from DSEA on use case development • Examining the benefits of information sharing between the defense

  1. Sleeping site use of the white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus: The role of predation risk, territorial defense, and proximity to feeding sites

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong LI, Qihai ZHOU, Xiaoping TANG, Henglian HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    We collected data on sleeping site use from two groups of white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus living in Fusui Nature Reserve, China between August 2007 and July 2008. This information was used to test several hypotheses regarding ultimate causes of sleeping site use in this primate. White-headed langurs slept either in caves (17 sites) or on a cliff ledge (one site). They used all sleeping sites repeatedly, and reused some of them on consecutive nights; three nights was the long...

  2. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. FY 1989--1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  3. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1991 and FY-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  4. In vitro production of adaline and coccinelline, two defensive alkaloids from ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Pascal; Braekman, Jean-Claude; Daloze, Désiré; Pasteels, Jacques M

    2002-09-01

    In vitro experiments using [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C]acetate were devised to study the biosynthesis of the defensive coccinellid alkaloids adaline and coccinelline in Adalia 2-punctata and Coccinella 7-punctata, respectively. The labelled alkaloids obtained in these experiments had a specific activity about ten times higher than that of the samples obtained in feeding experiments. This in vitro assay has enabled us to demonstrate that these two alkaloids are most likely biosynthesised through a fatty acid rather than a polyketide pathway, that glutamine is the preferred source of the nitrogen atom and that alkaloid biosynthesis takes place in the insect fat body.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  6. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  7. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  8. Multi-site production planning in hybrid make-to-stock/make-to-order production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Hamed; Rabbani, Masoud; Kokabi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    Today competitive environment has enforced practitioners and researchers to pay great attention to issues enhancing both production and marketing competitiveness. To do so, it has been obligatory for the firms to consider production side activities while customer requirements are on the other side of competition. In this regard, hybrid make-to-stock (MTS)/make-to-order (MTO) production systems have revealed outstanding results. This paper addresses multi-site production planning of a hybrid manufacturing firm for the first time in the hybrid systems' body of literature. In this regard, a network of suppliers, manufacturers and customers is considered for which a mixed-integer mathematical model is proposed. Objective function of the proposed mathematical model seeks to maximize profitability of the manufacturing firm. Because of computational complexity of the developed mathematical model, a genetic algorithm is developed upon which numerical experiments are reported in order to show validity and applicability of the proposed model.

  9. 76 FR 61282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of “Qualifying Country End Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... which makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy through payment of taxes or use of American... agricultural products and petroleum products. * * * * * Qualifying country means a country with a...

  10. 76 FR 32845 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of “Qualifying Country End Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... amend the definition of ``qualifying country end product'' by eliminating the component test for... INFORMATION: I. Background This rule proposes to amend the definition of ``qualifying country end product'' to..., the component test for the DFARS definition of ``domestic end product'' was waived by the interim...

  11. Product/Process (P/P) Models For The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): Model Ranges And Validation Ranges For Future Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-25

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  12. Plant genotype and induced defenses affect the productivity of an insect-killing obligate viral pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; McCarthy, Elizabeth M; Elderd, Bret D; Hoover, Kelli

    2017-09-01

    Plant-mediated variations in the outcomes of host-pathogen interactions can strongly affect epizootics and the population dynamics of numerous species, including devastating agricultural pests such as the fall armyworm. Most studies of plant-mediated effects on insect pathogens focus on host mortality, but few have measured pathogen yield, which can affect whether or not an epizootic outbreak occurs. Insects challenged with baculoviruses on different plant species and parts can vary in levels of mortality and yield of infectious stages (occlusion bodies; OBs). We previously demonstrated that soybean genotypes and induced anti-herbivore defenses influence baculovirus infectivity. Here, we used a soybean genotype that strongly reduced baculovirus infectivity when virus was ingested on induced plants (Braxton) and another that did not reduce infectivity (Gasoy), to determine how soybean genotype and induced defenses influence OB yield and speed of kill. These are key fitness measures because baculoviruses are obligate-killing pathogens. We challenged fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, with the baculovirus S. frugiperda multi-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) during short or long-term exposure to plant treatments (i.e., induced or non-induced genotypes). Caterpillars were either fed plant treatments only during virus ingestion (short-term exposure to foliage) or from the point of virus ingestion until death (long-term exposure). We found trade-offs of increasing OB yield with slower speed of kill and decreasing virus dose. OB yield increased more with longer time to death and decreased more with increasing virus dose after short-term feeding on Braxton compared with Gasoy. OB yield increased significantly more with time to death in larvae that fed until death on non-induced foliage than induced foliage. Moreover, fewer OBs per unit of host tissue were produced when larvae were fed induced foliage than non-induced foliage. These findings highlight the

  13. Sustainability as a Priority at Major U.S. Department of Energy’s Defense Sites: Surrounding Population Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Greenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is rapidly becoming a widely accepted and desired attitude, as well as a stimulus for both environmentally-conscious individuals and firm behavior. However, does the public interest in sustainability also extend to large U.S. federal agencies? Does the public care about on-site sustainability programs? To answer this question, we surveyed 922 people who live within 50 miles of one of four U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE major facilities: Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Only 14% expressed no interest in DOE’s on-site sustainability efforts. Five percent said that they were interested enough to join a local community group to provide feedback to the DOE; 49% were interested and wanted more information, as well as interaction with the DOE’s site-specific advisory boards or local elected officials. Compared to other DOE on-site activities, respondents rated sustainability as “somewhat important”. Native Americans who live near a site, are familiar with it and self-identify as interested in environmental protection disproportionately belong to the “most interested” category. We conclude that public interest is sufficient to merit outreach by DOE to involve interested and knowledgeable local residents in on-site sustainability plans.

  14. [In defense of society: the invention of palliative care and the production of subjectivities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Karen Schein; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2012-04-01

    This article is a theoretical reflection that is part of a study named Em Defesa da Sociedade: a invenção dos Cuidados Paliativos (In Defense of Society: the invention of Palliative Care). In order to articulate this discussion, we used the 2007edition of the Palliative Care Manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO), as we understand it is part of a body of work capable of producing subjectivities and ruling conduct. In this sense, we intend to understand how the discourses on palliative care are associated and promote the invention of a new subject that would work as a bio-political strategy in order to defend society. Based on the textual analysis of the discourse presented in the manual, with the help of the Cultural Studies framework and inspired by the works of Michel Foucault, we present one of the possible meanings derived from the readings of the WHO Guide. Thus, we observe the (re)organization and (re)invention of a subject that invests in the subjectivity of individuals and constitutes an actual framework that regulates and rules the population.

  15. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  16. Rat heart: a site of oxytocin production and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M; Hajjar, F; Kawas, S A; Mukaddam-Daher, S; Hoffman, G; McCann, S M; Gutkowska, J

    1998-11-24

    We report here that the rat heart is a site of oxytocin (OT) synthesis and release. Oxytocin was detected in all four chambers of the heart. The highest OT concentration was in the right atrium (2128 +/- 114 pg/mg protein), which was 19-fold higher than in rat uterus but 3.3-fold lower than in the hypothalamus. OT concentrations were significantly greater in the right and left atria than in the corresponding ventricles. Furthermore, OT was released into the effluent of isolated, perfused rat heart (34.5 +/- 4.7 pg/min) and into the medium of cultured atrial myocytes. Reverse-phase HPLC purification of the heart extracts and heart perfusates revealed a main peak identical with the retention time of synthetic OT. Southern blots of reverse transcription-PCR products from rat heart revealed gene expression of specific OT mRNA. OT immunostaining likewise was found in atrial myocytes and fibroblasts, and the intensity of positive stains from OT receptors paralleled the atrial natriuretic peptide stores. Our findings suggest that heart OT is structurally identical, and therefore derived from, the same gene as the OT that is primarily found in the hypothalamus. Thus, the heart synthesizes and processes a biologically active form of OT. The presence of OT and OT receptor in all of the heart's chambers suggests an autocrine and/or paracrine role for the peptide. Our finding of abundant OT receptor in atrial myocytes supports our hypothesis that OT, directly and/or via atrial natriuretic peptide release, can regulate the force of cardiac contraction.

  17. REMOTE IN-CELL SAMPLING IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM AT THESAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A

    2007-11-26

    Remote Systems Engineering (RSE) of the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) in combination with the Defense Waste Processing Facility(DWPF) Engineering and Operations has evaluated the existing equipment and processes used in the facility sample cells for 'pulling' samples from the radioactive waste stream and performing equipment in-cell repairs/replacements. RSE has designed and tested equipment for improving remote in-cell sampling evolutions and reducing the time required for in-cell maintenance of existing equipment. The equipment within the present process tank sampling system has been in constant use since the facility start-up over 17 years ago. At present, the method for taking samples within the sample cells produces excessive maintenance and downtime due to frequent failures relative to the sampling station equipment and manipulator. Location and orientation of many sampling stations within the sample cells is not conducive to manipulator operation. The overextension of manipulators required to perform many in-cell operations is a major cause of manipulator failures. To improve sampling operations and reduce downtime due to equipment maintenance, a Portable Sampling Station (PSS), wireless in-cell cameras, and new commercially available sampling technology has been designed, developed and/or adapted and tested. The uniqueness of the design(s), the results of the scoping tests, and the benefits relative to in-cell operation and reduction of waste are presented.

  18. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action.

  19. Do multinationals standardise or localise? The cross-cultural dimensionality of product-based Web sites

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the Internet as an effective marketing channel, there is a lack of comprehensive research regarding multinational corporations' (MNCs') Web sites for multiple cultures. In this paper, Japanese MNCs' product-based Web sites were content-analysed, comparing the Web sites created by the same firms in domestic and external markets. In total, 150 product-based Web sites were chosen from the Japanese, Spanish and US market samples. Three explanatory variables (information...

  20. Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeter, L.; Blake, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period.

  1. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  2. Composition of beer by 1H NMR spectroscopy: effects of brewing site and date of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cláudia; Duarte, Iola F; Barros, António; Rodrigues, João; Spraul, Manfred; Gil, Ana M

    2006-02-08

    A principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of beers differing in production site (A, B, C) and date is described, to obtain information about composition variability. First, lactic and pyruvic acids contents were found to vary significantly between production sites, good reproducibility between dates being found for site A but not for sites B and C beers. Second, site B beers were clearly distinguished by the predominance of linear dextrins, while A and C beers were richer in branched dextrins. Carbohydrate reproducibility between dates is poorer for site C with dextrin branching degree varying significantly. Finally, all production sites were successfully distinguished by their contents in adenosine/inosine, uridine, tyrosine/tyrosol, and 2-phenylethanol, reproducibility between dates being again poorer for site C. Interpretation of the above compositional differences is discussed in terms of the biochemistry taking place during brewing, and possible applications of the method in brewing process control are envisaged.

  3. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  4. Defense Logistics Agency Green Products / Hazardous Minimization Warfighter Team: Helping the Warfighter Become Green!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Supply Center Philadelphia 29 Biobased Plastic Flatware • Biobased resin uses wheat to replace 50% of Polypropylene • Meets or exceeds all current...Remanufactured Toner Cartridges • Vehicular Wet Battery Program • Energy Efficient Lighting • Biobased Fuels • Biobased Cutlery 10 DOD EMALL DOD’s...Power • Asbestos Alternative • Biobased • Non-mercury Alternative • Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) • Non

  5. Energy Security Requires Diversity: An Argument for The Defense Production Act Title III Biofuel Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    visited 15 July, 2013). 55 Production of alcohol from biomass by way of fermentation of plant sugars creates ethanol. Ethanol can be used in...synthetic fuel demonstration plants . 110 The act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to construct and operate plants which would convert coal...unanticipated operating problems and the construction of plants large enough to operate at a commercial scale. Setting national goals for synthetic fuel

  6. User Feedback Mechanisms for Defense Technical Information Center Services and Products. Phase II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-10

    these visitors are users or potential users of DTIC products L and services. A DTIC spokesperson summarizes the history of the agency and provides an...questionnaire and the user responses to it were studied and offered a number of useful insights for development of this qulestionnaire. Paul Klinefelter , Judy...questionnaire). * 5P. Klinefelter , J. Pickeral, and T. Lahr, 5, 7, 8, 21, and 25 April, 6 and 9 May 1983. 6 "DTIC-TOS Annual Historical Summary--FY82

  7. Site reliability engineering how Google runs production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petoff, Jennifer; Jones, Chris; Murphy, Niall Richard

    2016-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of a software system’s lifespan is spent in use, not in design or implementation. So, why does conventional wisdom insist that software engineers focus primarily on the design and development of large-scale computing systems? In this collection of essays and articles, key members of Google’s Site Reliability Team explain how and why their commitment to the entire lifecycle has enabled the company to successfully build, deploy, monitor, and maintain some of the largest software systems in the world. You’ll learn the principles and practices that enable Google engineers to make systems more scalable, reliable, and efficient—lessons directly applicable to your organization. This book is divided into four sections: Introduction—Learn what site reliability engineering is and why it differs from conventional IT industry practices Principles—Examine the patterns, behaviors, and areas of concern that influence the work of a site reliability engineer (SRE) Practices...

  8. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  9. Up-regulation of lipoxygenase, phospholipase, and oxylipin-production in the induced chemical defense of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Florian; Lion, Ulrich; Delage, Ludovic; Kloareg, Bernard; Potin, Philippe; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-07-01

    The red alga Gracilaria chilensis is commercially farmed for the production of agar hydrocolloids, but some susceptible algae in farms suffer from intense epiphyte growth. We investigated the induced chemical defense response of G. chilensis against epiphytes and demonstrated that an extract of an epiphyte-challenged alga can trigger a defense response. The hormonally active metabolites were purified by RP-HPLC. Treatment with the extract or the purified fraction changed the chemical profile of the alga and increased resistance against epiphyte spores. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme assays demonstrated that this metabolic response occurs after an increase in lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activity. Although this suggests the involvement of regulatory oxylipins, neither jasmonic acid nor the algal metabolite prostaglandin E2 triggers comparable defense responses.

  10. Photochemical ozone production rates at different TOR sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Mihelcic, D.; Paetz, H.W.; Schultz, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie der Belasteten Atmosphaere; Gomiscek, B. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie; Lindskog, A.; Mowrer, J. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (IVL), Goeteborg (Sweden); Oyola, P.; Hanson, K. [Air Pollution Lab., Inst. of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Schmitt, R. [Meteorologie Consult GmbH, Glashuetten (Germany); Nielson, T.; Eggelov, A. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Stordal, F. [Norsk Inst. for Luftforshning (NILU), Kjeller (Norway); Vosbeck, M. [KEMA, Arnheim (Netherlands); TOR Task Group 2b

    1997-12-31

    The necessary instrumentation for determination of P{sub O{sub 3}} from PSS was developed in TOR and was subsequently deployed at several field sites. In this section, changes of this locally defined quantity with respect to changes in precursor concentrations, e.g. NO{sub x}, and meteorological parameters, such as UV radiation, are analyzed. (orig./KW)

  11. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  12. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. = Natural products in the defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Leonardo Lomele

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a influência de produtos naturais como capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, folhas de abacateiro (Persea americana, casca de café (Coffea arabica e sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis na defensividade de Apis mellifera, e avaliar o efeito destes produtos no desenvolvimento populacional da colmeia. O comportamento defensivo foi avaliado por meio do tempo da primeira ferroada (TPF, número de ferrões (NFB e, o desenvolvimento populacional, pela área de cria aberta e fechada. Observou-se que o tratamento fumaça + sete sementes de mamona apresentou aumento significativo no TPF, em relação ao tratamento sem e com fumaça de maravalha. Com relação ao NFB, verificou-se que os tratamentos fumaça de maravalha + sete sementes de mamona e fumaça de maravalha + 20% de folhas de café foram diferentes do tratamento sem e com fumaça. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram significativamente em relação ao uso da fumaça ou sua ausência. A casca de café e a semente de mamona nãointerferiram no desenvolvimento populacional, sugerindo que estes compostos não foram tóxicos. Pode-se concluir que o uso de sementes de mamona e casca de café na fumaça pode representar importante ferramenta para a redução da defensividade, sem promover toxicidade para A. mellifera.The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves (Persea americana, coffee husk (Coffea arabica and castor bean (Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive. Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting (TFS and number of stingers (NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. It was observed that the treatment with smoke + seven castor beans presented significant increase in the TFS, for treatment without and with smoke. Regarding NS, it was verified

  13. ATLAS HEC Photographs - Pictures of the TRIUMF Production Site

    CERN Multimedia

    Wielers, M.

    2000-01-01

    Photo 1 - Arrival of Copper Plates Photo 2 - Cleaning of Copper Plates Photo 3 - Stacking Clean Room Photo 4 - Glue Press used for PAD Board Production Photo 5 - Cut honeycomb being removed from Steel Rule Die Photo 6 - Brake Press

  14. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  15. New Mexico aggregate production sites, 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  16. Microbial flora drives interleukin 22 production in intestinal NKp46+ cells that provide innate mucosal immune defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Lesjean-Pottier, Sarah; Sawa, Shinichiro; Lochner, Matthias; Rattis, Frederique; Mention, Jean-Jacques; Thiam, Kader; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Mandelboim, Ofer; Eberl, Gerard; Di Santo, James P

    2008-12-19

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with spontaneous antitumor activity, and they produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that primes immune responses. Whereas T helper cell subsets differentiate from naive T cells via specific transcription factors, evidence for NK cell diversification is limited. In this report, we characterized intestinal lymphocytes expressing the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. Gut NKp46+ cells were distinguished from classical NK cells by limited IFN-gamma production and absence of perforin, whereas several subsets expressed the nuclear hormone receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor t (RORgammat) and interleukin-22 (IL-22). Intestinal NKp46+IL-22+ cells were generated via a local process that was conditioned by commensal bacteria and required RORgammat. Mice lacking IL-22-producing NKp46+ cells showed heightened susceptibility to the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, consistent with a role for intestinal NKp46+ cells in immune protection. RORgammat-driven diversification of intestinal NKp46+ cells thereby specifies an innate cellular defense mechanism that operates at mucosal surfaces.

  17. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  18. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  19. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confiden...

  20. Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Tiarks; E.K.S. Nambiar; C. Cossalter

    1998-01-01

    Tropical countries are expanding plantation forestry to develop sustainable woodproduction systems. Much of this is based on short rotations of exotic species. These systems require large capital investments, represent intensive land use and increase the demands on the soil. To develop options for maintaining or increasing productivity a partner-project was initiated...

  1. Sites and gene products involved in lambdoid phage DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M P; Feiss, M

    1993-04-01

    21 is a temperate lambdoid coliphage, and the genes that encode the head proteins of lambda and 21 are descended from a common ancestral bacteriophage. The sequencing of terminase genes 1 and 2 of 21 was completed, along with that of a segment at the right end of 21 DNA that includes the R4 sequence. The R4 sequence, a site that is likely involved in termination of DNA packaging, was found to be very similar to the R4 sequences of lambda and phi 80, suggesting that R4 is a recognition site that is not phage specific. DNA packaging by 21 is dependent on a host protein, integration host factor. A series of mutations in gene 1 (her mutations), which allow integration host factor-independent DNA packaging by 21, were found to be missense changes that affect predicted alpha-helixes in gp1. gp2, the large terminase subunit, is predicted to contain an ATP-binding domain and, perhaps, a second domain important for the cos-cutting activity of terminase. orf1, an open reading frame analogous in position to FI, a lambda gene involved in DNA packaging, shares some sequence identity with FI. orf1 was inactivated with nonsense and insertion mutations; these mutations were found not to affect phage growth. 21 was also not able to complement a lambda FI mutant.

  2. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  3. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  4. Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David; Alvarez, Ramón A; Palacios, Virginia; Harriss, Robert; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-07

    Emissions from natural gas production sites are characterized by skewed distributions, where a small percentage of sites-commonly labeled super-emitters-account for a majority of emissions. A better characterization of super-emitters is needed to operationalize ways to identify them and reduce emissions. We designed a conceptual framework that functionally defines superemitting sites as those with the highest proportional loss rates (methane emitted relative to methane produced). Using this concept, we estimated total methane emissions from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale; functionally superemitting sites accounted for roughly three-fourths of total emissions. We discuss the potential to reduce emissions from these sites, under the assumption that sites with high proportional loss rates have excess emissions resulting from abnormal or otherwise avoidable operating conditions, such as malfunctioning equipment. Because the population of functionally superemitting sites is not expected to be static over time, continuous monitoring will likely be necessary to identify them and improve their operation. This work suggests that achieving and maintaining uniformly low emissions across the entire population of production sites will require mitigation steps at a large fraction of sites.

  5. Comparison of conventional vs. modular hydrogen refueling stations and on-site production vs. delivery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To meet the needs of public and private stakeholders involved in the development, construction, and operation of hydrogen fueling stations needed to support the widespread roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, this work presents publicly available station templates and analyses. These ‘Reference Stations’ help reduce the cost and speed the deployment of hydrogen stations by providing a common baseline with which to start a design, enable quick assessment of potential sites for a hydrogen station, identify contributors to poor economics, and suggest areas of research. This work presents layouts, bills of materials, piping and instrumentation diagrams, and detailed analyses of five new station designs. In the near term, delivered hydrogen results in a lower cost of hydrogen compared to on-site production via steam methane reforming or electrolysis, although the on-site production methods have other advantages. Modular station concepts including on-site production can reduce lot sizes from conventional assemble-on-site stations.

  6. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  7. Contaminants, toxicity and wildlife mortality at oil production sites in western South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chemicals at oil production sites can be hazardous to migratory birds and other wildlife. Oil, grease, and other chemical wastes related to well drilling are...

  8. The determination and analysis of site-specific rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlan, Casey L; Perevoschikova, Irina V; Goncalves, Renata L S;

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely implicated in physiological and pathological pathways. We propose that it is critical to understand the specific sites of mitochondrial ROS production and their mechanisms of action. Mitochondria possess at least eight distinct sites of ROS p...

  9. ADAM10 overexpression shifts lympho- and myelopoiesis by dysregulating site 2/site 3 cleavage products of Notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, David R; Saleem, Sheinei J; Kang, Dae-Joong; Subler, Mark A; Conrad, Daniel H

    2011-04-01

    Although the physiological consequences of Notch signaling in hematopoiesis have been extensively studied, the differential effects of individual notch cleavage products remain to be elucidated. Given that ADAM10 is a critical regulator of Notch and that its deletion is embryonically lethal, we generated mice that overexpress ADAM10 (ADAM10 transgenic [A10Tg]) at early stages of lympho- and myeloid development. Transgene expression resulted in abrogated B cell development, delayed T cell development in the thymus, and unexpected systemic expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells, also known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Mixed bone marrow reconstitution assays demonstrated that transgene expression altered hematopoiesis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism. Consistent with previously reported observations, we hypothesized that ADAM10 overexpression dysregulated Notch by uncoupling the highly regulated proteolysis of Notch receptors. This was confirmed using an in vitro model of hematopoiesis via culturing A10Tg hematopoietic Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells with OP-9 stromal cells in the presence or absence of Delta-like 1, a primary ligand for Notch. Blockade of the site 2 (S2) and site 3 (S3) cleavage of the Notch receptor demonstrated differential effects on hematopoiesis. OP9-DL1 cultures containing the ADAM10 inhibitor (S2 cleavage site) enhanced and rescued B cell development from wild-type and A10Tg Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells, respectively. In contrast, blockade of γ-secretase at the S3 cleavage site induced accumulation of the S2 product and consequently prevented B cell development and resulted in myeloid cell accumulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that the differential cleavage of Notch into S2 and S3 products regulated by ADAM10 is critical to hematopoietic cell-fate determination.

  10. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  11. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. Objective To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. Methods We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Results Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. Conclusions E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used. PMID:27227129

  12. Methane Emissions from Conventional and Unconventional Natural Gas Production Sites in the Marcellus Shale Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, Mark; Sullivan, Melissa R; Li, Xiang; Subramanian, R; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    There is a need for continued assessment of methane (CH4) emissions associated with natural gas (NG) production, especially as recent advancements in horizontal drilling combined with staged hydraulic fracturing technologies have dramatically increased NG production (we refer to these wells as "unconventional" NG wells). In this study, we measured facility-level CH4 emissions rates from the NG production sector in the Marcellus region, and compared CH4 emissions between unconventional NG (UNG) well pad sites and the relatively smaller and older "conventional" NG (CvNG) sites that consist of wells drilled vertically into permeable geologic formations. A top-down tracer-flux CH4 measurement approach utilizing mobile downwind intercepts of CH4, ethane, and tracer (nitrous oxide and acetylene) plumes was performed at 18 CvNG sites (19 individual wells) and 17 UNG sites (88 individual wells). The 17 UNG sites included four sites undergoing completion flowback (FB). The mean facility-level CH4 emission rate among UNG well pad sites in routine production (18.8 kg/h (95% confidence interval (CI) on the mean of 12.0-26.8 kg/h)) was 23 times greater than the mean CH4 emissions from CvNG sites. These differences were attributed, in part, to the large size (based on number of wells and ancillary NG production equipment) and the significantly higher production rate of UNG sites. However, CvNG sites generally had much higher production-normalized CH4 emission rates (median: 11%; range: 0.35-91%) compared to UNG sites (median: 0.13%, range: 0.01-1.2%), likely resulting from a greater prevalence of avoidable process operating conditions (e.g., unresolved equipment maintenance issues). At the regional scale, we estimate that total annual CH4 emissions from 88 500 combined CvNG well pads in Pennsylvania and West Virginia (660 Gg (95% CI: 500 to 800 Gg)) exceeded that from 3390 UNG well pads by 170 Gg, reflecting the large number of CvNG wells and the comparably large fraction of

  13. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek Contract Engineering..., applicable to workers of FLSmidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, including on-site leased...-site leased workers from Clarke Consulting, Inc. were also employed on-site at FLSmidth, Inc.,...

  14. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis...

  15. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis...

  16. Interleukin-10 negatively regulates local cytokine and chemokine production but does not influence antibacterial host defense during murine pneumococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Poll, van der T.; Florquin, S; Roord, J.J.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-10 (IL-10) in local host defense during pneumococcal meningitis, the inflammatory responses of IL-10-gene-deficient and wild-type mice after the induction of meningitis were compared. The absence of IL-10 was associated with higher cytokine and

  17. An Analysis of Proposed Alternatives to the Defense Technical Information Center’s Announcement Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    from NTIS," Library Journal , CX, No. 1 (1985): 29. "National Library of Medicine Offers Subsets of MEDLINE," Online Review, VIII, No. 6 (1984...Sandra Young - Defense Nuclear Agency - 25 Jan 85 -41- BIBLIOGRAPHY "Data tiles on floppies coming soon from NT1S." Library Journal , CX, No. 1 (1985

  18. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  19. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  20. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions, as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via mentioned sites (acting as intermediaries in online sales channel, and anticipated satisfaction from choice made by consumer. Also indirect influence of users’ opinions about product and sellers on mentioned constructs has been researched. Study on effective sample of 456 young consumers with data collected through CAWI questionnaire confirmed reliability and validity of measurement scales. Path model estimated via PLS-SEM confirmed most hypotheses settled, particularly confirming strong positive relationships between cognitive trust (mostly in competence on affective trust, and later on purchase intention and choice satisfaction. Product and sellers reviews were partially mediating some of those relationships.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase active site to increase photobiological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, Hajime; Inoue, Kazuhito; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Wolk, C Peter; Hausinger, Robert P

    2010-10-01

    Cyanobacteria use sunlight and water to produce hydrogen gas (H₂), which is potentially useful as a clean and renewable biofuel. Photobiological H₂ arises primarily as an inevitable by-product of N₂ fixation by nitrogenase, an oxygen-labile enzyme typically containing an iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) active site. In Anabaena sp. strain 7120, the enzyme is localized to the microaerobic environment of heterocysts, a highly differentiated subset of the filamentous cells. In an effort to increase H₂ production by this strain, six nitrogenase amino acid residues predicted to reside within 5 Å of the FeMo-co were mutated in an attempt to direct electron flow selectively toward proton reduction in the presence of N₂. Most of the 49 variants examined were deficient in N₂-fixing growth and exhibited decreases in their in vivo rates of acetylene reduction. Of greater interest, several variants examined under an N₂ atmosphere significantly increased their in vivo rates of H₂ production, approximating rates equivalent to those under an Ar atmosphere, and accumulated high levels of H₂ compared to the reference strains. These results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering cyanobacterial strains for enhanced photobiological production of H₂ in an aerobic, nitrogen-containing environment.

  2. Research on the relationship between stand productivity and site condition of Larix kaempferi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this research, five plots are selected based on stand storage and productivity of planted forest of Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch) as well as their relationship with factors such as forest age, site condition and stand density. Through standard plot investigation and method of trunk analysis, systematic research is conducted on storage and productivity of the planted forest and their relationship with site condition. As shown in the research, productivity of planted forest of Larix kaempferi in low latitude area is higher than that in high latitude area while stand productivity is higher in slight acid soil. Contents of potassium element in the soil have considerable influence on productivity of the Larix kaempferi forest.

  3. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original Equipment... of ] Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, including on-site...

  4. Validation of SMAP Surface Soil Moisture Products with Core Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N.; Kim, S. B.; Cosh, M. H.; Dunbar, R. S.; Dang, L.; Pashaian, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has utilized a set of core validation sites as the primary methodology in assessing the soil moisture retrieval algorithm performance. Those sites provide well calibrated in situ soil moisture measurements within SMAP product grid pixels for diverse conditions and locations.The estimation of the average soil moisture within the SMAP product grid pixels based on in situ measurements is more reliable when location specific calibration of the sensors has been performed and there is adequate replication over the spatial domain, with an up-scaling function based on analysis using independent estimates of the soil moisture distribution. SMAP fulfilled these requirements through a collaborative CalVal Partner program.This paper presents the results from 34 candidate core validation sites for the first eleven months of the SMAP mission. As a result of the screening of the sites prior to the availability of SMAP data, out of the 34 candidate sites 18 sites fulfilled all the requirements at one of the resolution scales (at least). The rest of the sites are used as secondary information in algorithm evaluation. The results indicate that the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture data product meets its expected performance of 0.04 cu m/cu m volumetric soil moisture (unbiased root mean square error); the combined radar-radiometer product is close to its expected performance of 0.04 cu m/cu m, and the radar-based product meets its target accuracy of 0.06 cu m/cu m (the lengths of the combined and radar-based products are truncated to about 10 weeks because of the SMAP radar failure). Upon completing the intensive CalVal phase of the mission the SMAP project will continue to enhance the products in the primary and extended geographic domains, in co-operation with the CalVal Partners, by continuing the comparisons over the existing core validation sites and inclusion of candidate sites that can address shortcomings.

  5. Research on Site Selection Model of Distribution Center of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the practical situation of logistics distribution of agricultural products,we primarily select transportation factor,economic factor,environment factor,and other factors,to establish evaluation index system of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.And then we adopt the analytic hierarchy process method to calculate weight of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.Under the circumstance that the evaluation information is interval number,we use uncertain and multiple attribute decision making method to establish site selection model of distribution center of agricultural products.Finally,taking one city as an example,we discuss the application of this model in site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.The results of empirical analysis show that the model we established fully considers the randomness and uncertainty in the process of evaluation,so as to make the results of evaluation more objective,in line with reality.So the effect of evaluation is better as against the former real number evaluation calibration.

  6. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  7. Study of relationship between time overrun and productivity on construction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameh, Oko John

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the construction industry worldwide is full of projects that were completed with significant time and cost overruns. In an attempt to reverse this trend, this study aims at establishing the relationship between time overrun and labour productivity on construction sites in Lagos, Nigeria. 43 technical and management staff of some medium and large construction firms based in Lagos, Nigeria were sampled and administered a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire contained 18 causes of project time overrun and 14 causes of low labour productivity which had been identified from the literature reviewed. With these a relationship between project time overrun and low labour productivity was established. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Results indicate that inadequate funds for the project, inadequate planning before project takeoff, inadequate tools and equipment and delay in delivery of material top the list of major causes of time overrun while the use of wrong construction methods, inadequate construction materials and inaccurate drawing/specification are the key factors causing low labour productivity on construction sites. Significant negative relationship was found between time overrun and labour productivity in construction sites in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that early appointment of project managers could ensure proper management of both the human and material resources that could guarantee improved productivity and ultimately save projects from time overrun.

  8. Consumer Decision-Making Styles Extension to Trust-Based Product Comparison Site Usage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an implementation of extended consumer decision-making styles concept in explaining consumer choices made in product comparison site environment in the context of trust-based information technology acceptance model. Previous research proved that trust-based acceptance model is useful in explaining purchase intention and anticipated satisfaction in product comparison site environment, as an example of online decision shopping aids. Trust to such aids is important in explaining their usage by consumers. The connections between consumer decision-making styles, product and sellers opinions usage, cognitive and affective trust toward online product comparison site, as well as choice outcomes (purchase intention and brand choice are explored trough structural equation models using PLS-SEM approach, using a sample of 461 young consumers. Research confirmed the validity of research model in explaining product comparison usage, and some consumer decision-making styles influenced consumers’ choices and purchase intention. Product and sellers reviews usage were partially mediating mentioned relationships.

  9. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  10. Expanding site productivity research to sustain non-timber forest functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Barbara Crane

    2006-01-01

    Southern forests produce multiple products and services including timber, wildlife habitat, species bio- and genetic divenity, water quality and control, waste remediation, recreation, and carbon sequestration. All of these benefits must be produced in a sustainable manner to meet today's societal needs without compromising future needs. A forest site is...

  11. The impact of site preparation for biofuel and sawtimber production on soil compaction and long-term soil productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Z.H.; Sucre, E.B. [Weyerhaeuser NR Co., Vanceboro, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Research into renewable fuel sources has increased as a result of increasing global concerns over carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. This study assessed that potential effects of concurrent biofuel and high quality wood product production in forests along the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. The effects of intercropping and biomass management on site productivity and sustainability were investigated on loblolly pine plantations; loblolly pine and switchgrass; and loblolly pines with flat-planted pine trees planted between crop tree beds. Stands of switchgrass only were also investigated. The treatments were established on 0.81 hectare plots and replicated 4 times. The impacts of various non-traditional land management approaches on soil productivity and sustainability were assessed, as well as the site preparations needed to develop a dual crop system. The study showed no significant differences in soil compaction before and after the treatments were installed. Average soil resistance across all treatments at the soil surface was 201 kPa. Soil resistance increased to 1539 kPa and 1923 kPa at depths of 15 and 30 cm. The study indicated that dual crop systems and practices for biofuel and timber production are both economically feasible and environmentally sustainable.

  12. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  13. Co-option of the sphingolipid metabolism for the production of nitroalkene defensive chemicals in termite soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirošová, Anna; Jančařík, Andrej; Menezes, Riya C; Bazalová, Olga; Dolejšová, Klára; Vogel, Heiko; Jedlička, Pavel; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Majer, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Svatoš, Aleš

    2017-01-23

    The aliphatic nitroalkene (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene (NPD), reported in early seventies in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first documented nitro compound produced by insects. Yet, its biosynthetic origin has long remained unknown. Here, we investigated in detail the biosynthesis of NPD in P. simplex soldiers. First, we track the dynamics in major metabolic pathways during soldier ontogeny, with emphasis on likely NPD precursors and intermediates. Second, we propose a hypothesis of NPD formation and verify its individual steps using in vivo incubations of putative precursors and intermediates. Third, we use a de novo assembled RNA-Seq profiles of workers and soldiers to identify putative enzymes underlying NPD formation. And fourth, we describe the caste- and age-specific expression dynamics of candidate initial genes of the proposed biosynthetic pathway. Our observations provide a strong support to the following biosynthetic scenario of NPD formation, representing an analogy of the sphingolipid pathway starting with the condensation of tetradecanoic acid with l-serine and leading to the formation of a C16 sphinganine. The C16 sphinganine is then oxidized at the terminal carbon to give rise to 2-amino-3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, further oxidized to 2-amino-3-oxohexadecanoic acid. Subsequent decarboxylation yields 1-aminopentadecan-2-one, which then proceeds through six-electron oxidation of the amino moiety to give rise to 1-nitropentadecan-2-one. Keto group reduction and hydroxyl moiety elimination lead to NPD. The proposed biosynthetic sequence has been constructed from age-related quantitative dynamics of individual intermediates and confirmed by the detection of labeled products downstream of the administered labeled intermediates. Comparative RNA-Seq analyses followed by qRT-PCR validation identified orthologs of serine palmitoyltransferase and 3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase genes as highly expressed in the NPD production site, i

  14. Antifoam Degradation Products in Off Gas and Condensate of Sludge Batch 9 Simulant Nitric-Formic Flowsheet Testing for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-14

    Ten chemical processing cell (CPC) experiments were performed using simulant to evaluate Sludge Batch 9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on eight of the ten. The other two were SRAT cycles only. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has previously shown antifoam decomposes to form flammable organic products, (hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), trimethylsilanol (TMS), and propanal), that are present in the vapor phase and condensate of the CPC vessels. To minimize antifoam degradation product formation, a new antifoam addition strategy was implemented at SRNL and DWPF to add antifoam undiluted.

  15. Identification and quantification of bovine protein lactosylation sites in different milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-02-16

    The microbiological safety of milk is typically guaranteed by thermal treatments, such as pasteurization and ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment, whereas infant formula (IF) is often produced at even harsher conditions including a drying process. Thermal treatments have raised concerns, as they may denature proteins and initiate protein modifications. Previous studies identified already many lactosylation sites in milk and showed that the lactosylation degree of some proteins correlates to thermal treatment conditions. Here, we studied the glycation degrees of 124 lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins in raw milk, three brands of pasteurized milk, three brands of UHT milk, and five brands of IF. Whereas, the glycation degree of many lactosylation sites increased from raw milk, to pasteurized milk, UHT milk, and IF, several modification sites showed a different behavior indicating that global measures do not correctly reflect the reactivity of distinct sites. Interestingly, the glycation degrees varied considerably among the brands of UHT milk and IF indicating that specific production processes of a company have to be considered and not only the classification of milk as pasteurized or UHT. Thus, proper adjustments of the technical processes should allow reducing the lactosylation levels in both UHT milk and IF. It is well established that thermal treatment of milk triggers protein modifications, such as lactosylation of lysine residues in several proteins, although the extent of lactosylation has not been quantitatively compared for a broad panel of protein lactosylation sites among different commercial products. The current study extends previous reports by relatively quantifying 124 confirmed lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins including several low abundant proteins. Whereas, glycation is generally assumed to be an unspecific chemical reaction with the modification degrees depending on the protein and sugar concentrations, we could show

  16. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  17. Fuelwood production potential of six Prosopis species on an alkaline soil site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1995-07-01

    The biomass potential of six species Prosopis was evaluated on highly alkaline soil site. Prosopis alba I was found to have the fastest growth rate and highest above-ground biomass production. P. juliflora ranked next. P. cineraria showed high plant establishment but relatively slow growth. The performance of P. glandulosa was poor on such sites. The high fuelwood value index and rapid growth rate of P. juliflora and P. alba makes them suitable for short-rotation fuelwood forestry programmes on waste-lands. Selection of promising genotypes is suggested as a means of improvement in yields. (author)

  18. Net Biome Productivity of different land use at the sites of the Tharandt cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, T.; Prescher, A.-K.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    Within the Tharandt cluster there are 5 flux monitoring sites including 3 CARBOEUROPE main sites. The CARBOEUROPE sites cover typical land use of the region (spruce [monitored since 1996], grassland [since 2003], cropland [since 2004]). For all sites estimates of the Net Biome Productivity (NBP) and its uncertainty have been derived using Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) based on the EC measurements and C exports and imports on an annual basis. The crop site is a small C sink (NEP of 30-110gCm-2a-1) only. The annual NEP values are dependent on the cultivated crop species (winter or summer crop). Including C export (harvest) and C import (manure spreading) lead to a considerable C source of 270-540gCm-2a-1. Organic fertilisation (C import) has a strong impact on NBP values expressed in a reduced annual net carbon source. Also, the largest interannual differences of NBP values are found at this site - mainly induced by the existence and the amount of a carbon import due to organic fertilisation. Management practices affect the NBP in a sensitive way at this crop site. Each crop shows a higher C export due to harvest than the annual NEP. To validate the calculated C equivalent using harvested grain biomass modelled NPP values are available. Uncertainty ranges of C export, C import and NBP as well as the grassland and spruce NBP (for comparison) are also stated. In general, land use and management strongly affect the annual NBP of non-forested ecosystems especially. So, this is the second main driver of the C budget besides the interannual variability in meteorological conditions and water availability with its influence on NEP, GPP and TER.

  19. 1994 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  20. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  1. Quantitative Site-Specific Phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei Signaling Pathways upon Induction of Hydrolytic Enzyme Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Haapaniemi, Pekka; Yadav, Avinash; Saloheimo, Markku; Corthals, Garry L; Pakula, Tiina M

    2016-02-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation system controlling hydrolase genes involves various signaling pathways. T. reesei was cultivated in the presence of sorbitol, a carbon source that does not induce the production of cellulases and hemicellulases, and then exposed to either sophorose or spent-grain extract, which are efficient inducers of the enzyme production. Specific changes at phosphorylation sites were investigated in relation to the production of cellulases and hemicellulases using an MS-based framework. Proteome-wide phosphorylation following carbon source exchange was investigated in the early stages of induction: 0, 2, 5, and 10 min. The workflow involved sequential trypsin digestion, TiO2 enrichment, and MS analysis using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. We report on the identification and quantitation of 1721 phosphorylation sites. Investigation of the data revealed a complex signaling network activated upon induction involving components related to light-mediated cellulase induction, osmoregulation, and carbon sensing. Changes in protein phosphorylation were detected in the glycolytic pathway, suggesting an inhibition of glucose catabolism at 10 min after the addition of sophorose and as early as 2 min after the addition of spent-grain extract. Differential phosphorylation of factors related to carbon storage, intracellular trafficking, cytoskeleton, and cellulase gene regulation were also observed.

  2. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  3. Validation of Regional-Scale Remote Sensing Products in China: From Site to Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Validation is mandatory to quantify the reliability of remote sensing products (RSPs. However, this process is not straightforward and usually presents formidable challenges in terms of both theory and real-world operations. In this context, a dedicated validation initiative was launched in China, and we identified a validation strategy (VS. This overall VS focuses on validating regional-scale RSPs with a systematic site-to-network concept, consisting of four main components: (1 general guidelines and technical specifications to guide users in validating various land RSPs, particularly aiming to further develop in situ sampling schemes and scaling approaches to acquire ground truth at the pixel scale over heterogeneous surfaces; (2 sound site-based validation activities, conducted through multi-scale, multi-platform, and multi-source observations to experimentally examine and improve the first component; (3 a national validation network to allow for comprehensive assessment of RSPs from site or regional scales to the national scale across various zones; and (4 an operational RSP evaluation system to implement operational validation applications. Research progress on the development of these four components is described in this paper. Some representative research results, with respect to the development of sampling methods and site-based validation activities, are also highlighted. The development of this VS improves our understanding of validation issues, especially to facilitate validating RSPs over heterogeneous land surfaces both at the pixel scale level and the product level.

  4. Supervisors' perceptions of productivity of employees with preschool children in workplace on-site child care

    OpenAIRE

    Marickovich, Patricia Pesut

    1989-01-01

    Corporate leaders at Dominion Bankshares Corporation established an on-site child care facility at its operations center for its Roanoke, Virginia employees. The immediate supervisors of parents of children enrolled in the Dominion Child Development Center were surveyed to determine the factors they believed affected worker productivity and their perceptions of how employees' work habits had changed as a result of the opening of the child care center. A description of ...

  5. Single Production of Heavy Top Quark from Three-Site Higgsless Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Chong-Xing; WANG Li-Hong; WEN Jia

    2008-01-01

    We consider single production of the heavy top quark T predicted by the three-site Higgsless model in future high energy collider experiments,such as the high energy linear e+e- collider (ILC),the linear-ring type ep collider (THERA),and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).Our numerical results show that the possible signals of the heavy top quark T might be detected via the subprocess qb→ q'T at the LHC.

  6. The effect of preoperative skin preparation products on surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather L; Reese, Sara; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Mauffrey, Cyril; Price, Connie S

    2014-12-01

    Skin preparation products contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. In a case-control study, diabetes was associated with increased SSI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-27.0]), while the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) plus isopropyl alcohol versus CHG alone was found to be protective (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.12-6.20]).

  7. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  8. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  9. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  10. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Human health risk assessment in restoring safe and productive use of abandoned contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcisło, Eleonora; Bronder, Joachim; Bubak, Anicenta; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2016-09-01

    In Europe soil contamination has been recognized as a serious problem. The needs to remediate contaminated sites are not questionable, although the remediation actions are often hindered by their very high financial costs. On the other hand, the abandoned contaminated sites may have the potential for redevelopment and creating conditions appropriate for their productive reuse bringing social, economic and environmental benefits. The main concern associated with the contaminated sites is their potential adverse health impact. Therefore, in the process of contaminated site redevelopment the risk assessment and the subsequent risk management decisions will play a crucial role. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the role of the human health risk assessment (HRA) in supporting site remediation and reuse decisions. To exemplify the significance of the HRA process in this field the Nitrastur site, located in Asturias, Spain was used. Risks resulting from soil contamination with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were assessed under three potential future land use patterns: industrial, residential and recreational. The results of the study indicated that soil at the Nitrastur site might pose non-cancer and cancer risks to potential future receptors - industrial workers, residents and recreational users. Arsenic and lead are the main substances responsible for the health risk and the primary drivers of remedial decisions at the site. The highest total cancer risks were observed under the residential scenario, followed in descending order by the recreational and industrial ones. The remedial maps illustrate in which areas remediation activities are required, depending on a given land use pattern. The obtained results may be used to develop, analyse, compare and select the remedial options within the intended land use pattern. They may also be used to support the decisions concerning the

  12. A Cross-Site Evaluation of Alternative FPAR Products for Use in Diagnostic Carbon Flux Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, D.; Nightingale, J.; Wharton, S.; Vickers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Input requirements for diagnostic carbon flux models include estimates of FPAR (the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation that is absorbed by the canopy). These estimates are available from a variety of satellite-borne sensors, but in their raw form may contain significant artifacts associated primarily with clouds. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity of simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production (NEP) to alternative formulations of FPAR from the MODIS sensor. These alternatives included the original product (FPARorig), a version based on filling and interpolation (FPARntsg), and a version with a smoothing based on the TIMESAT algorithm (FPARts). Estimates of daily GPP, Re, and NEP from multiple eddy covariance flux towers over multiple years were assembled as reference data. In almost all cases, model output based on FPARntsg and FPARts reduced bias on an annual basis and RMSE for daily values relative to model runs using FPARorig. At a wet conifer site, FPARts maintained the highest and most consistent FPAR, a pattern consistent with the dense coniferous forest canopy there. Limitations of FPARts were apparent at a grassland site with an abrupt fall off in greenness associated with onset of the dry season. Model effectiveness in capturing the interannual variation in NEP was also enhanced in many cases with the adjusted FPAR products.

  13. Vulnerability of Motivation Schemes in Enhancing Site Workers Productivity for Construction Industry’s Sustainability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufisayo Adewumi Adedokun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry provides appreciable employment for the unskilled and semi-skilled labour considering the nature of most activities carried out on construction sites. However, the productivity of this categories of labour have trended poor overtime. This study therefore assessed the financial and non financial motivational schemes; in light of their preference to construction site workers so as to assure on their vulnerability in enhancing productivity. The data collected through the administration of questionnaires to construction site operatives were analysed using the relative importance index (RII. The research instrument was also legitimized with content validity index (CVI for items ≥ 0.80 and cronbach alpha value, as a measure of internal consistency, ≥ 0.70. Allowances, wages stock option and bonuses are the financial motivators while delegation, independence and autonomy, facilities for transportation are the non financial motivations that are important to site workers on construction sites. Giving praises, encouragement to make contributions, free medical care, availability of relaxation centres and first aid provision are the motivation schemes that site operatives believed to enhance their productivity. This paper concludes that both financial and non financial motivational schemes are important to enhancing the productivity of operatives on construction sites. The vulnerable motivational schemes to the enhancement of productivity, as revealed in this study is recommended to the construction and subcontracting firms, foremen, clerk of works, site supervisors, site engineers and all other stakeholders in ensuring a maximum output for a unit input from site operatives.

  14. A thymosin beta-4 is involved in production of hemocytes and immune defense of Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuehuan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Xiang, Zhiming; Qu, Fufa; Yu, Ziniu

    2016-04-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with multiple and diverse intracellular and extracellular functions in vertebrates. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Tβ4 was cloned and identified in Crassostrea hongkongensis, designated as ChTβ4. The full-length cDNA of ChTβ4 consists of 530 bp with an open reading frame of 126 bp encoding a 41 amino acid polypeptide. SMART analysis indicated that there is one thymosin domain and a highly conserved actin-binding motif (18LKKTET23) in ChTβ4. In vivo injection of recombinant ChTβ4 protein could significantly increase total hemocytes count in oysters, and knockdown of the expression of ChTβ4 resulted in a significant decrease in the circulating hemocytes. Tissue distribution analysis revealed a ubiquitous presence of ChTβ4, with the highest expression in hemocytes. The upregulated transcripts of ChTβ4 in response to bacterial challenge and tissue injury suggest that ChTβ4 is involved in both innate immunity against pathogen infection and wound healing. Moreover, bacteria-clearance experiment showed ChTβ4 could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in oysters. In vivo injection with ChTβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS in hemocytes, which was associated with increased expression of antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) by pre-treatment with ChTβ4. These results suggest that ChTβ4 is a thymosin beta-4 homolog and plays a vital role in the immune defense of C. hongkongensis.

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  16. Economics of plant production on marginal sites in the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Andrea; Andreas, Gurgel; Ines, Bull

    2017-04-01

    Marginal sites are defined by economics. It is not possible to produce any profit there under given conditions of markets and policy even when management is optimized. In the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a portion of nearly 20 % of arable land is characterized by such conditions. There are often to find sandy sites below 28 soil points with low storage capacity and irregular water supply. Animal husbandry as a type of agricultural upgrading has a more important role in the south and southwest of the state than in the regions with better soil quality. The percentage of Maize was already in 2003 twice as high in the regions with more marginal sites. After implementation of the Renewable Energy Act many enterprises started built biogas plants. In 2010, the portion of maize was raised to 20 %. The increase of Maize was combined with a reduction of growing other fodder crops, rye and also by reducing set-aside areas. The scale of the cash crops Rape (16%), Wheat (15 %) and barley (9 %) stayed the same. The yields and production processes of several selected farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were analyzed for the years 2011 to 2016. The farms reached 6.6 tons per hectare of wheat and 6.1 tons per hectare of barley on soils below 28 soil points. Hybrid rye achieved 5.4 tons per hectare and rape 3.0. Maize was especially dependent on water supply and made between 30 and 35 tons per hectare. The big problem in these regions is caused by high production costs in cropping. More than a half of the costs is required for seeds, fertilization and crop protection. However, the remaining revenues are not adequate for paying work and fix costs as an evaluation of farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern shows. It is not a valid option to set more land that is arable aside in regions with much marginal sites because cropping is a strategic investment there. Therefore, it is important to make effort on crop rotations and optimization of production intensities to decrease costs per unit and to

  17. Coccolithophore export production during the last deglaciation at ODP Site 1089 (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Chiara; Ziveri, Patrizia; Mortyn, Peter Graham; Fornaciari, Eliana; Agnini, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the Southern Ocean carbonate budget change during the last deglaciation we evaluated the significance of calcification changes observed in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. In particular, we analysed coccolithophore assemblages from TNO57-21, a site survey core drilled as part of ODP Site 1089 (40°57'S; 9°53'E, 4620 m water depth), over the last 25 ky in the Subantarctic South Atlantic. This region is characterized by strong hydrographic gradients and ODP Site 1089 is optimally located in order to monitor the evolution of the Subtropical Front and Subpolar Front and the Agulhas Current (Flores et al., 2003) through time. The mean sedimentation rate is in the range of 15-20 cm/kyr, and the recovery of coccolith-bearing sediments provides a powerful tool to study deep-sea carbonate export production at high-resolution. Much of the CO2 drawdown from the atmosphere has been proposed to be stored into the deep ocean but evidence for increased carbon storage are still elusive (Martínez- Botí et al., 2015). Here, we present data on the Florisphaera profunda index and CaCO3 concentrations per gram of dry sediment, which were used to intepret the productivity trend during the last 25 kyr. These data clearly show a decrease in carbonate production throughout the last deglaciation. Moreover, we have calculated the Calcidiscus leptoporus-Emiliania huxleyi dissolution index (CEX'), which suggests a strong link between increasing coccolith dissolution and the evolution of the bottom water mass dynamics during Termination 1 (TI). Finally, mass estimations of the coccolith carbonate allow us to assess the role of each species as carbonate producers across this time span. These results reveal that during the last 25 ky the productivity was influenced by the mid-latitude westerlies, the study site was bathed by different bottom water masses, and was affected by a shoaling of the lysocline during T1 and the Holocene. References Flores J-A., Marino M., Sierro

  18. Tunable Molecular MoS2 Edge-Site Mimics for Catalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin R; Polen, Shane M; Click, Kevin A; He, Mingfu; Huang, Zhongjie; Hadad, Christopher M; Wu, Yiying

    2016-04-18

    Molybdenum sulfides represent state-of-the-art, non-platinum electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). According to the Sabatier principle, the hydrogen binding strength to the edge active sites should be neither too strong nor too weak. Therefore, it is of interest to develop a molecular motif that mimics the catalytic sites structurally and possesses tunable electronic properties that influence the hydrogen binding strength. Furthermore, molecular mimics will be important for providing mechanistic insight toward the HER with molybdenum sulfide catalysts. In this work, a modular method to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in MoO(S2)2L2 complexes is described. We studied the homogeneous electrocatalytic hydrogen production performance metrics of three catalysts with different bipyridine substitutions. By varying the electron-donating abilities, we present the first demonstration of using the ligand to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in molecular MoS2 edge-site mimics. This work can shed light on the relationship between the structure and electrocatalytic activity of molecular MoS2 catalysts and thus is of broad importance from catalytic hydrogen production to biological enzyme functions.

  19. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  20. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  2. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  3. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  4. Development of remote sensing based site specific weed management for Midwest mint production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Mary Saumur Paulson

    Peppermint and spearmint are high value essential oil crops in Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Although the mints are profitable alternatives to corn and soybeans, mint production efficiency must improve in order to allow industry survival against foreign produced oils and synthetic flavorings. Weed control is the major input cost in mint production and tools to increase efficiency are necessary. Remote sensing-based site-specific weed management offers potential for decreasing weed control costs through simplified weed detection and control from accurate site specific weed and herbicide application maps. This research showed the practicability of remote sensing for weed detection in the mints. Research was designed to compare spectral response curves of field grown mint and weeds, and to use these data to develop spectral vegetation indices for automated weed detection. Viability of remote sensing in mint production was established using unsupervised classification, supervised classification, handheld spectroradiometer readings and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Unsupervised classification of multispectral images of peppermint production fields generated crop health maps with 92 and 67% accuracy in meadow and row peppermint, respectively. Supervised classification of multispectral images identified weed infestations with 97% and 85% accuracy for meadow and row peppermint, respectively. Supervised classification showed that peppermint was spectrally distinct from weeds, but the accuracy of these measures was dependent on extensive ground referencing which is impractical and too costly for on-farm use. Handheld spectroradiometer measurements of peppermint, spearmint, and several weeds and crop and weed mixtures were taken over three years from greenhouse grown plants, replicated field plots, and production peppermint and spearmint fields. Results showed that mints have greater near infrared (NIR) and lower green reflectance and a steeper red edge slope than

  5. Chemo- and site-selective derivatizations of natural products enabling biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Omar; Romo, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products, enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed, benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area.

  6. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

  7. Novel aspinolide production by Trichoderma arundinaceum with a potential role in Botrytis cinerea antagonistic activity and plant defense priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzianum A (HA), a trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum, has recently been described to have antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens and to induce plant defence genes. In the present work, we have shown that a tri5 genedisrupted mutant that lacks HA production overproduce...

  8. Alkynol natural products target ALDH2 in cancer cells by irreversible binding to the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreuter, Wolfgang; Kunold, Elena; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-11-11

    Falcarinol and stipudiol are natural products with potent anti-cancer activity found in several vegetables. Here, we use a chemical proteomic strategy to identify ALDH2 as a molecular target of falcarinol in cancer cells and confirm enzyme inhibition via covalent alkylation of the active site. Furthermore, the synthesis of stipudiol led to the observation that ALDH2 exhibits preference for alkynol-based binders. Inhibition of ALDH2 impairs detoxification of reactive aldehydes and limits oxidative stress response, two crucial pathways for cellular viability.

  9. The occupational safety on the construction sites of the farm production buildings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hellstedt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The size of farms has increased considerably during Finland's EU membership. The growth has meant big investments in the new production buildings. The buildings have been switched to big industrialhall- like constructions from small-scale ones which have contained own timber and own work contribution. The objective of the project financed by Farmers' Social Insurance Institution was to improve occupational safety on farm building construction and renovation sites by disseminating current safety practices and by developing ways of action which are better than the prevailing ones. The project consisted of a literature review, statistical analysis, as well as a farmer and designer interviews. In the statistical analysis the MATA occupational injuries insurance claims database on farmers’ claims during construction and renovation work for the years 2005 - 2008 was compared with the register of Federation of Accident Insurance Institutions on the construction workers' injuries. In comparing the reasons of the accidents a clear difference was found; poor scaffoldings and ladders are still the main culprits on farm accidents. Farmer interviews were used to assess occupational safety measures on the construction site, occurred injuries and their types, nearmiss situations and the underlying factors which have led to the injuries. Also construction safety deficiencies as well as the direct and indirect costs caused for instance because of the delay in completion of construction project were discussed. Designer interviews aimed to find out how occupational safety and health considerations are taken into account in farm building planning and counseling, and how this experience of the designers should be utilized in order to improve safety at the construction sites on farms. Farmers knew their obligations on occupational safety poorly. The situation was further worsened by the fact that on the site the supervisor tasks were only nominally executed. The

  10. Only low methane production and emission in degraded peat extraction sites after rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agethen, Svenja; Waldemer, Carolin; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2015-04-01

    In Central Europe rewetting of bogs after peat extraction is a wide spread technique to halt secondary aerobic decomposition and to reestablish plant species such as Sphagnum spp. and Eriophorum spp. that initialize accumulation of organic carbon in peat. Before extraction, such sites are often used for agriculture causing the aerobic degradation of peat and mobilization of phosphorus, ammonia, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In nutrient poor ecosystems such as bogs, additional supply of P and N does not only trigger the establishment of uncharacteristic vegetation but also the formation of more labile plant litter and DOM that is readily degradable. Therefore, after rewetting and the development of anoxic conditions especially in initial stages high methane (CH4) emissions are reported for these systems compared to pristine bogs. Regarding the potential of methane production and emissions we investigated three common practices to prepare extraction fields for restoration (years since rewetting): i) Filling of drainage ditches, passive rewetting (1 site, Altendorfer Moor, Stade, NW-Germany, ca. 20 yr.), ii) Removal of upper 30 cm peat layer, removed peat used for construction of polder dikes (2 sites, Königsmoor, Leer, NW-Germany, 2 and 3 yr.), iii) Removal upper peat layer down to 50 cm grown peat, not extracted peat used as polder walls (2 sites, Benthullener Moor, Wardenburg, NW-Germany, 3 and 7 yr.). In each site two vegetated replicate mesocosms (diam. 30 cm, depth 40 cm) were sampled and placed in a greenhouse from May-October 2014 to maintain the water table at surface level. Pore water concentrations of ions, fermentation products and DOM, DOM electron acceptor capacity (EAC), soil gas concentrations of CO2, CH4 and H2, gas fluxes as well as element composition and organic matter quality of DOM and SOM were analyzed. We found out that practice i) with least efforts of nutrient removal in the peat produced the highest CH4 emissions (3.5 mmol m-2 d-1

  11. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    Efficient global agriculture monitoring requires appropriate validation of Earth observation (EO) products for different regions and cropping system. This problem is addressed within the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) initiative which aims to develop monitoring and reporting protocols and best practices for a variety of global agricultural systems. Ukraine is actively involved into JECAM, and a JECAM Ukraine test site was officially established in 2011. The following problems are being solved within JECAM Ukraine: (i) crop identification and crop area estimation [1]; (ii) crop yield forecasting [2]; (iii) EO products validation. The following case study regions were selected for these purposes: (i) the whole Kyiv oblast (28,000 sq. km) indented for crop mapping and acreage estimation; (ii) intensive observation sub-site in Pshenichne which is a research farm from the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and indented for crop biophysical parameters estimation; (iii) Lviv region for rape-seed identification and crop rotation control; (iv) Crimea region for crop damage assessment due to droughts, and illegial field detection. In 2013, Ukrainian JECAM test site was selected as one of the “Champion User” for the ESA Sentinel-2 for Agriculture project. The test site was observed with SPOT-4 and RapidEye satellites every 5 days. The collected images are then used to simulate Sentinel-2 images for agriculture purposes. JECAM Ukraine is responsible for collecting ground observation data for validation purposes, and is involved in providing user requirements for Sentinel-2 agriculture related products. In particular, three field campaigns to characterize the vegetation biophysical parameters at the Pshenichne test site were carried out: First campaign - 14th to 17th of May 2013; second campaign - 12th to 15th of June 2013; third campaign - 14th to 17th of July 2013. Digital Hemispheric Photographs (DHP) images were

  12. Comparative study of activities in reactive oxygen species production/defense system in mitochondria of rat brain and liver, and their susceptibility to methylmercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N.; Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University, School of Health Science, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasutake, A. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The involvement of oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism for neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanism for MeHg selective toxicity in the central nervous system is still unclear. In this research, to clarify the mechanism of selective neurotoxicity caused by MeHg, the oxygen consumption levels, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates and several antioxidant levels in mitochondria were compared among the cerebrum, cerebellum and liver of male Wistar rats. In addition, the alterations of these indexes were examined in MeHg-intoxicated rats (oral administration of 10 mg/kg day, for 5 days). Although the cerebrum and cerebellum in intact rats showed higher mitochondrial oxygen consumption levels and ROS production rates than the liver, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were much lower in the cerebrum and cerebellum than in the liver. Especially, the cerebellum showed the highest oxygen consumption and ROS production rate and the lowest mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels among the tissues examined. In the MeHg-treated rats, decrease in the oxygen consumption and increase in the ROS generation were found only in the cerebellum mitochondria, despite a lower Hg accumulation in the mitochondrial fraction compared to the liver. Since MeHg treatment produced an enhancement of ROS generation in cerebellum mitochondria supplemented with succinate substrates, MeHg-induced oxidative stress might affect the complex II-III mediated pathway in the electron transfer chain in the cerebellum mitochondria. Our study suggested that inborn factors, high production system activity and low defense system activity of ROS in the brain, would relate to the high susceptibility of the central nervous system to MeHg toxicity. (orig.)

  13. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  14. Site-Dependent Environmental Impacts of Industrial Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Koj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial hydrogen production via alkaline water electrolysis (AEL is a mature hydrogen production method. One argument in favor of AEL when supplied with renewable energy is its environmental superiority against conventional fossil-based hydrogen production. However, today electricity from the national grid is widely utilized for industrial applications of AEL. Also, the ban on asbestos membranes led to a change in performance patterns, making a detailed assessment necessary. This study presents a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA using the GaBi software (version 6.115, thinkstep, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany, revealing inventory data and environmental impacts for industrial hydrogen production by latest AELs (6 MW, Zirfon membranes in three different countries (Austria, Germany and Spain with corresponding grid mixes. The results confirm the dependence of most environmental effects from the operation phase and specifically the site-dependent electricity mix. Construction of system components and the replacement of cell stacks make a minor contribution. At present, considering the three countries, AEL can be operated in the most environmentally friendly fashion in Austria. Concerning the construction of AEL plants the materials nickel and polytetrafluoroethylene in particular, used for cell manufacturing, revealed significant contributions to the environmental burden.

  15. The Potential of Carbonyl Sulfide as a Tracer for Gross Primary Productivity at Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J.; Montzka, S. A.; Yakir, D.; Desai, A. R.; Dragoni, D.; Griffis, T. J.; Monson, R. K.; Munger, J. W.; Scott, R. L.; Bowling, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Regional/continental scale studies of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) seasonal dynamics and leaf level studies of plant OCS uptake have shown a close relationship to CO2 dynamics and uptake, suggesting potential for OCS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). Canopy CO2 and OCS differences (mole fraction within canopy minus that above canopy) at a temperate deciduous forest (Harvard Forest AmeriFlux site) were analyzed relative to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and GPP, respectively. Canopy CO2 and OCS vertical gradients (CO2 and OCS differences divided by within and above canopy measurement height differences) were used to calculate ecosystem relative uptake (ERU; relative canopy OCS gradient divided by relative canopy CO2 gradient, where relative gradients are gradients normalized by above canopy mole fractions), from which GPP was estimated using an equation that assumes OCS follows the same physical pathway as CO2 into plant leaves and where GPP / NEE was proportional to OCS gradient / CO2 gradient. Additionally, canopy CO2 differences from five other AmeriFlux sites were analyzed, and OCS differences were projected from these differences (via an assumed ERU) to further evaluate OCS as a potential GPP tracer. At Harvard Forest, canopy CO2 differences were related to NEE (y = 0.041x + 0.046, r2 = 0.14, P ERU is potentially measurable with current grab-sample-based OCS measurement capabilities and may provide an alternative means of estimating GPP at flux tower sites.

  16. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  17. Novel method for the high-throughput production of phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Wakata, Yuka; Inobe, Tomonao; Kitamura, Haruki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsuzawa, Shun; Kishi, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Threonine phosphorylation accounts for 10% of all phosphorylation sites compared with 0.05% for tyrosine and 90% for serine. Although monoclonal antibody generation for phospho-serine and -tyrosine proteins is progressing, there has been limited success regarding the production of monoclonal antibodies against phospho-threonine proteins. We developed a novel strategy for generating phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies by cloning immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells that were fixed, intracellularly stained with fluorescently labeled peptides and sorted without causing RNA degradation. Our high-throughput fluorescence activated cell sorting-based strategy, which targets abundant intracellular immunoglobulin as a tag for fluorescently labeled antigens, greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of antigen-specific plasma cell isolation, enabling the high-efficiency production of monoclonal antibodies with desired antigen specificity. This approach yielded yet-undescribed guinea pig monoclonal antibodies against threonine 18-phosphorylated p53 and threonine 68-phosphorylated CHK2 with high affinity and specificity. Our method has the potential to allow the generation of monoclonal antibodies against a variety of phosphorylated proteins. PMID:27125496

  18. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  19. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills.

  20. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  1. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  2. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  4. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox

    2009-01-01

    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  5. Parentage of overlapping offspring of an arboreal-breeding frog with no nest defense: implications for nest site selection and reproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wan-Ping; Chen, Yi-Huey; Cheng, Wei-Chun; Chuang, Ming-Feng; Hsu, Wan-Tso; Kam, Yeong-Choy; Lehtinen, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping offspring occurs when eggs are laid in a nest containing offspring from earlier reproduction. Earlier studies showed that the parentage is not always obvious due to difficulties in field observation and/or alternative breeding tactics. To unveil the parentage between overlapping offspring and parents is critical in understanding oviposition site selection and the reproductive strategies of parents. Amplectant pairs of an arboreal-breeding frog, Kurixalus eiffingeri, lay eggs in tadpole-occupied nests where offspring of different life stages (embryos and tadpoles) coexist. We used five microsatellite DNA markers to assess the parentage between parents and overlapping offspring. We also tested the hypothesis that the male or female frog would breed in the same breeding site because of the scarcity of nest sites. Results showed varied parentage patterns, which may differ from the phenomenon of overlapping egg clutches reported earlier. Parentage analyses showed that only 58 and 25% of the tadpole-occupied stumps were reused by the same male and female respectively, partially confirming our prediction. Re-nesting by the same individual was more common in males than females, which is most likely related to the cost of tadpole feeding and/or feeding schemes of females. On the other hand, results of parentage analyses showed that about 42 and 75% of male and female respectively bred in tadpole-occupied stumps where tadpoles were genetically unrelated. Results of a nest-choice experiment revealed that 40% of frogs chose tadpole-occupied bamboo cups when we presented identical stumps, without or with tadpoles, suggesting that the habitat saturation hypothesis does not fully explain why frogs used the tadpole-occupied stumps. Several possible benefits of overlapping offspring with different life stages were proposed. Our study highlights the importance of integrating molecular data with field observations to better understand the reproductive biology and nest

  6. Methane Detection for Oil and Gas Production Sites Using Portable Dual-Comb Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Sean; Wright, Robert; Cossel, Kevin C.; Truong, Gar-Wing; Baumann, Esther; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.; Alden, Caroline; Ghosh, Subhomoy; Prasad, Kuldeep; Rieker, Greg B.

    2016-06-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the contribution of oil and gas operations to anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric methane. Additionally, new proposed EPA regulations on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from oil and gas production facilities have been expanded to include methane, making this a topic of growing importance to the oil and gas industry as well as regulators. In order to gain a better understanding of emissions, reliable techniques that enable long-term monitoring of entire production facilities are needed. Recent advances in the development of compact and robust fiber frequency combs are enabling the use of this powerful spectroscopic tool outside of the laboratory. Here we characterize and demonstrate a dual comb spectrometer (DCS) system with the potential to locate and size methane leaks from oil and gas production sites over extended periods of time. The DCS operates over kilometer scale open paths, and the path integrated methane measurements will ultimately be coupled with an atmospheric inversion utilizing local meteorology and a high resolution fluid dynamics simulation to determine leak location and also derive a leak rate. High instrument precision is needed in order to accurately perform the measurement inversion on the highly varying methane background, thus the DCS system has been fully optimized for the detection of atmospheric methane in the methane absorption region around 180-184 THz.

  7. A Scenario Tree based Stochastic Programming Approach for Multi-Stage Weapon Equipment Mix Production Planning in Defense Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolving military capability requirements (CRs must be meted continuously by the multi-stage weapon equipment mix production planning (MWEMPP. Meanwhile, the CRs possess complex uncertainties with the variant military tasks in the whole planning horizon. The mean-value deterministic programming technique is difficult to deal with the multi-period and multi-level uncertain decision-making problem in MWEMPP. Therefore, a multi-stage stochastic programming approach is proposed to solve this problem. This approach first uses the scenario tree to quantitatively describe the bi-level uncertainty of the time and quantity of the CRs, and then build the whole off-line planning alternatives assembles for each possible scenario, at last the optimal planning alternative is selected on-line to flexibly encounter the real scenario in each period. A case is studied to validate the proposed approach. The results confirm that the proposed approach can better hedge against each scenario of the CRs than the traditional mean-value deterministic technique.

  8. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  9. Using a third tone to probe the physiological generation site of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in gerbil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has been summarized using a two-mechanism theory consisting of nonlinear distortion and linear coherent reflection. However, the precise generation site in the cochlea is still unclear. The current study in gerbils used a third tone in different cochlear regions to probe the cochlear origin site of DPOAEs. DPOAEs and their intracochlear sources, distortion products (DPs), were simultaneously measured. Our results suggest that the major generation site of DPOAEs evoked by an f2/f1 ratio of 1.25 extends basal to the primary f2 place, which is consistent with notions about the location of the cochlear amplifier.

  10. Methods and apparatus for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Inventor); James, Patrick I. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods, apparatus, and applications for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide are described. An embodiment of the apparatus comprises at least one anolyte chamber coupled to at least one anode, at least one catholyte chamber, wherein the at least one catholyte chamber is coupled to at least one cathode, at least one anode membrane and at least one cathode membrane, wherein the anode membrane is adjacent to the at least one anode, wherein the cathode membrane is adjacent to the at least one cathode, at least one central chamber disposed between the at least one anolyte chamber and the at least one catholyte chamber. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by reduction of an oxygen-containing gas at the cathode.

  11. Nucleosynthesis simulations for a wide range of nuclear production sites from NuGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Falk; Diehl, Steven; Fryer, Christopher L; Hirschi, Raphael; Hungerford, Aimee; Magkotsios, Georgios; Pignatari, Marco; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of nucleosynthesis in astrophysical environments are at the intersection of nuclear physics reaction rate research and astrophysical applications, for example in the area of galactic chemical evolution or near-field cosmology. Unfortunately, at present the available yields for such applications are based on heterogeneous assumptions between the various contributing nuclear production sites, both in terms of modeling the thermodynamic environment itself as well as the choice of specifc nuclear reaction rates and compilations. On the other side, new nuclear reaction rate determinations are often taking a long time to be included in astrophysical applications. The NuGrid project addresses these issues by providing a set of codes and a framework in which these codes interact. In this contribution we describe the motivation, goals and first results of the NuGrid project. At the core is a new and evolving post-processing nuclesoynthesis code (PPN) that can follow quiescent and explosive nucleosynthesis ...

  12. On-site cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei 3EMS35 mutant and same vessel saccharification and fermentation of acid treated wheat straw for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Zia-ullah; Syed, Qurat-ul-Ain; Wu, Jing; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials involves process steps like pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation. In this study, wheat straw was explored as feedstock for on-site cellulase production by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant, and as a substrate for second generation bioethanol production from baker yeast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractography (XRD) of untreated wheat straw (UWS) and acid treated wheat straw (TWS) were done to understand the structural organization and changes in the cellulase accessibility and reactivity. The effect of delignification and structural modification for on-site cellulase enzyme production was comparably studied. The efficiency of crude cellulase enzyme for digestion of UWS and TWS and then production of ethanol from TWS was studied using same-vessel saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) technique, both in shaking flasks as well as in fermenters. Two different methods of operation were tested, i.e. the UWSEnz method, where UWS was used for on-site enzyme production, and TWSEnz method where TWS was applied as substrate for cellullase production. Results obtained showed structural modifications in cellulose of TWS due to delignification, removal of wax and change of crystallinity. UWS was better substrate than TWS for cellulase production due to the fact that lignin did not hinder the enzyme production by fungus but acted as a booster. On-site cellulase enzyme produced by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant hydrolyzed most of cellulose (91 %) in TWS within first 24 hrs. Shake flasks experiments showed that ethanol titers and yields with UWSEnz were 2.9 times higher compared to those obtained with TWSEnz method respectively. Comparatively, titer of ethanol in shake flask experiments was 10 % higher than this obtained in 3 L fermenter with UWSEnz. Outcomes from this investigation clearly demonstrated the potential of on-site cellulase enzyme production and SVSF for ethanol production

  13. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  14. Site-specific DICER and DROSHA RNA products control the DNA-damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Sofia; Michelini, Flavia; Saxena, Alka; Tang, Dave; de Hoon, Michiel; Anelli, Viviana; Mione, Marina; Carninci, Piero; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2012-08-09

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in an increasingly recognized number of cellular events. Some ncRNAs are processed by DICER and DROSHA RNases to give rise to small double-stranded RNAs involved in RNA interference (RNAi). The DNA-damage response (DDR) is a signalling pathway that originates from a DNA lesion and arrests cell proliferation3. So far, DICER and DROSHA RNA products have not been reported to control DDR activation. Here we show, in human, mouse and zebrafish, that DICER and DROSHA, but not downstream elements of the RNAi pathway, are necessary to activate the DDR upon exogenous DNA damage and oncogene-induced genotoxic stress, as studied by DDR foci formation and by checkpoint assays. DDR foci are sensitive to RNase A treatment, and DICER- and DROSHA-dependent RNA products are required to restore DDR foci in RNase-A-treated cells. Through RNA deep sequencing and the study of DDR activation at a single inducible DNA double-strand break, we demonstrate that DDR foci formation requires site-specific DICER- and DROSHA-dependent small RNAs, named DDRNAs, which act in a MRE11–RAD50–NBS1-complex-dependent manner (MRE11 also known as MRE11A; NBS1 also known as NBN). DDRNAs, either chemically synthesized or in vitro generated by DICER cleavage, are sufficient to restore the DDR in RNase-A-treated cells, also in the absence of other cellular RNAs. Our results describe an unanticipated direct role of a novel class of ncRNAs in the control of DDR activation at sites of DNA damage.

  15. Energy trade-offs between intensive biomass utilization, site productivity loss, and ameliorative treatments in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Thomas J. Dean

    2006-01-01

    Loblolly pine plantations are the most important source of forest products in the US and the slash remaining after conventional harvest represents a significant potential source of bioenergy. However, slash removal in intensive harvests might, under some circumstances, reduce site productivity by reducing soil organic matter and associated nutrients. Two complimentary...

  16. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

    2000-09-01

    Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and

  17. Hydrogen production by the naked active site of the di-iron hydrogenases in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipoli, Federico; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H; Selloni, Annabella

    2009-10-01

    We explored the reactivity of the active center of the [FeFe]-hydrogenases detached from the enzyme and immersed in acidified water by first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics simulations. We focused on the identification of the structures that are stable and metastable in acidified water and on their activity for hydrogen production. Our calculations revealed that the naked active center could be an efficient catalyst provided that electrons are transferred to the cluster. We found that both bridging and terminal isomers are present at equilibrium and that the bridging configuration is essential for efficient hydrogen production. The formation of the hydrogen molecule occurs via sequential protonations of the distal iron and of the N-atom of the S-CH(2)-NH-CH(2)-S chelating group. H(2) desorption does not involve a significant energy barrier, making the process very efficient at room temperature. We established that the bottleneck in the reaction is the direct proton transfer from water to the vacant site of the distal iron. Moreover, we found that even if the terminal isomer is present at the equilibrium, its strong local hydrophobicity prevents poisoning of the cluster.

  18. Consequences arising from the activities of the Mining and Chemical Enterprise, a defense production association, and influence of the public opinion on decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zhidkov, V.V. [Mining and Chemical Enterprise, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation); Mel`nikov, G.Y. [Central Medical Office 51, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Mining and Chemical Enterprise was created during the Cold War in Russia to produce plutonium for defense purposes. Now, when these activities are stopped, prime attention is given to the evaluation of impacts caused by the execution of the defense program and to the conversion possibilities of the enterprise for provisions of the nuclear fuel cycle. The role of public opinion in solving these problems is considered.

  19. Estimating the Annual Above-Ground Biomass Production of Various Species on Sites in Sweden on the Basis of Individual Climate and Productivity Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Trischler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature contains a large number of bioclimate, climate and biometric models for estimating the production of different species or stands under specific conditions on a defined site or models giving the distribution of a single species. Depending on the model used, the amount of input data required varies considerably and often involves a large investment in time and money. The purpose of this study was to create a model to estimate the annual above-ground biomass production of various species from site conditions defined by mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. For this approach, the Miami model of Lieth was used as a base model with some modifications. This first version of the modified model was restricted to sites in Sweden, where changes in the soil and groundwater level were relatively small, and where the growth of land vegetation was mostly dependent on temperature. A validation of this model has shown that it seems possible to use the Miami model to estimate the annual above-ground biomass production of various species, and that it was possible to compare the annual above-ground biomass production of different species on one site, as well as the annual above-ground biomass production of different species on different sites using the modeled data.

  20. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  1. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  3. Current implementation of site-specific technologies in U.S. cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Edward M.

    2004-11-01

    The initial adoption of site-specific management for cotton production was slower than by commodities grown in the mid-west. Part of the delayed adoption can be explained by the lack of functional cotton yield monitors. Now that yield monitors are commercially available, cotton producers are beginning to find many applications for geospatial technologies. The emphasis of this paper is on applications that are being implemented at some level on commercial farms. Traditional grid-based soil sampling has found some use for pre-plant application of fertilizer, and soil conductivity mapping has been used to apply variable rate soil amendments in the west. During the growing season, vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used as a tool to direct scouting for insect infestations. The scouting information and NDVI are combined to create variable rate insecticide application maps. A catalyst to this approach has been the recent development of aerial variable rate application technology. In some production regions, it is necessary to control cotton's vegetative development rate with plant growth regulators (PGRs). Vegetation indices are very useful for defining areas of the field where PGRs are needed. Research is also being conducted on the use of imagery for the development of defoliation application maps before harvest. In the short-term, simple vegetation indices can meet many of management information needs for cotton when combined with directed scouting of the field. However, to be ultimately successful, dependable and frequent sources of imagery will be required. Near-real time delivery is essential, as a majority of the management decisions are often made on a daily basis. Most producer-based applications of these data have been from airborne platforms managed by local image providers where flexible image acquisition schedules are possible.

  4. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. [DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, W.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  5. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. (DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Croft, W.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  6. Productivity and soil properties 45 years after timber harvest and mechanical site preparation in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke M. Cerise; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul McDaniel; Cole Mayn; Robert. Heinse

    2013-01-01

    Site preparation following timber harvests is widely used to increase seedling establishment postharvest. Historically, dozer piling and ripping were the most common forms of site preparation in the Intermountain West. Less commonly, terracing of hill slopes was another form of site preparation on the Bitterroot National Forest in western Montana from 1961-1970 on...

  7. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  8. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  9. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  10. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... related to post-production services for films. The initial investigation resulted in a negative... Employment and Training Administration Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering... (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production...

  11. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  12. Monitoring Production of Methane and Carbon Dioxide and Consumption of Oxygen at Spills of Gasoline at UST Release Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is rarely measured at fuel spill sites, and most commonly the measurements are made on samples of ground water. Many ground water monitoring wells are intentionally screened across the water table. This was done to allow them to sample free product. However, if there is s...

  13. 75 FR 41531 - Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised Termination of Investigation Pursuant to...

  14. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Acting Inspector General, Department of Defense on Department of Defense Office of Inspector General Report of Investigation on Allegations Related to USCENTCOM Intelligence Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Community for their assessments of USCENTCOM’s intelligence products. We did not stop there. We conducted a systematic analysis regarding the...direction of edits that were made within the CCJ2 on counter-ISIL intelligence products. In this analysis , we reviewed a statistically random sample...and we did not find, specific intelligence products that contained false – untrue – facts or analysis . We also did not find sufficient evidence to

  15. Climate-driven uncertainties in modeling terrestrial gross primary production: a site level to global-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K; Liang, Miaoling

    2014-05-01

    We used a land surface model to quantify the causes and extents of biases in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) due to the use of meteorological reanalysis datasets. We first calibrated the model using meteorology and eddy covariance data from 25 flux tower sites ranging from the tropics to the northern high latitudes and subsequently repeated the site simulations using two reanalysis datasets: NCEP/NCAR and CRUNCEP. The results show that at most sites, the reanalysis-driven GPP bias was significantly positive with respect to the observed meteorology-driven simulations. Notably, the absolute GPP bias was highest at the tropical evergreen tree sites, averaging up to ca. 0.45 kg C m(-2)  yr(-1) across sites (ca. 15% of site level GPP). At the northern mid-/high-latitude broadleaf deciduous and the needleleaf evergreen tree sites, the corresponding annual GPP biases were up to 20%. For the nontree sites, average annual biases of up to ca. 20-30% were simulated within savanna, grassland, and shrubland vegetation types. At the tree sites, the biases in short-wave radiation and humidity strongly influenced the GPP biases, while the nontree sites were more affected by biases in factors controlling water stress (precipitation, humidity, and air temperature). In this study, we also discuss the influence of seasonal patterns of meteorological biases on GPP. Finally, using model simulations for the global land surface, we discuss the potential impacts of site-level reanalysis-driven biases on the global estimates of GPP. In a broader context, our results can have important consequences on other terrestrial ecosystem fluxes (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem production, energy/water fluxes) and reservoirs (e.g., soil carbon stocks). In a complementary study (Barman et al., ), we extend the present analysis for latent and sensible heat fluxes, thus consistently integrating the analysis of climate-driven uncertainties in carbon, energy, and water fluxes

  16. 1992 Fernald Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the Fernald site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This report covers the reporting period from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992, with the exception of Chapter Three, which provides information from the first quarter of 1993 as well as calendar year 1992 information. This 1992 report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Use included in this report are summary data of the sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. Finally, this report provides general information on the major waste management and environmental restoration activities during 1992.

  17. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  18. Identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sombroek, H.; Majambere, S.; Loon, van E.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy se

  19. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  20. Recognition and rating of effecting indexes on consumption of different sites poplar wood production in Iran for paper making industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim lashkarbolouki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growth in population, the need for wood consumption also increases. The rapid progress of science and technology doubles the wood consumption. Supplying this need at a glance was focused on the forests. Forests for many reasons have faced decrease in production and this extreme need for wood, by planting fast growing trees (poplar, eucalypt, Paulownia … makes it possible. One of industries plenty of the wood is paper industry that needs to huge primary wood material. This industry can continue their production activities by using the wood of poplar. This research was found out with the aim of assessing the practical characteristics of poplar wood by nondestructive test method in paper production industry. Poplar sites were selected in areas of country that poplar trees were planted widely. For locating the production of different site in paper industry found out Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in Expert choice 11 software. For field studies of this research, the questionnaires were prepared and sent for expert and university professors with special expertise in this industry. The results showed that: Production of Pulp and paper industry: in this industry among of five main indexes influencing in pulp and paper production, fiber morphology trait recognized as first priority with weighting value (0.435. Production allocations with their weighting value are determined: Sari (0.240, Fouman (0.236, Lashtnasha (0.182, Abhar (0.174 and Zanjan (0.168, respectively.

  1. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Schultz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness.

  2. Improved recombinant antibody production by CHO cells using a production enhancer DNA element with repeated transgene integration at a predetermined chromosomal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinori; Inao, Takanori; Komatsu, Shodai; Huang, Guan; Ito, Akira; Omasa, Takeshi; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most useful host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Although a series of production processes have been refined to improve protein productivity and cost performance, establishing producer cells is still time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recombinase-mediated site-specific gene integration into a predetermined chromosomal locus may enable predictable protein expression, reducing the laborious process of cell screening. We previously developed an accumulative site-specific gene integration system (AGIS) using Cre recombinase and mutated loxP sites for transgene integration and amplification in the CHO cell genome. Epigenetic modifier elements such as insulators are effective DNA cis-regulatory elements for stabilizing transgene expression. Here, we attempted to enhance transgene expression in recombinant CHO cells generated by AGIS using a production enhancer DNA element (PE) derived from the CHO genome. The PE was introduced into an expression unit for a recombinant scFv-Fc antibody. The effect on scFv-Fc productivity of PE position and orientation within the transgene was evaluated, while keeping the background chromosomal structure constant. For the optimal PE arrangement, scFv-Fc productivity was enhanced 2.6-fold compared with an expression unit without a PE. The enhancing effect of the PE on transgene expression was also observed when two or three PE-flanked expression units were inserted as tandem repeats. These results indicate that AGIS using the PE-flanked expression unit is a promising approach for establishing producer cell lines for biopharmaceutical protein production.

  3. Bryant Park as a Site of Production: Revenue and Social Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kaufman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryant Park is New York City's only 100% privately funded and managed 'public' park, making it an oft looked-to model of public-private partnerships. This paper examines the everyday workings of the park using ethnographic and archival data, and criminological and urban theory. These details help us understand how Bryant produces a theme-park-like social order in its built environment, landscaping, management, and programming of the park. I suggest that social control functions through five governing principles: visibility, classification, predictability, vulnerability, and empowerment. Everything is neatly classified, from people to activities to trash. Vulnerable design elements like flowers are chosen to suggest the park is cared for. Park-goers are meant to feel not controlled, but in-control; safe, comfortable, and empowered.This elaborate manipulation of semiotics and space serves to produce surplus value for multiple corporate interests involved in and around the park. I argue that the park operates as a site of production of revenue for these corporate interests. I explain how the park is created and marketed as a product itself, which park-goers have an unwitting share in producing. Thus New York’s elite-business community benefits from this nominally public park. Bryant Park es el único parque “público” de la ciudad de Nueva York de financiación y gestión 100% privada, lo que lo convierte a menudo en un ejemplo de partenariados público-privados. Este artículo analiza el funcionamiento cotidiano del parque, utilizando datos etnográficos y de archivo, así como teoría criminológica y urbana. Estos detalles nos ayudan a comprender cómo Bryant produce un orden social dentro del parque en el entorno creado, paisajismo, gestión y programación del parque. Se sugiere que el control social funciona a través de cinco principios de gobierno: visibilidad, clasificación, predicción, vulnerabilidad y empoderamiento. Todo est

  4. Production and cleavage of Drosophila hsp70 transcripts extending beyond the polyadenylation site.

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, S L; Meselson, M

    1994-01-01

    Transcription downstream of the polyadenylation site was studied in the Drosophila hsp70 gene, whose high level of transcription in response to temperature elevation facilitates detection of rare and possibly short-lived transcripts. Transcription downstream of the polyadenylation site was detected both in cultured cells and in intact animals. Even shortly after temperature elevation the extended nonpolyadenylated RNAs were rare relative to mature message, and their level continued to increas...

  5. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  6. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  7. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  8. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  9. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  10. Ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binding orients the misaligned active site of the ubiquitin hydrolase UCHL1 into productive conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, David A.; Maiti, Tushar K.; Davies, Christopher W.; Das, Chittaranjan (Purdue)

    2010-07-06

    Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a Parkinson disease-associated, putative cysteine protease found abundantly and selectively expressed in neurons. The crystal structure of apo UCHL1 showed that the active-site residues are not aligned in a canonical form, with the nucleophilic cysteine being 7.7 {angstrom} from the general base histidine, an arrangement consistent with an inactive form of the enzyme. Here we report the crystal structures of the wild type and two Parkinson disease-associated variants of the enzyme, S18Y and I93M, bound to a ubiquitin-based suicide substrate, ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester. These structures reveal that ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binds primarily at two sites on the enzyme, with its carboxy terminus at the active site and with its amino-terminal {beta}-hairpin at the distal site - a surface-exposed hydrophobic crevice 17 {angstrom} away from the active site. Binding at the distal site initiates a cascade of side-chain movements in the enzyme that starts at a highly conserved, surface-exposed phenylalanine and is relayed to the active site resulting in the reorientation and proximal placement of the general base within 4 {angstrom} of the catalytic cysteine, an arrangement found in productive cysteine proteases. Mutation of the distal-site, surface-exposed phenylalanine to alanine reduces ubiquitin binding and severely impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. These results suggest that the activity of UCHL1 may be regulated by its own substrate.

  11. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  12. Visit to the Russian Production and Assembly Sites in March 2000 (photos obtained from MPI)

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Photo1 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo2 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo3 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo4 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo5 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo6 - The device for cleaning honeycomb mats at JINR. Photo7 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo8 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo9 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo10 - Transport cases for "Molniya" modules (former bomb cases)

  13. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  14. Site-specific branching ratios for H-atom production from primary haloalkanes photolyzed at 193, 222, and 248 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jeffrey L.; Deshmukh, Subhash; Wang, Zhongrui; Koplitz, Brent

    1993-01-01

    Selectively deuterated compounds are used to investigate the ``site-specific'' nature of H-atom production resulting from the photolysis of primary haloalkanes. The molecules investigated are 1-iodopropane, 1-bromopropane, iodoethane, bromoethane, and chloroethane, with photolysis being initiated at 193, 222, and 248 nm. Hydrogen and deuterium isotopes are systematically used to label chemically distinct carbon atoms within a given molecule. H- and D-atom Doppler profiles are generated via two-photon (121.6+364.7 nm) ionization resonant with Lyman-α, and the relative H/D ratios are used to quantify the probability for hydrogen production from each carbon site. In general, photolysis of an intermediate, presumably the alkyl radical, is implicated as being a key step in the overall process. When using 248 nm radiation, the photolysis process is dominated by C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage at the β carbon position regardless of the system investigated. In contrast, results using 193 nm excitation display no obvious preference for bond cleavage at a particular carbon site, again regardless of the system. The data produced by 222 nm photolysis show a qualitative tendency for C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage at the β carbon, but the quantitative results are not as self-consistent as either the 248 nm or the 193 nm data. Also, the results of ab initio calculations on the ground and excited states of the ethyl radical are used to help interpret the observed site specificity.

  15. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Modeling of CBM production, CO2 injection, and tracer movement at a field CO2 sequestration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

    2012-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical

  17. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Nguyen; S.Y. Imanishi; P. Haapaniemi; A. Yadav; M. Saloheimo; G.L. Corthals; T.M. Pakula

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation syst

  18. 75 FR 43565 - Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... production of polyester non-woven fabric. The negative determination was issued on April 16, 2010. The... or directly competitive with the polyester non-woven fabric produced at the subject facility and that... Carolina, who are engaged in employment related to the production of polyester non-woven fabric, meet...

  19. A Site-Related Suitability Analysis for the Production of Biomass as a Contribution to Sustainable Regional Land-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  20. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  1. Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Site-Specific Crop Production Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed and applied to support the practice of precision agriculture. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can focus on much smaller crop fields with much lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management ...

  2. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  3. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  4. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  5. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  6. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  7. Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  8. Charles Pinckney National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  9. John Muir National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  10. Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  11. Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  12. Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  13. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  14. Fort Point National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  15. Weir Farm National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  16. Thomas Stone National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  17. Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  18. Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    ANL/EVS-17/9 Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations Environmental Science Division About...LLC. June 16, 2017 ANL/EVS-17/9 Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations prepared by Rao Kotamarthi...7 3.2 Use of Weather Data and Views on Climate Change among the DoD Site Contacts

  19. Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1 produce large amounts of 3C fragments; largely lactate, depending on medium glucose levels. Increased glycolysis has been observed also in vivo in different sites of rat white adipose tissue. We investigated whether fructose can substitute glucose as source of lactate, and, especially whether the glycerol released to the medium was of lipolytic or glycolytic origin. Fructose conversion to lactate and glycerol was lower than that of glucose. The fast exhaustion of medium glucose was unrelated to significant changes in lipid storage. Fructose inhibited to a higher degree than glucose the expression of lipogenic enzymes. When both hexoses were present, the effects of fructose on gene expression prevailed over those of glucose. Adipocytes expressed fructokinase, but not aldolase b. Substantive release of glycerol accompanied lactate when fructose was the substrate. The mass of cell triacylglycerol (and its lack of change could not justify the comparatively higher amount of glycerol released. Consequently, most of this glycerol should be derived from the glycolytic pathway, since its lipolytic origin could not be (quantitatively sustained. Proportionally (with respect to lactate plus glycerol, more glycerol was produced from fructose than from glucose, which suggests that part of fructose was catabolized by the alternate (hepatic fructose pathway. Earlier described adipose glycerophophatase activity may help explain the glycolytic origin of most of the glycerol. However, no gene is known for this enzyme in mammals, which suggests that this function may be carried out by one of the known phosphatases in the tissue. Break up of glycerol-3P to yield glycerol, may be a limiting factor for the synthesis of triacylglycerols through control of glycerol-3P availability. A phosphatase pathway such as that described may have a potential regulatory function, and explain the production of glycerol by adipocytes in the absence of

  20. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  1. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Meyer

    Full Text Available Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS. This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification

  2. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  3. Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense...December 2014, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) signed the “Terms of Reference – Defense Science ...Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking.” As a result, the Chairman of the Defense Science Board established a

  4. 区域防空网络化作战体系结构产品设计方法%Product Design Method of Systems Architecture on Zone Air Defense Network-centric Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天坤; 段文义; 王成春; 曹文杰

    2011-01-01

    针对区域防空网络化作战体系结构设计需求,分析了目前体系结构产品设计方法的研究现状,在此基础上,提出一种基于综合系统的区域防空网络化作战体系结构产品设计方法与体系结构产品描述过程,给出了基于该方法的体系结构产品设计示例.基于综合系统的体系结构产品设计方法集成了IDEF、UML和Petri网各自优点,为区域防空网络化作战体系结构产品的设计提供了理论依据和描述步骤.%Aimed at the requirement of systems architecture design on area air defense network-centric operation, analyses the research status quo of the systems architecture product design methods, an architecture product desing method based on integrated system is presented. An example of the systems architecture procuct design based on the method is presented. The architecture product desing method based on integrated system combines the merits of IDEF、UML with Petri net, the theory and description process is provided for the product design of systems architecture on area air defense network-centric operation.

  5. Student Papers on Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    force". The Army’s recent emphasis on maneuver and mobil - ity, and the employment of smaller units, demonstrates the utility of this doctrine...to forgo the use of defensive space systems, since some of the techonology now investigated could at least pro- tect missile sites, and make the

  6. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  7. 1996 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The FEMP is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the FEMP in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the FEMP. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1996 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the FEMP progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  8. A Supplementary RDX/HMX Products Site Selection Study -- Economic Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Chemical REQUIREMENTS (1000 LBS) Composition-Ba RDXa HMXb Caustic Soda 1,320 1,320 330 Anhydrous Ammonia 2,225 2,225 556 Oxygen 1,315 1,315 329 Acetic...Ammonia $173/ton 0.086 0425 .0255 Caustic Soda $9/cwt 0.090 0264 .0158 Cyclohesanone 32/2c/lb 0.325 .0033 .0020 Hexamine 27c/lb 0.270 1031 .0618...Newport Army Ammunition Plant and the McAlester and Hawthorne Naval Ammunition Depots were the candidate sites. A ranking based on Present Value DO

  9. Development of a method for estimating emissions from oil and gas production sites utilizing remote observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information on emissions of ozone precursors, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases from oil and gas production operations, and measurement of these emissions presents many challenges. Assessment is complicated by the fugitive nature ofthe emissions, v...

  10. Production rates of 36Cl in basalts from the calibration site of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, K.

    2009-01-01

    Age determination based on cosmogenic nuclides is an important tool to investigate landscape development and age relations of geologically very young materials. The aim of this study is to contribute data to establish age determination of the basis of cosmogenic 36Cl production as a generally reliab

  11. Production rates of 36Cl in basalts from the calibration site of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, K.

    2009-01-01

    Age determination based on cosmogenic nuclides is an important tool to investigate landscape development and age relations of geologically very young materials. The aim of this study is to contribute data to establish age determination of the basis of cosmogenic 36Cl production as a generally reliab

  12. Simple proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontkanen, Jenni; Paasonen, Pauli; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Rantala, Pekka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-10-01

    The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) during 2006-2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.

  13. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.

  14. Production of baculovirus defective interfering particles during serial passage is delayed by removing transposon target sites in fp25k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Lopamudra; Feiss, Michael G; Bonning, Bryony C; Murhammer, David W

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of baculovirus defective interfering particle (DIP) and few polyhedra (FP) mutants is a major limitation to continuous large-scale baculovirus production in insect-cell culture. Although overcoming these mutations would result in a cheaper platform for producing baculovirus biopesticides, little is known regarding the mechanism of FP and DIP formation. This issue was addressed by comparing DIP production of wild-type (WT) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) with that of a recombinant AcMNPV (denoted Ac-FPm) containing a modified fp25k gene with altered transposon insertion sites that prevented transposon-mediated production of the FP phenotype. In addition to a reduction in the incidence of the FP phenotype, DIP formation was delayed on passaging of Ac-FPm compared with WT AcMNPV. Specifically, the yield of DIP DNA in Ac-FPm was significantly lower than in WT AcMNPV up to passage 16, thereby demonstrating that modifying the transposon insertion sites increases the genomic stability of AcMNPV. A critical component of this investigation was the optimization of a systematic method based on the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize extracellular virus DNA. Specifically, PFGE was used to detect defective genomes, determine defective genome sizes and quantify the amount of defective genome within a heterogeneous genome population of passaged virus.

  15. Defense and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the Economy C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A

  16. Internet resources for dentistry: computer, Internet, reference, and sites for enhancing personal productivity of the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, G F

    2000-08-15

    At the onset of the new millennium the Internet has become the new standard means of distributing information. In the last two to three years there has been an explosion of e-commerce with hundreds of new web sites being created every minute. For most corporate entities, a web site is as essential as the phone book listing used to be. Twenty years ago technologist directed how computer-based systems were utilized. Now it is the end users of personal computers that have gained expertise and drive the functionality of software applications. The computer, initially invented for mathematical functions, has transitioned from this role to an integrated communications device that provides the portal to the digital world. The Web needs to be used by healthcare professionals, not only for professional activities, but also for instant access to information and services "just when they need it." This will facilitate the longitudinal use of information as society continues to gain better information access skills. With the demand for current "just in time" information and the standards established by Internet protocols, reference sources of information may be maintained in dynamic fashion. News services have been available through the Internet for several years, but now reference materials such as online journals and digital textbooks have become available and have the potential to change the traditional publishing industry. The pace of change should make us consider Will Rogers' advice, "It isn't good enough to be moving in the right direction. If you are not moving fast enough, you can still get run over!" The intent of this article is to complement previous articles on Internet Resources published in this journal, by presenting information about web sites that present information on computer and Internet technologies, reference materials, news information, and information that lets us improve personal productivity. Neither the author, nor the Journal endorses any of the

  17. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.

    2016-10-11

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1), averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE) and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1)–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045) and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June). The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (±58.4 SE) and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m–3 h–1 (±0.13 SE) with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m–3 h–1) and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m–3 h–1), while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE) and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August). 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  18. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014 to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1, averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045 and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June. The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (± 58.4 SE and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m-3 h–1 (±0.13 SE with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m-3 h–1 and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m-3 h–1, while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August. 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  19. Enhanced production of recombinant secretory proteins in Pichia pastoris by optimizing Kex2 P1' site

    OpenAIRE

    Song Yang; Ye Kuang; Hongbo Li; Yuehong Liu; Xiaoyan Hui; Peng Li; Zhiwu Jiang; Yulai Zhou; Yu Wang; Aimin Xu; Shiwu Li; Pentao Liu; Donghai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is one of the most widely used expression systems for the production of recombinant secretory proteins. Its universal application is, however, somewhat hampered by its unpredictable yields for different heterologous proteins, which is now believed to be caused in part by their varied efficiencies to traffic through the host secretion machinery. The yeast endoprotease Kex2 removes the signal peptides from pre-proteins and releases the mature form of secreted proteins, thus, pla...

  20. Lights! Tystnad! Azione! Practices, Sites and Careers in European Film Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Behlil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, Production Studies has emerged as a new field of inquiry within cinema and media studies, going beyond traditional examinations of authorship, industry structure, or active audiences. A conference generously hosted by Stockholm University, and organized by Patrick Vonderau in collaboration with Petr Szczepanik and Dorota Ostrowska in April 2011, proclaimed itself as “the first European intervention into this burgeoning field of study.” Indeed, contributions to the fiel...

  1. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  2. r-process Production Sites as inferred from Eu Abundances in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of $r$-process material in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) shed light on the sources of these elements. Strong upper limits on the Eu mass in some UFDs combined with detections of much larger masses in a UFD, Reticulum II, and other dwarf galaxies imply that Eu production is dominated by rare events, and that the minimal Eu mass observed in any UFD is approximately the amount of Eu mass produced per event. This is consistent with other independent observations in the Galaxy. We estimate, using a model independent likelihood analysis, the rate and Eu (Fe) mass produced per $r$-process (Fe production) event in dwarf galaxies including classical dwarfs and UFDs. The mass and rate of the Fe production events are consistent with the normal core-collapse supernova~(ccSN) scenario. The Eu mass per event is $3\\times 10^{-5}M_{\\odot}<\\tilde{m}_{\\rm Eu}<2\\times 10^{-4}M_{\\odot}$, corresponding to a total $r$-process mass per event of $6\\times 10^{-3}M_{\\odot}<\\tilde{m}_{r-process}<4\\ti...

  3. On-site production of crude glucoamylase for kitchen waste hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Qiang; Wang, Qun Hui; Liu, Ying Ying; Ma, Hong Zhi

    2010-06-01

    Kitchen waste from dining rooms accounts for a considerable proportion of municipal solid garbage, and economical recycle ways are needed to be developed. This study investigated glucoamylase production from kitchen waste and the feasibility of kitchen waste hydrolysis by the crude enzymes produced. The key problems of high water content and poor porosity in kitchen waste for glucoamylase production under solid-state fermentation could be solved readily by the addition of corn stover or paddy husk. As a support medium, corn stover was better than paddy husk. Smashed kitchen waste (sKW) mixed with corn stover in the ratio of 3.75 : 1 (dry basis) produced 1838 U g(-1) of glucoamylase by Aspergillus niger UV-60 within 96 h. The enzyme productivity from kitchen waste was over two-fold higher than that from wheat bran with additional nutrients. Without any recovery treatment, the produced glucoamylase could be used directly to hydrolyse sKW slurry. The optimum enzyme dose 8% (crude enzyme/kichen waste, w/w) was not too big, and was sufficient to hydrolyse 10% (dry basis) sKW slurry to produce a maximum amount of reducing sugar of 55.4 g L(-1).

  4. A comparison of copper and acid site zeolites for the production of nitric oxide for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samantha E; González Carballo, Juan María; Orellana-Tavra, Claudia; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Morris, Russell E

    2017-03-21

    Copper-exchanged and acidic zeolites are shown to produce nitric oxide (NO) from a nitrite source in biologically active (nanomolar) concentrations. Four zeolites were studied; mordenite, ferrierite, ZSM-5 and SSZ-13, which had varying pore size, channel systems and Si/Al ratios. ZSM-5 and SSZ-13 produced the highest amounts of NO in both the copper and acid form. The high activity and regeneration of the copper active sites makes them good candidates for long-term NO production. Initial cytotoxicity tests have shown at least one of the copper zeolites (Cu-SSZ-13) to be biocompatible, highlighting the potential usage within biomedical applications.

  5. Effects Of Very Intensive Forest Biomass Harvesting On Short And Long Term Site Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Callesen, Ingeborg; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2008-01-01

    of the nutrient export and to the soil nutrient release capability. We suggest distinction of sensitive and robust soils. Six case studies are used to exemplify the approach and illustrate the importance of deposition, harvesting and soil properties. The distinction of sites and the quantification of nutrient......Intensified forest biomass utilisation causes export of substantial amounts of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Compared to conventional stems-only harvesting, the most intensive biomass sce nario causes increases in nutrient exports of up to 6-7 times whereas the biomass export increases only...... up to 2 times (Stupak et al. 2007a). High concentrations of nutrients in small branches, twigs, and leaves compared to stems are the main reason. The extensive export of nutrients related to intensive biomass extraction have for many years caused concern for the long-term fertility of the system...

  6. Sustainable Agroforestry Models for Proposed Food Production in Post-Mined Land Sites of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Hermawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reclamation areas of the opencast coal mining in South Sumatera are predominantly compact and nutrient-poor, marginal sites, but have a high potential for cultivation of fast-growing trees and agricultural crops.  This paper aims to promote several models of agroforestry in the post-mined land in South Sumatera as a new strategy in reclaiming degraded soil properties for both enviroment and economic purposes.  About 5,000 ha of coal mining areas were observed to characterize the landscape and soil properties in the area, then overlaid with the landuse maps of post-mining plans issued by the company.  Results showed that about 1,730 ha of the reclamation areas was suitable for agroforestry while the rest was for utilities, camping ground, water pond and grassland.  Three models were proposed for the agroforestry areas, including (i agrisilviculture model (1,190 ha, (ii silvihorticulture model (203 ha, and (iii local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture (337 ha.  Prior to the agroforestry establishment, all reclamation sites were subjected to the revegetation with fast-growing trees and other rejuvenation treatments in order to restore favour soil and microclimate conditions.  The proposed components for each model were as follows: for agrisilviculture model were cultivation on the alley cropping system of trees and food crops, for silvihorticulture model were the plantation of fruit trees in the bench of water pond, and for local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture were the cultivation of local forest and food crop species.

  7. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  8. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E; Giske, Jarl; Thingstad, T Frede

    2014-01-01

    Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating) and top-down (biomass regulating) factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP) and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW), predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  9. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  10. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  11. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings.

  12. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  13. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  14. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  15. Succinic acid production from fruit and vegetable wastes hydrolyzed by on-site enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Wubliker; Zhang, Wenming; Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a novel biorefinery concept of succinic acid (SA) production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) hydrolyzed by crude enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation was designed. Enzyme complex solid mashes from various types of FVWs were on-site produced through solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. This solid was then added to FVW suspensions and undergo hydrolysis reaction to generate fermentable sugars and other essential nutrients for bacterial growth and product formation. The subsequent fungal hydrolysis produced 12.00g/L glucose and 13.83g/L fructose using 10% mass ratio (w/v) of FVW. Actinobacillus succinogenes used this FVW hydrolysate as the sole feedstock and produced 27.03g/L of succinic acid with high yield and productivity of 1.18gSA/g sugar and 1.28gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated that FVWs can be biotransformed to value added products which have considerable potential economics and environmental meaning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  17. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Nidia; Gramajo, Rodrigo; Escobar, Maria Cabrera; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Petzold, Max

    2012-10-30

    In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and

  18. Vacant Lots: Productive Sites for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAAK-BAAK, CARLOS M.; ARANA-GUARDIA, ROGER; CIGARROA-TOLEDO, NOHEMI; LOROÑO-PINO, MARÍA ALBA; REYES-SOLIS, GUADALUPE; MACHAIN-WILLIAMS, CARLOS; BEATY, BARRY J.; EISEN, LARS; GARCÍA-REJÓN, JULIÁN E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other non-residential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011 – June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and non-residential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets/sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures that residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. Additionally, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality and physical location in the environment. PMID:24724299

  19. List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations originated on the Hanford Site between 1961 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has declared that all Hanford plutonium production- and operations-related information generated between 1944 and 1972 is declassified. Any documents found and deemed useful for meeting Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) objectives may be declassified with or without deletions in accordance with DOE guidance by Authorized Derivative Declassifiers. The September 1992, letter report, Declassifications Requested by the Technical Steering Panel of Hanford Documents Produced 1944--1960, (PNWD-2024 HEDR UC-707), provides an important milestone toward achieving a complete listing of documents that may be useful to the HEDR Project. The attached listing of approximately 7,000 currently classified Hanford-originated documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations between 1961 and 1972 fulfills TSP Directive 89-3. This list does not include such titles as the Irradiation Processing Department, Chemical Processing Department, and Hanford Laboratory Operations monthly reports generated after 1960 which have been previously declassified with minor deletions and made publicly available. Also Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) Document Control determined that no KEH documents generated between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 1972 are currently classified. Titles which address work for others have not been included because Hanford Site contractors currently having custodial responsibility for these documents do not have the authority to determine whether other than their own staff have on file an appropriate need-to-know. Furthermore, these documents do not normally contain information relative to Hanford Site operations.

  20. Leaching of azoxystrobin and its degradation product R234886 from Danish agricultural field sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Kjær, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    harmful. Our study shows that azoxystrobin and R234886 can leach through loamy soils for a long period of time following application of the pesticide and thereby pose a potential threat to vulnerable aquatic environments and drinking water resources. We thus recommend the inclusion of azoxystrobin and R......The objective was to estimate leaching of the fungicide azoxystrobin (methyl (αE)-2-[[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-α-(methoxymethylene)benzene-acetate) and one of its primary degradation products R234886 ([(E)-2-(2-[6-cyanophenoxy)-pyrimidin-4-yloxyl]-phenyl-3-methoxyacrylic acid], major...... through loamy soils. While azoxystrobin was generally only detected during the first couple of months following application, R234886 leached for a longer period of time and at higher concentrations (up to 2.1 μg L−1). Azoxystrobin is classified as very toxic to aquatic organisms and R234886 as very...

  1. Toxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae and the site of reactive oxygen species production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fengmin, E-mail: lifengmin@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liang, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@sina.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Zhao, Wei; Wu, Miao; Wang, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The growth of two species of algae was inhibited under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. • Oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms of toxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae. • The site of ROS production was the electron transfer chain of chloroplast. - Abstract: Given the extensive use of nanomaterials, they may enter aquatic environments and harm the growth of algae, which are primary producers in an aquatic ecosystem. Thus, the balance of an aquatic ecosystem may be destroyed. In this study, Karenia brevis and Skeletonema costatum were exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2} (anatase, average particle size of 5–10 nm, specific surface area of 210 ± 10 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) to assess the effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae. The findings of transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate aggregation of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the algal suspension. Nano-TiO{sub 2} was also found to be inside algal cells. The growth of the two species of algae was inhibited under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. The 72 h EC{sub 50} values of nano-TiO{sub 2} to K. brevis and S. costatum were 10.69 and 7.37 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. TEM showed that the cell membrane of K. brevis was destroyed and its organelles were almost undistinguished under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of K. brevis and S. costatum significantly increased compared with those of the control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities (CAT) of K. brevis and S. costatum changed in different ways. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in both species were significantly higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). The site of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis and S. costatum under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure was explored with the addition of inhibitors of different electron transfer chains. This study indicated that nano-TiO{sub 2} in algal suspensions inhibited the growth

  2. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  3. Evaluation of a distribution model for a new beer company production site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Menoncin Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambev dominates the beer market in Brazil with a 70% share. The group formed in the 1990s by the merger of the two largest companies in the industry at the time, Brahma and Antarctica. Even with new entrants in the market AmBev kept growing and increasing its participation. One of the biggest challenges to work in the beer market is the distribution strategy. AmBev’s success has, in its distribution strategy, one of the critical factors in reaching this level of market share. The model AmBev has implemented and continues to invest is what Brahma, pre AmBev, adopted as its strategy in the 1990s. This work aims to determine whether, in a company starting its production activities in the same industry, the AmBev distribution model can be applied. Based on the concepts of logistics and supply chain management, the possible concepts of distribution strategies were identified, seeking to understand those underlying the AmBev reference model. With this, a company has been identified and a case study conducted to understand the application of the AmBev model. The main findings of the study point to possibilities for adopting the model, but with restrictions and constant monitoring to control the implementation of the strategy.

  4. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  5. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments.

  6. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  7. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1 Leaf Area Index (LAI products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results showed that GEOV1 LAI is the most similar product with the LAI reference maps (R2 = 0.78 and RMSE = 0.59. The MODIS products performed well for biomes with low LAI values, but considerable uncertainty arose when the LAI was larger than 3. Terra + Aqua MODIS (R2 = 0.72 and RMSE = 0.68 was slightly more accurate than Terra MODIS (R2 = 0.57 and RMSE = 0.90 for producing slightly more successful observations. Both MODIS and GEOV1 products effectively followed the seasonal trajectory of the reference maps, and GEOV1 exhibited a smoother seasonal trajectory than MODIS. MODIS anomalies mainly occurred during summer and likely occurred because of surface reflectance uncertainty, shorter temporal resolutions and inconsistency between simulated and MODIS surface reflectances. This study suggests that further improvements of the MODIS LAI products should focus on finer algorithm inputs and improved seasonal variation modeling of MODIS observations. Future field work considering finer biome maps and better generation of LAI reference maps is still needed.

  8. Helium production and transport in the low permeability Callovo-Oxfordian at the Bure Site, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigler, T.; Beat, Ihly; Lehmann, B.E. [Bern Univ., Physics Institute (Switzerland); Niklaus Waber, H. [Bern Univ., Rock-Water-Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences (Switzerland); Vinsot, A.; Latoui, K. [Laboratoire de Recherche Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, Andra (France); Tolstikhin, I. [Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation); Gautschi, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Helium atoms are continuously produced in all rocks by neutralization of cc-particles emitted from the radioactive elements uranium and thorium and their decay products. Based on the average concentrations of (1,92 {+-}0,12) ppm U and (10,1 {+-} 1,22) ppm Th measured on 4 rock samples from the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, a {sup 4}He production rate of (5,2 {+-} 0,4) x 10{sup -13} cm{sup 3} STP/g rock.y. is calculated (STP = Standard Temperature and Pressure; T = 0 C, p = 1 atm = 1,013 x 10{sup 5} Pa). Multiplied with an average age of 165 million years of the sediments the total amount of in-situ produced helium can be calculated. Comparison of this value with measured He-concentrations in rocks shows that more than 96% of the helium has been lost from the solid phase and was transferred to the pore water. For an average grain density of 2,66 g/cm{sup 3} of rock and an average water-content porosity of 0,15 cm{sup 3} water/cm{sup 3} rock the helium accumulation rate in pore water is (7,5 {+-} 0,6) x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} STP {sup 4}He/cm{sup 3} water.y. This rate is very small, but well defined and essentially constant in time: it can be used as a clock to help to quantify transport processes in the subsurface. Helium concentrations in pore water were determined by mass spectrometry on gas samples extracted from about 20 freshly drilled rock samples which were immediately transferred into vacuum containers and stored for several weeks to give the helium time for outgasing from the pore water of the rock into the vacuum space of the container. Measured concentrations steadily decrease from 6,3 x 10{sup -5} cc STP He/cm{sup 3} of water at 546 m to 4,1 x 10{sup -5} cc STP He/cm{sup 3} of water at 406 m. In the absence of any transport processes such concentrations would be produced in-situ in 5-8 million years. Since no higher concentrations were measured, removal mechanisms must be operating that are efficient enough to transport helium out of the formation at least

  9. Could Crop Roughness Impact the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The high concentration of both large-scale agriculture and wind power production in the United States Midwest region raises new questions concerning the interaction of the two activities. For instance, it is known from internal boundary layer theory that changes in the roughness of the land-surface resulting from crop choices could modify the momentum field aloft. Upward propagation of such an effect might impact the properties of the winds encountered by modern turbines, which typically span a layer from about 40 to 120 meters above the surface. As direct observation of such interaction would require impractical interference in the planting schedules of farmers, we use numerical modeling to quantify the magnitude of crop-roughness effects. To simulate a collocated farm and turbine array, we use version 3.4.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The hypothetical farm is inserted near the real location of the 2013 Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX). Reanalyses provide representative initial and boundary conditions. A month-long period spanning August 2013 is used to evaluate the differences in flows above corn (maize) and soybean crops at the mature, reproductive stage. Simulations are performed comparing the flow above each surface regime, both in the absence and presence of a wind farm, which consists of a parameterized 11x11 array of 1.8 MW Vestas V90 turbines. Appreciable differences in rotor-layer wind speeds emerge. The use of soybeans results in an increase in wind speeds and a corresponding reduction in rotor-layer shear when compared to corn. Despite the turbulent nature of flow within a wind farm, high stability reduces the impact of crop roughness on the flow aloft, particularly in the upper portion of the rotor disk. We use these results to estimate the economic impact of crop selection on wind power producers.

  10. Gas monitoring during the CO2 back production field test at the Ketzin pilot site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szizybalski, Alexandra; Zimmer, Martin; Kujawa, Christian; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences operates Europe's first on-shore CO2 storage site in Ketzin, a small town near Berlin. From June 2008 until August 2013 about 67 kt of CO2 were injected into Upper Triassic sandstones in 630 to 650 m depth. The injection phase ended with an experiment to evaluate the influence of additives on CO2 storage. During this experiment 32 t N2 and 613 t CO2 were co-injected into the borehole over a period of 25 days followed by the final injection of 66 t pure CO2. At the beginning of the experiment 10,000 l (10 Nm3) Kr were pumped into the borehole, to separate the previous pure CO2 and the CO2-N2 mixture. For the same reason, CO2 with a different isotopic composition (δ13C = -3.4±0.2o instead of δ13C = -30.6±0.4) was used for the first 548 t of the total 613 t. To demonstrate that the stored CO2 is retrievable a field test was carried out in October 2014 during a period of two weeks. Of interest, in this context, is the composition of the back-produced gas which delivers key information on possible interactions between the CO2, formation fluid and rocks. In total 240 t of gas were produced via the former injection well. The flow rates ranged between 800 and 3,200 kg gas/h. The gas was sampled after the gas/water separator and continuously analysed using a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph and a photoacoustic sensor, thus covering all gas components and concentrations. In addition, gas samples were collected for stable carbon isotopes investigations in the laboratory. Preliminary results show that the produced gas consists of > 97% CO2 plus mainly N2. The N2 was detected from the beginning, although the injection in 2013 ended with pure CO2. The N2 concentration decreased from about 3% to 1% during the two weeks of the experiment. In addition to these major components CH4, CO and H2 (up to 0.01%) as well as Kr and SF6 (up to 0.001%, both were used as tracers in 2013) were detected. The gas composition of natural

  11. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the groundwater system behavior to support Brownfield regeneration of Hunedoara (Romania) former steel production site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, R.; Gaitanaru, D.; Ciugulea, O.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Western part of Romania, the study area is the Hunedoara former steel industry site. The current contamination status of the subsurface shows a real threat due to the contribution of more than 100 years of steel production, ironworks operations, coke products generation, and recovery of recycling materials. Analyses performed in 2007 indicated high contaminations with heavy metals like copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, and chromium. As the contamination of the soil and groundwater severe, brownfield regeneration of this site is essential for a sustainable land management. Intelligent remediation techniques with regard to phytoremediation and soil washing with recycled solutions could be applied. However, these techniques could be correctly chosen and applied if a reliable image of the hydrological, geological, hydrogeological, pedological settings exits and after a deep understanding of the contamination mechanisms. As consequence the development of a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model for this area is compulsory. Hunedoara County has a complex geological structure, made by crystalline-Mesozoic units belonging to Southern Carpathians and by sedimentary-volcanic units of Western Carpathians. The site area is shaped by the presence of alluvial deposits from the Superior Holocene. From the lithologic point of view, covered by a thick layer of clay a sandy formation is located at depths bellow 10 m. The two strata are covering an extended carbonate media. The main aquifer is represented by a groundwater body located under the clay layer. The groundwater table of the superficial aquifer is located at about 10 m depth. The one layer groundwater flow model simulating aquifer behavior covers about 1,2 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 7 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. Detailed geological data was provided by direct-push core sampling correlated with the penetration time and with

  12. The electricity production capacity of photovoltaic power plants and the selection of solar energy sites in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, J. Aran; Espin Estrella, A.; Aznar Dols, F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Electrical Engineering, University of Granada (Spain); Ridao, A. Ramos [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Environmental Technology, E.T.S.I.C.C.P., Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The privileged climate and orographic setting of southern Spain give Andalusia an enormous potential for the installation of photovoltaic power plants connected to electricity grids and also for individual use. These circumstances as well as the present energy crisis, largely stemming from the world's dependence on fossil fuels, justify this research study. This article describes how the GIS was used to inventory the most suitable land sites for the location of solar power plants for the production of electrical energy in compliance with the legal, environmental, and operational requisites for grid-connected photovoltaic power plants (GPPPs). On the basis of this inventory and the calculation of the global irradiation on horizontal surface, it is estimated that the electrical production capacity of GPPPs in Andalusia doubles the Special Regime electricity demand. The resulting electricity production capacity is estimated at 38,693 GWh/yr for 164,495.37 ha of land, which has no legal and/or environmental impediments to solar power installations. (author)

  13. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  14. Evaluation of a Global Soil Moisture Product from Finer Spatial Resolution SAR Data and Ground Measurements at Irish Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, a global, almost daily, soil moisture (SM product is being developed from passive and active satellite microwave sensors, at a coarse spatial resolution. This study contributes to its validation by using finer spatial resolution ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three sites in Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. This is the first time a comparison has been carried out between three sets of independent observations from different sensors at very different spatial resolutions for such a long time series. Furthermore, the SM spatial distribution has been investigated at the ASAR scale within each Essential Climate Variable (ECV pixel, without adopting any particular model or using a densely distributed network of in situ stations. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values in temperate grasslands. Temporal and spatial variability analysis provided high levels of correlation (p < 0.025 and low errors between the three datasets, leading to confidence in the new ECV SM global product, despite limitations in its ability to track the driest and wettest conditions.

  15. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  16. A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmanis, Maris

    development levels. Second, production paths at all levels of aggregation have an inverted-U shape (Hubbert's peak). Third, within each petroleum play the larger deposits tend to be discovered first. Finally, both exploration effort and new discoveries decrease over the lifetime of each exploration region.

  17. Monitoring antioxidant defenses and free radical production in space-flight, aviation and railway engine operators, for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress, immunological impairment, and pre-mature cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mariani, S; Maiani, G; Stancato, A; Korkina, L

    2009-01-01

    Degenerative diseases, immune impairment, and premature ageing commonly affect professional categories exposed to severe environmental and psychological stress. Among these, cosmonauts routinely experience extreme conditions due to microgravity, space radiation, altered oxygen supply, physical and mental fatigue during training, spaceflight, and post-flight. Long route aviation pilots display elevated oncogenic risk, connected with cosmic radiation overexposure, and high mortality rates for cardiovascular causes. Engine drivers, like pilots, are affected by health consequences of psycho-emotional stress, and burnout syndrome. The free radical (FR)/antioxidant (AO) imbalance is a common feature in all these pathological conditions. To assess the effective relevance of oxidative stress, we analyzed blood and urine reliable markers of FR production and AO defenses in 12 Russian cosmonauts, 55 airline pilots, 63 train engine drivers, and 50 age-matched controls by measuring the following: (a) lipophilic/hydrophilic low-molecular weight AO and AO enzyme activities, (b) nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroperoxide production, and (c) urinary catecholamine/serotonine metabolites and lipoperoxidation markers. Cosmonauts showed elevated granulocyte superoxide and nitric oxide production, increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione oxidation, and drastically decreased plasma/leucocyte lipophilic AO levels (P monitoring of clinical biochemistry laboratory markers of AO/FR status, to tailor individually specific AO supplementation and diet regimen, and monitor treatment outcomes.

  18. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Defense Agency, Huntsville, AL; Chief, Materiel Fielding Team ( Automotive ), Materiel Fielding and Training Directorate, TACOM Life Cycle Management...Executive Office Ground Combat Systems, Detroit Arsenal, Michigan; Training With Industry Officer, EADS North America, Huntsville, Alabama; and Product...identify the ways and means to counter this imbalance or risk future erosion of our military effectiveness, diminished allied confidence, and unnecessarily

  19. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  20. Quality Control of the Large-area GEM detectors at Production Sites for the CMS Muon Endcap Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) detectors will be installed in the high-eta region of the CMS muon system by the year 2019. With precise tracking and fast trigger information, these detectors will significantly improve the CMS muon triggering after the second long shutdown of the LHC. There are six sites, external to CERN, where at total of 160 1-meter long GEM detectors will be produced. We present the detector construction and discuss the critical quality control (QC) procedures implemented for chamber commissioning. Some of the most important QCs discussed are: current leakage tests, gas leak tests, gain measurements, high voltage test and response uniformity test. We discuss the criteria that are used to accept or reject a GEM detector based on the QC results. The production and QC status will be presented as well.

  1. Validation of MODIS and GEOV1 fPAR Products in a Boreal Forest Site in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titta Majasalmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of the fraction of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR has become a timely option to monitor forest productivity. However, only a few studies have had ground reference fPAR datasets containing both forest canopy and understory fPAR from boreal forests for the validation of satellite products. The aim of this paper was to assess the performance of two currently available satellite-based fPAR products: MODIS fPAR (MOD15A2, C5 and GEOV1 fPAR (g2_BIOPAR_FAPAR, as well as an NDVI-fPAR relationship applied to the MODIS surface reflectance product and a Landsat 8 image, in a boreal forest site in Finland. Our study area covered 16 km2 and field data were collected from 307 forest plots. For all plots, we obtained both forest canopy fPAR and understory fPAR. The ground reference total fPAR agreed better with GEOV1 fPAR than with MODIS fPAR, which showed much more temporal variation during the peak-season than GEOV1 fPAR. At the chosen intercomparison date in peak growing season, MODIS NDVI based fPAR estimates were similar to GEOV1 fPAR, and produced on average 0.01 fPAR units smaller fPAR estimates than ground reference total fPAR. MODIS fPAR and Landsat 8 NDVI based fPAR estimates were similar to forest canopy fPAR.

  2. Production of gelatinase enzyme from Bacillus spp isolated from the sediment sample of Porto Novo Coastal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmugasundaram Senthil Balan; Rajendiran Nethaji; Sudalayandi Sankar; Singaram Jayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, gelatinase producing bacteria were probed from sediment samples of Porto Novo Coastal sites, India. Screening and identification of potential strain were done followed by optimization of physico-chemical parameters; bulk production and gelatinase extraction were carried out. Methods: For probing of gelatinase potential producer primary and secondary screening was carried out for qualitative and quantitative estimation. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters for improved production of gelatinase enzyme and large scale of gelatinase was produced. Gelatinase precipitation was standardized using different saturation rates of ammonium sulphate from 10 to 100% at 4℃.Results: There were 8 morphologically different gelatinase producing bacteria were initially delved through primary screening tests. Bacillus spp produced maximum gelatinase activity (2.1U/mL) in secondary screening test. Optimizing its abiotic and biotic factors, maximum enzyme activity was achieved at 48h incubation period (2.2U/mL), 2.5 pH (2.5U/mL), 35℃ temperature (2.55U/mL), 0.8% lactose (2.6U/mL), 1.4% gelatin (2.9U/mL) as the ideal carbon source and nitrogen source, 1% salinity (2.9U/mL) and 3ml of inoculum containing 5.6×106/ mL (3.3U/mL). From the optimized factors, bulk production was carried out and saturation rate of 40% ammonium sulphate, precipitated out maximum enzyme with lowered dry weight indicates its enzyme purity and recovered enzyme showed 4.1U/mg of activity. Conclusion: The study revealed that the isolated strain Bacillus spp has its potentiality for industrial scale production and the results will stand as a base line data for the application of gelatinase in future.

  3. Plant growth promotion, metabolite production and metal tolerance of dark septate endophytes isolated from metal-polluted poplar phytomanagement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Charlotte; Leyval, Corinne; Foulon, Julie; Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies address the distribution and the diversity of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) in the literature, but little is known about their ecological role and their effect on host plants, especially in metal-polluted soils. Seven DSE strains belonging to Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Phialophora and Phialocephala were isolated from roots of poplar trees from metal-polluted sites. All strains developed on a wide range of carbohydrates, including cell-wall-related compounds. The strains evenly colonized birch, eucalyptus and ryegrass roots in re-synthesis experiments. Root and shoot growth promotion was observed and was both plant and strain dependent. Two Phialophora and Leptodontidium strains particularly improved plant growth. However, there was no correlation between the level of root colonization by DSEs and the intensity of growth promotion. All strains produced auxin and six also stimulated plant growth through the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SPME-GC/MS analyses revealed four major VOCs emitted by Cadophora and Leptodontidium The strains exhibited growth at high concentrations of several metals. The ability of metal-resistant DSE strains to produce both soluble and volatile compounds for plant growth promotion indicates interesting microbial resources with high potential to support sustainable production of bioenergy crops within the context of the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites.

  4. Modelling changes in nitrogen cycling to sustain increases in forest productivity under elevated atmospheric CO2 and contrasting site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R. F.

    2013-11-01

    If increases in net primary productivity (NPP) caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (Ca) are to be sustained, key N processes such as soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and nutrient conservation must also be increased. Simulating the response of these processes to elevated Ca is therefore vital for models used to project the effects of rising Ca on NPP. In this modelling study, hypotheses are proposed for changes in soil mineralization, biological fixation, root nutrient uptake and plant nutrient conservation with changes in Ca. Algorithms developed from these hypotheses were tested in the ecosystem model ecosys against changes in N and C cycling measured over several years under ambient vs. elevated Ca in Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments in the USA at the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory forest in Tennessee, and the USDA research forest in Wisconsin. More rapid soil N mineralization was found to be vital for simulating sustained increases in NPP measured under elevated vs. ambient Ca at all three FACE sites. This simulation was accomplished by priming decomposition of N-rich humus from increases in microbial biomass generated by increased litterfall modelled under elevated Ca. Greater nonsymbiotic N2 fixation from increased litterfall, root N uptake from increased root growth, and plant N conservation from increased translocation under elevated Ca were found to make smaller contributions to simulated increases in NPP. However greater nutrient conservation enabled larger increases in NPP with Ca to be modelled with coniferous vs. deciduous plant functional types. The effects of these processes on productivity now need to be examined over longer periods under transient rises in Ca and a greater range of site conditions.

  5. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  6. Involvement of the Electrophilic Isothiocyanate Sulforaphane in Arabidopsis Local Defense Responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mats X.; Nilsson, Anders K.; Johansson, Oskar N.; Boztaş, Gülin; Adolfsson, Lisa E.; Pinosa, Francesco; Petit, Christel Garcia; Aronsson, Henrik; Mackey, David; Tör, Mahmut; Hamberg, Mats; Ellerström, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even though the HR was described almost a century ago, cell-to-cell factors acting at the local level generating the full defense reaction have remained obscure. In this study, we sought to identify diffusible molecules produced during the HR that could induce cell death in naive tissue. We found that 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) is released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue undergoing the HR and that this compound induces cell death as well as primes defense in naive tissue. Two different mutants impaired in the pathogen-induced accumulation of sulforaphane displayed attenuated programmed cell death upon bacterial and oomycete effector recognition as well as decreased resistance to several isolates of the plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Treatment with sulforaphane provided protection against a virulent H. arabidopsidis isolate. Glucosinolate breakdown products are recognized as antifeeding compounds toward insects and recently also as intracellular signaling and bacteriostatic molecules in Arabidopsis. The data presented here indicate that these compounds also trigger local defense responses in Arabidopsis tissue. PMID:25371552

  7. Defense Trade Data: Sources and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    detailed trade information on such products may be difficult. Recent U.S. concerns have ranged from dependency on rare earths and first level products...BHUTAN BR INDIAN OCEAN TERR EGYPT INDIA IRAN IRAQ ISRAEL JORDAN KOWAIT LEBANON LIBYA MALDIVES MOROCCO NEPAL OMAN PAKISTAN QATAR SAODI...specifically designed or developed for military application and any computer specifically modified for use with any defense article in any category of

  8. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed.

  9. Effects of fat saturation and source of fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, J; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L; Hull, B L

    1994-08-01

    Six primiparous cannulated cows were assigned to six treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of degree of fat saturation and amount and source of effective fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a control diet with no added fat or diets with 5% added fat from saturated tallow, tallow, or animal-vegetable fat; the diets with animal-vegetable fat had 40% forage, 40% forage plus 20% soyhulls, or 60% forage. Ruminal acetate:propionate was higher when soyhulls replaced forage NDF because of the higher digestibility of soyhulls in the rumen and total tract. Ruminal digestion of NDF was decreased as unsaturation of fat increased. True and apparent efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were increased as fat unsaturation increased, probably because of reduced recycling of microbial N in the rumen. The digestibility of fatty acids in the small intestine was higher in cows fed no fat than in those fed fat and was reduced as fat unsaturation decreased, primarily because of the saturated tallow. Dry matter intake was decreased 14% by increased fat unsaturation. All fat supplements depressed milk protein percentage. Production of 4% FCM tended to decrease linearly as unsaturation of fat increased. In diets with 5% added fat, a degree of saturation between saturated tallow and tallow (iodine values of 18 and 62) appears to be optimum for fatty acid digestibility and DMI.

  10. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Please review the report findings and recommendations. I am interested in receiving your feedback for inclusion in programs wherever these...needed culture shift to utilize their existing authorities. Finally, expanded coordination among intermural basic research portfolios across the Labs...research portfolios across the Labs without creating additional administrative burdens is needed. The defense research enterprise should

  11. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Wireless Information Assurance • Steganography • Air Force Enterprise Defense (AFED) 10 Distributed Agents for Information Warfare Operational...information (images, documents, overlays, audio , links, etc.) •multi-level data release to coalition forces; key-based access •covert communication...maximize throughput of communication channels Data Hiding/Embedding Steganography Watermarking Steganalysis 14 Payoffs • Integrates existing

  12. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  13. Robust Preallocated Preferential Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Frye , W.H. and Ullman, L.L., Methodology for Calculating Minuteman Defense Effectiveness, SRD-EGI4, Stanford Research Institute, October 1973. 4. Hogg...Corporation 1500 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22209 ATTN: Dr. Tucker Battle Dr. James Skouras Dr. Iram Weinstein Northrop Corporation 8900 E. Washington

  14. Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program (EPMSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    relation to five rural IMPROVE sites (Dome Land NWA, Joshua Tree NP, Bosque del Apache NWR, Salt Creek, and San Andres NWR) and five urban STN sites...The five rural sites are at Dome Land National Wildlife Area (NWA), Joshua Tree National Park, Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Salt...Department of Defense (DoD) lands in the southwestern U.S. in relation to five rural IMPROVE sites (Dome Land NWA, Joshua Tree NP, Bosque del Apache NWR

  15. The Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership (ATP 3 ) framework; establishment of a national network of testbed sites to support sustainable algae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowen, John; Knoshaug, Eric P.; Laurens, Lieve M. L.; Dempster, Thomas A.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Wolfrum, Ed; Harmon, Valerie L.

    2017-07-01

    Well-controlled experiments that directly compare seasonal algal productivities across geographically distinct locations have not been reported before. To fill this gap, six cultivation testbed facilities were chosen across the United States to evaluate different climatic zones with respect to algal biomass productivity potential. The geographical locations and climates were as follows: Southwest, desert; Western, coastal; Southeast, inland; Southeast, coastal; Pacific, tropical; and Midwest, greenhouse. The testbed facilities were equipped with identical systems for inoculum production and open pond operation and methods were standardized across all testbeds to ensure accurate measurement of physical and biological variables. The ability of the testbed sites to culture and analyze the same algal species, Nannochloropsis oceanica KA32, using identical pond operational and data collection procedures was evaluated during the same seasonal timeframe. This manuscript describes the results of a first-of-its-kind coordinated testbed validation field study while providing critical details on how geographical variations in temperature, light, and weather variables influenced algal productivity, nitrate consumption, and biomass composition. We found distinct differences in growth characteristics due to the geographic location and the resulting climatic and seasonal conditions across the sites, with the highest productivities observed at the desert Southwest and tropical Pacific regions, followed by the Western coastal region. The lowest productivities were observed at the Southeast inland and Midwest greenhouse locations. These differences in productivities among the sites correlated with the differences in pond water temperature and available solar radiation. In addition two sites, the tropical Pacific and Southeast inland experienced unusual events, spontaneous flocculation, and unusually cold and wet (rainfall) conditions respectively, that negatively affected outdoor

  16. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  17. Dismantling products management on the Mounts Arree site; Gestion des produits de demantelement sur le site des Monts d'Arree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, G. [EDF / CEA, 29 - Brennilis (France); Ensuque, A. [Electricite de France (EDF/DIS/CNEPE), 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-07-01

    After a quick presentation of the historical aspect of the site, of works and organisation for these ones, we detail the different actions of radiological characterization implemented at the different steps of the project to guarantee the preparation of dismantling works and organize the waste management. (N.C.)

  18. Accelerated Insertion of Materials-Electronics (AIM-E). Delivery Order 0011: Production of Electronic Type-Specific Buckytubes for Next Generation Defense Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    walled c arbon n anotubes ( SWNTs), t he r efinement of t he r aw S WNT m aterial t o yield a high p urity electronic t ype s eparated f orm o f t...urther r efinement . Unidym w as also developing an alternative m ethod of SWNT production, 2 specifically, an MGPx p rocess w ith e mphasis o n...owever, t he pr ocess s till r equired r efinement an d s cale-up t o pr oduce l arge vol umes of material. At this point JVIC continued the work

  19. GMP-conformant on-site manufacturing of a CD133(+) stem cell product for cardiovascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Anna; Müller, Paula; Gaebel, Ralf; Große, Jana; Lemcke, Heiko; Lux, Cornelia A; Bastian, Manuela; Hausburg, Frauke; Zarniko, Nicole; Bubritzki, Sandra; Ruch, Ulrike; Tiedemann, Gudrun; David, Robert; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2017-02-10

    CD133(+) stem cells represent a promising subpopulation for innovative cell-based therapies in cardiovascular regeneration. Several clinical trials have shown remarkable beneficial effects following their intramyocardial transplantation. Yet, the purification of CD133(+) stem cells is typically performed in centralized clean room facilities using semi-automatic manufacturing processes based on magnetic cell sorting (MACS®). However, this requires time-consuming and cost-intensive logistics. CD133(+) stem cells were purified from patient-derived sternal bone marrow using the recently developed automatic CliniMACS Prodigy® BM-133 System (Prodigy). The entire manufacturing process, as well as the subsequent quality control of the final cell product (CP), were realized on-site and in compliance with EU guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice. The biological activity of automatically isolated CD133(+) cells was evaluated and compared to manually isolated CD133(+) cells via functional assays as well as immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the regenerative potential of purified stem cells was assessed 3 weeks after transplantation in immunodeficient mice which had been subjected to experimental myocardial infarction. We established for the first time an on-site manufacturing procedure for stem CPs intended for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases using an automatized system. On average, 0.88 × 10(6) viable CD133(+) cells with a mean log10 depletion of 3.23 ± 0.19 of non-target cells were isolated. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these automatically isolated cells bear proliferation and differentiation capacities comparable to manually isolated cells in vitro. Moreover, the automatically generated CP shows equal cardiac regeneration potential in vivo. Our results indicate that the Prodigy is a powerful system for automatic manufacturing of a CD133(+) CP within few hours. Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, future clinical

  20. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  1. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  2. Defensive Minefield Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Minefield Planning by Carlos Vallejo Game Lieutenant, Ecuadorian Navy B. S., Escuela Superior Naval, Ecuador 1980 Submitted in partial fulfillment of...was a superior open-ocean naval force to the North Koreans, defensive minewarfare was able to, at least temporarily, defeat U.S. Navy objectives in...Oswaldo Rosero 1 Unit 8 Coastal Route 1 Monterey, California 93940 77 11. Office of the N’aval Attache 4 Direccion de Educacion 2535 15th. st. N. W

  3. Regional Joint-Integrated Air and Missile Defense (RF-IAMD): An Operational Level Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Command and Control (C2) Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    the Naval Air and Missile Defense Command (NAMDC). NAMDC then began training field grade officers through a Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ...49 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ), Naval Air and Missile...and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ). Accessed April 28, 2015. http://namdc.ahf.nmci.navy.mil/site%20pages/wti.htm

  4. Plant traits, productivity, biomass and soil properties from forest sites in the Pacific Northwest, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T; Law, Beverly E

    2016-01-19

    Plant trait measurements are needed for evaluating ecological responses to environmental conditions and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization, and testing. We present a standardized dataset integrating measurements from projects conducted by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research and Regional Analysis- Pacific Northwest (TERRA-PNW) research group between 1999 and 2014 across Oregon and Northern California, where measurements were collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. The dataset contains measurements of specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen for 35 tree and shrub species derived from more than 1,200 branch samples collected from over 200 forest plots, including several AmeriFlux sites. The dataset also contains plot-level measurements of forest composition, structure (e.g., tree biomass), and productivity, as well as measurements of soil structure (e.g., bulk density) and chemistry (e.g., carbon). Publically-archiving regional datasets of standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced plant trait measurements will advance the ability of earth system models to capture species-level climate sensitivity at regional to global scales.

  5. Estimating Emissions of Toxic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Production Sites in the Barnett Shale Region of Northern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Lyon, David R; Tsai, Tracy R; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2016-10-04

    Oil and natural gas operations have continued to expand and move closer to densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples collected downwind of oil and gas sites revealed enhancements in several potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when compared to background values. Molar emissions ratios relative to methane were determined for hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX compounds). Using methane leak rates measured from the Picarro mobile flux plane (MFP) system and a Barnett Shale regional methane emissions inventory, the rates of emission of these toxic gases were calculated. Benzene emissions ranged between 51 ± 4 and 60 ± 4 kg h(-1). Hexane, the most abundantly emitted pollutant, ranged from 642 ± 45 to 1070 ± 340 kg h(-1). While observed hydrocarbon enhancements fall below federal workplace standards, results may indicate a link between emissions from oil and natural gas operations and concerns about exposure to hazardous air pollutants. The larger public health risks associated with the production and distribution of natural gas are of particular importance and warrant further investigation, particularly as the use of natural gas increases in the United States and internationally.

  6. Non-timber Forest Products, Their Vulnerability and Conservation in a Designated UNESCO Heritage Site of Arunanchal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Apatani, non-nomadic tribe, have evolved an ecologically sustainable system of rural forestry in Ziro Valley, a proposed heritage site of UNESCO. They have been using non-timber forest products (NTFPs grown in homestead and nearby forests for a very long period. The present study was aimed at identification of priority NTFPs and uses, their availability status and availability trend, conservation need, and sustainability interventions. Qualitative methods of research like, exploratory survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key informants, etc. were employed for data collection. The Apatani used 112 priority NTFPs for food supplement, herbal medicine, house building material and other purposes. However, on the basis of ecological importance such NTFPs were categorized as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high vulnerable species. Twenty vulnerable species like Antiitari ayi (Actinidia callosa, Biiling (Choerospondias axillaris, Henchi (Rubus niveus, Jojuru ayi (Coccinia grandis, Ngiilyang Khiiko (Centella asiatica etc. should be conserved and seventeen not vulnerable species at this stage like, Padii hamang (Cardamine hirsute, Sankhe (Quercus griffithii, Bije (Phyllostachys manii, Hiigu hamang (Oenanthe javanica, Kiira (Quercus dealbata , etc. could be commercialized. However, a balance needed to be struck between commercialization and conservation by adopting a comprehensive policy based on scientific and traditional Apatani knowledge for harvesting and regeneration of NTFPs. Homegardening or community farming is recommended for sustainable supply of commercially important species to be domasticated.

  7. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  8. Defensive allomones in three species ofHypselodoris (gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Cantabrian sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Avila, C; Martinez, E; Ortea, J; Trivellone, E; Cimino, G

    1993-02-01

    ThreeHypselodoris species,H. villafranca, H. cantabrica, and H. tricolor, have been studied in order to further investigate the defensive strategies of Chromodorididae mollusks from Iberian coasts. All animals possess large amounts of furanosesquiterpenoids, probably derived from their diet of sponges. The products are transferred and stored in specific sites of the mantle (mantle dermal formations, MDFs) to be used as chemical deterrents against predators. Chemical analysis of CantabrianHypselodoris species has led to the characterization of eight sesquiterpenoids. Among these, six have been found previously in both sponges and nudibranchs, while two are new natural products.Hypselodoris species cooccurring in the same area contained comparable mixtures of sesquiterpenoids. However, two populations ofH. cantabrica from different sites of the Cantabrian sea showed different metabolic patterns. All sesquiterpenoids induce feeding deterrence inCarassius auratus and two are also toxic toGambusia affinis.

  9. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  10. Rapid On-Site Environmental Sampling and Analysis of Propellant Stabilizers and their Decomposition Products by Portable Sampling and Thin-Layer Chromotography Kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J S; Gonzalez, M A

    2003-08-04

    Sustainable future use of land containing unexploded ordnance requires extensive field assessments, cleanup, and restoration. The ordnance is generally semi-exposed or buried in pits and, because of aging, needs to be handled with caution. Being able to characterize the ordnance in the field to minimize handling, as well as to distinguish it from inert mock material, greatly facilitates assessments and clean-up. We have developed unique sample preparation methodologies and a portable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) kit technology for rapid field screening and quantitative assessment of stabilizer content in propellants and, energetic materials (explosives) in environmental scenarios. Major advantages of this technology include simultaneous chromatography of multiple samples and standards for high sample throughput, high resolution, very low detection limits, and ease of operation. The TLC kit technology, sponsored by the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) of the U.S. Army, is now patented and has been completely transitioned to our commercial partners, Ho'olana Technologies, located in Hilo, Hawaii. Once fully deployed in the field, the new technology will demonstrate a cost-effective and efficient means for determining the percent of effective stabilizer that is remaining on-site and at munitions clean-up sites, as well as munitions storage facilities. The TLC kit technology is also readily applicable for analysis at military or commercial facilities, for a variety of emergency and non-emergency scenarios, and for situations where public concern is high.

  11. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  12. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Samantha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal (GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086: n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046 and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048, with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061. A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322

  13. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  14. Cross-site scripting attacks procedure and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-site scripting attacks and defense has been the site of attack and defense is an important issue, this paper, the definition of cross-site scripting attacks, according to the current understanding of the chaos on the cross-site scripting, analyzes the causes and harm cross-site scripting attacks formation of attacks XXS complete process XSS attacks made a comprehensive analysis, and then for the web program includes Mobility there are cross-site scripting filter laxity given from ordinary users browse the web and web application developers two the defense cross-site scripting attacks effective strategy.

  15. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  16. Influence of climatic conditions, topography and soil attributes on the spatial distribution of site productivity index of the species rich forests of Jalisco, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Mohamed; Robin M. Reich; Raj Khosla; C. Aguirre-Bravo; Martin Mendoza Briseño

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on field data to model the spatial distribution of the site productivity index (SPI) of the diverse forest types in Jalisco, Mexico and the response in SPI to site and cli-matic conditions. A linear regression model was constructed to test the hypothesis that site and climate variables can be used to predict the SPI of the major forest types in Jalisco. SPI varied significantly with topog-raphy (elevation, aspect and slope), soil attributes (pH, sand and silt), climate (temperature and precipitation zones) and forest type. The most important variable in the model was forest type, which accounted for 35% of the variability in SPI. Temperature and precipitation accounted for 8 to 9% of the variability in SPI while the soil attributes accounted for less than 4% of the variability observed in SPI. No significant differences were detected between the observed and predicted SPI for the individual forest types. The linear regression model was used to develop maps of the spatial variability in predicted SPI for the individual forest types in the state. The spatial site productivity models developed in this study provides a basis for understanding the complex relationship that exists between forest productivity and site and climatic conditions in the state. Findings of this study will assist resource managers in making cost-effective decisions about the management of individual forest types in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

  17. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences between sites on the demography of African mahogany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoue, Orou G; Ticktin, Tamara

    2010-04-01

    The demographic impacts of harvesting nontimber forest products (NTFP) have been increasingly studied because of reports of potentially unsustainable harvest. Nevertheless, our understanding of how plant demographic response to harvest is altered by variation in ecological conditions, which is critical for developing realistic sustainable-use plans, is limited. We built matrix population models to test whether and how variation in ecological conditions affects population responses to harvest. In particular, we examined the effect of bark and foliage harvest on the demography of populations of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) in two contrasting ecological regions of Benin, West Africa. K. senegalensis bark and foliage harvest significantly reduced its stochastic population growth rates, but ecological differences between regions had a greater effect on population growth rates than did harvest. The effect of harvest on population growth rates (Deltalambda) was slightly stronger in the moist than in the drier region. Life-table response experiments revealed that the mechanism by which harvesting reduced lambda differed between ecological regions. Lowered stasis (persistence) of larger life stages lead to a reduction in lambda in the drier region, whereas lowered growth of all life stages lowered lambda in moist region. Potential strategies to increase population growth rates should include decreasing the proportion of individuals harvested, promoting harvester-owned plantations of African mahogany, and increasing survival and growth by promoting no-fire zones in gallery forests. Our results show how population responses to harvest of NTFP may be altered by ecological differences across sites and emphasize the importance of monitoring populations over the climatic range in which they occur to develop more realistic recommendations for conservation.

  18. Modelling changes in nitrogen cycling to sustain increases in forest productivity under elevated atmospheric CO2 and contrasting site conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Grant

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available If increases in net primary productivity (NPP caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (Ca are to be sustained, key N processes such as soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and plant translocation must be hastened. Simulating the response of these processes to elevated Ca is therefore vital for models used to project the effects of rising Ca on NPP. In this modelling study, hypotheses are proposed for changes in soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and plant translocation with changes in Ca. Algorithms developed from these hypotheses were tested in the ecosystem model ecosys against changes in N and C cycling measured over several years under ambient vs. elevatedCa in Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiments at the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory forest in Tennessee, and the USDA research forest in Wisconsin, USA. Simulating more rapid soil N mineralization was found to be vital for modelling sustained increases in NPP measured under elevated vs. ambient Ca at all three FACE sites. This simulation was accomplished by priming decomposition of N-rich humus from increases in microbial biomass generated by increased litterfall modelled under elevated Ca. Simulating more rapid nonsymbiotic N2 fixation, root N uptake and plant N translocation under elevated Ca was found to make much smaller contributions to modelled increases in NPP, although such contributions might be greater over longer periods and under more N-limited conditions than those simulated here. Greater increases in NPP with Ca were also modelled with increased temperature and water stress, and with coniferous vs. deciduous plant functional types. These increases were also associated with changes in N cycling.

  19. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a survey of pito production sites in various parts of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Richard L K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-10-01

    Biodiversity among Saccharomyces cerevisiae predominating the spontaneous fermentation of Dagarti pito in Ghana was assessed. Two hundred and forty-nine isolates obtained from samples of dried yeast taken from commercial pito production sites in eight geographical regions of Ghana were characterized phenotypically by colony and cell morphology as well as carbohydrate assimilation profiling. Yeast populations ranged between 10(6) and 10(8) cfug(-1). Ninety-nine percent of the isolates (247) investigated showed macro-and micro morphological characteristics typical of S. cerevisiae. Of these, 72% (179) had assimilation profiles similar to S. cerevisiae while 28% (68) had assimilation profiles atypical of S. cerevisiae or any other member of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. Amplification of the region spanning the two intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S ribosomal gene (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2), followed by restriction analysis, as well as determination of chromosome length polymorphism by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 25 representative isolates strongly indicated that all belonged to S. cerevisiae, notwithstanding the phenotypic differences. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase II gene (COX 2) and the actin-encoding gene (ACT1) of four isolates, confirmed their close relatedness to S. cerevisiae, particularly to the type strain CBS1171 (98.7%), as well as other members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. Twenty isolates selected from eight geographical regions of Ghana and investigated for their technological properties, showed different patterns of growth and flocculation but otherwise similar technological characteristica. Most of the isolates produced pito having sensory attributes, which compared favourably with commercially produced pito.

  20. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  1. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  2. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  3. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  4. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  5. Evaluation of a deposit in the vicinity of the PBU L-106 Site, North Slope, Alaska, for a potential long-term test of gas production from hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.; Boyle, K.L.; Zhang, K.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the technical feasibility of gas production from hydrate deposits, a long-term field test (lasting 18-24 months) is under consideration in a project led by the U.S. Department of Energy. We evaluate a candidate deposit involving the C-Unit in the vicinity of the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska. This deposit is stratigraphically bounded by impermeable shale top and bottom boundaries (Class 3), and is characterized by high intrinsic permeabilities, high porosity, high hydrate saturation, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The C-unit deposit is composed of two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30-ft-thick shale interlayer, and its temperatrure across its boundaries ranges between 5 and 6.5 C. We investigate by means of numerical simulation involving very fine grids the production potential of these two deposits using both vertical and horizontal wells. We also explore the sensitivity of production to key parameters such as the hydrate saturation, the formation permeability, and the permeability of the bounding shale layers. Finally, we compare the production performance of the C-Unit at the PBU-L106 site to that of the D-Unit accumulation at the Mount Elbert site, a thinner, single-layer Class 3 deposit on the North Slope of Alaska that is shallower, less-pressurized and colder (2.3-2.6 C). The results indicate that production from horizontal wells may be orders of magnitude larger than that from vertical ones. Additionally, production increases with the formation permeability, and with a decreasing permeability of the boundaries. The effect of the hydrate saturation on production is complex and depends on the time frame of production. Because of higher production, the PBU-L106 deposit appears to have an advantage as a candidate for the long-term test.

  6. Defensive engagement and perceptual enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Ihssen, Niklas; Heim, Sabine; Vila, Jaime; Guerra, Pedro; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether visual cortical sensitivity to external cues in the context of an acute defensive reaction is heightened or attenuated. A strong cardiac defense (fear) response was elicited by presenting an abrupt, loud acoustic stimulus following a 10-minute period of quiescence. Electrocortical responses to aversive and neutral pictures following defensive stimulus onset were measured using dense-array EEG. Pictures were flickered at 12.5 Hz to evoke steady-state visual evoked potentials ...

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  8. Sites and mechanisms responsible for the low rate of free radical production of heart mitochondria in the long-lived pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Barja, G

    1997-11-01

    Basal (substrate alone) and maximum rates of H2O2 production, oxygen consumption and free radical leak in the respiratory chain were higher in heart mitochondria of the short-lived rat (4 years) than in the long-lived pigeon (35 years). This suggests that the low free radical production of pigeon heart mitochondria is due in part to both a low electron flow and a low percent leak of electrons out of sequence in the respiratory chain. Thenoyltrifluoroacetone did not increase H2O2 production with succinate either in rats or pigeons. Mitochondrial H2O2 production was higher with pyruvate/malate than with succinate in both animal species. Rotenone and antimycin A increased H2O2 production with pyruvate/malate to the maximum levels observed in each species. Addition of myxothiazol to antimycin A-treated mitochondria supplemented with pyruvate/malate decreased H2O2 production in both species. All the combinations of inhibitors added with pyruvate/malate resulted in higher rates of H2O2 production in rats than in pigeons. When succinate instead of pyruvate/malate was used as substrate, rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production in the rat and did not change it in the pigeon. The results indicate that Complexes I and III are the main H2O2 generators of heart mitochondria in rats and pigeons and that both Complexes are responsible for the low H2O2 production of the bird. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and ethoxyformic anhydride strongly inhibited the H2O2 production induced by rotenone with pyruvate/malate in both species. This suggests that the free radical generator of Complex I is located after the ferricyanide reduction site, between the ethoxyformic and the rotenone-sensitive sites.

  9. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  10. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Executive Summary is a product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the...Executive Summary Since 2000, when the Defense Science Board concluded space superiority was absolutely essential in achieving global awareness, information...Whelan Government Advisors Dr. Larry Gershwin – ODNI/NIM Science and Technology Executive Secretary Col Russell Teehan, USAF – AT&L/Space, Strategic

  11. Submicron aerosols at thirteen diversified sites in China: size distribution, new particle formation and corresponding contribution to cloud condensation nuclei production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Peng

    2014-06-01

    (CS during NPF days were observed among different site types, suggesting that the NPF events in background area were more influenced by the pollutant transport. In addition, average contributions of NPF events to potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% super-saturation in the afternoon of all sampling days were calculated as 11% and 6% at urban sites and regional sites, respectively. On the other hand, NPF events at coastal and cruise measurement sites had little impact on potential production of CCN. This study provides a large dataset of aerosol size distribution in diversified atmosphere of China, improving our general understanding of emission, secondary formation, new particles formation and corresponding CCN activity of submicron aerosols in Chinese environments.

  12. Novel mode of action of plant defense peptides - hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from wheat inhibit fungal metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavokhotova, Anna A; Naumann, Todd A; Price, Neil P J; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Odintsova, Tatyana I

    2014-10-01

    The multilayered plant immune system relies on rapid recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns followed by activation of defense-related genes, resulting in the reinforcement of plant cell walls and the production of antimicrobial compounds. To suppress plant defense, fungi secrete effectors, including a recently discovered Zn-metalloproteinase from Fusarium verticillioides, named fungalysin Fv-cmp. This proteinase cleaves class IV chitinases, which are plant defense proteins that bind and degrade chitin of fungal cell walls. In this study, we investigated plant responses to such pathogen invasion, and discovered novel inhibitors of fungalysin. We produced several recombinant hevein-like antimicrobial peptides named wheat antimicrobial peptides (WAMPs) containing different amino acids (Ala, Lys, Glu, and Asn) at the nonconserved position 34. An additional Ser at the site of fungalysin proteolysis makes the peptides resistant to the protease. Moreover, an equal molar concentration of WAMP-1b or WAMP-2 to chitinase was sufficient to block the fungalysin activity, keeping the chitinase intact. Thus, WAMPs represent novel protease inhibitors that are active against fungal metalloproteases. According to in vitro antifungal assays WAMPs directly inhibited hyphal elongation, suggesting that fungalysin plays an important role in fungal development. A novel molecular mechanism of dynamic interplay between host defense molecules and fungal virulence factors is suggested.

  13. 27 CFR 447.55 - Departments of State and Defense consulted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Departments of State and Defense consulted. 447.55 Section 447.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL..., AMMUNITION AND IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.55 Departments of State and Defense consulted...

  14. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    most senior level—the only one that matters in Russian decisionmaking cul - ture—is also of significance today and will also be re- ferred to later in... org /missile-defense/us-ballistic-missile-defense/p30607. 9. Email exchange with author, July 2013. 10. “Safeguard,” Washington, DC: Federation of Ameri

  15. Elicitors of Host Plant Defenses Partially Suppress Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense elicitors are products that activate acquired defense responses in plants, thus rendering the plants less susceptible to attack by a broad range of pests. We previously demonstrated under laboratory conditions that foliar applications of the defense elicitors Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl)...

  16. Methodologies for Estimating and Comparing Soviet Defense Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Chnages and New Goods .... ............. 163 Price Indices Deflaters for Defense Products ...... . 166 VII. PRODUCTION-THEORETIC INDICES...Strategic Control and Surveillance Forces 4. Tactical Air Force 5. Mobility Forces 6. Intelligence 7. Centrally Managed Communications 8. Research...Training 13. MSF - Management Headquarters 14. Central Support Forces (CSF) - Base Operating Support 15. CSF - Medical Support 16. CSF - Personnel

  17. 32 CFR 21.200 - What is the Defense Grant and Agreement Regulatory System (DGARS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Defense Grant and Agreement... Washington Headquarters Services Internet site http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives. Paper copies may be obtained, at cost, from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,...

  18. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The crystal structure of Erwinia amylovora levansucrase provides a snapshot of the products of sucrose hydrolysis trapped into the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerges, Jochen; Caputi, Lorenzo; Cianci, Michele; Boivin, Stephane; Meijers, Rob; Benini, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Levansucrases are members of the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyse both the hydrolysis of the substrate sucrose and the transfer of fructosyl units to acceptor molecules. In the presence of sufficient sucrose, this may either lead to the production of fructooligosaccharides or fructose polymers. Aim of this study is to rationalise the differences in the polymerisation properties of bacterial levansucrases and in particular to identify structural features that determine different product spectrum in the levansucrase of the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Ea Lsc, EC 2.4.1.10) as compared to Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis levansucrase. Ea is an enterobacterial pathogen responsible for the Fire Blight disease in rosaceous plants (e.g., apple and pear) with considerable interest for the agricultural industry. The crystal structure of Ea Lsc was solved at 2.77 Å resolution and compared to those of other fructosyltransferases from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We propose the structural features, determining the different reaction products, to reside in just a few loops at the rim of the active site funnel. Moreover we propose that loop 8 may have a role in product length determination in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus LsdA and Microbacterium saccharophilum FFase. The Ea Lsc structure shows for the first time the products of sucrose hydrolysis still bound in the active site.

  20. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  1. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2006, Medical Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    assets for mobile support teams, labs, immunizations, latent TB screening, and post-deployment assessments.” (COL Eric Allely, Maryland State Surgeon...infarctions ! Diabetes ! Mental health problems ! Hypertension ! Diarrhea ! Heat injuries 30 State Defense Force Monograph Series, Summer 2006...for dysentery and vomiting ! Viral meningitis ! Injuries due to off-site fighting ! Tuberculosis ! HIV ! Special medical needs. See Figures 3

  2. Variation in the expression of chemical defenses in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in the field and common garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2002-09-01

    I examined glucosinolates, trypsin inhibitors (TI), and peroxidase (POD) activity in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) plants growing naturally in Wright State University's Forest Preserve and in a common garden experiment in plants from the same populations conducted in the greenhouse. In the field, first-year plants expressed each defense, but defense levels varied significantly in plants from different sites in the forest. Patterns in site variation were consistent for glucosinolate and POD, but not for TI. The TI and POD levels were increased by mechanical wounding, but glucosinolate levels were unaffected. In the greenhouse, plants expressed each defense at higher levels than in the field, but defense levels did not vary among plants collected from each site in the field. The POD activity was increased by wounding, but glucosinolate and TI levels where unaffected. Plants from each site varied in height and leaf length when measured shortly after transplantation, but site differences substantially diminished after 4 wk. Site-based variation in defense expression in the field, which disappeared in the greenhouse, was presumably related to differences in environmental quality among the sites. Sites were shown to vary in soil moisture content, soil pH, nutrient levels, and presumably light quantity or quality. Despite an apparent lack of genetic variation in defense across sites in the field, the constitutive expression of these three chemical defenses, increases due to wounding, and phenotypic variation across sites could reduce herbivore success on garlic mustard individuals and slow the rate of herbivore adaptation to garlic mustard populations.

  3. Connecting non-timber forest products stakeholders to information and knowledge: A case study of an Internet web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Matt Winn; A.L. Hammett

    2009-01-01

    Many products are harvested from forests that are not timber-based but are based on plant materials. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have not been fully incorporated into economic development programs, yet they provide significant monetary benefits for rural entrepreneurs. Interest in NTFPs as alternative forest enterprises and sources of additional income has...

  4. Identification of multiple serine to asparagine sequence variation sites in an intended copy product of LUCENTIS® by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaud, François; Winter, Andrej; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Straube, Frank; Sackewitz, Mirko; Berg, Matthias

    2017-08-28

    Patent expiration of first-generation biological and the high cost of innovative biological are 2 drivers for the development of biosimilar products. There are, however, technical challenges to the production of exact copies of such large molecules. In this study, we performed a head-to-head comparison between the originator anti-VEGF-A Fab product LUCENTIS® (ranibizumab) and an intended copy product using an integrated analytical approach. While no differences could be observed using size-exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate and potency assays, different acidic peaks were identified with cation ion exchange chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis. Further investigation of the intact Fab, subunits and primary sequence with mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of a modified light chain variant in the intended copy product batches. This variant was characterized with a mass increase of 27.01 Da compared with the originator sequence and its abundance was estimated in the range of 6-9% of the intended copy product light chain. MS/MS spectra interrogation confirmed that this modification relates to a serine to asparagine sequence variant found in the intended copy product light chain. We demonstrated that the integration of high-resolution and sensitive orthogonal technologies was beneficial to assess the similarity of an originator and an intended copy product.

  5. 75 FR 45160 - Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics..., applicable to workers of Ingersoll-Rand, formerly known as Locknetics, Security Technologies Division... employed at the Bristol, Connecticut location of Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., formerly known...

  6. Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

    2004-01-01

    As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce.

  7. 75 FR 57505 - Dell Products LP, Winston-Salem (WS-1) Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... of desktop computers. New information shows that workers leased from Omni Resources and Recovery were...) Division. The Department has determined that on-site workers from Omni Resources and Recovery were... Leased Workers From Adecco, Spherion, Patriot Staffing, Manpower, Teksystems, APN, ICONMA,...

  8. 75 FR 56564 - Dell Products LP, Winston-Salem (WS-1) Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... of desktop computers. New information shows that workers leased from Omni Resources and Recovery were...) Division. The Department has determined that on-site workers from Omni Resources and Recovery were... Leased Workers From Adecco, Spherion, Patriot Staffing, Manpower, Teksystems, APN, Iconma,...

  9. 75 FR 55614 - Dell Products LP, Winston-Salem (WS-1) Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... of desktop computers. New information shows that workers leased from Omni Resources and Recovery were...) Division. The Department has determined that on-site workers from Omni Resources and Recovery were... Leased Workers From Adecco, Spherion, Patriot Staffing, Manpower, Teksystems, APN, Iconma,...

  10. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .../Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were employed on-site at the Springdale, Ohio location... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Spherion/Source Right working on...

  11. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .../Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were employed on-site at the Springdale... leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or partially separated...

  12. Report to Congress on the Strategic Defense Initiative, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Cell (BMDOC and BMDC ), Regional/Element Operations Centers (ROCEOC), the Command and Control Network (C2N), the Communications Network Management...and Architectures Figure 2-s Initial Defense Site The BMD cell located at Colorado Springs has a battle manager node that will allow CINCSPACE to enable...the system and direct the battle. The BMD cell will be connected to the Regional Operating Center (ROC) located at the initial site by both land line

  13. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  14. Epigenetic control of defense signaling and priming in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR. These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements (TEs as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens.

  15. Optimization of a multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate for the production in Pichia pastoris by the identification and removal of protease cleavage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Holger; Schinkel, Helga; Kastilan, Robin; Dahm, Pia; Boes, Alexander; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Chudobová, Ivana; Maskus, Dominika; Fendel, Rolf; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrated the successful optimization of a recombinant multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate protein for production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by the identification and subsequent removal of two protease cleavage sites. After observing protein degradation in the culture supernatant of a fed-batch fermentation, the predominant proteolytic fragment of the secreted recombinant protein was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The MS data indicated the cleavage of an amino acid sequence matching the yeast KEX2-protease consensus motif EKRE. The cleavage in this region was completely abolished by the deletion of the EKRE motif in a modified variant. This modified variant was produced, purified, and used for immunization of rabbits, inducing high antigen specific antibody titers (2 × 10(6) ). Total IgG from rabbit immune sera recognized different stages of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in immunofluorescence assays, indicating native folding of the vaccine candidate. However, the modified variant was still degraded, albeit into different fragments. Further analysis by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing revealed a second cleavage site downstream of the motif PEVK. We therefore removed a 17-amino-acid stretch including the PEVK motif, resulting in the subsequent production of the full-length recombinant vaccine candidate protein without significant degradation, with a yield of 53 mg per liter culture volume. We clearly demonstrate that the proteolytic degradation of recombinant proteins by endogenous P. pastoris proteases can be prevented by the identification and removal of such cleavage sites. This strategy is particularly relevant for the production of recombinant subunit vaccines, where product yield and stability play a more important role than for the production of a stringently-defined native sequence which is necessary for most therapeutic molecules.

  16. Productivity, mortality, and response to disturbance of nesting Swainson's hawks on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.D.; Marr, N.V.; McCorquodale, S.M.

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainson) use of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and to evaluate the potential for engineering and other human activities on the Hanford Site to negatively affect the nesting Swainson's hawk population. Activities associated with the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) were used as the primary external stimuli in studying hawk responses to potential human disturbance. Parked and moving vehicles were the most common disturbance sources observed in Swainson's hawk territories. Hawks appeared to be sensitive to disturbance from pedestrians and slow-moving vehicles near nests. Novel stimuli were much more likely to evoke strong responses than were recurring events. Adult hawks reacted more frequently and vigorously than did juveniles. When disturbed, adult hawks usually flew toward the location of the disturbance; juvenile hawks usually flew away from disturbances. Human activity associated with BWIP may have had negative on one pair of nesting Swainson's hawks and may have precluded the use of an additional traditional nesting territory. Negative impacts to nesting Swainson's hawks from human activity could be minimized by confining activities to the non-nesting period or to distances greater than 2.2 km from nest sites. Tree groves and elevated perches, including utility poles, across the Hanford Site are probably critical to the success of nesting Swainson's hawks. Potential mitigation strategies associated with energy research and development activities on the Hanford Site could include provisions for maintenance and establishment of drought-tolerant trees and native vegetation. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Defense Strategies Against Modern Botnets

    CERN Document Server

    Stankovic, Srdjan

    2009-01-01

    Botnets are networks of compromised computers with malicious code which are remotely controlled and which are used for starting distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, sending enormous number of e-mails (SPAM) and other sorts of attacks. Defense against modern Botnets is a real challenge. This paper offers several strategies for defense against Botnets with a list and description of measures and activities which should be carried out in order to establish successful defense. The paper also offers parallel preview of the strategies with their advantages and disadvantages considered in accordance with various criteria.

  18. Quadrennial Defense Review and Ballistic Missile Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    global defense posture 3 BMDR Highlights • Outlines a strategy and policy framework to – Defend the homeland against limited ballistic missile attack...abroad – Collaborate closely with allies and partners – Pursue a cooperative and tailored global defense posture – Strengthen US civilian capacity...reviews in 2010 – QDR and BMDR released February 1, 2010 – Nuclear Posture Review to be released this spring – Space Posture Review, with Director of

  19. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  20. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  1. 75 FR 31505 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... posted on the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls' Web site, at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov 2 weeks... should provide: His/her name; company or organizational affiliation; phone number; date of birth; and...

  2. 78 FR 67436 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Defense Trade Controls Web site, at www.pmddtc.state.gov , approximately 10 days prior to the meeting. The... attend this plenary session should provide: His/her name; company or organizational affiliation (if any...

  3. 76 FR 16652 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... posted on the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls' Web site, at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov... plenary session should provide: his/her name; company or organizational affiliation; phone number; date of...

  4. 77 FR 67438 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... will be posted on the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls' Web site, at www.pmddtc.state.gov...: his/her name; company or organizational affiliation (if any); date of birth; and identifying data such...

  5. Antiviral Defenses in Plants through Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Bragard, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Plant–virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease. GES are engineered to target and introduce mutations, which can be deleterious, via double-strand breaks at specific DNA sequences by the error-prone non-homologous recombination end-joining pathway. Although GES have been engineered to target DNA, recent discoveries of GES targeting ssRNA molecules, including virus genomes, pave the way for further studies programming plant defense against RNA viruses. Most of plant virus species have an RNA genome and at least 784 species have positive ssRNA. Here, we provide a summary of the latest progress in plant antiviral defenses mediated by GES. In addition, we also discuss briefly the GES perspectives in light of the rebooted debate on genetic modified organisms (GMOs) and the current regulatory frame for agricultural products involving the use of such engineering technologies. PMID:28167937

  6. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.

    2009-09-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  7. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Bec...

  8. Loblolly Pine Productivity and Water Relations in Response to Throughfall Reduction and Fertilizer Application on a Poorly Drained Site in Northern Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell G. Wightman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests are of great ecological and economic value in the southeastern United States, where nutrient availability frequently limits productivity. The impact of fertilizer application on the growth and water relations of loblolly pine has been investigated by numerous studies; however, few field experiments have examined the effects of drought. Drought is of particular interest due to the potential for climate change to alter soil water availability. In this study, we investigated the impact of fertilizer application and a 30% reduction in throughfall on loblolly pine productivity, transpiration, hydraulic conductance, and stomatal conductance. The study was installed in a ten-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a somewhat poorly drained site in northern Florida. Throughfall reduction did not impact tree productivity or water relations of the trees. This lack of response was attributed to abundant rainfall and the ability of trees to access the shallow water table at this site. Fertilizer application increased basal area production by 20% and maximum leaf area index by 0.5 m2∙m−2, but it did not affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance or the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. During the spring, when leaf area and vapor pressure deficit were high, the fertilizer-only treatment increased monthly transpiration by 17% when compared to the control. This relationship, however, was not significant during the rest of the year.

  9. Spatiotemporal heterogenesssity of tomato induced defense responses affects spider mite performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-08-31

    When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T. evansi intensified suppression of defenses locally, i.e. at its feeding site, after T. urticae mites were introduced onto adjacent leaf tissue. This hyper-suppression is paralleled by an increased oviposition rate of T. evansi, probably promoting its competitive population growth. Here we present additional data that not only provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of defense induction and suppression by mites, but that also suggest T. evansi to manipulate more than JA and SA defenses alone.

  10. Petrographic-geochemical characteristics of granitoids and their epigenetic alteration products in paleovalley fields (Vitim uranium-ore site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E. S.; Domarenko, V. A.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The study describes the results of the mineral and element composition of granitoids in basement and weathering crust of Khiagdinsk ore field in Vitim uranium ore site. It has been stated that granitoids in basement consist of leucocratic biotite granite of subalkaline group. The major rock-forming, accessory (apatite, zircon, sphene (titanite), magnetite, monazite, xenotime), and uranium-bearing minerals have been determined. Weathering crust is composed of unlithified or weakly lithified sediments, among which sandy and sandy medium gravel deposits have been distinguished in terms of mineralogical and granulometric texture. High radioactivity of granitoids was revealed in thorium-uranium basement and natural uranium. The combination of the specified factors presupposes that granitoids of Vitim uranium ore site may be a source of uranium in the fields of the paleovalley type.

  11. Compared sensitivity of two nuclear sites: case of farming production contaminated by foliar way (chronicle release) S.E.N.S.I.B. project; Sensibilite comparee de deux sites nucleaires: cas des productions agricoles contaminees par voie foliaire (rejet chronique) Projet SENSIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercat, C.; Vassas, C

    2005-07-01

    This study joins within the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project. The principle is to set up a step which allows to compare the sensitivity of two sites in case of radioisotopes releases; as illustration the sites of Marcoule and La Hague are considered. We are interested here in the case of the agricultural productions contaminated by foliar way during an atmospheric chronic release. Every site is characterized by specific vegetable and animal productions. The calculations of activities give an information about the sensitivity of products (mass and surface activities) and on the sensitivity of the Communes ( total activities). The contamination is supposed to be only made about foliar transfer. The studied radioisotopes are the cesium{sup 137}, the cobalt{sup 60}, the strontium{sup 90} and the iodine{sup 131}. For the cesium{sup 137} and the cobalt{sup 60}, the agricultural environment of the site of Marcoule seems globally more sensitive than that of La Hague, in the mean where the total activity in becquerels exported by the agricultural productions produced on the zone of 10 km around the site is more important for Marcoule than for La Hague. For the strontium{sup 90} and for the iodine{sup 131}, both agricultural environments are globally equivalent. This study which privileged the consideration of the regional specificities shows that the key factors of sensitivity are respectively the topographic situation for the deposit, the factor of translocation and the farming output for the vegetable productions and the daily food ration and the factor of transfer for the animal productions. (N.C.)

  12. U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy in an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    rarely , if ever, large enough to produce this effect (Hale, 1987). As a consequence, it is a general rule that the more units produced, the lower will...defense-industrial independence. Although licensed manufacturing transfers the know-how to build products, it rarely transfers the tacit knowledge...defense policy: Medium power, even bigger ambitions? Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 22(2), 183–96. Berghezan, G., & Richard, P. (2002). Israël, terre

  13. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AD-A238 559 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics Judith E. Payne, Robert H. Anderson N STATEN= A... electronic commerce to enhance defense logistics / Judith L. Payne and Robert H, Anderson. "Prepared for the Assistant Sccretary of Defense (Production and...by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 | ,! R-4030-P&L Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to

  14. Determination of the raw material source used in the production of ceramics of the Hatahara archaeological site, AM, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Kelly P.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: kquimica@usp.b, E-mail: camunita@ipen.b, E-mail: poliver@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Kazuo, Eduardo T., E-mail: edgneves@usp.b, E-mail: eduardo.tamanaha@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@usp.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological interventions carried out at the Hatahara archaeological site, located in the central Amazonia, showed the presence of a great amount of ceramic artifacts in this region. As a consequence, several works have been conducted with this archaeological material, searching clear questions on how the ancient societies produced such objects, as well as, the use they did of the environment where they were inserted. Considering that the analysis of the ceramic material showed the simultaneous occurrence of four distinct phases of occupation in the Hatahara site, which, in relation to its pre-colonial composition is as an integral part of a quite complex context, the present work had the purpose of helping the Archaeologists to understand better the development of the societies that occupied this region, with basis on the study of the archaeological ceramics provenance. For this, the chemical characterization was done, with application of the analytical technique by neutron activation analysis (NAA); the elementary concentrations of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were determined in 127 ceramic fragments and in 7 samples of clay, collected next to the Hatahara archaeological site. The data of elementary concentrations were submitted to the multivariate statistical analysis, the techniques of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed that a single type of clay was used in the manufacture of a group of 25 ceramic fragments, belonging to the phases Paredao, Manacapuru and Guarita. These results have been added to the archaeological interpretations with regard to the classification of the rescued ceramics fragments, in order to complement them. Therefore, this work supplied some pertinent clarifications that certainly will give support to the reconstruction of human path in the Hatahara archaeological site. (author)

  15. Overcompensation of herbivore reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Chafi, Rachid; Villarroel, Carlos A; Alba, Juan M; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-06-01

    Spider mites are destructive arthropod pests on many crops. The generalist herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae induces defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and this constrains its fitness. By contrast, the Solanaceae-specialist Tetranychus evansi maintains a high reproductive performance by suppressing tomato defenses. Tetranychus evansi outcompetes T. urticae when infesting the same plant, but it is unknown whether this is facilitated by the defenses of the plant. We assessed the extent to which a secondary infestation by a competitor affects local plant defense responses (phytohormones and defense genes), mite gene expression and mite performance. We observed that T. evansi switches to hyper-suppression of defenses after its tomato host is also invaded by its natural competitor T. urticae. Jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) defenses were suppressed more strongly, albeit only locally at the feeding site of T. evansi, upon introduction of T. urticae to the infested leaflet. The hyper-suppression of defenses coincided with increased expression of T. evansi genes coding for salivary defense-suppressing effector proteins and was paralleled by an increased reproductive performance. Together, these observations suggest that T. evansi overcompensates its reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to nearby competitors. We hypothesize that the competitor-induced overcompensation promotes competitive population growth of T. evansi on tomato. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The dependence of the productivity of draglines on the technological conditions on site; Die Abhaengigkeiten der Produktivitaet von Schuerfkuebelbaggern von den technologischen Einsatzbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiran, P. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Professur Bergbau-Tagebau; Tsedendorj, S. [Mongolische Univ. fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Ulan Bator (Mongolia). Professur Bergbau-Tagebau

    2008-09-15

    The work cycle time is important for determining the productivity of dragline excavators. It depends on the properties of the rock, on the digging depth and on the slewing angle. In general, the latter ranges between 90 and 135 . When using dragline excavators, several technological patterns can be applied, which differ from each other as far as the slewing angle, the passage width and cutting height are concerned. The optimal pattern will have to be selected in accordance with the actual deposit conditions prevailing in the mine. Inaccurate planning often results in delays in the work processes on site, which will also affect the subsequent jobs. With the above presented methodology the hourly production volume of the dragline excavator can be exactly determined for different technological patterns, taking into account the passage width and the resultant slewing angle, walking times for changing its position and modified production of the partial technologies. (orig.)

  17. Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfiore, Cristina Maria, E-mail: cbelfio@unict.it [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy); Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio [Universita di Messina, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, C.da Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, Sant' Agata, Messina (Italy); Viccaro, Marco [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

  18. Screening for potential fermentative hydrogen production from black water and kitchen waste in on-site UASB reactor at 20 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, S; Pakarinen, O; Rintala, J

    2008-06-01

    The potential of black water and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste as substrates for on-site dark fermentative hydrogen production was screened in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at 20 degrees C. Three different inocula were used with and without heat treatment. With glucose, the highest specific hydrogenogenic activity was 69 ml H2 g volatile solids(-1) d(-1) in batch assays and the highest hydrogen yield 0.44 mol H2 mol glucose(-1) in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. The mixture of black water and kitchen waste degraded readily into volatile fatty acids in the reactors, thus showing potential for hydrogen production. In the conditions applied, however, the highest end product was propionate and no hydrogen was produced. Black water alone apparently contained too little readily soluble carbohydrates for hydrogen producing bacteria, and little VFA and no hydrogen was produced.

  19. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  20. Defense Spending and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-07

    the first resolution. Our forecast projects continued growth in the economy and moderate inflation for one or possibly two years, despite federal...than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense would, of course, promote defense-intensive sectors of the economy at the expense of...others, but CBO believes the economy could accommodate such shifts without significant adverse effects on macroeconomic variables such as employment

  1. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  2. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months.

  3. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theone C Kon

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months.

  4. Plant defense against herbivorous pests: exploiting resistance and tolerance traits for sustainable crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Mitchell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  5. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  6. In vitro expression and characterization of the translation start site of the psbA gene product (QB protein) from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B N; Coleman, T A; Schmitt, J J; Weissbach, H

    1984-01-01

    The psbA gene from higher plants, which codes for the atrazine herbicide binding protein of photosystem II (QB protein), has been recently sequenced by various laboratories. From these data there are two potential translation sites, one yielding a protein of 38,500 kd and another a protein of 34,500 kd. In the present study, cloned psbA gene sequences from maize, tobacco, and pea have been expressed in a highly defined E. coli in vitro transcription/translation system. In order to determine the start site of translation, we also have employed a simplified E. coli system designed to synthesize the first di- or tripeptide of the gene product. From these results, it is clear that the first ATG of the longest open reading frame of the psbA gene, that begins fMet-Thr, is not recognized in vitro. Instead, the next downstream Met at position 37 is the initiation site, since the expected dipeptide fMet-Ile is synthesized from all psbA clones. These data are in accord with the in vivo results that the gene product is a precursor protein of 34,500 kd. Images PMID:6382165

  7. The Relationship between Inflation and Defense Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    resources they would be bid up in the expanding sector. See Robert Solow , "Evaluation," in After the Phillips Curve: Persistence of High Inflation and...can be explained by the respective rates of growth of money supply per unit of national product. ’𔃼 IF’risch, op. cit., p. 1311. Robert J. Gordon...Statistical Approach for Forecasting Defense Expenditures in the Short-run," in William F. Butler, Robert A. Kavesh, and Robert B. Platt, eds., "Methods and

  8. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND.: Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Because no preclinical control for solute concentrations is available so far using this new process, we employed routine clinical chemistry analytics. METHODS.: We report the controls of solute concentrations created by these methods for 746 samples of concentrates and 151 dissolution processes. For analysis, absolute and relative deviations from prescriptions and associations between the solute concentrations and the density controls of the concentrates were computed. RESULTS.: A total of 98% of all the concentrates were found to be within a 10% margin of error from the prescriptions. The mean relative deviation of the solute concentrations from the prescriptions was -0.635 ± 3.83%. Among particular solutes, sodium had the highest maximum deviation of 26 mmol/L from the prescription. Calcium and magnesium (small concentration solutes) exhibited small systematic errors of 1.37 and 1.22%, respectively. Other solute concentrations showed random errors only and no associations with the mean relative deviations of all the solutes within a production batch or with the density controls. CONCLUSIONS.: Single solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry after dry salt production of concentrates is a valuable additional tool for monitoring clinical risk with dialysate concentrates. The analytical random error of clinical chemistry exceeds the weight tolerance of production; therefore, such analytics cannot be used for precision production and control of dry salt containers.

  9. Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a 10 % cocoa (C10) diet, containing polyphenols and fibre among others, modifies intestinal and systemic Ig production. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of C10 on IgA and IgM production in the intestinal and extra-intestinal mucosal compartments, establishing the involvement of cocoa fibre (CF) in such effects. Mechanisms by which C10 intake may affect IgA synthesis in the salivary glands were also studied. To this effect, rats were fed either a standard diet, a diet containing C10, CF or inulin. Intestinal (the gut wash (GW), Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) and extra-intestinal (salivary glands) mucosal tissues and blood samples were collected for IgA and IgM quantification. The gene expressions of IgA production- and homing-related molecules were studied in the salivary glands. The C10 diet decreased intestinal IgA and IgM production. Although the CF diet decreased the GW IgA concentration, it increased PP, MLN and serum IgA concentrations. Both the C10 and the CF diets produced a down-regulatory effect on IgA secretion in the extra-intestinal tissues. The C10 diet interacted with the mechanisms involved in IgA synthesis, whereas the CF showed particular effects on the homing and transcytosis of IgA across the salivary glands. Overall, CF was able to up-regulate IgA production in the intestinal-inductor compartments, whereas it down-regulated its production at the mucosal-effector ones. Further studies must be directed to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the effect of particular cocoa components on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

  10. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  11. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  12. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  13. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  14. Fine-Tuning of Photoautotrophic Protein Production by Combining Promoters and Neutral Sites in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla, Bertram M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic cell factories that use solar energy to convert CO2 into useful products. Despite this attractive feature, the development of tools for engineering cyanobacterial chassis has lagged behind that for heterotrophs such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterologous genes in cyanobacteria are often integrated at presumptively “neutral” chromosomal sites, with unknown effects. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data for the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to identify neutral sites from which no transcripts are expressed. We characterized the two largest such sites on the chromosome, a site on an endogenous plasmid, and a shuttle vector by integrating an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) expression cassette expressed from either the Pcpc560 or the Ptrc1O promoter into each locus. Expression from the endogenous plasmid was as much as 14-fold higher than that from the chromosome, with intermediate expression from the shuttle vector. The expression characteristics of each locus correlated predictably with the promoters used. These findings provide novel, characterized tools for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in cyanobacteria. PMID:26209663

  15. Numerical simulations of depressurization-induced gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs at the Walker Ridge 312 site, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Gaddipati, Manohar; Rose, Kelly; Anderson, Brian J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Gas Hydrates Joint-Industry-Project (JIP) Leg II drilling program confirmed that gas hydrate occurs at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the GOM. A comprehensive logging-while-drilling dataset was collected from seven wells at three sites, including two wells at the Walker Ridge 313 site. By constraining the saturations and thicknesses of hydrate-bearing sands using logging-while-drilling data, two-dimensional (2D), cylindrical, r-z and three-dimensional (3D) reservoir models were simulated. The gas hydrate occurrences inferred from seismic analysis are used to delineate the areal extent of the 3D reservoir models. Numerical simulations of gas production from the Walker Ridge reservoirs were conducted using the depressurization method at a constant bottomhole pressure. Results of these simulations indicate that these hydrate deposits are readily produced, owing to high intrinsic reservoir-quality and their proximity to the base of hydrate stability. The elevated in situ reservoir temperatures contribute to high (5–40 MMscf/day) predicted production rates. The production rates obtained from the 2D and 3D models are in close agreement. To evaluate the effect of spatial dimensions, the 2D reservoir domains were simulated at two outer radii. The results showed increased potential for formation of secondary hydrate and appearance of lag time for production rates as reservoir size increases. Similar phenomena were observed in the 3D reservoir models. The results also suggest that interbedded gas hydrate accumulations might be preferable targets for gas production in comparison with massive deposits. Hydrate in such accumulations can be readily dissociated due to heat supply from surrounding hydrate-free zones. Special cases were considered to evaluate the effect of overburden and underburden permeability on production. The obtained data show that production can be significantly degraded in comparison with a case using

  16. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group... Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2273), and Section 246 of the Trade Act of 1974 (26 U.S.C. 2813), as...

  17. An audit of health products advertised for sale on chiropractic Web sites in Canada and consideration of these practices in the context of Canadian chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; Grod, Jaroslaw P

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the extent to which chiropractors with Web sites practicing in Canada advertise health products for sale and considers this practice in the context of chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct. Chiropractic Web sites in Canada were identified using a public online business directory (Canada 411). The Web sites were searched, and an inventory of the health products for sale was taken. The influences of type of practice and province of practice on the sale of health product were assessed. Textual comments about health product marketing were summarized. National and provincial codes of ethics were reviewed, and the content on health product advertising was summarized. Two hundred eighty-seven Web sites were reviewed. Just more than half of the Web sites contained information on health products for sale (n = 158, 54%). Orthotics were advertised most often (n = 136 practices, 47%), followed by vitamins/nutritional supplements (n = 53, 18%), pillows and supports (n = 40, 14%), and exercise/rehabilitation products (n = 20, 7%). Chiropractors in solo or group chiropractic practices were less likely to advertise health products than those in multidisciplinary practice (P ethics and conduct varied in their guidelines regarding health product sales. Variations in codes of ethics and in the proportions of practitioners advertising health products for sales across the country suggest that opinions may be divided on the acceptability of health product sales. Such practices raise questions and considerations for the chiropractic profession.

  18. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    will be demonstrated as a remediation alternative for hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Compliance -- The use of plasma arc pyrolysis to destroy ships...development will use an airborne radar test to collect amplitude and phase information on clutter backgrounds representative of those expected for a SBR ...the validity of SBR models and simulations. Upcoming studies of non-conventional radar processing against diverse clutter environments, and automatic

  19. Portable Dual-comb Spectrometer for Stable Detection of Methane Leaks over Kilometer Scale Paths at Oil and Natural Gas Production Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S.; Wright, R.; Cossel, K.; Truong, G. W.; Baumann, E.; Coddington, I.; Newbury, N.; Alden, C. B.; Ghosh, S.; Prasad, K.; Rieker, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Newly proposed EPA regulations on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from oil and gas production facilities have been expanded to include methane, making the detection of this important trace gas a topic of growing interest to the oil and gas industry, regulators, and the scientific community in general. Reliable techniques that enable long-term monitoring of entire production facilities are needed in order to fully characterize the temporal and spatial trends of emissions from these sites. Recent advances in the development of compact and robust fiber frequency combs are enabling the use of this powerful spectroscopic tool outside of the laboratory, presenting opportunities for kilometer-scale open-path sensing of emissions at remote locations. Here we present the characterization and field deployment of a dual comb spectrometer (DCS) system with the potential to locate and size methane leaks from oil and gas production sites from long range. The DCS is a laser-based system that enables broad spectral absorption measurements (>50 nm) with high spectral resolution (locations near Boulder, CO, demonstrating sensitivities of better than 2 ppb-km for methane. In addition, path integrated methane measurements from the DCS are coupled with an atmospheric inversion utilizing local meteorology and a high resolution fluid dynamics simulation to determine leak location and also derive a leak rate from simulated methane leaks

  20. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes.

  1. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements.

  2. Developmental regulation and extracellular release of a VSG expression-site-associated gene product from Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, Eleanor M; van Deursen, Frederick J; Jeacock, Laura; Smith, Katherine A; Maizels, Rick M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Matthews, Keith

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosomes evade host immunity by exchanging variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coats. VSG genes are transcribed from telomeric expression sites, which contain a diverse family of expression-site-associated genes (ESAGs). We have discovered that the mRNAs for one ESAG family, ESAG9, are strongly developmentally regulated, being enriched in stumpy forms, a life-cycle stage in the mammalian bloodstream that is important for the maintenance of chronic parasite infections and for tsetse transmission. ESAG9 gene sequences are highly diverse in the genome and encode proteins with weak similarity to the massively diverse MASP proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi. We demonstrate that ESAG9 proteins are modified by N-glycosylation and can be shed to the external milieu, this being dependent upon coexpression with at least one other family member. The expression profile and extracellular release of ESAG9 proteins represents a novel and unexpected aspect of the transmission biology of trypanosomes in their mammalian host. We suggest that these molecules might interact with the external environment, with possible implications for infection chronicity or parasite transmission.

  3. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission fro...... drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely....... the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation...... was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH4 (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH4 (27%) and nitrogen (N2) (71%), containing no CO2...

  4. The Potential in Water Supply and Sanitation Services of the On Site Production of Sodium Hypochlorite (OSEC Driven by PV Solar Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micangeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the impact of an On Site Electro Chlorination (OSEC device, a system for the sodium hypochlorite production, on the improvement of health and hygienic standards in Mesoamerica focusing on Chiapas-Mexico and Costa Rica, as well as in Africa, Western Sahara (Refugees Camp and Tanzania. The threat of infectious diseases and the importance of cleaned and treated water with the consequent high impact on the vulnerable population have been studied in each of the above countries. In this framework the production of low cost sodium hypochlorite through a stand-alone system powered by PV solar source could be a good starting point in improving sanitation conditions, assuring the disinfection of water and clothes, and improve food safety. The cost analysis shows that producing sodium hypochlorite with an OSEC solar system could lead to 10 to 15 times saving with respect to the purchasing of it at market price, above all in developing countries. Furthermore, the LCA study highlights the low environmental impact of the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite through qualitative and quantitative data that demonstrate how this system has pollutant emissions from 14 to 56 times lower than the equivalent industrial process (N factor. The paper describes as well possible practical applications of the sodium hypochlorite in the African and Latin American context. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential to create an impact on the social context and microenterprises specialised in the production of hygiene and sanitation products, managed by local people selling at affordable prices and reaching the poorest villages of developing countries.

  5. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR) 1000.22. SUMMARY: On May 18, 2011, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) published a Notice of...

  6. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR...

  7. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  8. Accuracy Assessment of GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 LAI and FAPAR Essential Climate Variables Products over a Network of Cropland Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    camacho De Coca, F.; Sánchez, J.; Latorre, C.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work discuss the accuracy of the LAI and FAPAR essential climate variables derived from satellite observations over a network of cropland sites mostly located in Europe. Three different LAI and FAPAR products are evaluated: GEOV1 from Copernicus Global Land Service derived from SPOT/VEGETATION and PROBA-V observations at 1 km spatial resolution, and the MODIS collection 5 derived at 1 km spatial resolution and the new collection 6 derived at 500m spatial resolution. The ground database was generated during the FP7 ImagineS project over a network of cropland sites, including some JECAM sites, in collaboration with local teams. A total of 66 field campaigns were conducted over 23 sites from january 2013 to march 2016 around the world (21 of them corresponding to croplands), sampling more than 1700 Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs) of about 20x20m size (more than 2000 measurements including replications with different devices). Most of the ESUs were characterized using digital hemispherical photos (DHP), as well as LAI-2200 and AccuPAR LP-80 devices, during the growing or mature period of the vegetation avoiding senescent, to be close to the definition of satellite LAI and FAPAR related to green foliar elements. The spatial sampling protocol follows the VALERI recommendations, with an stratified sampling per cover types in the study area of about 3x3 km2. Multi-temporal campaigns were performed in some of the sites, where in others only one campaign was conducted. Ground measurements were up-scaled by EOLAB using high-resolution imagery (mainly Landsat-8 data and SPOT-4) and robust regression methods testing the best band combination to minimize cross-validation and weighted RMS errors. This efforts resulted in a consistent an unique database of ground measurements and ground-based reference maps (between 38 and 48 depending on variable) generated following the standards of the CEOS/WGCV Land Products Validation, suitable to be used as fiducial reference for

  9. Intercomparison and assessment of long-term (2004-2013) multiple satellite aerosol products over two contrasting sites in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, A. Joseph; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Sivakumar, V.; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2016-10-01

    To build a long-term database and improve the accuracy of the satellite products used for aerosol studies, there is a need to carry out intercomparison and validation of these satellite observations with ground-based measurements. With this objective, we estimated the long-term inter-annual variations and percentage change in trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) sensors for a 10-year period during 2004-2013 over two distinct sites namely, Skukuza (SKZ; 24.99°S, 31.58°E) and Richards Bay (RBAY; 28.8°S, 21.1°E) in South Africa. The validation performed over SKZ site shows that MISR was better correlated with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) when compared to Terra and Aqua satellites of MODIS. Later both the MODIS products (Terra and Aqua) were compared on the annual and seasonal basis to derive the relationship between them through scattering plot. The long-term regression analysis performed at these sites shows that the annual trends were decreasing, with the MODIS products underestimating MISR. This is due to difficulties of the MODIS algorithm when dealing with highly complex surface reflectance conditions and aerosol model assumptions. Also, the temporal variations of AOD derived from the two sensors noticed maximum in spring (September/October) and minimum in winter (June). Further, the Ultra-Violet Aerosol Index (UVAI) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) at the two locations for 9 years (2005-2013) showed a significant increasing trend with a high value of +0.009 yr-1 at SKZ than +0.006 yr-1 at RBAY during the study period, which is due to the transport of dust and smoke particles.

  10. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  11. Defense AT&L. Volume 43, Number 6, November-December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Editorial Staff Managing Editor/Senior Editor, DAU Press Benjamin Tyree Online Content Editor Collie J. Johnson Production Manager Frances Battle Art...Randy Weekes; the manag- ing editor of Defense AT&L is Benjamin Tyree ; and the publisher is the Defense Acquisition University Press. All are colocated

  12. Of Tanks and Toyotas: An Assessment of Japan’s Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    of Defense Agency Research and Development,’ Keidanren Defense Production Committee, 1970 (cited by Michael J. Green, Kkusanka- FSX and Japan’s Search...IAerospace, September 22, 1989, p. 10 (JPPS4ST-8-059.L, November 28, 1989, p. 15). -41- 2""h 5 Bomms at ubsystausm -Japamaee Figheer Alrwaft Years main Type

  13. Unique defense strategy by the endoplasmic reticulum body in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a site for the production of secretory proteins. Plants have developed ER subdomains for protein storage. The ER body is one such structure, which is observed in Brassicaceae plants. ER bodies accumulate in seedlings and roots or in wounded leaves in Arabidopsis. ER bodies contain high amounts of the β-glucosidases PYK10/BGLU23 in seedlings and roots or BGLU18 in wounded tissues. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in the metabolism of glycoside molecules, presumably to produce repellents against pests and fungi. When Arabidopsis roots are homogenized, PYK10 formed large protein aggregates that include other β-glucosidases (BGLU21 and BGLU22), GDSL lipase-like proteins (GLL22) and cytosolic jacalin-related lectins (PBP1/JAL30, JAL31, JAL33, JAL34 and JAL35). Glucosidase activity increases by the aggregate formation. NAI1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, regulates the expression of the ER body proteins PYK10 and NAI2. Reduced expression of NAI2, PYK10 and BGLU21 resulted in abnormal ER body formation, indicating that these components regulate ER body formation. PYK10, BGLU21 and BGLU22 possess hydrolytic activity for scopolin, a coumaroyl glucoside that accumulates in the roots of Arabidopsis, and nai1 and pyk10 mutants are more susceptible to the symbiotic fungus Piriformospora indica. Therefore, it appears that the ER body is a unique organelle of Brassicaceae plants that is important for defense against pests and fungi.

  14. Multifunctional Landscapes: Site Characterization and Field-Scale Design to Incorporate Biomass Production into an Agricultural System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Cristina Negri, M; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha−1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha−1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits.

  15. Coccolithophores Productivity in the Iberian Margin During Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and 12: Results from IODP Sites U1385 and U1391

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, C. D.; Rodrigues, T.; Marino, M.; Maiorano, P.; Flores, J. A.; Balestra, B.; Abrantes, F. F. G.; Ventura, C.; Li, B.; Hodell, D. A.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Kucera, M.; Baumann, K. H.; Stoll, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores are a main phytoplankton group and among the most important pelagic calcifying organisms playing a key role in the ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystem, as primary producers and calcifiers. Reconstruction of coccolithophores productivity is critical for understanding past climate change and defining past levels of atmospheric CO2. Upwelling systems, such as the one along the Iberian margin, are important carbon sinks. Using the coccolith Sr/Ca ratio, a recent geochemistry-based proxy, we reconstructed coccolithophores productivity changes during MIS 12 to 11 at IODP Sites U1385 and U1391, the latter closer to shore and under stronger upwelling influence. The MIS 12 is considered the most extreme glacial of the last 1 Myr and MIS 11 one of the longer lasting interglacial periods. Studying these two climatic extremes will allow a better constraining of the influence of upwelling on the coccolithophores community and understand their role in phytoplankton ecology and the carbon cycle. For a clear assessment the coccolith Sr/Ca data needs to be corrected for temperature and species composition changes and the extraction of these secondary influences were made using UK37 - SST and the coccolith community. Results for the Iberian margin showed higher coccolithophores productivity during the glacial period, and lower during the interglacial with an increasing trend during the glaciation and a steep decline during the deglaciation. Higher productivity during colder conditions might be associated to stronger winds that increased upwelling and/or the mixing of the upper water column and thus nutrient replenishment at the surface. These results will be placed into context of other proxy data from the Sites or region, e.g. TOC, total alkenones, diatom and coccolith abundances.

  16. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  17. Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Monica L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Kolb, Thomas E; Wagner, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Tree defense against bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their associated fungi generally comprises some combination of constitutive (primary) and induced (secondary) defenses. In pines, the primary constitutive defense against bark beetles consists of preformed resin stored in resin ducts. Induced defenses at the wound site (point of beetle entry) in pines may consist of an increase in resin flow and necrotic lesion formation. The quantity and quality of both induced and constitutive defenses can vary by species and season. The inducible defense response in ponderosa pine is not well understood. Our study examined the inducible defense response in ponderosa pine using traumatic mechanical wounding, and wounding with and without fungal inoculations with two different bark beetle-associated fungi (Ophiostoma minus and Grosmannia clavigera). Resin flow did not significantly increase in response to any treatment. In addition, necrotic lesion formation on the bole after fungal inoculation was minimal. Stand thinning, which has been shown to increase water availability, had no, or inconsistent, effects on inducible tree defense. Our results suggest that ponderosa pine bole defense against bark beetles and their associated fungi is primarily constitutive and not induced.

  18. Association of single nucleotide polymorphic sites in candidate genes with aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum causing wheat head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talas Firas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s. is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2 or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14 single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models. Results Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P pG of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4. Conclusions We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.

  19. Process Design and Economics of On-Site Cellulase Production on Various Carbon Sources in a Softwood-Based Ethanol Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Barta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes by 5–16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60–78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42–0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  20. Productive HIV-1 infection is enriched in CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells at pleural sites of dual infection with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglai; Canaday, David H; McDonald, David J; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Baseke, Joy; Toossi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    A higher human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) viral load at pleural sites infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) than in peripheral blood has been documented. However, the cellular source of productive HIV infection in HIV-1/MTB-coinfected pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) remains unclear. In this study, we observed significant quantities of HIV-1 p24(+) lymphocytes in PFMCs, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HIV-1 p24(+) lymphocytes were mostly enriched in DN T cells. Intracellular CD4 expression was detectable in HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells. HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells showed lower surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC and tetherin than did HIV-1 p24(+) CD4 T cells. Upon in vitro infection of PFMC CD4 T cells from TB mono-infected subjects, Nef- and/or Vpu-deleted HIV mutants showed lower generation of HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells than the wild-type virus. These data indicate that productively HIV-1-infected DN T cells, generated through down-modulation of surface CD4, likely by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu, are the predominant source of HIV-1 at pleural sites of HIV/MTB coinfection.

  1. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for selected wildlife and food products near the Hanford Site from 1971 through 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Juneau, AK (USA))

    1989-09-01

    From 1971 through 1988 at least 40 species of wildlife and 27 different types of food products were collected and analyzed for radionuclides as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Environmental Monitoring Program. This report summarizes the results of these analyses for sample types collected for all or most of the 18-year period. The objectives of this summary investigation were to identify long-term trends or significant year-to-year changes in radionuclide concentrations and, if possible, relate any observed changes in radionuclide concentrations to their sources and probable causes. Statistical techniques were employed to test for long-term trends. Conspicuous short-term changes in radionuclide concentrations were identified from inspection of the data. 30 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Decommissioning of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Addendum (Final Environmental Impact Statement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The first section of this volume summarizes the content of the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and this Addendum, which together constitute the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) prepared on the decommissioning of eight surplus plutonium production reactors at Hanford. The FEIS consists of two volumes. The first volume is the DEIS as written. The second volume (this Addendum) consists of a summary; Chapter 9, which contains comments on the DEIS and provides DOE`s responses to the comments; Appendix F, which provides additional health effects information; Appendix K, which contains costs of decommissioning in 1990 dollars; Appendix L, which contains additional graphite leaching data; Appendix M, which contains a discussion of accident scenarios; Appendix N, which contains errata; and Appendix 0, which contains reproductions of the letters, transcripts, and exhibits that constitute the record for the public comment period.

  3. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    1998-07-01

    The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased in 30 day-estivating snails. This appears to be an adaptation that allows the snails to deal with oxidative stress that takes place during arousal when PO2 and oxygen consumption rise rapidly. Indeed, oxidative stress was indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation damage products accumulating in hepatopancreas within minutes after arousal was initiated. The various metabolic sites responsible for free radical generation during arousal are still unknown but it seems unlikely that the enzyme xanthine oxidase plays any substantial role in this despite being implicated in oxidative stress in mammalian models of ischemia/reperfusion. We propose that the activation of antioxidant defenses in the organs of Otala lactea during estivation is a preparative mechanism against oxidative stress during arousal. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes have also observed under other stress situations in which the actual production of oxyradicals should decrease. For example, antioxidant defenses are enhanced during anoxia exposure in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (10 h at 5 degrees C) and leopard frogs Rana pipiens (30 h at 5 degrees C) and during freezing exposure (an ischemic condition due to plasma freezing) in T. sirtalis parietalis and wood frogs Rana sylvatica. It seems that enhancement of antioxidant enzymes during either anoxia or freezing is used as a preparatory mechanism to deal with a physiological oxidative stress that occurs rapidly within the

  4. Evidences of Basal Lactate Production in the Main White Adipose Tissue Sites of Rats. Effects of Sex and a Cafeteria Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Sabater, David; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Female and male adult Wistar rats were fed standard chow or a simplified cafeteria diet for one month. Then, the rats were killed and the white adipose tissue (WAT) in four sites: perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and subcutaneous (inguinal) were sampled and frozen. The complete WAT weight in each site was measured. Gene expression analysis of key lipid and glucose metabolism enzymes were analyzed, as well as tissue and plasma lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate gradients between WAT and plasma were estimated. The influence of sex and diet (and indirectly WAT mass) on lactate levels and their relationships with lactate dehydrogenase activity and gene expressions were also measured. A main conclusion is the high production of lactate by WAT, practically irrespective of site, diet or sex. Lactate production is a direct correlate of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the tissue. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activity is again directly correlated with the expression of the genes Ldha and Ldhb for this enzyme. In sum, the ability to produce lactate by WAT is not directly dependent of WAT metabolic state. We postulate that, in WAT, a main function of the lactate dehydrogenase path may be that of converting excess available glucose to 3C fragments, as a way to limit tissue self-utilization as substrate, to help control glycaemia and/or providing short chain substrates for use as energy source elsewhere. More information must be gathered before a conclusive role of WAT in the control of glycaemia, and the full existence of a renewed glucose-lactate-fatty acid cycle is definitely established. PMID:25741703

  5. Evidences of basal lactate production in the main white adipose tissue sites of rats. Effects of sex and a cafeteria diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Arriarán

    Full Text Available Female and male adult Wistar rats were fed standard chow or a simplified cafeteria diet for one month. Then, the rats were killed and the white adipose tissue (WAT in four sites: perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and subcutaneous (inguinal were sampled and frozen. The complete WAT weight in each site was measured. Gene expression analysis of key lipid and glucose metabolism enzymes were analyzed, as well as tissue and plasma lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate gradients between WAT and plasma were estimated. The influence of sex and diet (and indirectly WAT mass on lactate levels and their relationships with lactate dehydrogenase activity and gene expressions were also measured. A main conclusion is the high production of lactate by WAT, practically irrespective of site, diet or sex. Lactate production is a direct correlate of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the tissue. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activity is again directly correlated with the expression of the genes Ldha and Ldhb for this enzyme. In sum, the ability to produce lactate by WAT is not directly dependent of WAT metabolic state. We postulate that, in WAT, a main function of the lactate dehydrogenase path may be that of converting excess available glucose to 3C fragments, as a way to limit tissue self-utilization as substrate, to help control glycaemia and/or providing short chain substrates for use as energy source elsewhere. More information must be gathered before a conclusive role of WAT in the control of glycaemia, and the full existence of a renewed glucose-lactate-fatty acid cycle is definitely established.

  6. Development of a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for on-site analysis of sulfur mustard degradation products in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Nordlander, T; Östin, A

    2016-01-15

    Sampling teams performing work at sea in areas where chemical munitions may have been dumped require rapid and reliable analytical methods for verifying sulfur mustard leakage from suspected objects. Here we present such an on-site analysis method based on dynamic headspace GC-MS for analysis of five cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products that have previously been detected in sediments from chemical weapon dumping sites: 1,4-oxathiane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,4,5-oxadithiephane, and 1,2,5-trithiephane. An experimental design involving authentic Baltic Sea sediments spiked with the target analytes was used to develop an optimized protocol for sample preparation, headspace extraction and analysis that afforded recoveries of up to 60-90%. The optimized method needs no organic solvents, uses only two grams of sediment on a dry weight basis and involves a unique sample presentation whereby sediment is spread uniformly as a thin layer inside the walls of a glass headspace vial. The method showed good linearity for analyte concentrations of 5-200 ng/g dw, good repeatability, and acceptable carry-over. The method's limits of detection for spiked sediment samples ranged from 2.5 to 11 μg/kg dw, with matrix interference being the main limiting factor. The instrumental detection limits were one to two orders of magnitude lower. Full-scan GC-MS analysis enabled the use of automated mass spectral deconvolution for rapid identification of target analytes. Using this approach, analytes could be identified in spiked sediment samples at concentrations down to 13-65 μg/kg dw. On-site validation experiments conducted aboard the research vessel R/V Oceania demonstrated the method's practical applicability, enabling the successful identification of four cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products at concentrations of 15-308μg/kg in sediments immediately after being collected near a wreck at the Bornholm Deep dumpsite in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  8. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  9. Web and Web Services based tool that provides Subsets and Visualization of MODIS land products to facilitate land validation and field site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor data are highly useful for field research. The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS products have made them an important data source for analyzing key science questions relating to Earth System processes at regional, continental, and global scales. MODIS data are particularly useful to validate and inter-compare ground measurements at various field sites such as flux tower locations. MODIS data are also useful in land validation and in understanding biogeochemical and ecological processes. However, MODIS data volume and the complexity in data format makes MODIS data less usable in some cases. To solve this usability issue, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has developed a system that prepares and distributes subsets of selected MODIS Land Products in a scale and format useful for field researchers. The MODIS subsets are provided for more than 1,000 sites across the globe. Most of the eddy covariance flux tower sites are included in the site list. The subsets are offered in tabular ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Time series plots and grid visualizations to help characterize field sites are also provided. The MODIS fixed site subsets and the various visualizations can be accessed from http://daac.ornl.gov/modisfixedsite In addition to offering subsets for fixed sites, the ORNL DAAC also offers the capability to create user-defined subsets for any location worldwide. The MODIS Global subsetting tool provides subsets from a single pixel up to 201 x 201 km for user-defined time range. Statistics, time series plots, stacked time series plots for inter-annual comparison and GIS compatible files for the customized subsets are also distributed through this tool. Users place an order for a MODIS subset online and an email is generated when the subset is created. To create subsets for any location around the globe use http

  10. Validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 fAPAR Products in a Deciduous Beech Forest Site in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Nestola

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of new fAPAR satellite products requires simultaneous efforts in validation to provide users with a better comprehension of product performance and evaluation of uncertainties. This study aimed to validate three fAPAR satellite products, GEOV1, MODIS C5, and MODIS C6, against ground references to determine to what extent the GCOS requirements on accuracy (maximum 10% or 5% can be met in a deciduous beech forest site in a gently and variably sloped mountain site. Three ground reference fAPAR, differing for temporal (continuous or campaign mode and spatial sampling (single points or Elementary Sampling Units—ESUs, were collected using different devices: (1 Apogee (defined as benchmark in this study; (2 PASTIS; and (3 Digital cameras for collecting hemispherical photographs (DHP. A bottom-up approach for the upscaling process was used in the present study. Radiometric values of decametric images (Landsat-8 were extracted over the ESUs and used to develop empirical transfer functions for upscaling the ground measurements. The resulting high-resolution ground-based maps were aggregated to the spatial resolution of the satellite product to be validated considering the equivalent point spread function of the satellite sensors, and a correlation analysis was performed to accomplish the accuracy assessment. PASTIS sensors showed good performance as fAPARPASTIS appropriately followed the seasonal trends depicted by fAPARAPOGEE (benchmark (R2 = 0.84; RMSE = 0.01. Despite small dissimilarities, mainly attributed to different sampling schemes and errors in DHP classification process, the agreement between fAPARPASTIS and fAPARDHP was noticeable considering all the differences between both approaches. The temporal courses of the three satellite products were found to be consistent with both Apogee and PASTIS, except at the end of the summer season when ground data were more affected by senescent leaves, with both MODIS C5 and C6 displaying

  11. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  12. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Joy Massad

    Full Text Available One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH. Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation. The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids and flavans (phenolics, in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae, an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions. Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH. Contrary to expectations based on the two

  13. Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bigler, Laurent; Marschang, Rachel

    2012-10-23

    While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae) collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

  14. Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, Rao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jiali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zoebel, Zach [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Wuebbles, Don [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hayhoe, Katharine [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Stein, Michael [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Changnon, David [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2017-06-16

    This project is aimed at providing the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) with a comprehensive analysis of the uncertainty associated with generating climate projections at the regional scale that can be used by stakeholders and decision makers to quantify and plan for the impacts of future climate change at specific locations. The merits and limitations of commonly used downscaling models, ranging from simple to complex, are compared, and their appropriateness for application at installation scales is evaluated. Downscaled climate projections are generated at selected DoD installations using dynamic and statistical methods with an emphasis on generating probability distributions of climate variables and their associated uncertainties. The sites selection and selection of variables and parameters for downscaling was based on a comprehensive understanding of the current and projected roles that weather and climate play in operating, maintaining, and planning DoD facilities and installations.

  15. Anti-sense expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase confirms defensive role of nicotine in Nicotiana sylvestris against Manduca sexta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelckel, C.; Krugel, T.; Gase, K.; Heidrich, N.; Van Dam, N.M.; Winz, R.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the defensive function of nicotine production in the Nicotiana genus against a range of herbivores, but the evidence is largely correlative. To suppress nicotine production in planta and to test its defensive function, we expressed DNA of putrescine N-methyl

  16. Anti-sense expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase confirms defensive role of nicotine in Nicotiana sylvestris against Manduca sexta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelckel, C.; Krugel, T.; Gase, K.; Heidrich, N.; Van Dam, N.M.; Winz, R.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the defensive function of nicotine production in the Nicotiana genus against a range of herbivores, but the evidence is largely correlative. To suppress nicotine production in planta and to test its defensive function, we expressed DNA of putrescine N-methyl transfe

  17. A Single Mutation in a Tunnel to the Active Site Changes the Mechanism and Kinetics of Product Release in Haloalkane Dehalogenase LinB*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermannová, Lada; Prokop, Zbyněk; Gora, Artur; Chovancová, Eva; Kovács, Mihály; Damborský, Jiří; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Many enzymes have buried active sites. The properties of the tunnels connecting the active site with bulk solvent affect ligand binding and unbinding and also the catalytic properties. Here, we investigate ligand passage in the haloalkane dehalogenase enzyme LinB and the effect of replacing leucine by a bulky tryptophan at a tunnel-lining position. Transient kinetic experiments show that the mutation significantly slows down the rate of product release. Moreover, the mechanism of bromide ion release is changed from a one-step process in the wild type enzyme to a two-step process in the mutant. The rate constant of bromide ion release corresponds to the overall steady-state turnover rate constant, suggesting that product release became the rate-limiting step of catalysis in the mutant. We explain the experimental findings by investigating the molecular details of the process computationally. Analysis of trajectories from molecular dynamics simulations with a tunnel detection software reveals differences in the tunnels available for ligand egress. Corresponding differences are seen in simulations of product egress using a specialized enhanced sampling technique. The differences in the free energy barriers for egress of a bromide ion obtained using potential of mean force calculations are in good agreement with the differences in rates obtained from the transient kinetic experiments. Interactions of the bromide ion with the introduced tryptophan are shown to affect the free energy barrier for its passage. The study demonstrates how the mechanism of an enzymatic catalytic cycle and reaction kinetics can be engineered by modification of protein tunnels. PMID:22745119

  18. Heterogeneous nighttime production and deposition of particle nitrate at a rural site in North America during summer 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Meng; Anlauf, K. G.; Wiebe, H. A.

    1993-03-01

    Measurements at a rural site in central Ontario, Canada, in August 1988 showed gradual increases in particle nitrate (pNO3-) concentration from 1800 hours to midnight and a decrease thereafterward toward the early morning. A time-dependent Lagrangian box model, which included homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions of nitrogen species, dry deposition of O3, NO2, HNO3 and pNO3-, and sources of NOx, was used to simulate the observed nighttime increase of pNO3- for four nights in August. The model results indicate that the nighttime pNO3- was mainly formed by reactions of the nitrate radical (NO3) and N2O5 with particles, with these species contributing on average more than 80% and about 10% of the total nightly pNO3- formation, respectively. Conversion of HNO3 to pNO3- was found to be negligible compared to these two processes, contributing less than 5%. By assuming steady-state concentrations, a simplified approach to fit nighttime pNO3- concentrations using only NOx and O3 observations gave results similar to the box model. As expected, the pseudo-first-order rate constants for the formation of pNO3- on particles from NO3 and N2O5 were found to be linear functions of the particle mass. When assuming an extended Junge distribution for the particles, the rate constants indicated a near unity sticking coefficient (α1) for NO3 but a substantially smaller sticking coefficient (α2) of about 0.02 for N2O5, consistent with results from laboratory studies. Sensitivity tests showed that the ranges of 0.8-1.0 for α1 and 0.01-0.04 for α2 gave reasonable model fits for pNO3- and HNO3. The box model showed that the heterogeneous reactions were the major sinks for NO3 and N2O5. The dry deposition velocities for O3, NO2, pNO3-, and HNO3 derived from the model simulations were similar to observed values over similar vegetation. The dry deposition rate constant of pNO3- appeared to be a function of the near-surface wind speed, although the dry deposition velocity of p

  19. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  20. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. Natural attenuation of aged tar-oil in soils: A case study from a former gas production site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Pavel; Eickhorst, Thilo; Wehrer, Markus; Georgiadis, Anna; Rennert, Thilo; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of soils with tar oil occurred on many industrial sites in Europe. The main source of such contamination has been former manufactured gas plants (MGP). As many of them were destroyed during the World War II or abandoned in the second half of the XXth century, the contamination is depleted in volatile and degradable hydrocarbons (HC) but enriched in the heavy oil fractions due to aging processes. We studied a small tar-oil spill in a former MGP reservoir basin. The tar-oil had a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 245 mg/g. At the margin of the spill, vegetation has started to overgrow and intensively root the tar-oil layer. This zone comprised the uppermost 5-7 cm of our profile and contained 28 mg/g of TPH (A-layer)- The layer below the root zone (7-15 cm) was the most contaminated, with 90 mg/g TPH (B-layer). The layer underneath (15-22 cm) had smaller concentrations of 16 mg/g TPH (C-layer). Further down in the profile (D-layer) we found only slightly higher TPH content than in the control samples (1,4 mg/g vs 0,6 mg/g). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis showed the same distribution throughout all layers with highest contents of the PAHs with 4-6 condensed aromatic rings. Direct cell count and extraction of microbial biomass showed that the highly contaminated soil layers A and B had 2-3 times more bacteria than the control soils. CARD-FISH analysis revealed that in samples from layers A and B Archaea were more abundant (12% opposing to 6-7% in control soil). Analysis of bacteria (tested for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria and Actinobacteria) showed the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria in the layer A and C both beneath and above the most contaminated layer B. The primers covered the whole microbial consortia in these two layers, leaving almost no unidentified cells. In the most contaminated layer B Alphaproteobacteria amounted only to 20% of the microbial consortium, and almost 40% of the cells remained

  2. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated – “Changing the System” HeLLeR , TRiCiA A., Deputy Director of Congressional Support, Technical and Analytical Support, USAF A-Team...Interview Recorder” HeLLieR, RiCHARD, Director of Air Force Programs, United Technologies – “Joint Stars System” HeRMAN , DR. ROBeRT, Member, Defense

  3. Defense Financial and Investment Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    to direct its attention to problems such as profit policy and the management and investment practices of defense contractors. Prorit Study 󈨖 In 1982...I \\-L 10 NO ADJUSTMENT 46- 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Sources: Touche Ross; Prorit 󈨐 V-34

  4. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  5. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  6. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  7. What Happens After the Defense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldtmann, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    who has attempted to attack the master’s vessel and whose distress is the direct result of lawful self-defense by PCASP? This is the question at the heart of this article, which argues that there are certain post incident obligations and that it is crucial to address these obligations at the flag...

  8. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  9. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  10. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  11. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Airframe Total airframe contractor furnished equipment ( CFE ) Total airframe CFE 9 entries (forward fuselage, center fuselage, wing, empennage...etc.) Avionics Total electronics CFE and government- furnished equipment (GFE) Total avionics 16 entries (radar, integrated processor...Relationship CFE Contractor Furnished Equipment CNI Communication, Navigation, Identification DoD Department of Defense FCCM Facilities Capital Cost

  12. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment.

  13. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  14. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  15. Examining Patterns of Carbon Assimilation and Allocation to Defense Processes in a Restored Southern Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritger, H.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southern pine forests provide many important ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and softwood timber production, which is a vital component of local economies in the American South. However, all southern pine forests are sensitive to damage from infestations of bark beetles and drought events, which can lead to declines in productivity that may cause mortality in extreme cases, and which may increase in frequency in the future due to ongoing climate change. This study explores how southern pine management for restored, old-growth like conditions, in contrast with management for timber production, affects stand scale drought response and tree resistance to bark beetle herbivory by leveraging a suite of data from a new eddy covariance flux monitoring site in a 65-year-old restored loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine forest situated in the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA). The sensitivity of ecosystem scale fluxes of CO2 and H2O to drought is interpreted through a synthesis with other long-running Ameriflux sites located in southern pine forests. The effects of the management regime on resin production, which is the pine trees' main defense against beetle attacks, are assessed by comparing monthly resin flow observations collected over the course of the 2013 growing season in the restored stand and in a co-located stand of even-age planted loblolly pines managed for timber production. Results show that loblolly in the uneven-aged stand consistently produced much larger amounts of resin than loblolly in the even-aged stand, and shortleaf pines were the lowest producers throughout the growing season. No significant relationship between resin flow and diameter at breast height was observed within or across species and sites; thus, species and management effects are independent of their effect on tree size.

  16. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  17. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  18. Environmental assessment after decommissioning at the North Sea- Froey oil production site: a field study with biomarkers in fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinturier, Laurence; Beyer, Jonny; Moltu, Ulf; Plisson, Saune Stephan; Berland, Harald; Sundt, Rolf; Bjoernstad, Anne; Sanni, Steinar

    2006-03-15

    The Froey field is situated in the North Sea and was operated by Total Exploration and Production Norge. Oil production started in 1995 and ceased in 2001, when the wells were permanently plugged and abandoned. The jacket was removed in 2002, and in 2003 the first post-production sediment monitoring survey was carried out at the field as a part of the regional sediment environmental monitoring survey of Region II. In parallel to the sediment monitoring survey and cuttings survey, Total E and P Norge decided to conduct an environmental survey based on the use of biological effects parameters (or biomarkers) to document the environmental condition of the site after decommissioning. A series of pollutant responsive biomarkers was selected in order to answer the following questions: is the environmental condition in the bottom water at the Froey location significantly different to the background situation as measured in the reference station? And does the cutting deposit affect the nearby environment. Conclusion: This paper present a selection of the results obtained during an environmental survey carried out at a decommissioned field, the Froey field, by Total E and P Norge and RF-Akvamiljoe. Detailed results and discussion will be presented more extensively in a peer review publication by Beyer et al. (2005). The objective of the survey was to evaluate the environmental condition at the Froey site by comparing it to a background situation measured at a reference site. The environmental condition was assessed by measuring biological effects parameters in invertebrates and fish living in close connection with the sediments. The results of this survey indicate only a very local pollutant effect in the vicinity of the cuttings limited to the invertebrates living and feeding on the sediment. No signal effects were measured in the selected fish species known to swallow large quantity of sediment when feeding. These results corroborate well the ones obtained from the

  19. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 masl during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone/methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 2% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and

  20. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional