WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense preparedness association

  1. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be [ ] DX...

  2. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... as to encompass the Department of Defense (DOD) as a whole. These military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved DOD terminology for general use by all components of the Department of Defense...

  3. Exploring factors and caregiver outcomes associated with feelings of preparedness for caregiving in family caregivers in palliative care: a correlational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Anette; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2013-07-01

    Family caregivers in palliative care often report feeling insufficiently prepared to handle the caregiver role. Preparedness has been confirmed as a variable that may actually protect family caregiver well-being. Preparedness refers to how ready family caregivers perceive they are for the tasks and demands in the caregiving role. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with preparedness and to further investigate whether preparedness is associated with caregiver outcomes. This was a correlational study using a cross-sectional design. The study took place in three specialist palliative care units and one haematology unit. A total of 125 family caregivers of patients with life-threatening illness participated. Preparedness was significantly associated with higher levels of hope and reward and with a lower level of anxiety. In contrast, preparedness was not associated with depression or health. Being female and cohabiting with the patient were significantly associated with a higher level of preparedness. The relationship to the patient was significantly associated with preparedness, while social support, place of care, time since diagnosis and age of the patients showed no association. Feelings of preparedness seem to be important for how family caregivers experience the unique situation when caring for a patient who is severely ill and close to death. Our findings support the inclusion of preparedness in support models for family caregivers in palliative care. Psycho-educational interventions could preferably be designed aiming to increase family caregiver's preparedness to care, including practical care, communication and emotional support.

  4. National Defense Industrial Association Disruptive Technologies Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-14

    Algorithms, MEMS • Nano ; Meta; & New Materials • Cognitive Computing • Bio-Revolution NDIA Disruptive Technologies 10/16/2009 Page-8 Forces of Change...DISTRIBUTE 2 1 st Cen t u r y St r a t eg ic Tec h n o l o g y Vec t o r s Defense Science Board 2006 Summer Study August 18, 2006 (Final) NDIA

  5. Associating Factors With Public Preparedness Behavior Against Earthquake: A Review of Iranian Research Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Local preparedness against earthquakes has been recently highlighted in research and policies on disaster management and risk reduction promotion in Iran. To advance the understanding of public preparedness and how it can be applied in diverse localities, further information is required about the predictors of people’s adoption of mitigation activities and earthquake preparedness. A synthesis of the available published research results on earthquake preparedness and the influencing factors in Iran are presented in this literature review. It emphasizes the complexity of both the concept of preparedness and the contextual factors that mediate its adoption. The predominant roles of public awareness, trusted information resources, social capital and community collaboration as predictors are discussed. 

  6. Association Between Home Visit Programs and Emergency Preparedness Among Elderly Vulnerable People in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kathy Tannous PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness among elderly vulnerable people in New South Wales, Australia. Method: The study used data acquired from an intervention program run by emergency agencies and consisted of 370 older people. Seven emergency outcome measures were examined by adjusting for key demographic factors, using a generalized estimating equation model, to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness. Results: The study revealed that knowledge demonstrated by participants during visits and post home visits showed significant improvements in the seven emergency outcome measures. The odds of finding out what emergencies might affect one’s area were significantly lower among older participants who were born outside Australia and those who were women. Discussion: The findings suggest that the intervention via home visits and periodic reminders post these visits may be a useful intervention in improving emergency preparedness among older people, especially among men and those who were born outside of Australia. In addition, other reminders such as safety messaging via mobile or landline telephone calls may also be a supplementary and useful intervention to improve emergency preparedness among older people.

  7. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Gustav; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost.

  8. Preparedness Now! An Emergency Survival Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Aton

    2009-01-01

    In uncertain times, a solid preparedness plan is essential for every individual and family. PREPAREDNESS NOW! navigates the new realities of twenty-first century living: extreme weather, economic instability, terror attacks, and more. Packed with checklists, resources, and step-by-step instructions, PREPAREDNESS NOW! details everything needed for office, car, and home preparedness. This newly expanded and revised edition includes an extended chapter on food and water storage and urban gardening, techniques in personal defense, and the latest and best preparedness products on the market. This b

  9. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  10. Transition into adult care: factors associated with level of preparedness among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Khol, Vohith; Tuot, Sovannary; Sau, Sokunmealiny; Chhoun, Pheak; Mburu, Gitau; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Chhim, Kolab; Ly, Penhsun

    2017-07-17

    Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire. The level of preparedness was determined using a pre-existing scale, and adolescents were categorized as having a high- or low level of preparedness for transition. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Of 223 adolescents, 55.2% were male, and their mean age was 15.8 years. Overall, 53.3% had a high level of preparedness for transition. As part of the transition protocol, 2.7% had completed a transfer form, 24.7% had a transition case manager, 29.6% had been counselled about the transition, and 19.7% had visited an adult ART clinic. In multivariate analysis, a higher level of preparedness for transition was independently associated with older age (AOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.34-4.46; p = 0.004), family having received social support for their health (AOR 5.32, 95% CI 1.97-14.36; p = 0.001), knowing the kind of treatment they received (ART) (AOR 12.67, 95% CI 2.91-15.19; p = 0.001), trust in friends or family for HIV treatment (AOR 7.82, 95% CI 1.13-8.89; p = 0.008), receiving counseling on transition (AOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.15-8.76; p = 0.03), having a 'Case Manager' identified to support them during the preparation process for transition (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 1.08-13.96; p = 0.04), and satisfaction with preparation process for transition in general (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.03-0.87; p = 0.01). A range of individual, social and health system and services factors may determine successful

  11. Emergency Preparedness Safety Climate and Other Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among World Trade Center Disaster Evacuees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Martin F; Gershon, Robyn R; Riley, Halley E M; Zhi, Qi; Magda, Lori A; Peyrot, Mark

    2017-06-01

    We examined psychological outcomes in a sample of participants who evacuated from the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2011. This study aimed to identify risk factors for psychological injury that might be amenable to change, thereby reducing adverse impacts associated with emergency high-rise evacuation. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2 years after the attacks to classify 789 evacuees into 3 self-reported psychological outcome categories: long-term psychological disorder diagnosed by a physician, short-term psychological disorder and/or memory problems, and no known psychological disorder. After nonmodifiable risk factors were controlled for, diagnosed psychological disorder was more likely for evacuees who reported lower "emergency preparedness safety climate" scores, more evacuation challenges (during exit from the towers), and evacuation-related physical injuries. Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress. Improving the "emergency preparedness safety climate" of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations. Focused safety training for individuals with physical disabilities is also warranted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:326-336).

  12. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program

  13. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  14. Beyond defense-in-depth: cost and funding of state and local government radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, S.N.

    1979-10-01

    Inadequate, sporadic, uncertain and frustrating are words local, state and Federal officials use to describe the current hodgepodge funding approach to State and local government radiological emergency response plans and preparedeness in support of commercial nuclear power stations. The creation of a Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness Fund for State and Local Government is offered as a preferred solution. Monies for the Fund could be derived from a one time Fee of $1 million levied on the operator of each nuclear power station. Every five years, adjustments could be made in the Fee to assure full recovery of costs because of inflation, revised criteria and other cost related factors. Any surplus would be refunded to the utilities. Any state that has obtained NRC concurrence or is in the process could be reimbursed for previous expenditures up to two years prior to NRC concurrence. Concurrence in all state and local government plans is the objective of the funding program. The Fund should be administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report also discusses actions by Federal and state agencies and points to long range considerations, such as a training institute, including transportation and non-commercial and other fixed nuclear facilities, where preparedness could be enhanced by a coherent funding mechanism. All recommendations are based on an inquiry by the Office of state Programs, NRC, into the historical and future costs and funding of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness at the state and local government levels and are derived from discussions with many local, State and Federal officials

  15. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  16. Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.; Chandran, Divya; Gulevich, Alexander G.; Okrent, Rachel A.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Sarpong, Richmond; Bunnelle, Eric M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides control crop pests based on their action as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which accepts chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-analogs almost equally well. In some cases, these compounds have also been reported to enhance plant vigor and (a)biotic stress tolerance, independent of their insecticidal function. However, this mode of action has not been defined. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the neonicotinoid compounds, imidacloprid (IMI) and clothianidin (CLO), via their 6-chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SA)-associated plant responses. SA is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense against pathogens and as an inducer of systemic acquired resistance; however, it can also modulate abiotic stress responses. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global transcriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a)biotic stress response. Furthermore, similar to SA, IMI and CLO induce systemic acquired resistance, resulting in reduced growth of a powdery mildew pathogen. The action of CLO induces the endogenous synthesis of SA via the SA biosynthetic enzyme ICS1, with ICS1 required for CLO-induced accumulation of SA, expression of the SA marker PR1, and fully enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. In contrast, the action of IMI does not induce endogenous synthesis of SA. Instead, IMI is further bioactivated to 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a potent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes. Thus, via different mechanisms, these chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-neonicotinoids induce SA responses associated with enhanced stress tolerance. PMID:20876120

  17. Immature defense mechanisms are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency and greater alcohol consumption before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Disturbances of emotional and physical awareness can impair female sexual function. Previous research revealed that immature psychological defense mechanisms (impairing emotional awareness) are associated specifically with impaired vaginal orgasm (orgasm triggered solely by penile-vaginal stimulation). Alcohol consumed before sex (ACBS) might impair vaginal orgasm or lead to avoiding the opportunity for it, but research examining immature defenses, ACBS, and specific sexual behaviors has been lacking. To test the hypothesis that greater use of immature defenses and greater ACBS are inversely associated with vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. Three hundred twenty-three coitally experienced women (predominantly Scottish) responded to an online survey reporting their frequency of various sexual activities (and corresponding orgasms) and their ACBS, and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire DSQ-40. Univariate and multivariate correlations of immature defenses, ACBS, and various sexual behaviors. Both immature defenses and ACBS were associated with less vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with frequency of other sexual behaviors (including clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse). Immature defenses were associated with more ACBS. Immature defenses explained the association between ACBS and both lack of vaginal orgasm and greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. The results provide further evidence that difficulty in having a vaginal orgasm is associated with immature defenses (and associated disturbances of sensibility), among other indicators of poorer health and relatedness. ACBS might impair vaginal orgasm or increase the likelihood of choosing other sexual activities, but this effect might be somewhat contingent on immature defenses. Based on various empirical studies, we call for examination of the possibility that lack of vaginal

  18. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  19. Emergency Preparedness and Management at the University of L'aquila (Central Italy) and the Role of Students' Associations in the April 6th 2009 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Michele; Fraboni, Rita; Marincioni, Fausto

    2017-01-12

    On April 6th 2009 an earthquake of Mw=6.3 hit the historical downtown of L'Aquila and its hinterland causing more than 300 fatalities and severe damage to private and public buildings. At the time, the University of L'Aquila represented a major source of employment and income for the city. The earthquake impacted both the facilities and the administrative, financial and patrimonial activities of the university, bringing into the open the tendency - widespread in Italy - to rely on adaptive tactics rather than on strategic pre-disaster plans. This paper investigates the university's emergency preparedness and response capability and  the strategies adopted to restore the education activities as well as avoid students migration to other universities. In addition, emphasis is placed on the role played by Student Associations in pre and post-disaster phases, and how students perceived the activities performed by these associations. To achieve this goal, it was undertaken: i) qualitative evaluation to assess the impact of earthquake on services and facilities of the university, the emergency preparedness and the measures adopted to face the emergency, ii) survey on the role played by Student Associations, both in emergency preparedness and response, according to students' perception; iii) quantitative analysis to measure changes in the enrollment trend after the earthquake, and how university policies could curb students' migration. The policies adopted by the University allowed to diminish students' migration; however, the measures taken by the university were based on an ad hoc plan as no emergency and continuity plans were prepared in advance. Similarly Student Associations got involved more in restoration activities than in emergency preparedness and risk awareness promotion. Greater awareness and involvement are essential at each level (administrators, faculties, students) to plan in advance for an adverse scenario and to make important steps forward in

  20. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sharon L; Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes--the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)--measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes--startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry--in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Male Involvement in Birth Preparedness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Male involvement in birth preparedness was low (6.6%). Of the birth preparedness indices, saving money (26.5%) was the commonest while prior arrangement for means of getting safe blood (2.4%) was the least common. On bivariate analysis, male involvement in birth preparedness was significantly associated ...

  2. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  3. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparedness of lower-level health facilities and the associated factors for the outpatient primary care of hypertension: Evidence from Tanzanian national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintabara, Deogratius; Mpondo, Bonaventura C T

    2018-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Data on health system preparedness to manage hypertension and other non-communicable diseases remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the preparedness of lower-level health facilities for outpatient primary care of hypertension in Tanzania. This study used data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey. The facility was considered as prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension if reported at least half (≥50%) of the items listed from each of the three domains (staff training and guideline, basic diagnostic equipment, and basic medicines) as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment manual. Data were analyzed using Stata 14. An unadjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the association between outcome and explanatory variables. All variables with a P value primary care of hypertension. About 9% and 42% of the assessed facilities reported to have at least one trained staff and guidelines for hypertension respectively. In multivariate analysis, private facilities [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI; 1.2-6.1], urban location [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI; 1.2-4.2], health centers [AOR = 5.2, 95% CI; 3.1-8.7] and the performance of routine management meetings [AOR = 2.6, 95% CI; 1.1-5.9] were significantly associated with preparedness for the outpatient primary care of hypertension. The primary healthcare system in Tanzania is not adequately equipped to cope with the increasing burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases. Rural location, public ownership, and absence of routine management meetings were associated with being not prepared. There is a need to strengthen the primary healthcare system in Tanzania for better management of chronic diseases and curb their rising impact on health outcomes.

  5. Association between defense mechanisms and psychiatric symptoms in North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Lee, So-Hee; Yoo, So Young; Song, Jungeun; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Defense mechanism may contribute to psychiatric symptoms. Refugees are vulnerable to various psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and those associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to their traumatic or stressful experiences. We aimed to investigate the mediating role of each defense mechanism in the occurrence of specific psychiatric symptoms in North Korean refugees. Among 213 North Korean refugees initially recruited, 201 completed the following questionnaires: the Defense Style Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), the somatization subscale of Symptom Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the defense mechanisms more predominantly associated with specific psychiatric symptoms after controlling for age, sex, number of traumatic experiences, and other psychiatric symptoms (depressive symptoms and/or anxiety). Higher levels of depression were independently predicted by greater use of resignation. More use of acting out and less use of humor and sublimation independently predicted higher levels of anxiety. Somatization was independently predicted by more use of inhibition. PTSD symptoms were independently predicted by more use of undoing and isolation. Specific psychiatric symptoms were associated with specific defense mechanisms in North Korean refugees. Our findings suggest that the manifest psychiatric symptoms of refugees may be mediated by their dominant defense mechanism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  7. Preparedness events in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    NRPA have as Secretariat for the Crisis Committee and the nuclear preparedness organization in 2008 published several reports of incidents of radioactivity and radioactive pollution to the nuclear preparedness organization, media and the public. In addition to these events, there have been some incidents with radiation and small radioactive sources in Norway during this year. (AG)

  8. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... commercial sectors for research and development and for acquisition of materials, services, components, and... distribution of farm equipment and commercial fertilizer; (2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms... the National Labor Relations Board, the Federal Labor Relations Authority, the National Mediation...

  9. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A preliminary report on defenses and conflicts associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J C; Cooper, S H

    1986-01-01

    The authors present preliminary psychodynamic findings from a naturalistic study of borderline personality disorder compared to antisocial personality disorder and bipolar type II (depression with hypomania) affective disorder. An independent psychodynamic interview of each subject was videotaped from which ratings were made of the presence of 22 defense mechanisms and 11 psychodynamic conflicts. A factor analysis of ratings from 81 subjects supported the separation of borderline (splitting, projective identification) from narcissistic defenses (devaluation, omnipotence, idealization, mood-incongruent denial). While certain groups of defenses were associated with each diagnosis, defense ratings did not significantly discriminate the three diagnostic groups, suggesting a limit to their diagnostic value. Among 27 subjects rated, borderline personality was strongly associated with two conflicts: separation-abandonment, and a global conflict over the experience and expression of emotional needs and anger. Antisocial personality was psychodynamically distinct and more heterogeneous. Bipolar type II was associated with two hypothesized depressive conflicts: dominant other and dominant goal. Chronic depression, which was more common in both personality disorder groups than in bipolar type II, was associated with a third depressive conflict, overall gratification inhibition. Overall, conflicts were powerful discriminators of the three diagnostic groups. The heuristic value of these findings is discussed.

  11. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  12. Preparedness of lower-level health facilities and the associated factors for the outpatient primary care of hypertension: Evidence from Tanzanian national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogratius Bintabara

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Data on health system preparedness to manage hypertension and other non-communicable diseases remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the preparedness of lower-level health facilities for outpatient primary care of hypertension in Tanzania.This study used data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey. The facility was considered as prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension if reported at least half (≥50% of the items listed from each of the three domains (staff training and guideline, basic diagnostic equipment, and basic medicines as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment manual. Data were analyzed using Stata 14. An unadjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the association between outcome and explanatory variables. All variables with a P value < 0.2 were fitted into the multiple logistic regression models using a 5% significance level.Out of 725 health facilities involved in the current study, about 68% were public facilities and 73% located in rural settings. Only 28% of the assessed facilities were considered prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension. About 9% and 42% of the assessed facilities reported to have at least one trained staff and guidelines for hypertension respectively. In multivariate analysis, private facilities [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI; 1.2-6.1], urban location [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI; 1.2-4.2], health centers [AOR = 5.2, 95% CI; 3.1-8.7] and the performance of routine management meetings [AOR = 2.6, 95% CI; 1.1-5.9] were significantly associated with preparedness for the outpatient primary care of hypertension.The primary healthcare system in Tanzania is not adequately equipped to cope with the increasing burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases. Rural location, public ownership

  13. Pep-13, a plant defense-inducing pathogen-associated pattern from Phytophthora transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Frédéric; Rosahl, Sabine; Lee, Justin; Rudd, Jason J; Geiler, Carola; Kauppinen, Sakari; Rasmussen, Grethe; Scheel, Dierk; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-12-16

    Innate immunity, an ancient form of defense against microbial infection, is well described for animals and is also suggested to be important for plants. Discrimination from self is achieved through receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) not found in the host. PAMPs are evolutionarily conserved structures which are functionally important and, thus, not subject to frequent mutation. Here we report that the previously described peptide elicitor of defense responses in parsley, Pep-13, constitutes a surface-exposed fragment within a novel calcium-dependent cell wall transglutaminase (TGase) from Phytophthora sojae. TGase transcripts and TGase activity are detectable in all Phytophthora species analyzed, among which are some of the most destructive plant pathogens. Mutational analysis within Pep-13 identified the same amino acids indispensable for both TGase and defense-eliciting activity. Pep-13, conserved among Phytophthora TGases, activates defense in parsley and potato, suggesting its function as a genus-specific recognition determinant for the activation of plant defense in host and non-host plants. In summary, plants may recognize PAMPs with characteristics resembling those known to trigger innate immune responses in animals.

  14. Affective temperaments and ego defense mechanisms associated with somatic symptom severity in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Taunay, Tauily C; Macedo, Danielle S; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Bisol, Luísa W; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Lara, Diogo R; Carvalho, André F

    2013-09-05

    Several complex mechanisms including biological, psychological and social factors may contribute to the development of bodily symptoms. Affective temperaments may represent heritable subclinical manifestations of mood disorders, and the concept of ego defense mechanisms has also provided a model for the comprehension of psychopathology. The relationship between affective temperaments, defensive functioning and somatic symptom severity remains unknown. We obtained data from a subsample of the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). Participants completed the Affective and Emotional Temperament Composite Scale (AFECTS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). SCL-90-R Somatization scale was used as outcome variable. Among 9937 participants (4472 male; 45%), individuals with dysphoric, cyclothymic and depressive temperaments and those who adopted displacement, somatisation and passive aggression as their predominant defense mechanisms presented high somatic symptom severity. Participants with dysphoric temperament and those with higher displacement scores were more likely to endorse numerous bodily symptoms after controlling for age, gender, education and depressive symptoms. Moderator analysis showed that the relationship of dysphoric temperament with somatic symptom severity was much more powerful in people who adopted displacement as their predominant defense. The data was collected from a convenience web-based sample. The study was cross-sectional. There was no information on the presence of established physical illness. Affective temperaments and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity independently of depressive symptoms. These two personality theories provide distinct but interacting views for comprehension of somatic symptom formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological distress, somatization, and defense mechanisms associated with quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Tomenson, Barbara; Bai, Marina; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Creed, Francis

    2010-03-01

    Clinical parameters predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but some patients have impaired HRQOL despite being in clinical remission. To identify personality and psychological distress variables associated with HRQOL in IBD. In a cross-sectional study of 185 IBD patients, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hopkins' Symptoms Distress Checklist, the Defense Style Questionnaire and the Life Style Index were administered. The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire was used for the assessment of HRQOL. Psychological distress was associated with impaired HRQOL in a dose-response fashion. Somatization mediated the relationships of anxiety and depression with HRQOL. Few years of education, more extensive use of the reaction-formation defense mechanism and higher rates of somatization were the variables most closely and independently associated with impaired HRQOL. Somatization and reaction-formation are independent correlates of disease-specific HRQOL in IBD patients, and this could be relevant to psychological interventions.

  16. United States and Israeli Homeland Security: A Comparative Analysis of Emergency Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pockett, Consuella B

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a comparative analysis of the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security's Emergency Preparedness and Response directorate and the Israel Defense Forces Home Front Command...

  17. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  18. Bridging the Gap in Hospital Preparedness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adwell, James P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a baseline measurement tool by assessing individual attitudes regarding hospital preparedness, departmental preparedness, and preparedness through education and training...

  19. From SARS to Avian Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew T Y; Chen, Hong; Liu, Shao-Haei; Hsu, Enoch K; Luk, Kristine S; Lai, Christopher K C; Chan, Regina F Y; Tsang, Owen T Y; Choi, K W; Kwan, Y W; Tong, Anna Y H; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tsang, Dominic N C

    2017-05-15

    The first human H5N1 case was diagnosed in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, experience in effective preparedness strategies that target novel influenza viruses has expanded. Here, we report on avian influenza preparedness in public hospitals in Hong Kong to illustrate policies and practices associated with control of emerging infectious diseases. The Hong Kong government's risk-based preparedness plan for influenza pandemics includes 3 response levels for command, control, and coordination frameworks for territory-wide responses. The tiered levels of alert, serious, and emergency response enable early detection based on epidemiological exposure followed by initiation of a care bundle. Information technology, laboratory preparedness, clinical and public health management, and infection control preparedness provide a comprehensive and generalizable preparedness plan for emerging infectious diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobic attitudes, while a contrasting role is played by neurotic defense mechanisms and depressive symptoms. Moreover, secure attachment is an indicator of low levels of homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Association between PPP1R1B polymorphisms and defense mechanisms in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinglin; Li, Jingying; Ma, Hui; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuan; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Lijuan; Ma, Huan; Zhu, Gang

    2013-03-01

    Defense mechanisms resulting from the interaction between biological factors and the environment have been established. In genetic studies, dopamine genes have been recognized to play an important role in the determination of defense mechanisms. DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein) plays a central role in the biology of dopamine-receptive neurons; its coding gene (PPP1R1B) has been linked to psychological and psychopathological traits. Here, we aimed to explore the association between PPP1R1B polymorphisms and defense mechanisms measured using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire in 400 healthy Chinese-Han subjects. Of the three polymorphisms examined, rs12601930 was associated with projection (P = 0.028) and splitting (P = 0.032), while rs3764352 was associated with splitting (P = 0.042). No significant association was found between rs879606 and defenses. When analyzed separately by gender, no significant association between defense mechanisms and PPP1R1B polymorphisms in males was observed. In females, however, rs12601930 was significantly associated with splitting (P = 0.018), and rs879606, with projection (P = 0.015), help-rejecting complaining (P = 0.030), and immature defense style (P = 0.031), while rs3764352 was not associated with any defense. The distribution of genotypes between the low- and high-scoring subgroups for each defense style showed no significant differences. Our results suggest that PPP1R1B polymorphisms are, at least partially, responsible for immature defenses.

  2. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  3. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  4. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Perinel, Giada; Arnaboldi, Paola; Gandini, Sara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Rotmensz, Nicole; Tagini, Angela; Didier, Florence; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-11-09

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  5. Hospital emergency preparedness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    Emergency preparedness and professional competency among health care providers during hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Pilot study results. Disaster Management and. Response, 5(4), 99-110. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). (2008). 2008-2009 World. Disaster Reduction Campaign.

  6. Personality traits, defense mechanisms and hostility features associated with somatic symptom severity in both health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Goulia, Panagiota; Carvalho, Andre F

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are widespread in clinical practice. The association of somatic symptom severity with impaired health status holds both when symptoms are medically unexplained and when they are medically explained. The role of personality dimensions in the formation of somatic symptoms in patients with established, chronic diseases when compared to healthy participants had not been investigated prior to this study. In samples of 411 healthy subjects and 810 participants with any of 9 established, chronic medical conditions, we measured psychological distress (SCL-90-R), personality traits (Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire), defensive profiles (Defense Style Questionnaire), individual defenses (Life Style Index) and hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire). Hierarchical multivariate models were used to assess the independent associations between personality dimensions and somatic symptom severity in both samples. The SCL-90-R somatization scale served as the outcome variable. In both samples, older age, less education, higher neuroticism, adoption of the displacement defense and depressive symptoms were independently and positively associated with somatic symptom severity. Higher somatic symptom severity was also associated with more "introverted" features (i.e., the self-sacrificing defensive style and self-criticism) among participants with established, chronic medical conditions. These data suggest that similar personality traits and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity in health and disease, indicating that somatic symptoms are not simply consequences of having a medical condition. The specific associations of the self-sacrificing defensive profile and self-criticism with somatic symptom severity in the patient sample may have important clinical implications. © 2013.

  7. Disparity in disaster preparedness among rheumatoid arthritis patients with various general health, functional, and disability conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2012-07-01

    To describe disaster preparedness among chronically ill patients and to examine how differences in health, functional, and disability conditions are associated with disaster preparedness, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with various functional and disability levels. In 2007, 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006 were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. Three medical preparedness indicators, namely, medication stockpiles, the carrying of medications, and the carrying of prescription/treatment records, and three general preparedness indicators, namely, having emergency packs, emergency communication plans, and emergency evacuation plans, were used as dependent variables. Multivariable logistic models were applied to examine the associations of health-related vulnerability variables with the preparedness variables. Of the 553 subjects included into the analysis, only one-half had taken medical preparedness measures and only one-quarter had taken general preparedness measures. Although physical disability and poorer functional level were associated positively with the medical preparedness, those with poorer perceived health were less likely to carry medications and prescription/treatment records, and those receiving the highest long-term care levels were less likely to carry medications than their healthier counterparts. Among the population of chronically ill RA patients surveyed, disaster preparedness was insufficient, and their preparedness status varied with health, functional, and disability conditions. We suggest that policy-makers should give careful thought to the targets they set for disaster preparedness.

  8. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  9. Family emergency preparedness plans in severe tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  11. The effects of the April 2011 tornado outbreak on personal preparedness in Jefferson County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lisa C; Pevear, Jesse; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tornado disaster on the personal preparedness of local residents to determine (1) to what extent the tornado outbreak experience had altered preparedness awareness, willingness to act, and levels of personal preparedness of residents as measured by possession of a preparedness kit; and (2) what effect this experience had on the variables associated with having a complete disaster preparedness kit. Two random digit-dialed surveys were completed following the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System protocols. The pre-tornado survey was conducted between October and December 2010 and the post-tornado survey was conducted between January and March 2012. After the April 2011 tornado outbreak, 86.08% of the respondents (n = 1364) reported that they had thought more about personal or family preparedness and 59.65% (n = 907) reported that they had taken actions to increase their level of preparedness. Overall, general awareness of preparedness media campaigns increased significantly (almost 24%; P < .0001), as did the percentage of those having a complete disaster preparedness kit (a 66% increase, not quite doubled from 2010 to 2012; P < .0001). Findings of the study indicate that the disaster had a significant impact on the local residents' (1) awareness of preparedness campaigns, (2) awareness of the need to be prepared, (3) willingness to become better prepared, and (4) possession of a disaster and emergency preparedness kit and its associated items.

  12. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Shawn R.; Blanchard, Eugene E.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls) liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control) animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Collectively, these

  13. Integration of danger peptide signals with herbivore-associated molecular pattern signaling amplifies anti-herbivore defense responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Tomonori; Yasuda, Shigetaka; Hyodo, Kiwamu; Tani, Rena; Hojo, Yuko; Fujiwara, Yuka; Hiruma, Kei; Ishizaki, Takuma; Fujita, Yasunari; Saijo, Yusuke; Galis, Ivan

    2018-03-07

    Plant defense against herbivores is modulated by herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) from oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva of insects. Furthermore, feeding wounds initiate plant self-damage responses modulated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as immune defense-promoting plant elicitor peptides (Peps). While temporal and spatial co-existence of both patterns during herbivory implies a possibility of their close interaction, the molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here we report that exogenous application of rice (Oryza sativa) peptides (OsPeps) can elicit multiple defense responses in rice cell cultures. Specific activation of OsPROPEP3 gene transcripts in rice leaves by wounding and OS treatments further suggests a possible involvement of the OsPep3 peptide in rice-herbivore interactions. Correspondingly, we found that simultaneous application of OsPep3 and Mythimna loreyi OS significantly amplifies an array of defense responses in rice cells, including mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and generation of defense-related hormones and metabolites. The induction of OsPROPEP3/4 by OsPep3 points to a positive auto-feedback loop in OsPep signaling which may contribute to additional enhancement of defense signal(s). Finally, the overexpression of the OsPep receptor OsPEPR1 increases the sensitivity of rice plants not only to the cognate OsPeps but also to OS signals. Our findings collectively suggest that HAMP-DAMP signal integration provides a critical step in the amplification of defense signaling in plants. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Emergency preparedness exercises for nuclear facilities: Preparation, conduct and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication offers guidance for operating organizations and public authorities on planning, organizing and conducting exercises, preparing scenarios and evaluating the results of exercises in order to make full use of the experience gained in improving the response planning and preparedness for radiation emergencies. The training aspects associated with achieving an adequate level of emergency preparedness are explored and examples of accident scenarios are presented

  15. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick R Samuelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis. To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein

  16. Oxidative stress is associated with an increased antioxidant defense in elderly subjects: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Flores-Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs. We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px using multilevel statistical procedures. RESULTS: Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L, with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance =  013.5; P<0.001. Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population.

  17. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  18. MiRNA160 is Associated with Local Defense and Systemic Acquired Resistance of Potato Against Phytophthora Infestans Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Bhavani; Kalsi, Harpreet S; Godbole, Prajakta; Malankar, Nilam; Thiagarayaselvam, Aarthy; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Chakrabarti, Swarup K; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2018-01-30

    To combat pathogen infection, plants employ local defense in infected sites and elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in distant tissues. MicroRNAs are shown to play a significant role in local defense, however, their association with SAR is unknown. Also, in potato-Phytophthora infestans interaction, no such studies are reported. We investigated the role of miR160 in local and SAR responses of potato during P. infestans infection. Expression analysis revealed induced levels of miR160 in both local and systemic leaves of infected wild-type plants. Both miR160 overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased susceptibility suggesting that miR160 levels equivalent to wild-type plant may be necessary for mounting local defense. Additionally, miR160 knockdown lines failed to elicit SAR and grafting assays indicated that miR160 is required in both local and systemic leaves to trigger SAR. Consistently, SAR-associated signals and genes were dysregulated in miR160 knockdown lines. Further, expression analysis of defense and auxin pathway genes and direct regulation of StGH3.6, a mediator of salicylic acid-auxin cross-talk, by miR160 target StARF10 revealed the involvement of miR160 in antagonistic cross-talk between SA-mediated defense and auxin-mediated growth pathways. Overall, our study demonstrates that miR160 plays a crucial role in local defense and SAR response during potato-P. infestans interaction. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Helicoverpa zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly induce defenses in tomato by triggering a salivary elicitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Peiffer, Michelle; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-05-01

    Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Laboratory-reared H. zea inoculated with one of the bacteria identified in field-collected H. zea, Enterobacter ludwigii, induced expression of the tomato defense-related enzyme polyphenol oxidase and genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related gene was suppressed. Additionally, saliva and its main component glucose oxidase from inoculated caterpillars played an important role in elevating tomato anti-herbivore defenses. However, there were only low detectable amounts of regurgitant or bacteria on H. zea-damaged tomato leaves. Our results suggest that H. zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly mediate plant-insect interactions by triggering salivary elicitors. These findings provide a proof of concept that introducing gut bacteria to a herbivore may provide a novel approach to pest management through indirect induction of plant resistance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  1. Proceedings of the American Defense Preparedness Association on Milcon III, Military Computers and Software Held at Washington, DC on January 25-26, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Augusta Ada Lovelace . One thing that needs to be looked at in the microprocessor Dusiness is to look at a still more advanced standard as indicated...Lieblem 34 VHblC Proqram - Dr. Patterson 34 Ada Program - Dr. Math is 37 btars Program - Dr. Man ley 4b tXpert Computers - Mr. bguires 40...truly be astounded at what has happened with their ideas. Perhaps not Ada . Yet r\\ere we are with the theme of problems of the future. Why problems/ We

  2. Chapter 10. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is a set of measures the aim of which is to mitigate possible impacts of incident radiation accidents at nuclear installations and their consequences to the environment. Emergency Response Centre of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) was established as a technical support tool of UJD to evaluate the technical conditions of nuclear installations and also for assessment of radiation situation in case of accident and for prognosis of development of possible accident and evolution of its impact on the population and the environment. At the same time it serves as an advisory body for the national Emergency Commission for the Radiation Accidents for planning of optimal protective measures focusing on minimising the impact on population and the vicinity of NPP. Besides of completion of emergency procedures related to NPPs Bohunice also the first part of procedures for NPP Mochovce and procedures using a new EU code system RODOS. In 2000 UJD focused activities in emergency preparedness area on inspections, approval of on-site emergency plans of nuclear installations, review of emergency transport orders and of-site emergency plans. In accordance with an UJD inspection plan the inspectors of UJD carried out several inspections in area of emergency preparedness at all NPPs. The inspections were focused on checking the emergency exercises, review of preparedness of NPP staff in the area of emergency planning and review of documentation. There were no important insufficiencies revealed during the inspections. During the year 2000 the exercises were performed at all nuclear installations and the emergency transport orders were exercised as well. Testing of communication, preparedness of individual members of emergency headquarters, co-operation, operability of emergency centres and exchange of information were the main tasks of these exercises. In March the emergency exercise at the National Radioactive waste Repository on Mochovce

  3. Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Cooke, Feonagh C; Donovan, Robert J; MacIntyre, C Raina; Itzwerth, Ralf; Plant, Aileen J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness...

  4. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  5. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  6. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  7. Citizen preparedness campaign : information campaigns increasing citizen preparedness to support creating a 'Culture of Preparedness'

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, Paula S.

    2007-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Citizen preparedness has been a requirement since the events of September 11, 2001, and was reinforced as a necessity after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August 2005. Although National Strategy documents outline the requirement for citizen participation in national preparedness the requirement is through volunteerism using the Citizen Corps. There are currently readiness programs being conducted through the Citizen Corps, Department of Homeland Security and the Fe...

  8. Evidence of a role for the lateral hypothalamic area juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in defensive behaviors associated with social defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Rangel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior. Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: 1 pre-encounter habituation to testing context, 2 encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context, and 3 post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  9. Evidence of a Role for the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Juxtadorsomedial Region (LHAjd) in Defensive Behaviors Associated with Social Defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Miguel J; Baldo, Marcus V C; Canteras, Newton S; Hahn, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior). Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: (1) pre-encounter habituation to testing context; (2) encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context; and (3) post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region) neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  10. Preparedness for severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggheim, Åsmund; Blomberg, Bjørn; Mørch, Kristine

    2015-03-24

    About 60 patients with malaria are admitted to Norwegian hospitals every year. The prescription figures for malaria medication may suggest that Norwegians are increasingly exposed to malaria infection. All Norwegian hospitals with a department of internal medicine were sent an electronic questionnaire for reporting the available methods for diagnosing and treating malaria. There was a 100% response (48/48). Microscopy for malaria diagnosis was available at 92% (44/48) and a rapid test for detecting malaria antigen at 67% (32/48), while 6% (3/48) had no malaria detection test available. Artesunate and quinine for intravenous treatment were both available at 6% (3/48), only artesunate at 27% (13/48) and only quinine at 27% (13/48) of the hospitals. Drugs for intravenous treatment of severe malaria were not available at 40% (19/48) of the hospitals. More than a third of Norwegian hospitals lack preparedness for treating severe malaria, and some hospitals lack diagnostic procedures. Severe malaria is a condition that may rapidly become life-threatening and is treated with artesunate or quinine intravenously. All Norwegian hospitals should have procedures for emergency treatment of the disease.

  11. Transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria by nonhost seeds without induction of an associated defense reaction at emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrasse, Armelle; Darsonval, Arnaud; Boureau, Tristan; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Durand, Karine; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2010-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the different steps of bacterial disease epidemiology is essential to develop new control strategies. Seeds are the passive carriers of a diversified microbial cohort likely to affect seedling physiology. Among seed-borne plant-pathogenic bacteria, seed carriage in compatible situations is well evidenced. The aims of our work are to determine the efficiency of pathogen transmission to seeds of a nonhost plant and to evaluate bacterial and plant behaviors at emergence. Bacterial transmission from flowers to seeds and from seeds to seedlings was measured for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in incompatible interactions with bean. Transmissions from seeds to seedlings were compared for X. campestris pv. campestris, for Xanthomonas citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in compatible interactions with bean, and for Escherichia coli, a human pathogen, in null interactions with bean. The induction of defense responses was monitored by using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of genes representing the main signaling pathways and assaying defense-related enzymatic activities. Flower inoculations resulted in a high level of bean seed contamination by X. campestris pv. campestris, which transmitted efficiently to seedlings. Whatever the type of interaction tested, dynamics of bacterial population sizes were similar on seedlings, and no defense responses were induced evidencing bacterial colonization of seedlings without any associated defense response induction. Bacteria associated with the spermosphere multiply in this rich environment, suggesting that the colonization of seedlings relies mostly on commensalism. The transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria to and by nonhost seeds suggests a probable role of seeds of nonhost plants as an inoculum source.

  12. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  13. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  14. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  15. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  16. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  17. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  18. Back-to-School Preparedness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-28

    CDC provides direction, support, and coordination to help the public be prepared. This podcast discusses how parents and students can be prepared at school.  Created: 7/28/2014 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/31/2014.

  19. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  20. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairys, A.

    1998-01-01

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  1. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  2. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  3. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management

  4. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  5. Knowledge and practice of emergency preparedness by Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking personal responsibility in preparing for and responding to emergency situations is an effective means of curbing damages. Methods: This study was a cross ... Factors associated with the practice of emergency preparedness were age of respondents (p=0.001) and education (p= 0.001). Conclusion: Knowledge and ...

  6. Defensive self-presentation style is associated with reduced prepulse inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Raz; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Lichtenberg, Pesach; Edelman, Shany; Ebstein, Richard P; Heresco-Levy, Uriel

    2011-11-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a cross-species measure of sensorimotor gating that provides a valuable tool for assessing the capacity to effectively screen out irrelevant sensory input. Accumulating evidence suggests that PPI deficits may correlate with impairments in social cognition, i.e. the ability to construct representation about others, oneself and the relations between others and oneself. Social cognition deficits are commonly encountered within the framework of psychiatric disorders. In this study 113 healthy volunteers completed psychopyhsiological measures of sensorimotor gating (PPI) and social self-presentation style (the Concern for Appropriate (CAS) and the Revised Self-Monitoring (RSMS) scales). CAS measures a defensive and fearful social approach aiming at avoiding social threats; RSMS measures an active and flexible social approach aiming at gaining power and status. Analyses revealed an inverse correlation between PPI at the 120 ms prepulse-to-pulse interval and total CAS scores (r=-0.19, p=0.04), as well as with the Attention to Social Comparison Information (ASCI) subscale of the CAS (r=-0.23, p=0.01). These findings suggest that reduced PPI may contribute to the tendency to adopt a defensive and fearful "getting along" social approach. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to assess the relationship between sensorimotor gating and self-presentational style in humans. Its findings suggest that very basic perceptual deficits that can be assessed using the PPI paradigm, may reflect information processing abnormalities that impact negatively upon the perception of complex social interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual Responsivity and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Thomas; Bekker, Demoyne

    1976-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether high- and low-sexual responders on a double-entendre word association test differed in defensive preference on Gleser and Ihilevich's Defense Mechanism Inventory. (Author)

  8. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  9. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  10. Radiological emergency preparedness (REP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    This talk focuses on the accomplishments of Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program. Major topics include the following: strengthening the partnership between FEMA, the States, and the Industry; the Standard Exercise Report Format (SERF); Multi-year performance partnership agreement (MYPPA); new REP Program guidance; comprehensive exercise program; federal radiological emergency response plan (FRERP); international interest; REP user fee; implementation EPA PAGs and Dose Limits; Contamination monitoring standard for portal monitors; guidance documents and training

  11. [Accepting pessimistic thinking is associated with better mental and physical health in defensive pessimists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2009-02-01

    The mental and physical health of defensive pessimists (DPs) is generally worse than that of optimists. However, some DPs who accept their pessimistic thinking style are in good health. This study examined the health of college students who were DPs related to how they accepted their thinking style. In Study 1 (F = 211, M = 131), self-esteem was compared among DPs, strategic optimists (SOs), and depressed persons (DEPs). In Study 2 (F = 376, M = 251, not indicated = 5), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ28) was compared among these groups. ANOVAs revealed that DPs were healthier than DEPs in self-esteem and on the GHQ28, but worse than SOs in self-esteem. However, ANCOVA examining self-esteem with acceptance of their thinking style as a covariate showed that DPs were better than DEPs and as good as SOs in health. Regarding the acceptance of their thinking style, DPs scored worse than SOs. This study concluded that DPs in better health had better acceptance of their pessimistic thinking style.

  12. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode A Olukolu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR, a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R- genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21, were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genome-wide association (GWA analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of the Maize Hypersensitive Defense Response Identifies Genes That Cluster in Related Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata, Bala P.; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants. PMID:25166276

  14. Health informatics for pediatric disaster preparedness planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R V; Ryutov, T; Neches, R; Upperman, J S

    2010-01-01

    1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words "children" AND "disaster preparedness and disaster" AND "informatics". A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed.

  15. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  16. Emergency planning and response preparedness in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Frlin-Lubi, A.; Usenicnik, B.

    2000-01-01

    Disasters do occur and so do nuclear or radiological accidents. Experience has shown that advance emergency response preparedness is essential in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident. In Slovenia, the Civil Protection Organization is the responsible authority for emergency preparedness and response to any kind of disasters. The Krko Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Slovenia. To date the plant has operated safely and no serious incidents have been recorded. Slovenia nevertheless, maintains a high level of emergency preparedness, which is reflected in the area of prevention and safety and in the area of emergency response preparedness. The emergency management system for nuclear emergencies is incorporated into an overall preparedness and response system. The paper presents an overview of nuclear or radiological emergency response preparedness in Slovenia and its harmonization with the international guidelines. (author)

  17. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  18. Citizen Preparedness Campaign: Information Campaigns Increasing Citizen Preparedness to Support Creating a Culture of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    and volunteer opportunities through these messages. Since most cinemas today have advertisements in slide format, and some cinemas show short film...campaigns. For example, in many of the Ad Council information campaigns, marketing and advertising firms produced the messages pro bono, and...mechanism for messages on preparedness and then allows a person to find out even more information once you gain their attention. Cinemas Partner with

  19. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI).

  20. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  1. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  2. pandemic swine influenza virus: preparedness planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    pandemic planning. Keywords: Pandemic, swine, influenza, virus, preparedness. INTRODUCTION. Effective pandemic preparedness and response should involve all sectors of ... In less affluent countries, human and material resources are often scarce and other ... Once surge requirements have been estimated, policy ...

  3. The Earthquake Preparedness Task Force Report. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal-Allard, Lucille

    A report on Earthquake Preparedness presents California school districts with direction for complying with existing earthquake preparedness planning laws. It first contains two sets of recommendations. The first set requires state action and is presented to the Legislature for consideration. The second set consists of policy statements and…

  4. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  5. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... preparedness in homes, businesses, and communities nationwide, and to building an America more ready and... the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws... all Americans to recognize the importance of preparedness and observe this month by working together...

  6. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-0062, Notice No. 1; 2130-AC33] Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal Railroad...: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness. These proposed... emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to operational (efficiency) tests...

  7. The defense of provincial identity in a literary association: the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bassa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the notion of provincial identity in the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, province of La Pampa. Although the group was shaped around literature, discourses and actions overflow this purpose and present a particular ideological stance regarding Pampean identity. Analysis focuses on interviews to members and documents produced both by local writers and the Association.

  8. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Report- U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center Detroit Arsenal Warren, Michigan 48397-5000 UNCLASSIFIED...Mile Road , Warren, MI 48397-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 29521 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING... Engineering Center (TARDEC) Blast Mitigation Program and the Michigan Chapter of the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) was created based

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  12. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  13. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Shy Cian; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants ( α -tocopherol (ATF) and N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) , catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  14. Assessment of Environmental Literacy, Concern and Disaster Preparedness Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adversely brings about uncontrollable, unpredictable natural calamities. Municipality of Calinog, strategically located at the center of Panay Island, has its share of environmental hazard nightmares. Thus, it is deemed necessary to assess students’ environmental knowledge, concern and disaster preparedness. Participants were 293 students of West Visayas State University Calinog for AY 2012-13. Modified, partly adapted instrument attempted to collect information from respondents. Statistical tools used- Mean; Standard Deviation; t-test; One-Way ANOVA; and Pearson’s r. Respondents’ level of environmental literacy and concern are “knowledgeable” and “very concerned” respectively. Level of disaster preparedness was “most often prepared” in all variables except to course. Significant relationships between the environmental literacy and concern; and between environmental literacy and disaster preparedness have been observed. Generally, students are environmentally literate, concerned, prepared during disasters occurrence. Significant variations occur in environmental literacy, concern, and disaster preparedness among respondents categorized according to course while no variations occurred among others. Environmental literacy is associated with environmental concern and disaster preparedness while environmental concern not associated with disaster preparedness. Hence, educational institutions must do their share.

  15. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  16. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  17. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background:?Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual?s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performan...

  18. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  19. Disaster Preparedness in Philippine Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; Yboa, Begonia C; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Lobrino, Ledwin R; Brennan, Mary Geronima B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the perceived level of disaster preparedness in Philippine nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Two hundred nurses were invited to participate in the study, with 170 responses (105 hospital nurses and 65 community nurses) or an 85% response rate, during the months of April 2014 through July 2014. Data collection was based on interviews using a standardized instrument, the Disaster Preparedness Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, percentages, and standard deviations were utilized to quantify the responses. Three fourths of the respondents (n = 136, 80%) indicated that they were not fully prepared to respond to disasters, while only 20% (n = 34) acknowledged that they felt they were adequately prepared. Respondents believed that they could function in the primary roles of educator (n = 107, 62.94%), caregiver (n = 104, 61.17%), and counselor (n = 82, 48.24%). More than half of the respondents (n = 98, 57.7%) were not aware of existing protocols of disaster management in the workplace. Courses taken in such areas as first aid (n = 79, 46.4%), field triage (n = 43, 25.29%), and basic cardiac life support (n = 57, 33.53%) were cited as important in preparing for disasters. Nurses in the study revealed that they were not sufficiently prepared for disasters nor were they aware of disaster management protocols in the workplace. Hospital administrators should consider the development and formulation of disaster management protocols and provide appropriate disaster nursing education and training. Nursing curricula should incorporate basic principles of disaster management into nursing courses as a framework for addressing this critical deficit. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Do anticipatory grief and preparedness affect distress in bereaved caregivers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    Objective Family caregivers of terminally ill patients are in a vulnerable position, and previous studies show that bereaved caregivers are at risk of psychological distress. Pre-loss grief symptoms seem to predict post-loss psychological distress, while preparedness for a looming loss tends...... to decrease distress. The aim of this nation-wide study was to investigate the association of both anticipatory grief symptoms and preparedness with psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers. Methods A list of all adult patients in Denmark receiving drug reimbursement for terminal illness...... was retrieved from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority on a weekly basis during 2012. All newly registered patients were requested by letter to pass on an enclosed baseline questionnaire to their closest relative. Responding caregivers bereaved within six months received a follow-up questionnaire six...

  1. INPP Handbook for the Emergency Preparedness Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushpuras, E.

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the emergency preparedness organization and principles for protection of public in the Baltic States in the case of the nuclear (radiological) accident at Ignalina NPP. (author)

  2. Importance of International Cooperation for Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.; Grlicarev, I.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contains a brief review of reactor accidents and their consequences. The bilateral, regional and interregional agreements on early exchange of information and mutual assistance in case of a nuclear and radiological accident are presented in a table and discussed. The international projects in emergency preparedness are briefly outlined and the situation in the field of emergency preparedness in Slovenia is given for the comparison. (author)

  3. Targeting prenatal emergency preparedness through childbirth education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Gloria; Sterling, Yvonne M; Orlando, Susan; Mathews, Pamela; Deeves, Gretchen; Bernard, Marirose L; Danna, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The lack of emergency preparedness planning remains problematic for families, but there is a special concern for prenatal women and families. This article proposes childbirth education as one avenue through which nurses can engage families to prepare for a disaster. Template guides and references are included for community-specific emergency preparedness education for childbearing families. Critical issues unique to childbearing women and newborns related to evacuation, sheltering, birthing in place, and mental health are addressed.

  4. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    provides a framework for examining spending patterns of the federal government by category of activity, rather than by agency or type of financing ...federal spending. Since federal agencies often have diverse, overlapping responsibilities , it is not uncommon for them to be associated with multiple...agency responsible for approximately 96% of spending within the National Defense Budget (050). Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function

  5. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  6. Lack of hospital preparedness for chemical terrorism in a major US city: 1996-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Mark E; Pesik, Nicki; Twum-Danso, Nana A Y

    2003-01-01

    The [US] Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Act (the WMD Act of 1996) heralded a new wave of spending by the federal government on counter-terrorism efforts. Between 1996 and 2000, the United States of America (US) federal government allocated large sums of funding to the States for bioterrorism preparedness. Distribution of these funds between institutions involved in first-responder care (e.g., fire and safety departments) and hospitals was uneven. It is unknown whether these additional funds had an impact on the level of hospital preparedness for managing mass casualties involving hazardous materials at the local level, including potential terrorist attacks with chemical agents. (1) To compare 1996 and 2000 measures of preparedness among hospitals of a major US metropolitan area for dealing with hazardous material casualties, including terrorism that involved the use of weapons of mass destruction; and (2) To provide guidance for the improvement of emergency preparedness and response in US hospitals. In July 1996 and again in July 2000,21 hospitals in one major US city were surveyed by questionnaire. A survey was used to assess the amounts of antidote stocks held available for treatment of casualties caused by toxic chemical agents and institutional response capabilities including the number of showers for decontaminating patients, the level of worker protection, and the number of staff trained to decontaminate patients. Hospital preparedness for treating and decontaminating patients exposed to toxic chemical agents was inadequate in 1996 and in 2000. From 1996 to 2000, there was no statistically significant change in the lack of hospital preparedness for stocking of nerve agent and cyanide antidotes. Capacity for decontamination of patients, which included appropriate hazardous material infrastructure and trained staff, generally was unimproved from 1996 to 2000 with the exception of an increase of nearly 30% in hospitals with

  7. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. US school/academic institution disaster and pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza vaccination among school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B; Reddick, Dave; D Swick, Zachary

    2012-09-01

    School pandemic preparedness is essential, but has not been evaluated. An online survey was sent to school nurses (from state school nurse associations and/or state departments of education) between May and July 2011. Overall school pandemic preparedness scores were calculated by assigning 1 point for each item in the school's pandemic plan; the maximum score was 11. Linear regression was used to describe factors associated with higher school pandemic preparedness scores. Nurse influenza vaccine uptake was assessed as well. A total of 1,997 nurses from 26 states completed the survey. Almost three-quarters (73.7%; n = 1,472) reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2010-11 season. Very few (2.2%; n = 43) reported that their school/district had a mandatory influenza vaccination policy. Pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0 to 10 points, with an average score of 4.3. Determinants of school pandemic preparedness were as follows: planning to be a point of dispensing during a future pandemic (P pandemic (P = .01 or US schools must continue to address gaps in pandemic planning. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioanalytical chemistry in emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, U.

    2001-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides present a potential health hazard due to the ionising radiation emitted during their decay. The release of large amounts of radioactive nuclides is of concern both for man and the environment. In cases of an accidental (or intentional) release, it is important with early warning systems and rapid methods to determine the extent and composition of the radioactive contamination. Many of the radionuclides released from a nuclear power plant accident or the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be determined by the use of gamma spectrometry. There are, however, some nuclides that are considered to be among the more hazardous that cannot be well determined by this technique, e.g. 90 Sr and the actinides. The determination of these nuclides is usually very time consuming due to the need for their chemical separation prior to counting. Two methods developed for the determination of 90 Sr and actinides in preparedness situations are described in this thesis. The determination of 90 Sr is based on a rapid decomposition of inorganic sample matrixes by lithium-borate fusion and preconcentration of Sr by coprecipitation with calcium oxalate with HF acting as a hold-back carrier for silica. The separation of Sr is then performed by extraction chromatography and measurement by gas-flow proportional counting. The method for actinide-determination is based on collection of the elements from various kinds of sample-materials by the use of two different actinide selective resins. The sample is, in this way, pre concentrated and partially purified prior to the analysis with low-energy gamma spectrometry. Sample preparation by this method only requires 1.5 - 2.5 hours and the sensitivity is sufficient for many of the nuclides of interest. For those nuclides that require a more sensitive analytical finish, the actinides can be removed from the resin and processed further for, e.g., alpha spectrometric determinations

  10. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Savoia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness also involves other threats such as seasonal influenza epidemics, earthquakes or electricity failures. Programs aimed at improving the level of preparedness of different types of agencies (such as law enforcement, public health agencies, fire services, emergency medical services etc. in case of terrorist attacks could largely improve the overall ability of the public health system in addressing any threat to health, in particular those related to infectious diseases.[2]

  11. Social Network Types and Acute Stroke Preparedness Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Boden-Albala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Presence of informal social networks has been associated with favorable health and behaviors, but whether different types of social networks impact on different health outcomes remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of different social network types (marital dyad, household, friendship, and informal community networks with acute stroke preparedness behavior. We hypothesized that marital dyad best matched the required tasks and is the most effective network type for this behavior. Methods: We collected in-person interview and medical record data for 1,077 adults diagnosed with stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of each social network with arrival at the emergency department (ED within 3 h of stroke symptoms. Results: Adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, education, gender, transportation type to ED and vascular diagnosis, being married or living with a partner was significantly associated with early arrival at the ED (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.1, but no significant univariate or multivariate associations were observed for household, friendship, and community networks. Conclusions: The marital/partnership dyad is the most influential type of social network for stroke preparedness behavior.

  12. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  13. Civil emergency preparedness at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Workshop was held in the frame of Lithuania's cooperation with NATO on disasters management subject and was concentrated on the preparation of management of nuclear accident at Ignalina NPP. The following topics were covered: emergency preparedness inside Ignalina NPP, preparedness for nuclear accidents at national level, experience in Nordic countries and IAEA activities in harmonization of nuclear emergency preparedness in different countries

  14. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  15. Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek

    Full Text Available Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR successfully arresting the pathogen. Relatively high levels of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosothiols concentrated in the main vein of potato leaves indicated the mobile function of these compounds as a reservoir of NO bioactivity. In contrast, low-level production of NO and ROS during virulent (vr P. infestans-potato interactions might be crucial in the delayed up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3 genes and compromised resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen. In turn, B. cinerea triggered huge NO overproduction and governed inhibition of superoxide production by blunting NADPH oxidase. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of H2O2 was found owing to the germin-like activity in cooperation with NO-mediated HR-like cell death in potato genotypes favorable to the necrotrophic pathogen. Moreover, B. cinerea not only provoked cell death, but also modulated the host redox milieu by boosting protein nitration, which attenuated SA production but not SA-dependent defense gene expression. Finally, based on obtained data the organismal cost of having machinery for HR in plant resistance to biotrophs is also discussed, while emphasizing new efforts to identify other components of the NO/ROS cell death pathway and improve plant protection against pathogens of different lifestyles.

  16. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  17. The nuclear weapons fallout preparedness exercise LOTTA. A presentation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovedal, H.

    2000-10-01

    This report contains a presentation and evaluation of an emergency preparedness exercise (LOTTA) that was carried out at FOA NBC Defense in May 1998. The exercise scenario was based on a nuclear weapons explosion in Norway and the paper describes the development of the scenario including weather prognosis for the simulation of dose rate-, laboratory- and field measurements made during the exercise. An evaluation of the different functions trained is also given. This is the main report in a series of reports concerning exercise LOTTA

  18. Study of dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коvalenko Y.A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students is studied in the article. A tendency is marked to the decline of level of physical preparedness of students of 1-3 courses. Methodical recommendations are presented on the improvement of the system of organization of physical education of students of the Zaporizhzhya national university. The dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of students 1, 2, 3 courses of different years of teaching is studied. Principal reasons of decline of level of physical preparedness of students are certain. There are recommendations the department of physical education in relation to physical preparedness of students.

  19. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-26

    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  20. Trauma Preparedness In Nigeria: A Questionnaire Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents who reported trauma drills in their hospitals were 20(29.4%), standing trauma team 27(39.7%), disaster management team 19(27.9%) and ambulance emergency help line 14(20.6%). Conclusion: Doctors and hospitals in Nigeria are ill-prepared for trauma care. Keywords: Trauma, Preparedness, Nigeria

  1. Relationship between student preparedness, learning experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. One of the more discernible needs that challenges universities is addressing the level of preparedness of students entering the higher education environment. Students expect to participate in active learning, while at the same time adopting a certain level of agency to successfully pass through higher ...

  2. College Students' Perceptions of College Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Star

    2013-01-01

    As educational leaders struggle to meet state and federal mandates, many students graduate from high school without the skills necessary to meet the demands of a college education. Guided by the tenets of constructivism, this qualitative case study explored college students' perceptions of their college preparedness through math, science, and…

  3. Emergency preparedness at Barsebaeck NPP in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, R.; Lindvall, C.

    1998-01-01

    On-site emergency preparedness plan at Barsebaeck NPP is presented. In an emergency the responsibility of the NPP is to alarm the emergency organizations, spend all efforts to restore safe operation, assess the potential source term as to size and time, protect their own personnel, inform personnel and public. Detailed emergency procedures overview is provided

  4. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ..., Citizen Corps enables volunteers to contribute to homeland security efforts by educating, training, and... disaster preparedness a top priority, and is dedicated to a comprehensive approach that relies upon the... security and resiliency of our Nation through systematic preparation for the full range of hazards...

  5. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  6. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant Women Attending the Three Levels of Health Facilities in Ife Central Local Government, Nigeria. ... Only 24 (6.0%) had adequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs without prompting. Three hundred and forty (84.8%) and 312 (78.3%) women respectively had ...

  7. Anxiety, depression and defense mechanisms associated with treatment decisional preferences and quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augoustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Degner, Lesley F; Carvalho, André F; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Treatment decisional preferences impact breast cancer patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may relate to psychological variables, although many aspects of this relationship remain unknown. This prospective study aimed to assess psychological correlates of treatment decisional preferences and predictors of HRQoL in women with early non-metastatic breast cancer. Of the 124 women initially assessed for anxiety (Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D)) symptoms, HRQoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and defense mechanisms (Life Style Index), 82 (66.1%) completed the 1-year follow-up. Mean age was 54.6 years (SD = 9.76), and mean disease duration was 19.4 months (SD = 25.55); 19.5% had stage I, 63.4% stage II and 17.1% stage III disease. The predictive power and moderator effects of psychological variables were tested using multiple and hierarchical regression models. Depressive symptoms and physical HRQoL improved significantly, state anxiety and mental and environment HRQoL remained stable, and social relations HRQoL deteriorated over the 1-year period. Older age (p = 0.021) and higher scores in repression defense (p = 0.044) were independently associated with passive decisional preferences. Earlier stage of cancer (p = 0.043), lower state anxiety (p = 0.039), lower repression scores (p = 0.021) and improvement in depressive symptoms (p Defense mechanisms are associated with treatment decisional preferences and interact with factors predicting HRQoL in women with breast cancer. Clinicians should address the patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms and refer patients with high repression tendencies for psychological evaluation and management. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Emergency preparedness at the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, Mojmir

    2001-01-01

    and international agreements as well as the information for media and public. Information group was in all these exercises responsible for co-ordination the technical briefing material prepared by the Reactor Safety Group and Radiological Assessment Group. The Information Group was also preparing messages, which were sent to international bodies such as IAEA and, to neighbouring countries as a part of Slovak Republic bilateral arrangements. The endeavour of the UJD is to create in the emergency response centre such a room, logistic, hardware and software base that the emergency headquarters could act timely and operatively. The protection measures proposed by the emergency headquarters, however, can be realised neither by the emergency headquarters nor by the UJD - it has no executive power in this area. That is why the emergency headquarters prepares, in co-operation with the operative expert group of the National Commission for Nuclear Accidents, optimum measures to cope with the situation and submits them to the National Emergency Commission for Radiation accidents, which co-ordinates realisation of protective measures on the national level. The emergency preparedness is verified by various types emergency exercises at national as well as international level

  9. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  10. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  11. Influence of sensation seeking on response to alcohol versus placebo: implications for the acquired preparedness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caitlin; Corbin, William R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified several aspects of behavioral undercontrol that are associated with heavy drinking and problems. Further, research on the acquired preparedness model (Smith and Anderson, 2001) has identified biased learning as a potential mechanism of these effects. Traits like sensation seeking have been linked to stronger positive and weaker negative expectancies, which, in turn, contribute to increased risk for heavy drinking and problems. Although expectancies are thought to represent potentially biased expectations about drinking outcomes, they may also reflect individual differences in alcohol response. The present study examined the strength of associations between sensation seeking and both expectancies (response to placebo) and subjective response under alcohol. Using a between-subjects design, young adult social drinkers (N = 236) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration of .08%) or placebo, after which they reported on subjective experiences of stimulation and sedation. Sensation seeking was significantly related to stimulant response, and the strength of this association did not differ by beverage condition (alcohol vs. placebo). The findings argue against a pharmacological explanation for results of prior studies of the acquired preparedness model and support a biased learning interpretation of relations between sensation seeking and positive expectancies. Results also extend the findings on the acquired preparedness model to an implicit measure of positive alcohol expectancies (subjective response to placebo). Future studies using additional measures of implicit expectancies (e.g., Implicit Association Test) would be helpful in determining the relative strength of implicit and explicit expectancies as mediators within the acquired preparedness model.

  12. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  13. Segregated anatomical input to sub-regions of the rodent superior colliculus associated with approach and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane eComoli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze towards or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in external world are signalled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organised according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents' ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC, while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC. Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl. A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g. specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei and several brainstem areas or SCl (e.g. primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem. (ii Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurones (e.g. zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata. (iii There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g. pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coreuleus. These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behaviour are almost entirely

  14. Post-deployment Mental Health in Reserve and National Guard Service Members: Deploying With or Without One's Unit and Deployment Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Wang, Jing; Fullerton, Carol S; Ramsawh, Holly; Gifford, Robert K; Russell, Dale; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Given the greater prevalence of post-deployment mental health concerns among reservists, the higher likelihood of deploying without their regular unit, and potentially lower rates of deployment preparedness, we examined associations between deploying with or without one's regular unit (individual augmentee status, IAS), deployment preparedness, and mental health problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression (MDD), and binge drinking in a nationally representative sample of Reserve Component (RC) Army and Marine-enlisted males (n = 705). A series of multivariate regressions examined the association of mental health with IAS and deployment preparedness, adjusting for demographics. To examine whether deployment preparedness varied by IAS, an IAS × deployment preparedness interaction was included. In an adjusted model, being an individual augmentee and low deployment preparedness were associated with any mental health problem (screening positive for PTSD, MDD, binge drinking, or any combination of the three). There was a significant IAS × deployment preparedness interaction. Mental health problems did not vary by preparedness among individual augmentees. Participants deploying with regular units with low-medium preparedness had greater risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR] = 3.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-7.62 and OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.12-4.71), than those with high preparedness. RC-enlisted male personnel who deployed without their regular unit were five times more likely to have a mental health problem, and were 61% more likely to report binge drinking. Additionally, those with lower levels of deployment preparedness were up to three times more likely to have a mental health problem and up to six times more likely to report PTSD. The current investigation found that both IAS and deployment preparedness were associated with negative mental health outcomes in a large representative sample of previously deployed RC

  15. Defense Space Support to Civil Authority: How Can Policy be Improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    National Defense Strategy NMS National Military Strategy NOAA National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Organization NPD National Preparedness...37 Table 2. FEMA and NPD Goals Relationship ...............................................................38 Table 3. Space Operations...Infrastructure Protection Mass Care (Sheltering, Feeding, and Related Services) Epidemiological Surveillance and Investigation Mass Prophylaxis Food and

  16. Implementing a Disaster Preparedness Curriculum for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Edward H; Wanner, Gregory K; Berg, Dale; Berg, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Training in disaster medicine and preparedness is minimal or absent in the curricula of many medical schools in the United States. Despite a 2003 joint recommendation by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, few medical schools require disaster training for medical students. The challenges of including disaster training in an already rigorous medical school curriculum are significant. We evaluated medical students' experiences with mandatory disaster training during a 2-year period in a medical university setting. Disaster training has been mandatory at Thomas Jefferson University since 2002 and requires all first-year medical students to attend lectures, undergo practical skills simulation training, and participate in the hospital's interdisciplinary disaster exercise. Medical students were encouraged to complete a survey after each component of the required training. Twenty-three survey questions focused on assessing students' experiences and opinions of the training, including evaluation of the disaster exercise. Students provided ratings on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree). A total of 503 medical students participated in the disaster preparedness curriculum during the course of 2 years. Survey response rates were high for each portion of the training: lectures (91%), skills sessions (84%), and disaster exercise (100%). Students believed that disaster preparedness should remain part of the medical school curriculum (rating 4.58/5). The disaster lectures were considered valuable (rating 4.26/5) and practical skills sessions should continue to be part of the first-year curriculum (4.97/5). Students also believed that participation in the disaster exercise allowed them to better understand the difficulties faced in a real disaster situation (4.2/5). Our mandatory disaster preparedness training course was successfully integrated into the first-year curriculum >10 years ago

  17. Ready or not: does household preparedness prevent absenteeism among emergency department staff during a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Mary P; Ancock, Benedict; Levis, Joel T; Reyes, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    During major disasters, hospitals experience varied levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the immediate response period. Loss of critical hospital personnel, including Emergency Department (ED) staff, during this time can negatively impact a facility's ability to effectively treat large numbers of ill and injured patients. Prior studies have examined factors contributing to HCW ability and willingness to report for duty during a disaster. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of readiness of ED personnel, as measured by household preparedness, is associated with predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Additionally, the authors sought to elucidate other factors associated with absenteeism among ED staff during a disaster. ED staff of five hospitals participated in this survey-based study, answering questions regarding demographic information, past disaster experience, household disaster preparedness (using a novel,15-point scale), and likelihood of reporting to work during various categories of disaster. The primary outcome was personal predicted likelihood of reporting for duty following a disaster. A total of 399 subjects participated in the study. ED staffs were most likely to report for duty in the setting of an earthquake (95 percent) or other natural disaster, followed by an epidemic (90 percent) and were less likely to report for work during a biological, chemical, or a nuclear event (63 percent). Degree of household preparedness was determined to have no association with an ED HCW's predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Factors associated with predicted absenteeism varied based on type of disaster and included having dependents in the home, female gender, past disaster relief experience, having a spouse or domestic partner, and not owning pets. Having dependents in the home was associated with predicted absenteeism for all disaster types (OR 0.30-0.66). However, when stratified by gender, the presence of

  18. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Monica E; Kirk, Ray C; Sloan, Jeff A

    2014-06-09

    Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional readiness is essential, and

  19. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  20. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  1. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond.

  2. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, "bad me" (self-blaming) paranoia and "poor me" (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia.

  3. Barriers to disaster preparedness among medical special needs populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie eMeyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical special needs (MSN assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%, Hispanic (92.9%, aged > 45 years (51%, not insured for health (59.2%, and with an MSN (33.2%. Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild to level 4 (most severe. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness.

  4. The influence of organizational jurisdiction, organizational attributes, and training measures on perceptions of public health preparedness in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin N; Moore, Spencer; Shiell, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Recent international events including the H1N1 influenza pandemic and the rising incidence of West Nile Virus throughout North America have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. The current work assessed the association of organizational jurisdiction, organizational attributes, and training opportunities with three different measures of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. Organizational representatives involved in the delivery of public health systems completed an online questionnaire that asked about organizational attributes and training opportunities available to employees, their perception of organizational preparedness, and their connections to other organizations in Alberta. Findings revealed that (1) perceived human and material resources preparedness was associated with training opportunities, (2) perceived informational needs was associated with organizational size, and (3) whether an organization exercised their written preparedness plan in 2006 was associated with organizational jurisdiction. These findings help fill a gap in the literature with respect to identifying how organizational characteristics are associated with different aspects of preparedness.

  5. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    household preparedness was not spurious but rather associated with the intervention. Therefore, Ready CDC was successful in moving staff along the continuous process of adopting household disaster preparedness behaviors, thus providing a model for future interventions. The TTM suggests factors such as knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy will differ by stage and may differentially predict progression towards behavior adoption. Thus, tailoring interventions based on an individual's stage of change optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt desired behaviors.

  6. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (Ptomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  8. Community Preparedness: Creating a Model for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    such as tractor safety (Witte et al., 1993), Radon awareness (Witte et al., 1998b), teenage pregnancy (Witte, 1997), and HIV/AIDS in Africa (Witte...testing. Health Psychology, 11(3), 170–180. Weinstein, N. and Sandman, P. (2002). Reducing the risks of exposure to radon gas: An application of the...community preparedness. Although a large body of literature exists that describes various health -related behavior change models, there is very little in

  9. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training.

  10. Development of effective emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It has been discussed that there were many differences to international standards and the delay for prior planning implementation of unclear emergency preparedness. Therefore, it was necessary to promote the study to take the concept of the international standard to the Guide 'Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities', and to apply the Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) etc. as the protective actions procedure. This study was started since the fiscal year 2010 to enhance the effectiveness of the protective actions, which are corresponding to these requirements based on international aspects in the nuclear disaster occurrence. And the study was conducted to introduce the emergency action level (EAL) as decision criteria and to apply urgent protective action considering PAZ, and the results from this study will be used as the basic data necessary to modify and improve the Guide. In order to fulfill the purposes described above, in fiscal year 2011, followings are executed, (1) analysis and verification for basic evacuation area such as the PAZ, (2) analysis with regard to the EAL and prototype of protective actions for public, and (3) analysis with regard to prototype of protective actions for public including evacuation plan. However, taking account of the significance of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japanese emergency preparedness strategy should be studied and reconstructed in logically, systematically, and with international standard, but also being based on the reflection of individual lessons from this accident. (author)

  11. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  13. Revisiting public health preparedness: Incorporating social justice principles into pandemic preparedness planning for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayman, Harvey; Ablorh-Odjidja, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Public health professionals are responsible for ensuring the health of the nation, which requires that planners for public health emergencies recognize that not including protection for underserved or marginalized communities poses a risk to the entire population. To assure the protection of these populations in the event of a pandemic outbreak, preparedness planning will benefit from the application of several principles of social justice in assuring the protection of all individuals. This article will review the history between public health and social justice, provide a brief review of pandemic preparedness planning efforts, discuss the importance of and make recommendations for the incorporation of principles of social justice in the development of pandemic preparedness plans, and highlight some of the challenges faced by public health in effectively and equitably meeting its charge to protect the nation's health.

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Archaeal Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated Complex for Antiviral Defense (CASCADE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA....... The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5......a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2...

  15. Personal Preparedness in America: The Needle is Broken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    years and has been credited with saving lives since the first year of its release (Cates & Milke , 2006). “Stop, drop, and roll” has become so common in...public’s knowledge, attitudes , and behaviors in relation to individual preparedness for disaster. In recognition of the need to create a baseline to...surveys of public attitudes and personal preparedness. In ad- dition to questions about personal and community preparedness, the surveys ask questions

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Disaster Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Disaster preparedness is defined as actions that ensure resources necessary to carry out an effective response are available before a disaster. Disaster preparedness requires a thorough understanding of the factors that influence performance or nonperformance of disaster preparedness behaviors (DPB). The major aim of this research was to further our understanding of DPB based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Method: This was a cross-sectional study of factors determining...

  17. Medical students' preparedness for professional activities in early clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm

    2017-08-22

    Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.

  18. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-07-01

    (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the relationships of variables and constructs, including

  19. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    ), Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  Conclusions: The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the

  20. The Effect of Risk Reduction Intervention on Earthquake Disaster Preparedness of the Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Nourozi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preparedness programs for disaster risk reduction has a positive effect on the elders’ preparedness. Thus, similar multimodal preparedness programs should be used more frequently for this vulnerable community citizens.

  1. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.

  2. Ebola in the Netherlands, 2014-2015: costs of preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Swaan, Corien M; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Polder, Johan J; Timen, Aura; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M

    2017-11-17

    The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in countries worldwide to prepare for the possibility of having an EVD patient. In this study, we estimate the costs of Ebola preparedness and response borne by the Dutch health system. An activity-based costing method was used, in which the cost of staff time spent in preparedness and response activities was calculated based on a time-recording system and interviews with key professionals at the healthcare organizations involved. In addition, the organizations provided cost information on patient days of hospitalization, laboratory tests, personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as the additional cleaning and disinfection required. The estimated total costs averaged €12.6 million, ranging from €6.7 to €22.5 million. The main cost drivers were PPE expenditures and preparedness activities of personnel, especially those associated with ambulance services and hospitals. There were 13 possible cases clinically evaluated and one confirmed case admitted to hospital. The estimated total cost of EVD preparedness and response in the Netherlands was substantial. Future costs might be reduced and efficiency increased by designating one ambulance service for transportation and fewer hospitals for the assessment of possible patients with a highly infectious disease of high consequences.

  3. Preparedness for short-term isolation among Queensland residents: implications for pandemic and disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter A; Brown, Lawrence H; Speare, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Short-term isolation might occur during pandemic disease or natural disasters. We sought to measure preparedness for short-term isolation in an Australian state during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Data were collected as part of the Queensland Social Survey (QSS) 2009. Two questions related to preparedness for 3 days of isolation were incorporated into QSS 2009. Associations between demographic variables and preparedness were analysed using χ², with P potable water if isolated for 3 days with an interruption in utility services. Subpopulations that were less likely to have sufficient food and potable water reserves for 3 days' isolation without utility services included single people, households with children under 18 years of age, people living in South-East Queensland or urban areas, those with higher levels of education and people employed in health or community service occupations. The majority of Queensland's population consider themselves to have sufficient food supplies to cope with isolation for a period of 3 days. Far fewer would have sufficient reserves if they were isolated for a similar period with an interruption in utility services. The lower level of preparedness among health and community service workers has implications for maintaining the continuity of health services. © 2010 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  5. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Among Child Care Center Directors in 2008 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Timothy R; Walker, Benjamin H; Aird, Laura D; Southward, Linda; McCown, John S; Martin, Judith M

    2017-06-01

    Children in child care centers represent an important population to consider in attempts to mitigate the spread of an influenza pandemic. This national survey, conducted in 2008 and 2016, assessed directors' reports of their child care centers' pandemic influenza preparation before and after the 2009 H1N1 novel influenza pandemic. This was a telephone-based survey of child care center directors randomly selected from a national database of licensed US child care centers who were queried about their preparedness for pandemic influenza. We grouped conceptually related items in 6 domains into indexes: general infection control, communication, seasonal influenza control, use of health consultants, quality of child care, and perceived barriers. These indexes, along with other center and director characteristics, were used to predict pandemic influenza preparedness. Among 1500 and 518 child care center directors surveyed in 2008 and 2016, respectively, preparation for pandemic influenza was low and did not improve. Only 7% of directors had taken concrete actions to prepare their centers. Having served as a center director during the 2009 influenza pandemic did not influence preparedness. After adjusting for covariates, child care health consultation and years of director's experience were positively associated with pandemic influenza preparation, whereas experiencing perceived barriers such as lack of knowing what to do in the event of pandemic influenza, was negatively associated with pandemic influenza preparedness. Pandemic influenza preparedness of child care center's directors needs to improve. Child care health consultants are likely to be important collaborators in addressing this problem. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Sports-Related Emergency Preparedness in Oregon High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C

    Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ 2 = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ 2 = 9.3, P Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high schools need to do more to prepare for sports-related emergencies. The results provide evidence for sports medicine professionals and administrators to inform policy changes that ensure the safety of athletes.

  7. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuo Nakamura,1 Tomomi Hayakawa,2 Aiko Okamura,3 Mutsumi Kohigashi,4 Kenji Fukui,1 Jin Narumoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Gojouyama Hospital, Nara, Japan; 3Yashio Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods: Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71. Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT, and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion: These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non

  8. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  10. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department of...

  11. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  12. Morphologic analysis of the SKI preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is an independent government agency responsible for technical assessments and information concerning accidents involving nuclear facilities at home and abroad. With the events of September 11 in New York and Washington D.C., circumstances have also changed for Swedish government agencies. Increased focus had been placed on a broadened threat spectrum, especially as concerns terrorism and the use of non-conventional weapons and methods. This means that SKI must develop adequate preparedness for new types of threats and events. What types of threats, and how SKI's preparedness planning should be developed, are questions which were addressed in a study by a working group from SKI and FOI -the Swedish National Defence Research Agency. The purpose of the study was to identify serious threats and events, which would require SKI's involvement, and to analyze what resources and competencies would by needed in order for SKI to fulfill it responsibilities. Investigating a broadened threat spectrum involves defining and analyzing a multi-dimensional problem complex, which is both difficult to quantify and involves very complicated internal relationships. Morphological analysis is a method for structuring and analyzing such problem complexes, and for developing models based on natural language concepts. The working group developed and studied ten different scenarios, which defined the parameter space for a broadened threat spectrum for SKI. On the basis of these scenarios, a morphological model was developed which describes the demands that these scenarios place on SKI as an organization. On the basis of this, a further morphological model was developed, in order to systematically dimension the resources that would be needed in the face of these demands. Through this analysis, a clearer picture of the demands and required resources for future threats has emerged. The information and insights generated will serve to better develop

  13. Preparedness of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Over the past decade the number of accidents and disasters has been growing around the world. In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters also affect service providers. This study aimed to evaluate the readiness of hospitals when confronted with unexpected disasters. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a simple review article, which was conducted via searching different sites, such as: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed, using different key words such as: Disasters, Crisis, Hospital and preparedness. The relationship between the articles found in relation to our subject was investigated through the title and abstract of articles. The relationship between the articles, which were found in relation to our subject, was investigated through the title and abstract of the articles. Our search included papers published during the period between 2007 and 2015 and we only considered studies that measured the preparedness of hospitals in critical conditions. Among the 30 articles, which were found, 17 were excluded from the study due to lack of relevant data. Hence, 15 papers, which were of proper design and robust data analysis, were included in the current study. Results Hospital preparedness in disaster was evaluated in three dimensions: structural, non-structural factors and vulnerability management performance. A total of readiness of hospitals in three dimensions was mediocre. Conclusions Overall, the results derived from these studies indicated that hospital safety levels in most of the surveyed hospitals were moderate. Although the situation in hospitals is not critical, there is a need to plan and take appropriate measures to improve the safety level of the hospitals.

  14. Reducing losses from earthquakes through personal preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Actions to reduce earthquake hazards can be divided into five phases:two occur before the event, one during the event, and two after the event. The phases are: (1) Mitigation techniques taken anywhere from 1 to 20 years before the event, (2) preparedness measures taken 1 to 20 weeks before the event, (3) response during the actual event, (4) recovery operations over 1 to 20 weeks, and (5) reconstruction activities taken from 1 to 20 years. The magnitude of the earthquake and the resources available to communities and individuals will very these times. 

  15. Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, D.; Maris, M.

    1998-01-01

    The present Belgian nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is based on experience cumulated since the early eighties. This paper describes the organisation, actuation process, the emergency planning zones and the applicable intervention guidance levels. The role of AVN as on-site inspector, nuclear emergency adviser and emergency assessor is explained as well as its human and technical resources. Finally the paper presents briefly the experience feedback on emergency exercises and training in Belgium as well as AVN's views on some debatable topics. (author)

  16. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models......An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  17. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Sabageh, Donatus; Adejimi, Adebola Afolake

    2017-01-01

    High maternal mortality is a major problem in Nigeria. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness will ensure that women can have professional delivery thus reducing obstetric complications. This study assessed the birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo metropolis, a south western community in Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross sectional survey was used. A total of 180 women were selected using multistage sampling technique. Pretested semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit information about previous obstetric history, knowledge of the danger signs of pregnancy and level of birth preparedness. Composite score and mean were computed. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. P-value was set at < 0.05. The mean age was 26.11 ± 3.63 years. A total of 51.1% were carrying their 2 nd or 3 rd pregnancies. A total of 70.8% were aware of danger signs in pregnancy and the commonest danger sign mentioned was bleeding per vagina. In all, 82.1% were well prepared for birth. Being in the younger age group (p = 0.026), being more educated (p < 0.0001) and being aware of danger signs in pregnancy (p < 0.0001) was more significantly associated with being well prepared. The respondents were well prepared for birth with the younger women, educated ones and those knowledgeable of danger signs being better prepared. Continuous education about the Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness should be sustained in order to maintain and improve women's preparedness.

  18. The US CDC Centers for public health preparedness : building a nationwide exemplar network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A.; Paulson, G.; Perry, E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-07-01

    The network of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) was created by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in response to the perception that public health professionals were inadequately prepared to respond to terrorism incidents, natural disasters and similar major events. The events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent anthrax attacks confirmed the wisdom of a concerted approach to emergency preparedness. This paper provides an outline of the network's recent activities as well as a review of the rationale, history and progress of the network to date. In the most recent grant cycle, each center was required to allocate 20 per cent of its resources to network-wide activities, including contribution of CPHP-developed materials to a central resource center maintained by the Association of Schools of Public Health. The materials are publicly available and are to be used in the development of training programs; the establishment of 19 or more exemplar groups that focus on specific preparedness-related knowledge domains such as mental health, educational evaluation methods and field epidemiology, who are also expected to develop tool kits of validated and fully described training materials for use by any CPHP person or group. The outcome of the CPHP network activities is the development of a more comprehensive and robust core of preparedness training materials that aim to facilitate rapid and effective training, while at the same time eliminating redundancy and duplication of effort. It was concluded that the expenditure of 20 per cent of center funds on network development activities is forcing the academically based CPHPs to adopt a new collaborative paradigm in order to ensure effective nationwide preparedness. 3 refs.

  19. 76 FR 30491 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... information on hurricane hazards and details on how to secure buildings and belongings is available at www... coastal areas of our Nation to share information about hurricane preparedness and response to help save... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 Proclamation 8680--National Safe Boating Week, 2011 Proclamation 8681...

  20. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... to share information about hurricane preparedness and response to help save lives and protect... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, hurricanes put communities at risk of catastrophic damage from storm surges, flooding, high winds, and...

  1. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  2. Self-reported preparedness of New Zealand acute care providers to mass emergencies before the Canterbury Earthquakes: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Disasters occur more frequently. Acute care providers are the first to respond to mass emergencies from the healthcare sector. The preparedness of acute care providers in New Zealand to respond to mass emergencies has not been previously studied. To assess the self-reported training and experience of New Zealand acute care providers to respond to mass emergencies and the factors associated with strong preparedness. A cross-sectional national survey of 1500 acute care providers in New Zealand carried out between 2009 and 2010. The survey assessed experience, training and self-reported preparedness. It also determined the factors associated with strong perceived preparedness. The response rate to this survey was 60.7%. Nurses had a higher response rate than doctors or paramedics. Only 29.2% of acute care providers reported responding to a previous mass emergency event. There were 53.5% of acute care providers who reported having formal training in how to deal with mass emergencies, whereas 58.1% of participants reported that they were aware of their role during a healthcare mass emergency response. The factors associated with self-reported strong preparedness to deal with mass emergencies included: being a paramedic, previous training, participation in a drill, willingness to report to work during an infection or man-made emergency, ability to triage and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency. Almost half of New Zealand acute healthcare providers have no training in dealing with mass emergency events. Training and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency response were the main factors associated with strong self-reported preparedness of acute care providers. The apparent efficacy of training allied to lack of availability means that it should be a national priority. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. How Health Department Contextual Factors Affect Public Health Preparedness (PHP) and Perceptions of the 15 PHP Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Carbone, Eric G; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC's Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses.

  4. Infrastructure Damage/Fragility Models and Data Quality Issues Associated with Department of Defense Climate Vulnerability and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-26

    floods , wind and snow storms, temperature extremes,  drought , fire,  and others. The associated hazard loads can be represented as quantitative estimates...10 For utility  systems , the estimated loss ($) of an asset may be estimated by the percent damage based on  flood   water depth with the value of the...occurs,  velocity of the floodwater, the duration of the  flood , sediment loads, and  warning  time (USACE,  2003). In addition, the future probability of

  5. The conservative proposal against the educational project of radical liberalism: the defense of catholic education through the press and associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of Colombian nineteenth century, conservatives and people who were close to the Catholic Church, opposed to the public educational project proposed by the Liberal government between 1860 and 1870, due to its secular orientation which was viewed as a threat to the stability of religion and Catholic Church in the country. Because of this, the “procatholic” groups launched an offensive against the government to fight its educative project and to promote at the same time their own pedagogical project. This article aims to examine two of the central mechanisms that they used with the goal mentioned, such were the press and the associations. Thus, it is intended that this review will help to better understand the transformation that took Colombian education, towards the last quarter of the nineteenth century, from a secular educational model to a confessional one.

  6. Preparedness and Cancer-Related Symptom Management among Cancer Survivors in the First Year Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Corinne R; Troeschel, Alyssa N; Wiatrek, Dawn; Stanton, Annette L; Diefenbach, Michael; Stein, Kevin D; Sharpe, Katherine; Portier, Kenneth

    2017-08-01

    Many cancer survivors feel unprepared for the physical and psychosocial challenges that accompany the post-treatment care transition (i.e., re-entry phase), including management of cancer-related symptoms. Few studies have investigated personal and contextual factors associated with the extent of preparedness for re-entry or how they are related to cancer-related symptom management. Data from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivor Transition Study examined (1) characteristics of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors (n = 1188) within the first year of completing treatment who are most and least prepared for re-entry; and (2) how preparedness level and other characteristics are related to cancer-related symptom management. Stanton and colleagues' [1] conceptual model of survivorship guided the selection of interpersonal/environmental, individual, and disease/treatment-related characteristics as potential contributors to levels of preparedness and cancer-related symptom management using regression tree and multivariate linear regression analyses. Survivors, on average, felt moderately prepared for the transition to post-treatment care. Lowest levels of preparedness were found among survivors with relatively high depressive symptoms, low perceived quality of oncology-provided survivorship care, and limited discussion about potential side effects with a health professional. Poorer symptom management was associated with younger age, having more comorbid conditions, and lower preparedness, social support, and spirituality. Survivors who feel unprepared for the transition to post-treatment care report poorer cancer-related symptom management. Identification of factors associated with low perceived preparedness and poor cancer-related symptom management will assist in risk stratification and development of tailored interventions to meet the needs of cancer survivors during re-entry.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  8. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Moscou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99 is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM doubled-haploid (DH population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with

  9. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  11. The arabidopsis wall associated kinase-like 10 gene encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is co-expressed with pathogen defense related genes

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2010-01-26

    Background: Second messengers have a key role in linking environmental stimuli to physiological responses. One such messenger, guanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), has long been known to be an essential signaling molecule in many different physiological processes in higher plants, including biotic stress responses. To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive in higher plants. Principal Findings: We have identified an Arabidopsis receptor type wall associated kinase-like molecule (AtWAKL10) as a candidate GC and provide experimental evidence to show that the intracellular domain of AtWAKL10431-700 can generate cGMP in vitro. Further, we also demonstrate that the molecule has kinase activity indicating that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain catalytic protein. A co-expression and stimulus-specific expression analysis revealed that AtWAKL10 is consistently coexpressed with well characterized pathogen defense related genes and along with these genes is induced early and sharply in response to a range of pathogens and their elicitors. Conclusions: We demonstrate that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain, kinase-GC signaling molecule that may function in biotic stress responses that are critically dependent on the second messenger cGMP. © 2010 Meier et al.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  13. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  14. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Pdefense style was a significant predictor of therapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Pdefenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and denial). The negative therapeutic alliance, in our total sample, was

  15. Measuring Preparedness: Assessing the Impact of the Homeland Security Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Food Contamination ...................................................... 52 Figure 23. Scenario 14: Foreign Animal Disease...Compliance Assessment Support Tool NPD National Preparedness Directorate NPG National Preparedness Guidelines NPS National Preparedness Assessment NRF...Preparedness Directorate ( NPD ). 57 Grants Reporting Tool, “Grant Reporting Lifecycle Overview,” https://www.reporting.odp.dhs.gov/docs

  16. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Measures of emergency preparedness contributing to nursing home resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2017-12-13

    Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes. The CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist items were compared to the Resilience Benchmark Tool items; similar items were considered matches. Resilience Benchmark Tool items with no CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist item matches were considered breaches in nursing home resilience. The findings suggest that the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist can be used to measure some aspects of resilience, however, there were many resilience factors not addressed. For nursing homes to prepare and respond to crisis situations, organizations need to embrace a culture that promotes individual resilience-related competencies that when aggregated enable the organization to improve its resiliency. Social workers have the skills and experience to facilitate this change.

  18. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  19. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  20. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  1. The impact of cross-cultural interactions on medical students' preparedness to care for diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nina N; Syed, Zeba A; Krupat, Edward; Crutcher, Betty N; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Medical students who graduate from schools with diverse student populations are more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients compared with students who graduate from more homogenous schools. This study aimed to identify the types of cross-cultural interactions associated with students' self-rated preparedness. In 2010, the authors developed and administered a Web-based survey that queried Harvard Medical School students about their voluntary interethnic interactions (studying, socializing), participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities, and self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. The authors separated students' responses regarding interethnic interactions and participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities into high and low participation, then determined the association between these responses and those to questions about students' self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. They used ANOVA and Z tests of proportion to analyze their data. Of 724 eligible students, 460 completed the survey (64%). Seventy-five percent (324/433) believed they were prepared to care for patients from backgrounds different from their own. Students who spent >75% of their study time with students from different backgrounds or who participated in a greater number of diversity-related extracurricular activities were more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients overall and to perform seven other skills. Voluntary cross-cultural interactions, both studying and socializing, are associated with higher self-rated preparedness to care for patients from diverse backgrounds. Medical schools should continue to support multicultural pursuits to prepare students to become physicians sensitive to the needs of diverse patients.

  2. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  3. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  4. Technological considerations in emergency instrument preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Emergency preparedness has been emphasized during the development of the nuclear industry. Existing instrumentation technology has been effectively applied to minimizing the probability of accidents. Radiological instrumentation provided for the measurement of ambient radiation levels or routine releases of radioactive material is usually adequate to provide an early warning that an accident is occurring. In contrast, radiological instrumentation capable of providing a reasonable measure of the source term which could be involved in a severe accident has not received enough attention. In emergency planning the capability should be established for identifying as promptly as possible the need for evasive action out in the plant environs and for minimizing the consequences of an accident in terms of resultant human exposure. Therefore instrumentation is required to measure the source term no matter where the point of release might be, together with instrumentation for obtaining meteorological data sufficient to establish the path of the release in the environment

  5. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E.

    2011-08-01

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  6. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  7. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  9. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  10. Business continuity and pandemic preparedness: US health care versus non-health care agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Wang, Jing; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; delRosario, John Leon

    2013-04-01

    Only limited data are available on US business continuity activities related to biologic events. A questionnaire was administered to human resource professionals during May-July 2011 to assess business continuity related to biologic events, incentives businesses are providing to maximize worker surge capacity, and seasonal influenza vaccination policy. Linear regressions were used to describe factors associated with higher business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores. The χ(2) and Fisher exact tests compared health care versus non-health care businesses on preparedness indicators. Possible business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0.5 to 27 and 0 to 15, with average resulting scores among participants at 13.2 and 7.3, respectively. Determinants of business continuity and pandemic preparedness were (1) business size (larger businesses were more prepared), (2) type of business (health care more prepared), (3) having human resource professional as company disaster planning committee member, and (4) risk perception of a pandemic in the next year. Most businesses (63.3%, n = 298) encourage staff influenza vaccination; 2.1% (n = 10) mandate it. Only 10% of businesses (11.0%, n = 52) provide employee incentives, and fewer than half (41.0%, n = 193) stockpile personal protective equipment. Despite the recent H1N1 pandemic, many US businesses lack adequate pandemic plans. It is critical that businesses of all sizes and types become better prepared for a biologic event. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparedness of institutions around the world for managing patients with Ebola virus disease: an infection control readiness checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Ermira; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Ang, Brenda; Calleja, Neville; Collignon, Peter; Hopman, Joost; Lang, Lily; Lee, Lai Chee; Ling, Moi Lin; Mehtar, Shaheen; Tambyah, Paul A; Widmer, Andreas; Voss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In response to global concerns about the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD), outbreak to-date in West Africa documented healthcare associated transmission and the risk of global spread, the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) Infection Control Working Group created an Ebola Infection Control Readiness Checklist to assess the preparedness of institutions around the globe. We report data from the electronic checklist that was disseminated to medical professionals from October to December 2014 and identify action needed towards better preparedness levels. Data from 192 medical professionals (one third from Africa) representing 125 hospitals in 45 countries around the globe were obtained through a specifically developed electronic survey. The survey contained 76 specific questions in 7 major sections: Administrative/operational support; Communications; Education and audit; Human resources, Supplies, Infection Prevention and Control practices and Clinical management of patients. The majority of respondents were infectious disease specialists/infection control consultants/clinical microbiologists (75; 39 %), followed by infection control professionals (59; 31 %) and medical doctors of other specialties (17; 9 %). Nearly all (149; 92 %) were directly involved in Ebola preparedness activities. Whilst, 54 % indicated that their hospital would need to handle suspected and proven Ebola cases, the others would subsequently transfer suspected cases to a specialized centre. The results from our survey reveal that the general preparedness levels for management of potentially suspected cases of Ebola virus disease is only partially adequate in hospitals. Hospitals designated for admitting EVD suspected and proven patients had more frequently implemented Infection Control preparedness activities than hospitals that would subsequently transfer potential EVD cases to other centres. Results from this first international survey provide a framework for future efforts to

  12. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  13. Defense Co-Production: Collaborative National Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert R

    2005-01-01

    ...) and the defense industry at large. The aim of the study will be to examine the evolution of the procurement and contracting process since World War II with a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the increasingly symbiotic...

  14. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs

  15. The public transportation system security and emergency preparedness planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have focused renewed attention on the vulnerability of the nation's critical infrastructure to major events, including terrorism. The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide has been prepared to s...

  16. Integrating protection into disaster risk preparedness in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verdeja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing protection as a key element of community-based disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts is essential to safeguarding human rights in disaster and emergency settings.

  17. Pandemic Influenza: An Analysis of State Preparedness and Response Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A; Stockdale, Holly

    2007-01-01

    .... Since 2002, Congress has provided funding to all U.S. states, territories, and the District of Columbia, to enhance federal, state and local preparedness for public health threats in general, and an influenza ( flu...

  18. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Improving emergency preparedness and crisis management capabilities in transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Despite the heightened attention disaster preparedness and emergency management have received over the past decade, serious weaknesses in the United States emergency response capabilities remain at all levels of government and across a wide range ...

  20. Engineering simulator applications to emergency preparedness at DOE reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that since 1984 the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has conducted twenty-seven comprehensive emergency preparedness exercises at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Center and Regional Incident Response Centers using the NRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), developed at the INEL, as an engineering simulator. The objective of these exercises has been to assist the NRC in upgrading its preparedness to provide technical support backup and oversight to U.S. commercial nuclear plant licensees during emergencies. With the current focus on Department of Energy (DOE) reactor operational safety and emergency preparedness, this capability is envisioned as a means of upgrading emergency preparedness at DOE production and test reactor sites such as the K-Reactor at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL

  1. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  2. Differentially expressed genes in mycorrhized and nodulated roots of common bean are associated with defense, cell wall architecture, N metabolism, and P metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Brenda-Mariana; Blanco, Lourdes; Lara, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Legumes participate in two important endosymbiotic associations, with phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, soil fungi) and with nitrogen-fixing bacterial rhizobia. These divergent symbionts share a common symbiotic signal transduction pathway that facilitates the establishment of mycorrhization and nodulation in legumes. However, the unique and shared downstream genes essential for AM and nodule development have not been identified in crop legumes. Here, we used ion torrent next-generation sequencing to perform comparative transcriptomics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots colonized by AM or rhizobia. We analyzed global gene expression profiles to identify unique and shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that regulate these two symbiotic interactions, and quantitatively compared DEG profiles. We identified 3,219 (1,959 upregulated and 1,260 downregulated) and 2,645 (1,247 upregulated and 1,398 downregulated) unigenes that were differentially expressed in response to mycorrhizal or rhizobial colonization, respectively, compared with uninoculated roots. We obtained quantitative expression profiles of unique and shared genes involved in processes related to defense, cell wall structure, N metabolism, and P metabolism in mycorrhized and nodulated roots. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that most genes involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling, N metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism are variably expressed during symbiotic interactions. These combined data provide valuable information on symbiotic gene signaling networks that respond to mycorrhizal and rhizobial colonization, and serve as a guide for future genetic strategies to enhance P uptake and N-fixing capacity to increase the net yield of this valuable grain legume. PMID:28771548

  3. Mathematical Assessment of Canada’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba B Gumel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

  4. Brief on nuclear emergency planning and preparedness in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Ontario has an excellent conceptual plan to ensure the safety of its inhabitants in the event of a nuclear accident anywhere in the world. This plan still needs to be translated into tangible preparedness to deal with such an emergency. The province is confident that, with the assistance of Ontario Hydro, a high level of nuclear emergency preparedness will soon be established for the people of the province

  5. Disaster preparedness: institutional capacity building in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, J L; de Ville de Goyet, C

    1996-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries are prone to natural, technological and "complex" disasters. This vulnerability to catastrophic events led the region to undertake the long journey away from an ad hoc response towards institutional preparedness and, more recently, to disaster prevention and mitigation. This article attempts to outline the definitions and basic principles of institutional emergency preparedness, including reliance on the more effective use of existing resources, rather than establishment of special stockpiles and equipment; the critical importance of general participation and awareness; and the interrelationship of the health sector with others and the potential for leadership. How to assess the level of preparedness is discussed. Stress is placed on the fact that preparedness is traditionally confused with the existence of a written disaster plan. Preparedness should be seen as a never-ending, complex process that can only be assessed through an in-depth review of coordination, planning, training and logistic elements. There is also a fundamental distinction between preparedness, i.e., "getting ready to respond" and disaster prevention/mitigation, which aims to reduce the health impact. The latter calls for the collaboration of engineers, architects, planners and economists with the health sector. It is illustrated by the regional initiative in the Americas to reduce the physical vulnerability of hospitals to earthquakes and hurricanes. In spite of the encouraging achievements, much remains to be done. Weak areas include preparedness for technological disasters, and a true inter-country preventive approach to common disasters across borders. Electronic communications through the Internet will also help to suppress borders and boundaries, contributing to a truly collective approach to emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination.

  6. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  7. (Geo)Ethics. Step 1: Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards have been defined in several ways in recent decades. Whatever your choice, it will be fine provided you consider that they are complex physical phenomena that expose a natural area to risk of loss of life, environmental degradation and property damages. In a time-line, one may divide the hazards, particularly those considered extremes, in a pre-event phase, the event itself and a post-event period. At this moment, I would like to promote an initial reflection by focusing in the geoethical behaviour scientists have to bear in mind accordingly to the particular characteristics of the pre-event phase, considering ethics as a way of systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In an accelerated world, where the pressure of the every day life gives us little room to exercise our mind to think in such apparent démodé issues as ethics, society, nature, responsibilities and duties, I would like to invite you to stop few minutes and reflect on the ethical implications of being a geoscientists dealing with natural hazards in the XXI century. The most dangerous hazards are those extreme events with a rapid onset (earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.). Thus far, science has not found effective ways to predict and reduce most natural hazards. If we are not capable to forecast or minimize the effect of an extreme event, geosciences, and scientists, are responsible of in deep risk assessments for areas that might be subject to natural hazards also contributing to preparedness of society. However, we have been working on that issues, but it seems we are not being as efficient as needed. On the risk analysis, which includes forecast models, we use to be too Cartesians, taking too much time in arriving to conclusions when a non clear cause-effect chain can be identified. It is our ethical duty to evaluate when to stop searching for causes when dealing with complex systems. The search for a specific cause for a given extreme natural event

  8. Perception of Preparedness for Clinical Work Among New Residents: A Cross-sectional Study from Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Al Sinawi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate new residents’ perceptions of their own preparedness for clinical practice and examine the associated factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on August 20−23, 2016. New residents accepted for postgraduate training by Oman Medical Specialty Board were asked to complete the Preparation for Hospital Practice Questionnaire (PHPQ. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Results: A total of 160 residents were invited to participate in this study. Out of 160, 140 residents participated (87.5%, 70.7% were female and 59.3% were graduates from Sultan Qaboos University (SQU. Ninety-nine percent of the graduates were either ‘well prepared’ or ‘fairly well prepared’ for hospital practice. Male residents scored higher in the confidence scale, while residents who did a post-internship general practice placement scored higher in understanding science. Graduates from Oman Medical College felt more prepared compared to graduates from SQU. Conclusions: Most of the new residents were well prepared to clinical work. Factors such as place of undergraduate study, training, and duration of internship significantly influenced the residents’ perception of preparedness. Addressing these factors will enhance residents’ preparedness for clinical work.

  9. What is Going to Move the Needle on Citizen Preparedness? Can America Create a Culture of Preparedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    of crisis, our greatest enemy is rarely the storm, the quake or the surge itself. More often, it is ourselves.140 The article refers to America as...other works, databases , and studies focusing on disaster preparedness and measuring preparedness for households, businesses and government entities...effort in defeating terrorism, as another set of “eye and ears ” looking for suspicious activity. This is particularly effective in Israel and having

  10. Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Melinda J Morton; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-01-01

    In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015. During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). The exercise took place in three regional locations throughout Liberia: Monrovia, Buchanan, and Bong. The TTX format allowed counties to collaborate utilizing open-source software platforms including Ushahidi, Sahana, QGIS, and KoBoCollect. Four hundred sixty-seven individuals (representing all 15 counties of Liberia) identified as key actors involved with emergency operations and disaster preparedness participated in the exercise. A qualitative survey with open-ended questions was administered to exercise participants to determine needed improvements in the disaster management system in Liberia. Key findings from the exercise and survey include the need for emergency management infrastructure to extend to the community level, establishment of a national disaster management agency and emergency operations center, customized local SOPs, ongoing surveillance, a disaster exercise program, and the need for effective data sharing and hazard maps. These regional exercises initiated the process of validating and refining Liberia's national and county-level SOPs. Liberia's participation in this exercise has provided a foundation for advancing its preparedness, response, and recovery capacities and could provide a template for other countries to use.

  11. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine physical and chemical defenses associated with each step in host selection behavior sequence by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly F. Wallin; Daniel S. Ott; Alvin D. Yanchuk

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stressors exert selective pressures on plants, and over evolutionary time lead to the development of specialized adaptations and specific responses to stresses (Safranyik and Carroll 2006, Wallin and Raffa 2002). In this way, the environment in which plants evolve shapes their life cycles, range, growth, reproduction, and defenses. Insects and...

  12. How Lower- and Working-Class Youth Become Middle-Class Adults: The Association between Ego Defense Mechanisms and Upward Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarey, John R.; Vaillant, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Among 278 inner-city men studied for four decades and over three generations, eight variables captured 28 percent of the explained variance in upward social mobility: IQ, mother's education, mother's occupation, boyhood ego strength, and four ego defense mechanisms--intellectualization, dissociation, sublimation, and anticipation.…

  13. Penitentiary integral defense

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez Román

    2012-01-01

    Penitentiary integral defense is a set of techniques designed to solve the breach of the peace that may appear in the penitentiary world. This paper studies the scope and legal framework of penitentiary self-defense. This kind of self-defense is defined by the particular characteristics of a confinement context and a very specific regulation aimed at preserving the integrity of prisoners and penitentiary staff as well as prison facilities. A technical section illustrating the main penitentiar...

  14. Is the Front Line Prepared for the Changing Faces of Patients? Predictors of Cross-Cultural Preparedness Among Clinical Nurses and Resident Physicians in Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Green, Alexander R; Wolff, Hans; Weber, Orest; Faucherre, Florence; Ninane, Françoise; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Assuring quality medical care for all persons requires that healthcare providers understand how sociocultural factors affect a patient's health beliefs/behaviors. Switzerland's changing demographics highlight the importance of provider cross-cultural preparedness for all patients-especially those at risk for social/health precarity. We evaluated healthcare provider cross-cultural preparedness for commonly encountered vulnerable patient profiles. A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed to Lausanne University hospital's "front-line healthcare providers": clinical nurses and resident physicians at our institution. Preparedness items asked "How prepared do you feel to care for … ?" (referring to example patient profiles) on an ascending 5-point Likert scale. We examined proportions of "4 - well/5 - very well prepared" and the mean composite score for preparedness. We used linear regression to examine the adjusted effect of demographics, work context, cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem awareness, on preparedness. Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) were returned: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses. Mean preparedness composite was 3.30 (SD = 0.70), with the lowest proportion of healthcare providers feeling prepared for patients "whose religious beliefs affect treatment" (22%). After adjustment, working in a sensitized department (β = 0.21, p = .01), training on the history/culture of a specific group (β = 0.25, p = .03), and awareness regarding (a) a lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.25, p = .004) and (b) inadequate cross-cultural training (β = 0.18, p = .04) were associated with higher preparedness. Speaking French as a dominant language and physician role (vs. nurse) were negatively associated with preparedness (β = -0.26, p = .01; β = -0.22, p = .01). INSIGHTS: The state of cross-cultural care preparedness among Lausanne's front-line healthcare providers leaves room for

  15. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  16. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  17. Men's Knowledge of Obstetric Danger Signs, Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness in Rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furaha August

    Full Text Available Men's involvement in reproductive health is recommended. Their involvement in antenatal care service is identified as important in maternal health. Awareness of obstetric danger signs facilitates men in making a joint decision with their partners regarding accessing antenatal and delivery care. This study aims to assess the level of knowledge of obstetric complications among men in a rural community in Tanzania, and to determine their involvement in birth preparedness and complication readiness.A cross-sectional survey was conducted where 756 recent fathers were invited through a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of danger signs and steps taken on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with being prepared, with statistically significant level at p<0.05.Among the invited men, 95.9% agreed to participate in the community survey. Fifty-three percent could mention at least one danger sign during pregnancy, 43.9% during delivery and 34.6% during the postpartum period. Regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness, 54.3% had bought birth kit, 47.2% saved money, 10.2% identified transport, 0.8% identified skilled attendant. In general, only 12% of men were prepared. Birth preparedness was associated with knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.8-2.6. It was less likely for men living in the rural area to be prepared (AOR=0.6, 95% CI; 0.5-0.8.There was a low level of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among men in a rural district in Tanzania. A very small proportion of men had prepared for childbirth and complication readiness. There was no effect of knowledge of danger signs during childbirth and postpartum period on being prepared. Innovative strategies that increase awareness of danger signs as well as birth

  18. Hurricane preparedness among elderly residents in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleier, Jo Ann; Krause, Deirdre; Ogilby, Terry

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with hurricane preparation and to test a theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process among a group of elderly residents living in a high-risk geographical area. This is a descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample consisted of 188 English-speaking individuals who were aged 55 years or older. In addition to demographic information, two survey instruments were used. Theoretical constructs were operationalized through Moon's Hurricane Preparation Questionnaire. Hurricane preparedness was measured by self-reported responses to FEMA's inventory checklist, which addresses the recommended basic steps of preparation. The theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process was supported. Main barriers to preparation are the need for cooperation from others and cost of preparation. Participants reported having taken many preparatory steps to shelter-in-place, but too few are prepared if their home were storm-damaged or they should have to evacuate. Findings are consistent with previous studies of samples drawn from similar populations. This report provides guidance as to how public health nurses can become involved with the population and develop interventions based on the constructs of the theoretical model. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination.

  20. Relationships Among Teacher Preparedness and Instructional Approaches to Secondary Student Achievement in STEM: A Secondary Analysis of TIMSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Ricks, Karen A.

    Educational reform efforts in Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) place emphasis on teachers as conduits for student achievement. The purpose of this study was to use TIMSS 2011 data to examine relationships between Science-Technology-Society (STS) instructional practices (student-centered instruction established to promote learning through real-world applications) teacher preparedness, and student achievement and identify variations of achievement between and among eighth-grade science and math classes. The research was framed by both Harper's Anti-Deficit Achievement Theory and Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory (BEST). 501 U.S. schools contributed to the TIMSS 2011 data from both the teacher questionnaires and student booklets. Chi-Square, Spearman Correlation, and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to analyze data about teachers' preparedness to teach science and math, frequency of using STS instructional practices, and student achievement. The chi-square null hypothesis for math teachers was rejected, providing the assumption that there was an association between the frequency of using STS instruction in math and teacher preparedness. However, the chi-square null hypothesis for science teachers failed to be rejected, providing the assumption that there was no significant association between the frequency of using STS instruction in science and science teacher preparedness. The Spearman Correlation revealed statistically positively significant differences between STS instruction and science achievement, as well as between teacher preparedness and science achievement. The HLM results suggested that 33% of the variance of mathematics achievement was at the individual level and 66% was at the group level. The results for science teachers suggested that 54% of the variance of science achievement was at the individual level and 46% of the variance was at the group level. The data findings support the conclusion that secondary STEM

  1. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  2. Defense Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self defense is the basic response of every living organism. This response is readily observed in animals because of their physical movements typically involved in that pro- cess. Being immobile, plants have evolved highly complex defense mechanisms that differ from those commonly seen in animals. Plants are able to ...

  3. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  4. Measuring healthcare preparedness: an all-hazards approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcozzi David E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a paper appearing in this issue, Adini, et al. describe a struggle familiar to many emergency planners—the challenge of planning for all scenarios. The authors contend that all-hazards, or capabilities-based planning, in which a set of core capabilities applicable to numerous types of events is developed, is a more efficient way to achieve general health care system emergency preparedness than scenario-based planning. Essentially, the core of what is necessary to plan for and respond to one kind of disaster (e.g. a biologic event is also necessary for planning and responding to other types of disasters, allowing for improvements in planning and maximizing efficiencies. While Adini, et al. have advanced the science of health care emergency preparedness through their consideration of 490 measures to assess preparedness, a shorter set of validated preparedness measures would support the dual goals of accountability and improved outcomes and could provide the basis for determining which actions in the name of preparedness really matter.

  5. Ebola preparedness in the Western Pacific Region, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Africa is currently experiencing the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in history with intense transmission in several affected countries. For non-affected countries, the best protective measures are adequate levels of preparedness including vigilant surveillance to detect cases early and well-prepared health systems to ensure rapid containment of the virus and to avoid further spread. The World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific recently conducted two activities: a web-based EVD preparedness survey and an EVD simulation exercise to determine the overall level of EVD preparedness in the Region. The survey and exercise together demonstrate there is a good overall level of preparedness for a potential imported case of EVD in the Western Pacific Region. However, a number of areas still require further strengthening before the Region can efficiently and effectively respond to potential EVD events, including laboratory testing arrangements; clinical management and infection prevention and control; and public health intervention measures, particularly at points of entry. Importantly, the survey and exercise also highlight the unique situation in Pacific island countries and emphasize that special considerations are needed to better support these countries in EVD preparedness.

  6. Pediatric disaster preparedness in the medical setting: integrating mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Montano, Zorash; Shields, Sandra; Mahrer, Nicole E; Vibhakar, Viktoria; Ybarra, Tanya; Yee, Nancy; Upperman, Jeffrey; Blake, Nancy; Stevenson, Kathleen; Nager, Alan L

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of disasters worldwide highlights the need for established and universal disaster preparedness plans. The devastating events of September 11 and Hurricane Katrina have spurred the development of some disaster response systems. These systems, however, are predominantly focused on medical needs and largely overlook mental health considerations. Negative outcomes of disasters include physical damage as well as psychological harm. Mental health needs should be considered throughout the entire disaster response process, especially when caring for children, adolescents, and their families. To provide an overview and recommendations for the integration of mental health considerations into pediatric disaster preparedness and response in the medical setting. Recommendations were developed by a panel of disaster preparedness and mental health experts during the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles Pediatric Disaster Resource and Training Center: Workshop on Family Reunification in Los Angeles, California, March 31-April 1, 2008. Experts discussed the inclusion of mental health-specific considerations and services at all stages of disaster preparedness and response. Recommendations involve the integration of mental health into triage and tracking, the adoption of a child ambassador model, environment, and developmentally appropriate interventions, education, communication, death notification, and family reunification. The inclusion of mental health concerns into pediatric disaster preparedness may help prevent further and unnecessary psychological harm to children and adolescent survivors following a disaster.

  7. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society.

  8. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  9. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2017-01-01

    , and 89% (n = 531 did not identify any blood donor. Only 20% (n = 120, 15.8% (n = 95, and 12% (n = 73 of the respondents had knowledge of at least 3 danger signs of pregnancy, labor, and severe illness in newborn, respectively. Conclusions: Nearly three-fourth pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in an urban area are birth prepared. However, emergency readiness and awareness of danger signs are very poor. Maternal education and early booking have an independent association with birth preparedness.

  10. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  11. Nursing home administrator self-assessed preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Elena O; Leo, Michael C; Young, Heather M; Castle, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Nursing home administrators (NHAs) are in key positions to improve nursing home quality. NHAs require state-level licensure, which involves passing a national NHA licensure examination and fulfilling state-level licensure requirements that vary widely across states. With multiple pathways to NHA licensure, little is known about NHAs' preparation and training to meet the complex demands of this position. The aim of this study was to explore NHAs' self-assessed person-job fit based on NHAs' self-rated preparedness and the importance of the activities that supported their preparation. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from NHAs (N = 175) randomly recruited from nursing homes in five states, with a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlations, and t tests/ANOVA. Thirty percent of respondents reported they were well prepared, overall, for their first NHA position. The findings suggest NHA preferences for more formalized ways to develop their entry-level competencies, with lower preference for On-the-job training, Previous job experience, and Self-study and higher preference for Administrator-in-training, Bachelor's degree programs, and Mentoring. There is an urgent need for NHAs who are well prepared to effectively address our nation's mandates for nursing home quality improvement. With multiple pathways to NHA licensure, this exploratory study provides initial insights about NHAs' self-assessed preparation and training. The findings suggest that NHAs prefer more formalized ways to prepare for the NHA position. Research is needed to identify specific teaching/learning practices and on-the-job training that maximize the NHAs' preparation to meet their job demands.

  12. Assessing the integration of health center and community emergency preparedness and response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, Nicole V; Braun, Barbara I; Barbera, Joseph A; Loeb, Jerod M

    2007-11-01

    To assess the state of health center integration into community preparedness, we undertook a national study of linkages between health centers and the emergency preparedness and response planning initiatives in their communities. The key objectives of this project were to gain a better understanding of existing linkages in a nationally representative sample of health centers, and identify health center demographic and experience factors that were associated with strong linkages. The objectives of the study were to gain a baseline understanding of existing health center linkages to community emergency preparedness and response systems and to identify factors that were associated with strong linkages. A 60-item questionnaire was mailed to the population of health centers supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Bureau of Primary Health Care in February 2005. Results were aggregated and a chi square analysis identified factors associated with stronger linkages. Overall performance on study-defined indicators of strong linkages was low: 34% had completed a hazard vulnerability analysis in collaboration with the community emergency management agency, 30% had their role documented in the community plan, and 24% participated in community-wide exercises. Stronger linkages were associated with experience responding to a disaster and a perception of high risk for experiencing a disaster. The potential for health centers to participate in an integrated response is not fully realized, and their absence from community-based planning leaves an already vulnerable population at greater risk. Community planners should be encouraged to include health centers in planning and response and centers should receive more targeted resources for community integration.

  13. 75 FR 60773 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Marcus Pollock, National Integration Center, National Preparedness... concerns* * *.'' The definition of ``small business concerns'' is found in the Small Business... International, ``Organizational Resilience: Security Preparedness, and Continuity Management Systems...

  14. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Marcus Pollock, National Integration Center, National Preparedness Directorate... continuity management). 3. ASIS International SPC. 1-2009--Organizational Resilience: Security Preparedness... certification for small business concerns.'' The definition of ``small business concerns'' is that of the Small...

  15. 3 CFR 8412 - Proclamation 8412 of September 4, 2009. National Preparedness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) supports and promotes citizen education and grassroots preparedness efforts. FEMA's Ready Campaign provides... neighbors. Additionally, the Citizen Corps educates, trains, and coordinates volunteer activities that help... observe this month with appropriate preparedness activities, events, and training to enhance our national...

  16. 75 FR 18214 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (BSC, COTPER) \\1\\ \\1\\ The Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response has been renamed and is now the Office of Public...

  17. 78 FR 79081 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... makes it essential that health care providers and suppliers ensure that emergency management is... providers and suppliers. The four elements of the emergency preparedness program are as follows: Risk...; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid Participating Providers and Suppliers...

  18. Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-28

    forward the initial report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence . This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 591...programs and policies associated with domestic violence in the military. These programs are commonly referred to within the Department of Defense as...Department in addressing domestic violence matters. During our initial meeting on April 24-26, 2000, we formed four standing workgroups: (1) Community

  19. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  20. The meta-leadership summit for preparedness initiative: an innovative model to advance public health preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C; Marcus, Leonard J; Dorn, Barry C; Neslund, Verla S; McNulty, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the design, evaluation framework, and results from the Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness was a 5-year initiative based on the premise that national preparedness and emergency response is not solely the responsibility of government. From 2006 to 2011, 36 Meta-Leadership Summits were delivered in communities across the country. Summits were customized, 10-hour leadership development, networking, and community action planning events. They included participation from targeted federal, state, local, nonprofit/philanthropic, and private sector leaders who are directly involved in decision making during a major community or state-wide emergency. A total of 4,971 government, nonprofit, and business leaders attended Meta-Leadership Summits; distribution of attendees by sector was balanced. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported the summit was a valuable use of time, 91% reported the overall quality as "good" or "outstanding," and 91% would recommend the summit to their colleagues. In addition, approximately 6 months after attending a summit, 80% of respondents reported that they had used meta-leadership concepts or principles. Of these, 93% reported that using meta-leadership concepts or principles had made a positive difference for them and their organizations. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative was a value-added opportunity for communities, providing the venue for learning the concepts and practice of meta-leadership, multisector collaboration, and resource sharing with the intent of substantively improving preparedness, response, and recovery efforts.

  1. European commission contribution to improving off-site emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarized. Particular attention is given to two topics: firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has recently been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described

  2. The Legacy of Seligman's "Phobias and Preparedness" (1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Seligman's (1971) classic article, "Phobias and Preparedness," marked a break from traditional conditioning theories of the etiology of phobias, inspiring a line of research integrating evolutionary theory with learning theory. In this article, I briefly sketch the context motivating the preparedness theory of phobias before summarizing the initial wave of laboratory conditioning experiments pioneered by Öhman and conducted by his team and by others to test predictions derived from Seligman's theory. Finally, I review the legacy of Seligman's article, including theoretical developments embodied in Öhman and Mineka's fear module approach as well as alternatives for explaining "preparedness" phenomena, including the selective sensitization, expectancy, and nonassociative theories. Although Seligman himself soon moved on to other topics, his seminal article in Behavior Therapy continues to inspire research more than four decades later that has deepened our understanding of the etiology of phobias. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Applying educational gaming to public health workforce emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Everly, George S; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M

    2005-05-01

    From natural disasters to terrorism, the demands of public health emergency response require innovative public health workforce readiness training. This training should be competency-based yet flexible, and able to foster a culture of professional and personal readiness more traditionally seen in non-public health first-response agencies. Building on the successful applications of game-based models in other organizational development settings, the Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness piloted the Road Map to Preparedness curriculum in 2003. Over 1500 employees at six health departments in Maryland have received training via this program through November 2004. Designed to assist public health departments in creating and implementing a readiness training plan for their workforce, the Road Map to Preparedness uses the core competencies of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for all public health workers as its basic framework.

  4. Emergency preparedness and response for the non-reactor countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.

    2000-01-01

    Preparedness and response for nuclear and radiological accidents in the countries without nuclear power plants (NPP) have some peculiarities. Accident at the Chernobyl NPP clearly showed the necessity of effective response for non-reactor countries in the case of transboundary release. Experience obtained in Belarus is providing evidence for the necessity of changing some aspects of emergency preparedness. The results of analysis made of some protective actions taken during the early stage of the accident form the basis for recommendations provided this paper. Real experience is supported by model predictions of the consequences for the hypothetical accident at a NPP close to the Belarus. (author)

  5. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Virtual Community Reception Center

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-28

    This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC).  Created: 2/28/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 2/28/2011.

  6. U.S. Strategy for Bioterrorism Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    chemical preparedness and response. This plan focuses on recommendations to reduce the U.S. vulnerabilities to biological and chemical terrorism and relies...56 Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response, 21 April 2000...agentlist.asp >. Internet. Accessed 28 February 2003. ________. Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. 21 April

  7. 3 CFR 8386 - Proclamation 8386 of May 26, 2009. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., schools, and residents of hurricane-prone areas to share information about hurricane preparedness and... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2009 8386 Proclamation 8386 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8386 of May 26, 2009 Proc. 8386 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2009By the President of the...

  8. Disaster Preparedness, Adaptive Politics and Lifelong Learning: A Case of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness for disaster scenarios is progressively becoming an educational agenda for governments because of diversifying risks and threats worldwide. In disaster-prone Japan, disaster preparedness has been a prioritised national agenda, and preparedness education has been undertaken in both formal schooling and lifelong learning settings. This…

  9. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: CDC Laboratory Preparedness; OPHPR... Management Team; Estimating the Cost of Preparedness; (2) Programmatic responses to BSC-approved...

  10. Superstorm Sandy's forgotten patient: a lesson in emergency preparedness in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Vira, Shaleen; McLaurin, Toni M

    2015-02-01

    Superstorm Sandy gained national attention in late 2012 after its impact on the Northeastern US. In New York City, thousands of residents lost power, and multiple hospitals were forced to evacuate. Bellevue Hospital Center (BHC), the nation's oldest public hospital, was forced to close for the first time in over 275 years. Two patients remained in BHC three days after the primary evacuation without water service and minimal power. Herein, we describe the challenges associated with evacuating a severely obese patient. Obesity management is challenging and at an institutional level must be addressed in emergency preparedness plans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sorensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure' (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Oresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4 km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  12. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sørensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project "Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure" (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Øresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  13. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  14. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that by ninth or tenth grade, males begin to externalize conflict while females tend to deal with conflict internally. This differentiation of defense choice by sex is clearly established by the last two years of high school. (JMB)

  15. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  16. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  17. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness of Households in Israel for War--Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, many efforts have been made, both globally and locally, to enhance household preparedness for emergencies. In the State of Israel in particular, substantial investment has been made throughout the years in preparing the population for one of the major threats to the civilian population--a rapidly deteriorating regional conflict that involves high-trajectory weapons (ie, rocket and missile fire) launched at the home front. The purpose of this study was to examine the current preparedness level of the Israeli public for this threat and determine the correlates of such preparedness with known factors. A telephone-based, random sampling of 503 households representative of the Israeli population was carried out during October 2013. The questionnaire examined the level of household preparedness as well as attitudes towards threat perception, responsibility, willingness to search for information, and sense of preparedness. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the level of preparedness in the general population and to find correlates to this preparedness in attitudes and demographic variables. More than half of the sample reported complying with 50% or fewer of the actions recommended by the Israeli Home Front Command. Having an increased sense of preparedness and willingness to search for related information were positively correlated with actual household preparedness, and the latter was also found to be the most predictive variable of household preparedness. Although the overall household preparedness reported is mediocre, the level of preparedness found in this study suggests better preparedness of the population in Israel for its primary threat. The findings suggest that in order to promote preparedness of the Israeli public for war, emphasis should be put on increasing the public demand for information and encouraging people to evaluate their sense of preparedness.

  18. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  19. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  20. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  1. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  2. Preparedness to Implement Wellness Strategies: Perceptions of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey school counselors to determine their knowledge and perceived preparedness to implement wellness strategies in school counseling programs. Wellness plans are a requirement for thousands of public school districts in the United States. There are no established standards for the training of school counselors in…

  3. IAEA's role in international emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation the role of the IAEA in international emergency preparedness and response is reviewed. Experience gained in response to Fukushima accident at all levels (facility, local, national and international) provides valuable input for further enhancing and harmonizing EPR framework.

  4. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  5. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  6. Case Report: Capacity indicators for disaster preparedness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to assess hospital capacity for disaster preparedness within Nairobi County. This information would be valuable to institutional strategists to resolve weaknesses and reinforce strengths in hospital capacity hence ensure efficient and effective service delivery during disasters. Analytical ...

  7. Disaster Preparedness in Some Selected Special Libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the level of disaster preparedness in some selected special libraries in Kaduna State. Among the objectives of the study was to find out the type of disasters common to these special libraries; the features of disaster management policy in each special library. Qualitative methodology approach was ...

  8. Earthquake Preparedness 101: Planning Guidelines for Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Governor's Office, Sacramento.

    This publication is a guide for California colleges and universities wishing to prepare for earthquakes. An introduction aimed at institutional leaders emphasizes that earthquake preparedness is required by law and argues that there is much that can be done to prepare for earthquakes. The second section, addressed to the disaster planner, offers…

  9. Disaster preparedness in secondary schools in Ruiru Division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish common disasters, preparedness and management in secondary school in Ruiru Division, Kiambu County, Kenya. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects: Out of the target population a hundred and twenty (120) respondents were selected from the students, teachers and the support staff.

  10. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  11. Indwelling Urethral Catheter Self-Care Preparedness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: These subjects were not properly assessed and assigned appropriate systems of nursing care. Nurses need to be clear about the content of their patient teaching in catheter care and assume full responsibility in teaching them. Key words: Indwelling urethral catheter, Self-care, Preparedness. [Jnl of College of ...

  12. Designing Emergency Preparedness Resources for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Casey Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is a fast developing field of education driven by the numerous disasters worldwide with more recent notable examples including the terrorist attacks of 9/11 in the US in 2001, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the London bombings in 2005, the earthquake in China in 2008, the Great East Japan…

  13. Influenza preparedness and response: Involvement of African Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2009, we assessed the participation of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) based in sub-Saharan Africa on pandemic influenza preparedness and response. Methods: We administered an electronic survey to directors and resident advisors of African Field Epidemiology Network ...

  14. Hospital disaster emergency preparedness: A study of Onandjokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored disaster emergency preparedness at Onandjokwe Lutheran Hospital in Northern Namibia. It utilized quantitative and qualitative research methods, using a self-administered questionnaire, semi-structured key informant interviews, and a hospital disaster plan checklist. A stratified sample of 120 ...

  15. Further development of nuclear emergency preparedness in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbitz, O.

    1995-06-01

    The threatpattern regarding nuclear accidents is summarized and the development of the Norwegian emergency preparedness through the last 10 years is examined. Relevant countermeasures during the acute phase of an accident is described and the sharing of responsibilities between central, regional and local level is presented. Suggestions on education and training are given. 9 refs., 2 figs

  16. Transportation radiological emergency preparedness: STAR 95 Exercise final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Emergency response for a transportation accident involving radiological materials, while not inherently difficult, presents a challenge for several reasons. These accidents, although they can occur anywhere, are rare. Also, although the health consequences are usually slight, accidents involving radioactive materials generally cause a great deal of concern, both for the emergency responders and the general public. How can communities be prepared for an event that requires some technical knowledge, but is so rare that it will never occur in most areas, without expending an effort disproportionate to the actual risk? How can one appropriately deal with an event that may cause excessive public concern? These questions are at the heart of the preparedness issues this program addressed. The overall goal of the Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program was to establish the framework for a coordinated response by all levels of government to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. The Program involved both preparedness activities and the development, conduct and evaluation of a field exercise in Saratoga County, New York. This Report concentrates on the functional activities, lessons learned, recommendations, and action plans for improving preparedness and response to a transportation accident involving radioactive materials

  17. The case of cholera preparedness, response and prevention in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the authors seek to identify the most appropriate model for a regional co-ordination mechanism for cholera preparedness, response and prevention. The qualitative mixed-method data collection approach that was followed revealed the need for alternative solutions, including a socio-political understanding of ...

  18. Experiential Learning and Workforce Preparedness of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan-Klaus, Jenna M.

    2016-01-01

    A vast body of research exists on experiential learning and workforce preparedness of students at the high school level; however, there is a limited focus on the community college sector. Administrators, who recognize the need for studies that address the potential benefit experiential learning can provide students at two-year institutions, will…

  19. assessment of the birth and emergency preparedness level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... the birth and emergency preparedness level of 250 pregnant women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in a Primary. Health Care (PHC) ... obtained from the hypothesis method and based on the following assumption: 95% confidence level, prevalence .... order to reduce morbidity and mortality in pregnancy.

  20. Inequities in resources and preparedness for surgical complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-worker training and health-system strengthening are considered important prerequisites for improving maternal health outcomes. Objectives. To determine preparedness for, and health-system constraints to, safe caesarean section in southern Gauteng hospitals. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in 15 ...

  1. Emergency planning and preparedness for a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahe, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Based on current regulations, FEMA approves each site-specific plan of state and local governments for each power reactor site after 1) formal review offsite preparedness, 2) holding a public meeting at which the preparedness status has been reviewed, and 3) a satisfactory joint exercise has been conducted with both utility and local participation. Annually, each state, within any position of the 10-mile emergency planning zone, must conduct a joint exercise with the utility to demonstrate its preparedness for a nuclear accident. While it is unlikely that these extreme measures will be needed as a result of an accident at a nuclear power station, the fact that these plans have been well thought out and implemented have already proven their benefit to society. The preparedness for a nuclear accident can be of great advantage in other types of emergencies. For example, on December 11, 1982, a non-nuclear chemical storage tank exploded at a Union Carbide plant in Louisiana shortly after midnight. More than 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes. They were evacuated under the emergency response plan formulated for use in the event of a nuclear accident at the nearby Waterford Nuclear plants. Clearly, this illustrates how a plan conceived for one purpose is appropriate to handle other types of accidents that occur in a modern industrial society

  2. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  3. Self-reported preparedness for medical emergencies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Medical emergencies have been known to occur in dental offices and can lead to loss of life if not well managed. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-reported preparedness by practicing dentists for management of medical emergencies in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A self-administered ...

  4. Hospital all-risk emergency preparedness in Ghana | Norman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2) The hospitals' respective abilities to handle large scale RTA's were ... The biggest challenge facing the hospitals in their emergency intervention is the lack of preemergency and emergency preparedness plans as well as the coordination of the hospitals response mechanisms. Conclusion: The paper ended with ...

  5. Non-structural Components influencing Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuddin, N. M.; Takim, R.; Nawawi, A. H.; Rosman, M. R.; SyedAlwee, S. N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hospital disaster preparedness refers to measures taken by the hospital’s stakeholders to prepare, reduce the effects of disaster and ensure effective coordination during incident response. Among the measures, non-structural components (i.e., medical laboratory equipment & supplies; architectural; critical lifeline; external; updated building document; and equipment & furnishing) are critical towards hospital disaster preparedness. Nevertheless, over the past few years these components are badly affected due to various types of disasters. Hence, the objective of this paper is to investigate the non-structural components influencing hospital’s disaster preparedness. Cross-sectional survey was conducted among thirty-one (31) Malaysian hospital’s employees. A total of 6 main constructs with 107 non-structural components were analysed and ranked by using SPSS and Relative Importance Index (RII). The results revealed that 6 main constructs (i.e. medical laboratory equipment & supplies; architectural; critical lifeline; external; updated building document; and equipment & furnishing) are rated as ‘very critical’ by the respondents. Among others, availability of medical laboratory equipment and supplies for diagnostic and equipment was ranked first. The results could serve as indicators for the public hospitals to improve its disaster preparedness in terms of planning, organising, knowledge training, equipment, exercising, evaluating and corrective actions through non-structural components.

  6. APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE PREPAREDNESS OF HOSPITALS TO POWER OUTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka BREHOVSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the secondary impacts of electricity blackouts, it is necessary to pay attention to facilities providing medical care for the population, namely the hospitals. Hospitals represent a key position in the provision of health care also in times of crisis. These facilities must provide constant care; it is therefore essential that the preparedness of such facilities is kept at a high level. The basic aim of this article is to analyse the preparedness of hospitals to power outages (power failures, blackouts within a pilot study. On that basis, a SWOT analysis is used to determine strengths and weaknesses of the system of preparedness of hospitals to power outages and solutions for better security of hospitals are defined. The sample investigated consists of four hospitals founded by the Regional Authority (hospitals Nos. 1-4 and one hospital founded by the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (hospital No. 5. The results of the study shows that most weaknesses of the preparedness of hospitals are represented by inadequately addressed reserves of fuel for the main backup power supply, poor knowledge of employees who are insufficiently retrained, and old backup power supplies (even 35 years in some cases.

  7. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  8. Mathematical preparedness for tertiary mathematics – a need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ongoing action research at the University of Pretoria investigates first-year students' preparedness for a study in calculus. In 2005 first-year engineering students completed a mathematics diagnostic survey at the beginning and end of the year. In this article the results of the 2005 survey are compared with the students' final ...

  9. Preparedness plan for flood: a bottom up approach | Shariff | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floods have caused major disasters around the world and these include Malaysia which is inevitable. However, we can be prepared by taking the lessons from the previous flood disasters. This paper attempts to highlight preparedness plan executed by the community i.e. six months before the expected flood in December ...

  10. Emergency preparedness and internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    2000-01-01

    After the radiation accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraina in 1986 and in Goiania, Brasil in 1987, much resource have been spent on improving emergency preparedness. Especially regarding transfer of information using the most recent techniques and establishment of 24 hour emergency service of radiation safety experts the development has been fast. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a somewhat later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. Equally important is that there is trained staff prepared to do measurements without delay. In the first phase of a nuclear accident radioactive iodine is of primary concern regarding internal contamination. After the Chernobyl accident the number of childhood thyroidea cancer clearly exceeded the expected number. Reliable direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroidea in Ukraina, Russia and Belarussia were done only to a limited number of children. Many uncertainties are involved in the data used for dose estimation. Later the body burdens of radiocesium or other radionuclides might be of most importance. Normal whole-body counting instruments can be used if only small groups need to be measured. For large groups of people in an emergency situation faster methods are needed. Different types of monitors installed at places where radiation workers are controlled for internal contamination as well as gamma cameras at hospitals can be used. Rapid field measurements of the whole-body and especially of the thyroid can been done with less sophisticated instruments. In the acute phase of a nuclear accident such measurements should be done without delay. Instruments and staff trained to use them should be available and plans for which groups of people to measure prepared. The detection level

  11. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    take action for disaster prevention. Examinees are 200 high school and undergraduate students who do not major in Earth science. We first gave them information of basic knowledge such as tectonic backgrounds of Japan and the latest research outcomes such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence or the strong ground motion, and then asked what they felt. The results show that neither the basic knowledge nor the latest research outcomes motivate examinees to take action for the disaster prevention or even to give awareness. We then showed them the movies of the past earthquake disasters and some episodes who had lost their loved ones from the recent earthquakes, and asked the same question. As psychology implies, this information made examinees feel dread and they became aware of the risks lie ahead. But still, they did not mention what to do to prevent the tragedy. In the presentation, we would like to show the difficulty to make people take action to protect their lives from earthquake disasters. We also show peoples' preparedness/unpreparedness with the information released by a Japanese research group in the late January saying the possibility of metropolitan Tokyo earthquake being 70% in this coming 4-year.

  12. Risk perceptions and preparedness of typhoon disaster on coastal inhabitants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Ping; Yao, Lan; Bond, Eleanor F; Wang, Yu-Ling; Huang, Li-Quan

    2011-01-01

    China is highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Southeastern China situated on the Pacific Ocean experiences severe and devastating typhoons and hydrogeological disasters every year. Although respondents are highly aware of the typhoon outbreaks, they do not have necessary precautionary actions. This retrospective study evaluates the inhabitants' sociodemographic characteristics with risk perceptions and preparedness. Subjects (434 adults) were recruited from two rural areas in coastal south-eastern China, both with high typhoon exposure. One area (landfall area [LA]) was more severely affected than the other (surrounding area [SA) by the 2006 typhoon "Saomai." Subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire with items addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to public education related to emergency preparedness, risk perception, and coping strategies. Overall, most residents (92 percent) were aware that they lived in a high-risk area. About 54.6 percent respondents chose media as the first approach to obtain preparedness education, and 32.4 percent of respondents thought that personal experience is an important tool to defend themselves from typhoon. In LA, residents perceived themselves to be at higher risk than those who lived in the SA. More than 66.5 percent of respondents were terrified by typhoon, and 62.2 percent of respondents were afraid of its recurrence. Respondents emphasized that their life style (61.4 percent), property losses (54.5 percent), and threat to life (52.4 percent) were influenced by typhoon attack. Coping behavior most likely to be adopted was "anticipatory food, water storage and residents in LA is significantly higher than SA (p dread associated with the risk axes (p > 0.05). However, in rescue and recovery of typhoon items, the score of familiarity with risk and dread with the risk axes is below 2.5. Regression analyses indicated that poor coping behavior was positively associated with age, risk perception

  13. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  14. Recent Earhquake and Tsunami Preparedness training activities in DPEU KOERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskulcu, Seyhun; Tanırcan, Gulum

    2017-04-01

    The Disaster Preparedness Education Unit (DPEU) at Bogazici University's Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) that was iestablished after 1999 Kocaeli earthquake and has been continuing to develop high-quality curricula and training materials for community-focused disaster preparedness education through countrywide. The unit works to build bridges between scientists, academics and technical experts in this field, and the people who need access to knowledge to reduce their risk from disasters and develops disaster preparedness training materials, organizes and conducts teacher trainings, and participates in research activities on these topics. DPEU also accommodates the Earthquake Park, where training courses are supported with an earthquake simulator. It hosts more then 4000 students every year for training of how to behave before, during and after an earthquake occurs. In addition to theoretical knowledge, simulation of isolated and fix based 10 storey building models were created at Earthquake Park for rising student's structural awareness . The unit also is involving many national and international projects. DPEU is very actively involved the recent international MarDIM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation an the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) Project which is performing by many Turkish and Japanese institution h and produced the tsunami education booklet, video, a cartoon movie and serviced many training of Earthquake Park. DPEU has also a Mobile Earthquake Simulation Training Truck developed in 2007, aiming to create a stage for community awareness for the earthquake preparedness and to change the common wrong perception and ignorance on the natural event of earthquakes. 500 thousands people have been trained by simulation truck all over Turkey within 5 years. DPEU just started to train the house wifes located in Marmara region on earthquake and tsunami preparedness with the collaboration of several

  15. The South Dakota Model: Health Care Professions Student Disaster Preparedness and Deployment Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J

    2017-12-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:735-740).

  16. Pre-earthquake burden of illness and postearthquake health and preparedness in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Riopelle, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Dobalian, Aram

    2014-06-01

    During an earthquake, vulnerable populations, especially those with chronic conditions, are more susceptible to adverse, event-induced exacerbation of chronic conditions such as limited access to food and water, extreme weather temperatures, and injury. These circumstances merit special attention when health care facilities and organizations prepare for and respond to disasters. This study explores the relationship between pre-earthquake burden of illness and post earthquake health-related and preparedness factors in the US. Data from a cohort of male veterans who were receiving care at the Sepulveda Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in Los Angeles, California USA during the 1994 Northridge earthquake were analyzed. Veterans with one or more chronic conditions were more likely to report pain lasting two or more days, severe mental/emotional stress for more than two weeks, broken/lost medical equipment, having difficulty refilling prescriptions, and being unable to get medical help following the quake compared to veterans without chronic conditions. In terms of personal emergency preparedness, however, there was no association between burden of illness and having enough food or water for at least 24 hours after the earthquake. The relationship that exists between health care providers, including both individual providers and organizations like the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and their vulnerable, chronically-ill patients affords providers the unique opportunity to deliver critical assistance that could make this vulnerable population better prepared to meet their post disaster health-related needs. This can be accomplished through education about preparedness and the provision of easier access to medical supplies. Disaster plans for those who are burdened with chronic conditions should meet their social needs in addition to their psychological and physical needs.

  17. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Zolezzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorst achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47% were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32% were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3. Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  18. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Monica; Abdallah, Oraib; Aden, Suad; Major, Stella; White, Diana; El-Awaisi, Alla

    2017-02-21

    Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students' (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorts achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half ( n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as a major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  19. Perceptions of Preparedness for Interprofessional Practice: A Survey of Health Professional Students at Three Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa M. Sevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate health professions students’ understanding of their own and others’ roles on interprofessional (IP teams, assess students’ perceptions of their preparedness to practice in an IP team, and determine differences by type of learning institution and participation in interprofessional education (IPE. Methods: Medical, nursing, and pharmacy students at three Ohio universities with unique IP learning models were surveyed. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA, chi-square, and two sample t- tests were used to compare measures of knowledge, IPE participation, and preparedness. Results: Of the 981 invited students, 273 completed the survey (27.8% response. Overall, 70.7% of participants felt prepared to work on an IP team. Those who reported participation in IPE were more likely to feel prepared to practice on an IP team compared to those who did not (76.8% [149/194] vs. 55.3% [42/76], p=0.0005. Participation in IPE did not significantly affect knowledge scores (participators 79.6% vs. non-participators 81.0%, p=0.1731. Those who had higher profession-specific knowledge scores were more likely to feel prepared to work with that specific profession. Conclusions: Participation in IPE activities in the representative institutions was high, as was knowledge of professional roles. Both participation in IPE and increased knowledge of roles were associated with increased student-assessed preparedness. Advancement of skills and behaviors including knowledge of roles and other competencies may all be important. Pharmacy in particular should prioritize IPE as a means to elucidate our role on the patient care team.   Type: Original Research

  20. Junior doctors’ preparedness to prescribe, monitor, and treat patients with the antibiotic vancomycin in an Australian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Phillips

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed to assess the preparedness of junior doctors to use vancomycin, and to determine whether attending an educational session and being provided pocket guidelines were associated with self-reported confidence and objective knowledge. Methods This was a 2-component cross-sectional study. A 60-minute educational session was implemented and pocket guidelines were provided. Preparedness was evaluated by a self-reported confidence survey in the early and late stages of each training year, and by continuing medical education (CME knowledge scores. Results Self-confidence was higher among those later in the training year (n=75 than in those earlier (n=120 in the year for all questions. In the late group, vancomycin education was associated with higher self-confidence regarding the frequency of therapeutic drug monitoring (P=0.02 and dose amendment (P=0.05; however, the confidence for initial monitoring was lower (P<0.05. Those with pocket guidelines were more confident treating patients with vancomycin (P<0.001, choosing initial (P=0.01 and maintenance doses (P<0.001, and knowing the monitoring frequency (P=0.03. The 85 respondents who completed the knowledge assessment scored a mean±standard deviation of 8.55±1.55 on 10 questions, and the interventions had no significant effect. Conclusion Attending an educational session and possessing pocket guidelines were associated with preparedness, as measured by higher self-reported confidence using vancomycin. High knowledge scores were attained following CME; however attending an educational session or possessing pocket guidelines did not significantly increase the knowledge scores. Our findings support providing educational sessions and pocket guidelines to increase self-confidence in prescribing vancomycin, yet also highlight the importance of evaluating content, format, and delivery when seeking to improve preparedness to use vancomycin through education.

  1. Gender, Social Networks, and Stroke Preparedness in the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Tracy E; Roberts, Eric T; Kuczynski, Heather; Goldmann, Emily; Parikh, Nina S; Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the association between social networks and stroke preparedness as measured by emergency department (ED) arrival within 3 hours of symptom onset. As part of the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment study, baseline data on demographics, social networks, and time to ED arrival were collected from 1193 prospectively enrolled stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients at Columbia University Medical Center. Logistic regression was conducted with arrival to the ED ≤3 hours as the outcome, social network characteristics as explanatory variables, and gender as a potential effect modifier. Men who lived alone or were divorced were significantly less likely to arrive ≤3 hours than men who lived with a spouse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: .31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .15-0.64) or were married (aOR: .45, 95% CI: .23-0.86). Among women, those who lived alone or were divorced had similar odds of arriving ≤3 hours compared with those who lived with a spouse (aOR: 1.25, 95% CI: .63-2.49) or were married (aOR: .73, 95% CI: .4-1.35). In patients with stroke/TIA, living with someone or being married improved time to arrival in men only. Behavioral interventions to improve stroke preparedness should incorporate gender differences in how social networks affect arrival times. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elements of Terrorism Preparedness in Local Police Agencies, 2003-2007: Impact of Vulnerability, Organizational Characteristics, and Contagion in the Post-9/11 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aki; Roberts, John M., Jr.; Liedka, Raymond V.

    2012-01-01

    Different elements of local police agencies' terrorism preparedness may be associated with different organizational/environmental variables. We use 2003-2007 data (showing considerable adoption and desistance of practices) on medium-to-large-sized local agencies to examine relationships between contingency (vulnerability, organizational…

  3. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative: An Innovative Model to Advance Public Health Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobelson, Robyn K.; Young, Andrea C.; Marcus, Leonard J.; Dorn, Barry C.; Neslund, Verla S.; McNulty, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the design, evaluation framework, and results from the Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness was a 5-year initiative based on the premise that national preparedness and emergency response is not solely the responsibility of government. From 2006 to 2011, 36 Meta-Leadership Summits were delivered in communities across the country. Summits were customized, 10-hour leadership development, networking, and community action planning events. They included participation from targeted federal, state, local, nonprofit/philanthropic, and private sector leaders who are directly involved in decision making during a major community or state-wide emergency. A total of 4,971 government, nonprofit, and business leaders attended Meta-Leadership Summits; distribution of attendees by sector was balanced. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported the summit was a valuable use of time, 91% reported the overall quality as “good” or “outstanding,” and 91% would recommend the summit to their colleagues. In addition, approximately 6 months after attending a summit, 80% of respondents reported that they had used meta-leadership concepts or principles. Of these, 93% reported that using meta-leadership concepts or principles had made a positive difference for them and their organizations. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative was a value-added opportunity for communities, providing the venue for learning the concepts and practice of meta-leadership, multisector collaboration, and resource sharing with the intent of substantively improving preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. PMID:24251597

  4. Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Cooke, Feonagh C; Donovan, Robert J; MacIntyre, C Raina; Itzwerth, Ralf; Plant, Aileen J

    2007-07-17

    Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness for pandemic influenza among small and medium business owners and managers. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 201 small and medium business owners or managers in New South Wales and Western Australia. Eligible small or medium businesses were defined as those that had less than 200 employees. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of having considered the impact of, having a plan for, and needing help to prepare for pandemic influenza. Approximately 6 per cent of participants reported that their business had a plan for pandemic influenza, 39 per cent reported that they had not thought at all about the impact of pandemic influenza on their business, and over 60 per cent stated that they required help to prepare for a pandemic. Beliefs about the severity of pandemic influenza and the ability to respond were significant independent predictors of having a plan for pandemic influenza, and the perception of the risk of pandemic influenza was the most important predictor of both having considered the impact of, and needing help to prepare for a pandemic. Our findings suggest that small and medium businesses in Australia are not currently well prepared for pandemic influenza. We found that beliefs about the risk, severity, and the ability to respond effectively to the threat of pandemic influenza are important predictors of preparedness. Campaigns targeting small and medium businesses should emphasise the severity of the consequences to their

  5. Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntyre C Raina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness for pandemic influenza among small and medium business owners and managers. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 201 small and medium business owners or managers in New South Wales and Western Australia. Eligible small or medium businesses were defined as those that had less than 200 employees. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of having considered the impact of, having a plan for, and needing help to prepare for pandemic influenza. Results Approximately 6 per cent of participants reported that their business had a plan for pandemic influenza, 39 per cent reported that they had not thought at all about the impact of pandemic influenza on their business, and over 60 per cent stated that they required help to prepare for a pandemic. Beliefs about the severity of pandemic influenza and the ability to respond were significant independent predictors of having a plan for pandemic influenza, and the perception of the risk of pandemic influenza was the most important predictor of both having considered the impact of, and needing help to prepare for a pandemic. Conclusion Our findings suggest that small and medium businesses in Australia are not currently well prepared for pandemic influenza. We found that beliefs about the risk, severity, and the ability to respond effectively to the threat of pandemic influenza are important predictors of preparedness. Campaigns targeting small and medium

  6. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  7. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20–24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense ...

  8. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  9. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  10. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  11. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the US defense posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Issues surrounding the Strategic Defense Initiative are discussed. Comments are made on the research and development program and the effect of this program on the defensive posture of the United States.

  12. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  13. The Effect of Teaching Principles of Hospital Preparedness According to the National Program on Preparedness of Shahid Motahari Burns Hospital of Tehran in Response to Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Karimiyan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate the positive impact of education of national program to deal with accidents and disasters in increasing the hospitals preparedness in response to disasters. To create and maintain the preparedness of hospitals, it is recommended that training and implementation of national program be included in the major programs of these institutions.

  14. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  15. Audience Effects in Territorial Defense of Male Cichlid Fish Are Associated with Differential Patterns of Activation of the Brain Social Decision-Making Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleira, António; Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Lopes, João S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2017-01-01

    Animals communicate by exchanging signals frequently in the proximity of other conspecifics that may detect and intercept signals not directed to them. There is evidence that the presence of these bystanders modulates the signaling behavior of interacting individuals, a phenomenon that has been named audience effect. Research on the audience effect has predominantly focused on its function rather than on its proximate mechanisms. Here, we have investigated the physiological and neuromolecular correlates of the audience effect in a cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus). A male was exposed to a territorial intrusion in the presence or absence of a female audience. Results showed that the presence of the female audience increased territorial defense, but elicited a lower androgen and cortisol response to the territorial intrusion. Furthermore, analysis of the expression of immediate early genes, used as markers of neuronal activity, in brain areas belonging to the social decision-making network (SDMN) revealed different patterns of network activity and connectivity across the different social contexts (i.e., audience × intrusion). Overall, these results suggest that socially driven plasticity in the expression of territorial behavior is accommodated in the central nervous system by rapid changes in functional connectivity between nodes of relevant networks (SDMN) rather than by localized changes of activity in specific brain nuclei. PMID:28620286

  16. Pediatric disaster preparedness of a hospital network in a large metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Balasuriya, Darshi; Iverson, Ellen; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    We describe pediatric-related emergency experiences and responses, disaster preparation and planning, emergency plan execution and evaluation, and hospital pediatric capabilities and vulnerabilities among a disaster response network in a large urban county in the West Coast of the United States. Using semistructured key informant interviews, the authors conducted qualitative research between March and April 2008. Eleven hospitals and a representative from the community clinic association agreed to participate (86 percent response rate) and a total of 22 key informant interviews were completed. Data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti.v.5.0, a qualitative analytical software program. Although hospitals have infrastructure to respond in the event of a large-scale disaster, well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children. The general hospitals do not anticipate a surge of pediatric victims in the event of a disaster, and they expect that children will be transported to a children's hospital as their conditions become stable. Even hospitals with well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children during a disaster. Improved communication between disaster network hospitals is necessary as incorrect information still persists.

  17. Encounter Preparedness, Satisfaction, and Performance Effects of Influence in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisansky, Andrew J; Wholey, Douglas R; Cain, Cindy; Zhu, Xi

    2017-07-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams are linked to high quality outcomes for individuals with severe mental illness. This paper tests arguments that influence shared between team members is associated with better encounter preparedness, higher work satisfaction, and improved performance in ACT teams. Influence is conceptualized in three ways: the average level according to team members, the team's evaluation of the dispersion of team member influence, and as the person-organization fit of individual perception of empowerment. The study design is a retrospective observational design using survey data from a longitudinal study of 26 ACT teams (approximately 275 team members total) over 18 months. This study finds that average team influence and person-organization fit are positively correlated with encounter preparedness and satisfaction. Dispersion of influence was not significantly correlated with study outcomes. Influence in ACT teams has multiple dimensions, each with differential effects on team outcomes. These findings provide guidance as to how one might encourage equal and substantive contribution from ACT team members.

  18. Intricacies in Drought Management Policy, Crisis Response and Preparedness: Linking the Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, P.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Drought per se is often misrepresented as mere water scarcity issue overlooking the complexities associated with it. In many parts of the world, the drought management policy prescriptions are often driven by crisis management rather than preventive approach. As a result, the economic, social and environmental impact of droughts continues to increase even to this day. To overcome this calamity, nations should encourage coordinated effort at both national and regional scale. An integrated approach on open data sharing, technical advancement in monitoring and robust early warning system to deliver timely information to decision makers, drought projection through high performance mathematical model and effective impact assessment procedure, implementing proactive risk management measures and preparedness with effective emergency response programs plans, will certainly increase the likelihood of drought coping capabilities. The present study focuses on knowledge augmentation for better policy framework and action for all countries that suffer from droughts. A comprehensive database at the global scale has been compiled giving information on existing drought management policies/practices and the major challenges faced by major drought distressed countries. Plausible solution is suggested towards integrating the water management policy, response and preparedness, that has been garnered through the lessons from success/failure stories of nations with effective drought management policies

  19. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    evacuation , missile defense, reconnaissance and surveillance, sea lane control, search and rescue, special operations, strategic and theater airlift...decontamination technology advances. Recently, novel types of polymeric support termed “ starburst ” dendrimer polymers have been developed. The ability to...threats • Optimize military performance; survival and stabilization of combat casualties • Provide the world’s best casualty evacuation and medical

  20. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  1. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  2. Importance ranking of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockert, J.W.; Carter, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Under contract to the Edison Electric Institute, IEAL developed a method to assess the relative importance of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness. The basic approach involved structuring the 35 objectives that the Federal Emergency Management Agency expects offsite emergency planners to demonstrate during nuclear power plant emergency preparedness exercises into a hierarchy based upon the emergency response capabilities they support. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed to derive the quantitative relative importance of each of the 35 objectives based upon its contribution to the overall capability of offsite agencies to assist in protecting public health and safety in the event of an emergency at a nuclear power plant. The judgments of a cross-section of state and local emergency planners, federal regulators, and intervenors were solicited to rank the 35 objectives

  3. Ministries of Defense: Driving Force in Defense Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. For more effective democratic civilian control (and better defense decisions), Ministries of Defense bridge the gap between political institutions and the armed forces. These institutions translate political objectives into military capabilities. MODs, staffed with enough civilian defense experts, provide the continuity and stability needed in a democratic system.

  4. Emergency Preparedness for Disasters and Crises in the Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat; Ahmad Puad Mat Som

    2013-01-01

    Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and intern...

  5. Radiological emergency preparedness arrangements in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, V.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the different procedures established within the European Commission, which are relevant to radiological emergency planning and response. Although emergency preparedness is a national responsibility within the European Union, the Commission has clearly defined operational tasks in terms of emergency information exchange and community foodstuff regulations. In addition the Commission promotes research programmes and training courses in the field

  6. Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems : The role of defensiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and

  7. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  8. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV

  9. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk-Herbrink, M.; Andrea, H.; Verheul, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a

  10. Survey of county-level heat preparedness and response to the 2011 summer heat in 30 U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baer-Schultz, Mia; Ebi, Kristie L; O'Neill, Marie S; Anderson, G Brooke

    2014-06-01

    Adapting to extreme heat is becoming more critical as our climate changes. Previous research reveals that very few communities in the United States have programs to sufficiently prevent health problems during hot weather. Our goal was to examine county-level local heat preparedness and response in 30 U.S. states following the unusually hot summer of 2011. Using a multimodal survey approach, we invited local health and emergency response departments from 586 counties to participate in the largest survey to date of heat preparedness and response in the United States. County-level responses were pooled into national and regional-level summaries. Logistic regressions modeled associations between heat planning/response and county characteristics, including population, poverty rates, typical summer weather, and 2011 summer weather. Of 586 counties, 190 (32%) responded to the survey. Only 40% of these counties had existing heat plans. The most common heat responses were communication about heat, outreach, and collaborations with other organizations. Both heat preparedness and heat response were, on average, more extensive in counties with higher populations, lower poverty rates, and lower percentages of older people. Heat response was generally more extensive in counties with heat plans. Most responding counties were underprepared for extreme heat in 2011 and lacked a formal response plan. Because counties with heat plans were more likely to act to prevent adverse heat impacts to residents, local health departments should consider adopting such plans, especially because increased extreme heat is anticipated with further climate change.

  11. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Janne Botha Pedersen

    Full Text Available Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a role clarity during the rescue operations and; b achieved mastering for future disaster operations.In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859, police officers (n = 252 and firefighters (n = 102 returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks.The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05 were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001 and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001.Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  12. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  13. Self-perceived preparedness for dental practice amongst graduates of The University of Hong Kong's integrated PBL dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, C K Y; McGrath, C; Bridges, S; Corbet, E F; Botelho, M G; Dyson, J E; Chan, L K

    2012-02-01

    To determine how prepared for dental practice graduates from the integrated problem-based learning (PBL) dental undergraduate curriculum at The University of Hong Kong (HKU) perceive themselves to be and to identify factors associated with self-perceived preparedness. A postal questionnaire was sent to five cohorts of dentists who had graduated from HKU's integrated PBL curriculum between 2004 and 2008. Using a 4-point Likert scale, the questionnaire assessed the self-perceived level of preparedness in 59 competencies grouped in nine domains. Responses were dichotomised into 'poorly prepared' and 'well prepared'. The response rate was 66% (159/241). The mean proportion (±standard deviation) of respondents indicating well-preparedness was 72.0±15.1% overall, and for each domain was as follows: general patient management, 93.1±12.1%; practice management, 81.0±22.2%; periodontology and dental public health, 73.5±19.3%; conservative dentistry, 92.5±13.1%; oral rehabilitation, 62.8±24.0%; orthodontics, 23.0±32.9%; managing children and special-needs patients, 64.8±28.9%; oral and maxillofacial surgery, 52.2±25.2%; and drug and emergency management, 84.7±22.6%. The odds of self-perceived well-preparedness were increased for cohorts graduating in 2004 and 2005 and graduates working in a non-solo dental practice. Dental graduates of HKU's integrated PBL curriculum felt well prepared for the most fundamental aspects of dental practice. However, apparent deficiencies of training in orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery will need to be addressed by continuing education, postgraduate training and planning for the new 6-year undergraduate curriculum in 2012. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Science plan for coastal hazard preparedness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    examination of all issues associated with them. Hence, a science plan, including its implementation to address these issues, was prepared at a natio-nalworkshop held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. The plan identifies the factors that determine...

  15. Review of intern preparedness and education experiences in General Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gome, J J; Paltridge, D; Inder, W J

    2008-04-01

    Few studies assess the transition from medical student to intern and there is limited understanding of what measures are required to assist intern development. The aim of the study was to assess interns' perception of their preparedness before commencing and on completion of their rotation in General Medicine, and their attitudes towards educational experiences at a tertiary metropolitan teaching hospital. Self-assessed preparedness for the General Medical internship and educational experiences were evaluated using a quantitative 5-point scale (1 = low score and 5 = high score) and qualitatively through interview, on interns based at St Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne). Data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each 10-week rotation (n = 25). Before commencement of the rotation, the interns identified areas where they felt inadequately prepared, particularly resuscitation skills and medico-legal aspects. When resurveyed at the completion of their 10-week rotation, the interns felt they had been better prepared for their role than they initially perceived, both generally and in specific aspects. Nine out of 16 parameters showed a significant increase in preparedness score at week 10 compared to week 1. The educational experiences most valued were peer driven education sessions and informal registrar teaching. Formal consultant teaching and online learning were perceived as being the least useful. Interns at St Vincent's Hospital have been adequately prepared for their role in General Medicine, although many realize this only in retrospect. Deficiencies in educational opportunities for interns have been uncovered that emphasize areas of attention for medical educators.

  16. The MARS simulation of the nuclear weapons preparedness LOTTA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovedal, H.

    2001-03-01

    The simulation method MARS, Mathematical Radiac Simulation, is primarily intended for preparedness exercises in nuclear fallout areas and simulates the ionizing radiation dose rates from fission products deposited on the ground, i.e. fallout from a nuclear weapons explosion or from a release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor. MARS gives at any time after the fictitious explosion or reactor release the dose rates at any position in the fallout area. MARS has been used for simulation of an exercise scenario called LOTTA, designed for training and test of a radiac preparedness group in the Dept. of Nuclear Protection at FOI. The group is a member of a national preparedness organisation under the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI. This MARS application was a simulation of the entire course of events following a fictitious nuclear weapons explosion, including the fission product deposition process and the ultimate activity and dose rate distribution in the fallout area. The simulation was based on deposition and fallout prognoses worked out by FOI, using the prognosis model PELLO. This report presents a short description of the simulation of the LOTTA scenario. A more detailed presentation of the general MARS method can be found in the report 'Mathematical Radiac Simulation, MARS'

  17. A framework for assessing e-health preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2005-01-01

    Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative.

  18. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disaster Preparedness Knowledge and Action: Population Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Miguel M. Vicerra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of disasters on population are crucial under global climate change. One area that is usually gravely affected by disasters in the Philippines is Marikina City, a fluvial area situated above a major fault line with a high number of residents to be affected. The local government engages residents with regular information dissemination and trainings based on national guidelines, focusing on programs for students. This study aims to appraise such program on university students regarding self-perceived knowledge of disaster preparedness, confidence on actual preparedness, and engaging performing knowledge to action. A survey implemented in this study is adapted from instrument used in studies of crisis preparation assessment and preparedness. Involved in the survey are 133 students of a public university in Marikina City. Ordered logit regression is used to test if there are differences between responses to the items. Subsequently, ten respondents were randomly selected to participate in group discussion to substantiate responses to the survey. Results show that belief in being prepared and knowing what to do is significantly different for hypothetical earthquake scenario but is not observed for typhoon scenario. Result from the discussion indicate that complacency is absent regarding typhoons because people in their age group residing in Marikina City, as well as those living in adjacent areas, have experienced it in recent years but earthquakes bring uncertainty. The findings in this study are vital toward determining methods to lessen the gap between knowledge and action to improve safety and well-being among youth population.

  20. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  1. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  2. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  3. Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    industrial, agricultural, medical, research and teaching applications; facilities using radiation or radioactive material; and satellites and radiothermal generators using radiation sources or reactors. The requirements also cover emergencies arising from radiation sources of an unknown or untraceable origin. The requirements apply to actions in preparedness and response for emergencies involving hazards associated with ionizing radiation only. The requirements do not apply to preparedness or response for emergencies involving hazards associated with non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet or infrared radiation. The IAEA has issued Safety Fundamentals publications relating to nuclear installations and to radioactive waste management. In addition, the IAEA has issued Safety Series and Safety Standards Series publications that have established requirements relating to emergency preparedness for the safe use of radiation sources, the transport of radioactive material, legal and governmental infrastructure, the design and operation of nuclear power plants, and the design and operation of research reactors. This Safety Requirements publication incorporates, elaborates on, augments and structures all the requirements for emergency preparedness and response established in these previously issued safety standards. To this effect some requirements established in these other safety standards have been incorporated as quotations in this publication (revised text is shown in square brackets and omissions are indicated by ellipses). In other cases footnotes state where related requirements have been established

  4. Career Preparedness and School Achievement of Portuguese Children: Longitudinal Trend Articulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Taveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls from northern (69.5% and central Portugal (30.5% followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50. Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement

  5. Career Preparedness and School Achievement of Portuguese Children: Longitudinal Trend Articulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls) from northern (69.5%) and central Portugal (30.5%) followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50). Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement cubic trends

  6. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  7. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  8. Cross talk in defense signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Some of these defense mechanisms are preexisting, whereas others are only activated upon insect or pathogen invasion. Induced defense responses entail fitness

  9. Defense Mechanisms in Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents considerations and strategies for conceptualizing, recognizing, and modifying defense mechanisms through the group counseling process. Provides awareness of defense mechanisms in planning for and implementation of group counseling, describes interaction patterns for identifying defenses among group participants, and clarifies modification…

  10. Women and acquired preparedness: personality and learning implications for alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen G; Smith, Gregory T; Fischer, Sarah F

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin the process of examining the validity of the acquired preparedness model of alcohol use for women. The model holds that trait disinhibition influences the formation of alcohol expectancies, which then influence drinking levels. College women (N = 290) completed measures of trait disinhibition, positive and negative expectancies for alcohol and drinking measures. Using structural equation modeling, support was found for the hypothesized processes. Cross-sectional analyses were consistent with two hypothesized mediational pathways: disinhibition was associated with increased positive alcohol expectancies and decreased negative alcohol expectancies; both higher positive and lower negative alcohol expectancies correlated with drinking; and disinhibition's association with drinking was significantly reduced when each type of expectancy was added to a prediction model. Cross-sectional support for this causal model indicates the value of testing it further with longitudinal trials.

  11. Preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical tool for the preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part the functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning the methodologies, techniques and available results of research on such emergencies. To ensure effective response to radiation emergencies when needed, provisions should be made for regular training of emergency response personnel. As stated in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Safety Requirements, Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-2), 'The operator and the response organizations shall make arrangements for the selection of personnel and training to ensure that the personnel have the requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, equipment, procedures and other arrangements to perform their assigned response functions'. A further requirement is that 'Exercise programmes shall be conducted to ensure that all specified functions required to be performed for emergency response and all organizational interfaces for facilities in threat category I, II or III and the national level programmes for threat category IV or V are tested at suitable intervals'. In 2004 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(48)/RES/10 encouraged Member States to 'implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency'. This document is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. It was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, the exercise structure, terms and scenarios must be

  12. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  13. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation.

  14. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Muhammedawel; Addisse, Mesfin

    2014-07-20

    Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this paper aimed to assess knowledge and practices towards birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among women of reproductive age group (15-49) in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was conducted in January, 2012. A total of 575 women from 5 kebeles were selected after proportionally allocated to population size and interviewed using structured and semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variables. Taking into account place of delivery identification, means of transportation, skilled attendant identification and saving money, about 16.5% of the respondents were prepared for birth and its complications. Preparation for birth and its complication was higher among educated mothers (AOR=6.23, 95% CI=1.5, 25.87). Monthly income of >716 Ethiopian birr (AOR=1.94, 95% CI=1.01, 3.87), ANC visit (AOR=5.68, 95% CI=1.27, 25.4), knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR=2.94, 95% CI=1.61, 5.37) and those who had given birth at health facility before their last delivery (AOR=3.9, 95% CI=2.04, 7.46) were also significantly associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. The study identified very low magnitude of birth preparedness and complication readiness in the study area and poor knowledge and practices of preparation for birth and its

  15. The Importance of Self-Efficacy in Parental Emergency Preparedness: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Meagan T; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Wirtz, Philip W

    2017-08-01

    Disasters occur without warning and can have devastating consequences. Emergency preparedness can reduce negative effects. It is especially important that parents prepare, as children are particularly vulnerable after disasters. This study tested 2 hypotheses: (1) adults with more children are likely to be better prepared than those with fewer or no children because greater caretaking is linked to greater perceived threat of disaster leading to greater preparedness and (2) the strength of this mediational link varies as a function of parental self-efficacy. Data from an online survey about human-made disasters (terrorism) with a community convenience sample were used to test the hypothesis that perceived threat mediates the relationship between parental status (number of children cared for) and preparedness behaviors, moderated by level of self-efficacy for emergency preparedness. A bootstrapping analysis with relevant covariates supported the hypothesized mediating effect of threat on the relationship between parental status and preparedness. This relationship was strengthened at higher levels of parental preparedness self-efficacy. The results of this study are particularly relevant for preparedness interventions. Because threat leads to preparedness, particularly for parents with high self-efficacy, it is important to focus attention on factors that can improve parents' sense of self-efficacy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 7).

  16. Vertebrate defense against parasites: Interactions between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, Ines; Karvonen, Anssi

    2017-01-01

    Hosts can utilize different types of defense against the effects of parasitism, including avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. Typically, there is tremendous heterogeneity among hosts in these defense mechanisms that may be rooted in the costs associated with defense and lead to trade-offs with other life-history traits. Trade-offs may also exist between the defense mechanisms, but the relationships between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance have rarely been studied. Here, we assessed these three defense traits under common garden conditions in a natural host-parasite system, the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and its second intermediate fish host. We looked at host individuals originating from four genetically distinct populations of two closely related salmonid species (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta ) to estimate the magnitude of variation in these defense traits and the relationships among them. We show species-specific variation in resistance and tolerance and population-specific variation in resistance. Further, we demonstrate evidence for a trade-off between resistance and tolerance. Our results suggest that the variation in host defense can at least partly result from a compromise between different interacting defense traits, the relative importance of which is likely to be shaped by environmental components. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering different components of the host defense system when making predictions on the outcome of host-parasite interactions.

  17. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Boomeranging in structural defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known. PMID:22990448

  19. The Relationship between Knowledge and Attitude of Managers with Preparedness of Healthcare Centers in Rey Health Network against Earthquake Risk - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Considering that managers’ knowledge was rather low, preparedness among centers was low as well. According to low knowledge and unsuitable preparedness, more theoretical and practical trainings and maneuvers were necessary to be held for managers about earthquake preparedness.

  20. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  1. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    capital assets, such as an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter or a Virginia-class submarine. Investment costs are distinguished from expenses, which are...procurement funds before a formal Milestone C approval. How else does DOD purchase goods and services? How does DOD procurement relate to defense...purchase services (e.g., research, architectural design, or cleaning services) and smaller goods (e.g., gauze or light bulbs) because such purchases

  2. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  3. Case series on defense mechanisms in patients for reconstructive hand transplantation: consideration on transplant defense concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey, Sheila G; Moreno, Elisa; Brandacher, Gerald; Azari, Kodi; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2014-05-16

    The technical demands of reconstructive hand transplantation (RHT) and need for complex multidisciplinary care have led to intense research efforts to improve patient care and outcomes. However, RHT is an extraordinary life event which carries the potential for long-term consequences including psychological distress, which invokes coping and defense mechanisms. Little is known about the relationship between psychological defense mechanisms and health outcomes in RHT patients. In an effort to elucidate this relationship, we studied seven RHT patients who underwent standardized psychological assessment either pre- or post transplantation. No single defense concept was identified as common to all patients, which we suspect was due in part to the varied mechanisms of hand loss. All seven patients demonstrated diverse psychological reactions to RHT. The self-reported defense styles were associated with psychological adjustment. The patients who reported defenses that distorted reality described less adaptive functioning and psychological well-being. These preliminary findings reveal the varied psychological mechanisms invoked in RHT patients. An assessment of defense mechanisms should be part of multicenter evaluation protocols that address unique psychosocial aspects of RHT in large samples, in order to better guide psychological management.

  4. Language-specific skills in intercultural healthcare communication: Comparing perceived preparedness and skills in nurses' first and second languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris

    2018-02-01

    Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross

  5. Emergency preparedness to nuclear accidents in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostova, V.; Prouza, Z.; Koldus, F.; Rutova, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Emergency preparedness to nuclear accidents (radiation emergency preparedness) is a part of general emergency preparedness and crisis management in the Czech Republic. The bases for it were given in 1997 when radiation emergency preparedness was defined and requirements to it were given in Act No. 18/1997 Coll., so called the Atomic Act, which entered into force in July 1997. In 2000, the bases for general emergency preparedness and crisis management in the Czech Republic were given namely in two acts - in Act No. 239/2000 Coll., an integrated rescue system, and in Act No. 240/2000 Coll., on crisis management. Both these acts entered into force on 1 January 2001. The Atomic Act determines duties of licensees in the field of preparedness. One of them is obligation to prepare and submit to SUJB the on-site emergency plan as one of attachments to his application for the licence. (The licence can be issued if defined documents, including this plan, are approved.) The licensee is obliged, under conditions given in detail in one of implementing regulation, to prepare a proposal of the emergency planning zone and submit it to SUJB. In the Act, there are also given the requirements for licensee's actions in case of a radiation emergency occurrence. On the other hand the Atomic Act names what are SUJB competencies and also what are these ones from the point of view of radiation emergency. Among others SUJB establishes the emergency planning zone, controls the activity of the National Radiation Monitoring Network, provides for the activities of an Emergency Response Centre and ensures the availability of background information necessary to take decisions aimed at reducing or averting exposure in the case of a radiation accident. SUJB has its own crisis staff; it has 4 shifts, which change regularly weekly. About 50 SUJB employees divided into 12 different functions are members of this staff. The Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of SUJB organizes work of this staff

  6. Pattern recognition methodologies and deterministic evaluation of seismic hazard: A strategy to increase earthquake preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano F.; Gorshkov, Alexander I.; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2001-05-01

    Several algorithms, structured according to a general pattern-recognition scheme, have been developed for the space-time identification of strong events. Currently, two of such algorithms are applied to the Italian territory, one for the recognition of earthquake-prone areas and the other, namely CN algorithm, for earthquake prediction purposes. These procedures can be viewed as independent experts, hence they can be combined to better constrain the alerted seismogenic area. We examine here the possibility to integrate CN intermediate-term medium-range earthquake predictions, pattern recognition of earthquake-prone areas and deterministic hazard maps, in order to associate CN Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) to a set of appropriate scenarios of ground motion. The advantage of this procedure mainly consists in the time information provided by predictions, useful to increase preparedness of safety measures and to indicate a priority for detailed seismic risk studies to be performed at a local scale. (author)

  7. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  8. Continuous Vigilance - Evaluating Preparedness for a Biological Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruria eAdini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective response to biological events necessitates ongoing evaluation of preparedness. This study was a bilateral German-Israeli collaboration aimed at developing an evaluation tool for assessing preparedness of medical facilities for biological events.Methods: Measurable parameters were identified through a literature review for inclusion in the evaluation tool and disseminated to 228 content experts in 2 modified Delphi cycles. Focus groups were conducted to identify psychosocial needs of the medical teams. Table top and functional exercises were implemented to review applicability of the tool. Results: 117 experts from Germany and Israel participated in the modified Delphi. Out of 188 parameters that were identified, 183 achieved a consensus of >75% of the content experts. Following comments recommended in the Delphi cycles, and feedback from focus groups and hospital exercises, the final tool consisted of 172 parameters. Median level of importance of each parameter was calculated based on ranking recommended in the Delphi process. Computerized web-based software was developed to calculate scores of preparedness for biological events.Conclusions: Ongoing evaluation means, such as the tool developed in the study, can facilitate the need for a valid and reliable mechanism that may be widely adopted and implemented as quality assurance measures. The tool is based on measurable parameters and indicators that can effectively present strengths and weaknesses in managing a response to a public health threat, and accordingly, steps can be implemented to improve readiness. Adoption of such a tool is an important component of assuring public health and effective emergency management.Contact person regarding the evaluation tool: adinib@bgu.ac.ilLink to the computerized tool: http://www.be-prep.com/us

  9. Emergency Preparedness for Disasters and Crises in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and internal and external hazards. By using secondary data, this study aims to shed some light on this issue, contributing to knowledge and awareness on emergency preparedness for the hospitality industry. Moreover, the study aims to explain the management’s commitment to adopt, develop, and update emergency plans. The results of this study explain that tourism as an international mobile industry must respond to internal and external hazards such as disease movement and terrorist attacks. Marketing safety is important to promote hotels and tourist destinations to the guests and holiday advisors. Hotels have a long history of being a soft target for terrorist attacks, as can be seen in several accidents that have shaken the hotel industry in the past few decades. Hotels invest a lot to install protective techniques, but terrorists are becoming more organized. Practitioners propose disaster management frameworks using several measurements. Recovery from crisis and learning help business retention that minimizes negative impacts and prevent losses. Finally, evaluation and feedback are very important to overcome the hazards and return to normal, as well as adopting new ideas to deal with emergencies. Single- and double-loop organizational learning should benefit proactive preparedness.

  10. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  11. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  12. Better Awareness for Better Natural Hazards Preparedness in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Piracha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly vulnerable to natural disasters. It faces severe geophysical hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and tsunami as well climate change reinforced hydro-meteorological hazards (floods, droughts, tropical storms. Poor availability and exploitation of natural resources combined with dense, high and fast growing population and other peculiar politico-socio-economic factors add to Pakistan’s vulnerability to disasters caused by these hazards. The knowledge and awareness of impending disasters, their impacts, their mitigation, preparedness and adaptation is lacking among government officials, planers, engineers and general public. This research presents two case studies; one each from the categories of geophysical hazards and hydro-meteorological hazards, where knowledge and awareness is lacking and where improvements in the same can lead to better adaptation and preparedness. The first case study discusses mitigation of seismic hazards to non-engineered buildings through better knowledge of low-cost structural engineering solutions. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. The second study points at lack of awareness among local planning officials of climate change impacts leading to water scarcity and flood hazards at different times. The research demonstrates a lack of institutional capacity in Pakistan that was discovered through primary research conducted for this study. Tit was found  there are common themes across the two very different case studies and there are common lessons that can be learnt for hazard preparedness in Pakistan.

  13. Feasibility study for a computerized emergency preparedness simulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardstein, L.H.; Schroeder, J.O.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1979-11-01

    This report details the feasibility of a computerized Emergency Preparedness Simulation Facility (EPSF) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The proposed facility would be designed to provide the NRC and other federal, state, and local government agencies with a capability to formulate, test, and evaluate the Emergency Preparedness Plans (EPP) which local and state agencies have/will establish for use during nuclear emergencies. In cases of any state emergency (including a nuclear emergency), high level state government officials will direct emergency procedures and insure that state and local emergency teams carry out tasks which have been established in their EPP. When an emergency exists, rapid mobilization of emergency teams, efficient communication, and effective coordination of individual team efforts is essential to safety, preservation of property, and overall public welfare. Current EPP evaluation procedures are qualitative in nature and while they do compare emergency drill performance with the EPP, the nature of the drills often does not provide enough realism to actual emergency conditions. Automated simulation of real emergency conditions using modern computer equipment and programming techniques will provide the NRC emergency evaluation teams a simulated environment which closely approximates conditions which would actually exist during a real emergency. In addition, the computer can be used to collect and log performance and event data which will aid the evaluation team in making assessments of the state or local area's EPP and their Emergency Preparedness Teams performance during emergency drills. Overall, a computerized EPSF can improve drill testing and evaluation efficiency, provide approximate emergency condition realism, and improve public awareness of local emergency procedures

  14. The National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise NPE 2012 - Waveform data analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Hartmann, Gernot; Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The National Data Centre Preparedness Exercises simulate a fictitious violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and are conducted by NDCs (National Data Centres) for NDCs with the aim to increase the awareness and preparedness of their duties. These exercises are regularly performed with different scenarios and key aspects. They help to evaluate the effectiveness of procedures applied at NDCs, as well as the quality, completeness, and usefulness of IDC (International Data Centre) products. The NPE 2012 has been organized and coordinated by the control team at the German NDC on behalf of the remaining NDCs and with support from the CTBT- Organization. A seismic event from REB (Reviewed Event Bulletin) was selected as an internal source of a fictitious release of iodine and radioxenon. Additionally, xenon releases at two background sources were included. The exercise started with the notification of hypothetical radionuclide concentrations detected at IMS stations (International Monitoring System. The internal release scenario was kept undisclosed for participants during the exercise. Therefore one main task of the exercise was the identification of the seismic source event. Atmospheric Transport Modeling in backward mode was required to confine the possible source region and find candidate waveform events from REB. The analysis of xenon isotopic ratios gives additional information about the source characteristics and the event timing. Seismological characteristics of the remaining candidate events was investigated in detail and combined with associated infrasound detections to discriminate between natural seismic events and explosions. Spectral behaviors and source characteristics derived from seismic recordings at IMS stations were compared with events from various clusters associated with mining activities. Individual analysis steps are presented and challenges towards possible source identification for the NPE 2012 as well.

  15. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies

  16. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  17. Recent developments in Ontario Hydro's safety emergency preparedness plan program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.; Smith, G.

    1996-01-01

    Emergency Preparedness Plans (EPPs) are essential during dam emergencies or failures; the absence of legislation about dam safety does not exempt dam owners of legal liabilities and responsibilities for dam safety. Ontario Hydro instituted a dam safety EPP program in 1992. An overview of the Plan, and its recent integration with overall site emergency planning was described, with case studies to illustrate development, implementation, testing and training processes. A recent development was the network version of the EPP, which not only streamlined maintenance of the Plan, but also increased its effectiveness by providing instant access to the most up-to-date version of the Plan. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  19. Defensive pride and consensus: strength in imaginary numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nail, Paul R; Marigold, Denise C; Kang, So-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Failure (Study 1) and attachment separation thoughts (Study 2) caused exaggerated consensus estimates for personal beliefs about unrelated social issues. This compensatory consensus effect was most pronounced among defensively proud individuals, that is, among those with the combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (Study 1) and the combination of high attachment avoidance and low attachment anxiety (Study 2). In Study 3, another form of defensive pride, narcissism, was associated with exaggerated consensual worldview defense after a system-injustice threat. In Study 4, imagined consensus reduced subjective salience of proud individuals' troubling thoughts. Compensatory consensus is seen as a kind of defensive self-affirmation that defensively proud people turn to for insulation from distressing thoughts. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  1. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  2. Ready for university? A cross national study on students' perceived preparedness for university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.P.W.A.; van der Meer, J.

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured before students commenced their study at a university in New

  3. Community Mental Health Preparedness in Disasters: A Qualitative Content Analysis in an Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Roudini

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Mental health preparedness is a multifactorial phenomenon that requires a clear understanding and definition of perceived threats, public trust on social structure and formal and informal supportive organization. This preparedness involves proportional, mental, social, familial, religious beliefs, and cultural sensitivity along with the ability to handle mentally disastrous situation, which can be measured after concept analysis and tool development process.

  4. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  5. Preparedness of Nurses for Crises and Disasters in Imam Khomeini and Social Security Hospitals of Saqqez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farajzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The result of the study showed that the score preparedness of the nurses was average, which was undesirable. It is recommended that the nurses should be provided continuous training to deal with disasters by creating an appropriate environment and motivating them to improve preparedness conditions. 

  6. Emergency preparedness 1995 site support plan WBS 6.7.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Emergency Preparedness Program provides an emergency management system including occurrence notification; development, coordination, and direction of planning, preparedness, and readiness assurance for response to emergency events on the Hanford Site; and emergency management support to Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL)

  7. Situated Preparedness: The Negotiation of a Future Catastrophic Earthquake in a California University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Natalie Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines disaster preparedness as engaged at a large university in southern California using inductive research and grounded theory data collection and analysis methods. The thesis consists of three parts, all addressing the problem of disaster preparedness as enacted in this at-risk context. I use in-depth interviews, archival…

  8. 76 FR 72431 - Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... ability of the ORO communities to implement radiological emergency response plans. Lastly, this manual... Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program Manual AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...-REP- 1, Revision 1 (NUREG-0654), and the Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program Manual (the REP...

  9. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under..., as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued by...

  10. 75 FR 35035 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Statement of Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... organizational change is to retitle the OPHEP as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and... initiatives and is responsible for the integration of national public health and medical preparedness and... compiles the ASPR Organizational Assessment by tracking Key Performance Indicators as part of the ASPR...

  11. Preparedness Formation of the Future Vocational Education Teachers to Occupational Adaptation under Conditions of Globalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushentseva, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the preparedness formation of future teachers of vocational training to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society is considered. The analysis of scientific and educational literature devoted to the study of occupational adaptation and preparedness formation of specialists to it is carried…

  12. [What is important in disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons from disaster relief missions to the Japan Self-Defense Forces Sendai Hospital and Haiti peacekeeping deployments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Tatsuki, Toshitaka; Saito, Taku; Wakizono, Tomoki; Shigemura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the core factors necessary for mental health of disaster workers according to the following experiences: 1) the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Haiti peacekeeping deployment associated with the Great Haiti Earthquake, 2) conformations of the peacekeeping mission units of various countries deployed to Haiti, and 3) JSDF assistance activities to the Japanese earthquake victims. We learned that the basic life needs were the major premises for maintaining the mental health of the disaster workers. Food, drinking supplies, medical supplies were particularly crucial, yet overlooked in Japanese worker settings compared with forces of other countries. Conversely, the workers tend to feel guilty (moushi wake nai) for the victims when their basic life infrastructures are better than those of the victims. The Japanese workers and disaster victims both tend to find comfort in styles based on their culture, in particular, open-air baths and music performances. When planning workers' environments in disaster settings, provision of basic infrastructure should be prioritized, yet a sense of balance based on cultural background may be useful to enhance the workers' comfort and minimize their guilt.

  13. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Hailu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. RESULTS: Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5% of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%. Considerable (34.5% number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3% identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9% of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8% planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR = 1.91 95% CI; 1.21-3.01 and being pregnant for the first time (OR = 6.82, 95% CI; 1.27-36.55. CONCLUSION: BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on

  14. Effects of metenkephalin on the formation and fixation of defensive temporal associations and on the incorporation of C14-leucine in brain proteins of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglikov, R.I.; Gol' dberg, M.V.; Maizelis, M.Y.A.; Zabludovskii, A.L.

    When 25 microgram of metenkephalin is injected subcutaneously into rats, the development of temporal associations is somewhat impaired, but the fixation of them is enhanced. The latter effect is observed more clearly when metenkephalin is injected not before, but immediately after the development of conditioned reflexes. Under the influence of metenkephalin, there is an increase in the incorporation of C14-leucine into the insoluble proteins of the hippocampus and basal ganglia. It is hypothesized that metenkephalin mainly affects the process of consolidation.

  15. Who Participates in the Great ShakeOut? Why Audience Segmentation Is the Future of Disaster Preparedness Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Adams

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2008, the Southern California Earthquake Center in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program launched the first annual Great ShakeOut, the largest earthquake preparedness drill in the history of the United States. Materials and Methods: We collected online survey data from 2052 campaign registrants to assess how people participated, whether audience segments shared behavioral patterns, and whether these segments were associated with five social cognitive factors targeted by the ShakeOut campaign. Results: Participants clustered into four behavioral patterns. The Minimal cluster had low participation in all activities (range: 0–39% participation. The Basic Drill cluster only participated in the drop, cover and hold drill (100% participation. The Community-Oriented cluster, involved in the drill (100% and other interpersonal activities including attending disaster planning meetings (74%, was positively associated with interpersonal communication (β = 0.169, self-efficacy (β = 0.118, outcome efficacy (β = 0.110, and knowledge about disaster preparedness (β = 0.151. The Interactive and Games cluster, which participated in the drill (79% and two online earthquake preparedness games (53% and 75%, was positively associated with all five social cognitive factors studied. Conclusions: Our results support audience segmentation approaches to engaging the public, which address the strengths and weaknesses of different segments. Offering games may help “gamers” gain competencies required to prepare for disasters. Targeting the highly active Community-Oriented cluster for leadership roles could help build community resilience by encouraging others to become more involved in disaster planning. We propose that the days of single, national education campaigns without local variation should end.

  16. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Prey use a variety of mechanisms to avoid the risk of predation, including chemical defense, camouflage, and conspicuous coloration. Here we show that variation in these forms of protection can have profound effects on macroevolutionary patterns in amphibians. Chemical defense and conspicuous coloration both increase speciation rates, in line with the “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis. However, chemical defense also increases extinction rates, lowering net diversification. We therefore show tha...

  17. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  18. Laboratory preparedness and response with a focus on arboviruses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusken, C B; Ieven, M; Sigfrid, L; Eckerle, I; Koopmans, M

    2018-03-01

    The global health burden of arboviruses is continuously rising, which results in increasing pressure on local and (inter)national laboratory infrastructures. Timely and accurate diagnosis of cases is one of the main pillars for public health and clinical responses to an arbovirus emergence. This narrative review aims to summarize recent advances and to identify needs in laboratory preparedness and response activities, with a focus on viruses transmitted by arthropods in Europe. The review is based on evidence extracted from PubMed searches, Public Health and clinical laboratory experiences from the authors and the authors' opinions substantiated by peer-reviewed scientific literature. We illustrate the importance of inter-epidemic laboratory preparedness activities to ensure adequate Public Health and clinical responses. We describe the status of arbovirus endemicity and emergence in Europe thereby highlighting the need for preparedness for these viruses. We discuss the components and pitfalls of an adequate laboratory preparedness and response and the broader context of the current landscape of international research, clinical and laboratory preparedness networks. The complexity of arbovirus laboratory preparedness and response is described. Outbreak preparedness plans need to look beyond national reference laboratories, to include first-line responding onsite hospital laboratories and plans for strengthening of such local capacity and capability as required depending on the nature of the outbreak. In particular, the diagnosis of arbovirus infections is complicated by the existence of geographic overlap of circulation of numerous arboviruses, the overlap in clinical manifestation between many arboviruses and other aetiologies and the existence of cross-reactivity between related arboviruses in serology testing. Inter-epidemic preparedness activities need strong national and international networks addressing these issues. However, the current mushrooming of

  19. Mental health and psychosocial support aspects in disaster preparedness: Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank

    2006-12-01

    To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended.

  20. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  1. Preparedness strategy and procedures. Annual report 1996. Plans for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    EKO-3 Preparedness Strategy and Procedures, a title that covers the subjects - collection, quality assurance, and the use of data in a preparedness situation. The term data is used here in its widest sense covering measurements, samples, radioecological background information, etc. The following sub-projects are part of EKO-3: EKO-3.1 Mobile measurements; EKO-3.2 Quality Assurance in sampling and analysis; EKO-3.3 Operational intervention levels; EKO-3.4 Measurement strategy, basis for decisions, and interventions in agriculture. EKO-3.1 which was the first started project is more or less completed. The sub-project will, however, continue with reference to a common NKS-EU follow-up exercise on RESUME-95 in 1998 - RESUME-98. In 1996 most funds has been given to EKO-3.2. The different parts of the project have been launched and the first of them are approaching their conclusion, this is the case for for example Quality assurance in gamma spectroscopy with accreditation as a goal. For 1997 a number of 'typical' Nordic scenarios is planned. EKO-3.4 too has proceeded as planned in 1996. Also in this project the work has partly been on planning. The project work proceeds well and a draft version of the final report is expected ultimo 1996. (EG)

  2. Revisiting blood transfusion preparedness: experience from the Bam earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Radfar, Mohammad H; Tabatabaee, Morteza; Hosseini-Divkolayee, Nasim S; Burkle, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    Blood transfusion plays a critical role in the provision of medical care for disasters due to man-made and natural hazards. Although the short-term increase in blood donations following national disasters is well-documented, some aspects of blood transfusion during disasters remain under study. The 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran resulted in the death of >29,000 people and injured 23,000. In total, 108,985 blood units were donated, but only 21,347 units (23%) actually were distributed to hospitals around the country. Kerman Province, the site of the disaster, received 1,231 (1.3%) of the donated units in the first four days after the disaster. The Bam experience revealed crucial missteps in the development of a post-event strategy for blood product management, and led to the development of a detailed disaster preparedness and response plan that addresses issues of donation, distribution, communication, transportation, and coordination. The current plan requires the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization to convene a disaster task force immediately as the main coordinator of all disaster preparedness and response activities.

  3. Nuclear emergency response planning and preparedness for the HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Wu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The 10 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor (termed HTR-10) went into criticality at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University in December 2000. As required by China nuclear safety authorities, we had developed nuclear emergency response plan and relevant technical procedures for the implementation of protective actions should an accident occur. This paper presents the technical basis for the development of the HTR-10 nuclear emergency plan. Firstly, it describes briefly the requirements of the China nuclear safety authorities about the nuclear emergency planning and preparedness for research reactors. Then, the paper focuses on the technical development of initiating conditions (ICs) and emergency action levels (EALs) for HTR-10. The ICs and EALs developed are tabulated in this paper. Finally, a brief presentation about the on-site emergency response exercise carried out before the first fuel loading on HTR-10 and other emergency preparedness activities conducted or being planned are given in this paper. (author)

  4. Emergency response preparedness: the French experience of large scale exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanson, D.; Desnoyers, B.; Chabane, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with the IAEA regulations for the transport of radioactive material in the event of accidents during transport of radioactive material, emergency provisions to protect persons, property and environment have to be established and developed by the relevant national organisations. In France, the prefect of the department where the accident occurs is responsible for decisions and measures required to ensure the protection of both population and property at risk owing to the accident. During an accident, the ministers concerned provide the prefect with recommendations and information, in order to help him take the requisite decisions. On their side, the nuclear industry and transport companies also have to be prepared to intervene and to support the authorities at their request, depending on their capacities and their specialities. To prepare the emergency teams properly and acquire effective emergency plans, training exercises have to be conducted regularly with every ministerial department involved, the nuclear industry and transport companies, members of the public and the media. Then, the feedback from such exercises shall be taken into account to improve the emergency procedures. This paper will introduce: - emergency response preparedness: what is required by the relevant regulations? - emergency response preparedness: how is France organised? - the French experience of conducting large training exercises simulating accidents involving the transport of radioactive material; - the main difficulties and lessons learned; - the perspectives

  5. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  6. Teaching Psychological Defense Mechanisms: "The Defense Mechanisms Game."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Charles G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the rules for an educational game in which students reinforce psychology lecture material by creating and dramatizing defense mechanisms such as reaction formation, displacement, and fantasy. Provides definitions and examples of the various defense mechanisms that can be portrayed. (JP)

  7. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that enhancing defensive enzymes' activities and inducing new isozymes may be related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal ...

  8. Preparedness of newly qualified doctors in Ireland for prescribing in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Sheena Elizabeth; Clarke, Eric; Byrne, Dara; Power, Dermot; Moneley, Daragh; Strawbridge, Judith; Williams, David James

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the level of preparedness of newly qualified Irish-trained doctors for prescribing, and to investigate their attitudes towards prescribing and prescribing education, through a national survey. A 29-item online survey was distributed to 686 newly qualified doctors 1 month prior to the completion of their first year of clinical practice (internship). Only graduates from Irish medical schools were included. The response rate was 20.4% (n = 140; female : male 56%:44%). The majority of respondents felt confident in prescription writing (89%), medication history taking (81%) and accessing drug information in the hospital setting (80%). Only 58% of respondents felt confident in drug dose calculation, and 35% felt confident in preparing and administering drugs. When asked if their undergraduate medical education had prepared them for prescribing in clinical practice, 28% of respondents agreed. Confidence that their undergraduate education had prepared them was associated with receiving formal training in prescribing skills (P = 0.0045; 27% vs. 0%). Thirty-seven per cent of respondents agreed that they felt stressed about prescribing medications. This survey of newly qualified doctors in Ireland found that only 28% of respondents agreed that their undergraduate medical education had prepared them for prescribing, which was comparable to a previous survey of UK medical students and graduates. Investigating confidence and preparedness for prescribing provides important insights for educators. Dedicated teaching of prescribing, with an emphasis on practical training and assessment, may help graduates to feel more prepared for the challenges of prescribing in the clinical setting. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  10. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  11. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  12. Indirect plant defense against insect herbivores: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbory, Zainab; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2018-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching 2 types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies. Known herbivore-associated elicitors include fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, sulfur-containing fatty acids, fragments of cell walls, peptides, esters, and enzymes. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles. In addition, constitive traits including extrafloral nectars, food bodies, and domatia can be further induced to higher levels and attract natural enemies as well as provide food and shelter to carnivores. A better understanding of indirect plant defense at global and componential levels via advanced high throughput technologies may lead to utilization of indirect defense in suppression of herbivore damage to plants. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  14. Tsunami mitigation and preparedness activities in California: Chapter L in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    Scenario planning and final results associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami project are providing great benefits to the ongoing tsunami risk-reduction efforts of the California Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. This program, led by the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services and the California Geological Survey, works with coastal communities to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation at the local level through various efforts, such as improving tsunami hazard analysis, establishing consistent evacuation communications and planning, and leveraging national risk-reduction efforts associated with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The recent 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis did not cause notable inundation of dry land in California, but dozens of harbors sustained damages totaling nearly $100 million (Wilson and others, 2012a). Estimates associated with the SAFRR distant tsunami scenario suggest socioeconomic and environmental losses could be even larger. Information gathered from these events and the SAFRR scenario is guiding the development and implementation of new strategies for emergency response, maritime planning, and land-use planning, including a reassessment of the tsunami threat along the California coast;

  15. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  16. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  17. Malicious acts involving radioactive sources: prevention and preparedness for response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increasing concern over the malevolent use of radioactive sources and radiological terrorism demands strengthening the preparedness for response to radiological emergencies. In spite of various security measures adopted internationally, availability of orphan sources cannot be completely ruled out. The trends in terrorism also indicates the possibility of various means which may be adopted by terrorists especially if they are aware of the challenges of radioactive contamination in public domain and the capability of 'denial of area' and the fear factor which can be injected during such radiological emergencies. It is to be well understood that whatever measures are taken by some countries in preventing the sources from getting stolen or smuggled in/out of their country are not adequate to eliminate radiological terrorism in a global level unless all nations collectively address and ensure the security of radioactive sources, hence preventing the generation of any orphan sources. While preparedness for response to various radiological emergency scenario have many common factors, the challenges involved in responding to radiological terrorism involves understanding the fear factor due to the presence of radioactive contamination after the blast and thermal effects on the victims and issues like handling of contaminated and seriously injured persons, restriction on the movement of responders and forensic teams in a contaminated field etc. Hence an understanding and anticipation of all possible means of radiological terrorism is very essential to prevent and to reduce the consequences. There are many deterrents, which are to be developed and maintained by all nations collectively which should include intelligence, wide usage of radiation monitors by customs, police and other security agencies, installation of state of the art high sensitive radiation monitors and systems etc to prevent and deter stealing and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources

  18. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  19. Palliative care for those with heart failure: nurses' knowledge, attitude, and preparedness to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghee; Hwang, Won Ju

    2014-04-01

    Palliative care is an important element of holistic care but has received little attention in cardiac disease patients. The purpose of the paper is (a) to investigate nurses' knowledge of palliative care, attitudes toward care of the dying, coping with death, and preparedness to practice palliative care for those with heart failure, and (b) to evaluate influencing factors on preparedness to practice on palliative care. A cross-sectional descriptive design employed a structured questionnaire that tested nurses' knowledge, attitude, coping, and preparedness to practice on palliative care for patients with heart failure. Ninety nurses in two tertiary university hospitals in South Korea participated in the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple regression. Results showed low levels of knowledge reported (an average of 48.3% correct answers), attitude (134.8±110.1), coping (117.2±24.3), and preparedness to practice (17.3±4.7) relating to palliative care. The extent of knowledge was related to both attitudes and coping. These attitudes and coping skills were related to preparedness to practice. The multiple regression analysis showed that preparedness to practice was explained by coping and attitude (R (2) =0.46, F=6.1, pPalliative care training is urgently needed to improve knowledge, attitude, coping, and preparedness to practice. Guidance to assist healthcare professionals involved in palliative care for those with cardiac disease needs to be developed and provided.

  20. Disaster preparedness and families of children with special needs: a geographic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lisa R; Cormier, Loretta A

    2013-02-01

    Over eleven million children in the United States have special health care needs. These unique needs can burden community and emergency responders after a disaster, complicating rescue and recovery efforts and generating reunification needs. Family disaster preparedness can help to moderate the extent that community resources are utilized by preparing families to be self-sustaining after a disaster and streamline access to medical care when needed. This study explored differences in two populations of families of children with special health care needs to determine if geographic differences exist in preparedness levels and whether a brief education intervention would prove successful in increasing baseline preparedness levels across both populations. A brief education intervention was delivered by trained community health educators to 210 families of children with special health care needs. A quasiexperimental pre-posttest design was used to compare baseline preparedness levels and 1 month follow-up levels. Although there was no difference in preparedness levels based on geographic location, both populations demonstrated a statistically significant increase in preparedness levels post-intervention. This study provides additional evidence that a brief education intervention helps to increase preparedness levels among families of children with special health care needs.

  1. The Effect of Risk Reduction Intervention on Earthquake Disaster Preparedness of the Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Nourozi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of vulnerability of the elders in disasters, preparedness of this group is very important in reducing the damages caused by the earthquake. Therefore, the present study designed and conducted with the purpose of developing interventions to increase earthquake preparedness and risk reduction in the elderly people living in Hadishahr Jolfa City, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest design and a control group. Fifty community dwelling elderly people were selected through simple random sampling method from 2 health centers and randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Intervention program consisted of educational sessions with slideshows, group discussions, and sending reminder materials to their addresses a week later. The data were collected using the researcher developed preparedness questionnaire consisting of 58 items with 4 subscales (communication, environmental, during and after earthquake period. Inferential analyses of data, including analysis of covariance was done by SPSS version 16. Results: The findings showed that scores in all subscales of earthquake preparedness (communication, environment, during and after earthquake significantly increased after educational intervention (P<0.05. Conclusion: Preparedness programs for disaster risk reduction has a positive effect on the elders’ preparedness. Thus, similar multimodal preparedness programs should be used more frequently for this vulnerable community citizens.

  2. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.

  3. Progress in Public Health Emergency Preparedness-United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Bhavini Patel; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; LeBlanc, Tanya T; Vagi, Sara J; Avchen, Rachel N

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program's progress toward meeting public health preparedness capability standards in state, local, and territorial health departments. All 62 PHEP awardees completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's self-administered PHEP Impact Assessment as part of program review measuring public health preparedness capability before September 11, 2001 (9/11), and in 2014. We collected additional self-reported capability self-assessments from 2016. We analyzed trends in congressional funding for public health preparedness from 2001 to 2016. Before 9/11, most PHEP awardees reported limited preparedness capabilities, but considerable progress was reported by 2016. The number of jurisdictions reporting established capability functions within the countermeasures and mitigation domain had the largest increase, almost 200%, by 2014. However, more than 20% of jurisdictions still reported underdeveloped coordination between the health system and public health agencies in 2016. Challenges and barriers to building PHEP capabilities included lack of trained personnel, plans, and sustained resources. Considerable progress in public health preparedness capability was observed from before 9/11 to 2016. Support, sustainment, and advancement of public health preparedness capability is critical to ensure a strong public health infrastructure.

  4. Wormuth: Work on Security, Defense 'Holistically'

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Concepts spawned at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security could be very valuable to government entities such as the Department of Defense as that agency expands its focus in...

  5. Preparing South Africa for cyber crime and cyber defense

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations... revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa...

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    Radiation emergency preparedness systems must be able to deal with the threats posed to each country and the region as a whole. The threats from nuclear accidents differ in the various countries of the region. The most serious nuclear threats are those with cross-border implications and are generally assumed to be due to the presence of nuclear reactors of various kinds. Some countries in the region, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Sweden, have nuclear power plants, and several countries in the region possess smaller research reactors. Other nuclear threats arise from nuclear powered naval vessels or submarines, and from nuclear powered satellites. Production, transportation, use, and disposal of radioactive materials constitute potential local nuclear hazards. Finally, terrorist use of radioactive material poses a nuclear threat to all countries. (au)

  7. A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks.

  8. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  9. Diagnosis Aerobic Component of Operational Preparedness Skill Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance for the control system, selection and orientation of the players on the stage long-term preparation plays a selection of effective methods of testing the various components of functional fitness athlete for timely, objective information about the players. The use of reliable scientific methods of effective monitoring of the athlete contributes to the further improvement of skills, increase athletic achievements. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize modern methods of diagnosis and development of aerobic component of operational preparedness players qualifications. This article describes methods that actively and effectively used in leading European football teams. Specifically Yo-Yo test, test Shuttle (beep-test, Bangsbo test, test Hoff-Helgerud, test Conconi, Wingate-test. These tests have a high level of reliability and security mechanisms for assessing aerobic power players.

  10. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  11. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  12. Radiological incident preparedness for community hospitals: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mary Ellen

    2010-08-01

    In November 2007, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health Hospital Disaster Preparedness Program State Expert Panel on Radiation Emergencies issued a report titled The Management of Patients in a Radiological Incident. Gundersen Lutheran Health System was selected to conduct a demonstration project to implement the recommendations in that report. A comprehensive radiological incident response plan was developed and implemented in the hospital's Trauma and Emergency Center, including the purchase and installation of radiation detection and identification equipment, staff education and training, a tabletop exercise, and three mock incident test exercises. The project demonstrated that the State Expert Panel report provides a flexible template that can be implemented at community hospitals using existing staff for an approximate cost of $25,000.

  13. Prevention and preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with malevolent intention of causing potential threats to the society are much higher to those potential radiological emergencies from misplaced, orphan or lost radioactive sources. Large number of radioactive sources world over is transported for its application in various fields. The emergency preparedness and response system is less developed for potential radiological emergencies caused by them compared to those at nuclear facilities which are kept in readiness to respond to any kind of emergency. After the terrorist attack on WTC of 2001, there is significant concern world over about the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive material. This calls for prevention of stealing/smuggling of radioactive materials and improving the emergency response system. Use of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) are considered as possible radiological and nuclear threats, can lead to large area contamination in addition to the injuries caused by blast and thermal effects. (author)

  14. Preparation of site emergency preparedness plans for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Safety of public, occupational workers and the protection of environment should be assured while activities for economic and social progress are pursued. These activities include the establishment and utilisation of nuclear facilities and use of radioactive sources. This safety guidelines is issued as a lead document to facilitate preparation of specific site manuals by the responsible organisation for emergency response plans at each site to ensure their preparedness to meet any eventuality due to site emergency in order to mitigate its consequences on the health and safety of site personnel. It takes cognizance of an earlier AERB publications on the subject: Safety manual on site emergency plan on nuclear installations. AERB/SM/NISD-1, 1986 and also takes into consideration the urgent need for promoting public awareness and drawing up revised emergency response plans, which has come about in a significant manner after the accidents at Chernobyl and Bhopal

  15. H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    SaskPower's H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan was designed to prepare SaskPower employees for elevated levels of absenteeism during a potential pandemic. Emergency management and business continuity will be facilitated if critical duties and essential services are maintained without interruption. A layered approach was used to develop a range of response measures designed to meet a range of possible pandemic threats. The plan identified essential activities, tasks and functions and outlined methods of mitigating supply disruptions and possible shortages. Methods of minimizing illness in employees were discussed, as well as methods of maintaining a safe and secure work environment. The measures were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) 6 phases of pandemic alert. The plan was also designed to be read by SaskPower's key suppliers in order to ensure their pandemic readiness. 5 tabs.

  16. Nuclear emergency preparedness in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation emergency preparedness systems must be able to deal with the threats posed to each country and the region as a whole. The threats from nuclear accidents differ in the various countries of the region. The most serious nuclear threats are those with cross-border implications and are generally assumed to be due to the presence of nuclear reactors of various kinds. Some countries in the region, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Sweden, have nuclear power plants, and several countries in the region possess smaller research reactors. Other nuclear threats arise from nuclear powered naval vessels or submarines, and from nuclear powered satellites. Production, transportation, use, and disposal of radioactive materials constitute potential local nuclear hazards. Finally, terrorist use of radioactive material poses a nuclear threat to all countries. (au)

  17. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  18. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  19. Pediatric disaster preparedness: best planning for the worst-case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Mark X; Baum, Carl R

    2008-07-01

    Natural and man-made disasters are unpredictable but certainly will include children as victims. Increasingly, knowledge of pediatric disaster preparedness is required of emergency and primary care practitioners. A complete pediatric disaster plan comprises the following elements: appropriate personnel and equipment, disaster- and venue-specific training, and family preparedness. Disaster preparedness exercises are crucial for training plan implementation and response evaluation. Exercise content depends on local hazard vulnerabilities and learner training needs. Postexercise evaluations follow a stepwise process that culminates in improved disaster plans. This article will review disaster planning and the design, implementation, and evaluation of pediatric disaster exercises.

  20. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  1. Current status on educational program for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. S.; Kong, H. J.; Noh, J. H.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    There are several educational programs in worldwide for the user of radiation, radioisotopes, and nuclear power plant. REAC/TS is one of the most famous centers for radiation emergency personnel. REMPAN, one of the World Health Organization is also to promote the medical preparedness for radiation accident and provide advice and assistance in the case of radiation accident and radiological emergency. There are a variety of educational programs of radiation emergency, but not many programs of medical preparedness in Korea. Therefore, it is introduced here Korean current environment and future direction of educational programs for the radiation emergency medical preparedness

  2. Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others

    1995-02-01

    This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

  3. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  4. Emergency department staff preparedness for mass casualty events involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal; Avraham, Miri; Nasi-Bashari, Anat; Idelman, Sigalit; Peretz, Yaniv; Morag, Shani; Silner, Dina; Weiss, Gali

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the World Health Organization in general, and Israel in particular, have dealt with mass casualty events (MCEs) resulting from terrorism. Children are the casualties in many of these events-a reality that forces hospitals to prepare to deal with such a scenario. A literature review designed to identify unique recommendations regarding pediatric MCEs highlights both a lack of existing training programs and uncertainty on the part of health care staff when dealing with these events. The purpose of the study was to examine the preparedness level of emergency department staff to deal with MCEs involving pediatric casualties. The study included 104 physicians and nurses working in, or responding to, the emergency department at a hospital in Israel. The study included a 41-item questionnaire examining perception, approaches, and staff knowledge regarding dealing with pediatric MCEs versus those involving adults. The reliability of all sections of the questionnaire ranged between Chronbach's alpha coefficient 0.6 alpha-0.94. The preparedness levels for MCEs involving children were found to be low. Study participants ranked the likelihood of a pediatric MCE lower than one involving adults, while ranking significantly higher (P = .000) their ability to cope mentally and the knowledge and skills required when treating adults involved in MCEs. While nurses ranked higher than physicians regarding their knowledge and skills in dealing with pediatric MCE casualties, the level of knowledge for MCEs involving children was low in all subjects. Staff agreement for the parent of an MCE victim to be present during treatment was medium-low. On the basis of these findings, additional research involving a larger number of individuals and hospitals is indicated to determine if these results are consistent throughout the region.

  5. Hospital preparedness for possible nonconventional casualties: an Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Yoeli, Naomi; Paz, Gedalia; Barbash, Gabriel I; Varssano, David; Fertel, Nurit; Hassner, Avi; Drory, Margalit; Halpern, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    Since 9/11, hospitals and health authorities have been preparing medical response in case of various mass terror attacks. The experience of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in treating suicide-bombing mass casualties served, in the time leading up to the war in Iraq, as a platform for launching a preparedness program for possible attacks with biological and chemical agents of mass destruction. Adapting Quarantelli's criteria on disaster mitigation to the "microinfrastructure" of the hospital, and including human behavior experts, we attempted to foster an interactive emergency management process that would deal with contingencies stemming from the potential hazards of chemical and biological (CB) weapons. The main objective of our work was to encourage an organization-wide communication network that could effectively address the contingent hazards unique to this unprecedented situation. A stratified assessment of needs, identification of unique dangers to first responders, and assignment of team-training sessions paved the way for program development. Empowerment through leadership and resilience training was introduced to emergency team leaders of all disciplines. Focal subject matters included proactive planning, problem-solving, informal horizontal and vertical communication, and coping through stress-management techniques. The outcome of this process was manifested in an "operation and people" orientation supporting a more effective and compatible emergency management. The aim of article is to describe this process and to point toward the need for a broad-spectrum view in such circumstances. Unlike military units, the civilian hospital staff at risk, expected to deal with CB casualties, requires adequate personal consideration to enable effective functioning. Issues remain to be addressed in the future. We believe that collaboration and sharing of knowledge, information, and expertise beyond the medical realm is imperative in assisting hospitals to expedite

  6. Radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance network in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. S.; Kong, H. J.; Noh, J. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Kim, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nationwide Medical Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents as an integral part of nuclear safety system has been discussed for several years and Radiation Health Research Institute (RHRI) of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. was established on July, 1999. The National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC) of Korea Cancer Center Hospital was also founded on September, 2002. Two organizations have established Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network in Korea to cope with accidental situations in nuclear power plants and also in handling sites of radionuclides. In order to construct an effective Nationwide Emergency Medical Network System they maintain good cooperation among regional hospitals. RHRI is going to make three types of medical groups, that is to say, the collaboration of the regional (primary appointed) hospital group around the nuclear power plants, the regional core (secondary appointed) hospital group and the central core hospital (RHRI). NREMC is also playing a central role in collaboration with 10 regional hospitals. Two cores are working key role for the maintenance of the network. Firstly, They maintain a radiological emergency response team consisting of physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators, and necessary support personnel to provide first-line responders with consultative or direct medical and radiological assistance at their facility or at the accident site. Secondly, they serves educational programs for the emergency personnel of collaborating hospitals not only as a treatment facility but also as a central training and demonstration unit. Regularly scheduled courses for the physician and nurse, and health/medical physicists are conducted. Therefore, to activate Nationwide Emergency Medical Network System and to maintain it for a long time, well-trained specialists and budgetary supports are indispensable

  7. Academic preparedness of students – an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda du Plessis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high level of student failure, accompanied by an increased drop-out rate, is problematic in higher education. It is especially a concern in programmes with the subjects of Mathematics, Accounting and Science. Over many years, models of student admission and selection have been widely researched both internationally and in South Africa. Research indicates that in the academic domain, underpreparedness results from a combination of a lack of English proficiency, mathematical ability and effective study skills. In view of the above, and government policy directives to broaden access in the scarce skills areas to increase student throughput, foundation provision was introduced for students of Commerce, Information Technology, Business, Mathematics and Informatics courses at the Vaal Triangle Campus (VTC of North-West University (NWU in 2010. The question at that time then arose as to what criteria should be used for placing students in the extended programme. The placement of first-year students in appropriate programmes should be done with sensitivity to enhance academic success but, at the same time, should not ‘label’ students as underprepared. This paper provides perspectives on the selection criteria available for predicting academic success/preparedness, and then reports on students’ own experiences. An action research study was conducted on the academic achievement of two cohorts of first-year students at the VTC of NWU. The quantitative results of the performance of first-year students in their core modules are compared to the results of predictive tests written after admission. The results provide valuable insight into the placement of students. Keywords: Academic preparedness, extended programmes, national senior certificate, national benchmark test Disciplines: Education management studies, higher education studies

  8. Perceived Safety at Work in the Wake of Terror: The Importance of Security Measures and Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to explore how perceived safety after terrorism is connected to views on security measures and emergency preparedness in a workplace setting. Using a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study of ministerial employees in Norway who were targeted in a terrorist attack in 2011 (n=3344), we investigated how employees' perceived safety at work 9 to 10 months after the attack was associated with their perceptions of whether security measures were sufficiently prioritized at work, whether there had been sufficient escape and evacuation training, and whether they were confident with evacuation procedures. We found strong evidence of increasing perceived safety at work the more employees believed security measures were sufficiently prioritized at work (partially confounded by post-traumatic stress disorder), and the better their knowledge of evacuation procedures (modified by gender and education). The present study suggests that employers may enhance perceived safety at work for terror-exposed employees by showing a commitment to security measures and by ensuring employees know evacuation procedures well. More research is needed to investigate causality patterns behind the associations found in this cross-sectional study. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:805-811).

  9. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  10. Aged care managers' perceptions of staff preparedness for caring for older survivors of genocide and mass trauma in Australia: How prepared are aged care workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshuva, Karen; Wells, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    To investigate aged care managers' perceptions of staff preparedness for working with older people who experienced genocide or mass trauma earlier in their lives (referred to in this paper as 'older survivors'). A survey of 60 aged care service managers was conducted (50% response rate). Trauma knowledge and skills scales with Cronbach's alpha scores of 0.74 and 0.90 respectively, were used. Scores across groups were compared using Student's t-tests. Three-quarters of the respondents reported that their agency had provided aged care services for older survivors. The majority of these managers perceived their staff to be moderately informed about trauma-related issues and half rated staff trauma-related skills positively. These ratings were positively associated with trauma-related staff training, service type and service location. Results suggest that, overall, managers perceive a need to improve aged care staff's preparedness for providing care for older survivors. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  11. Institutional reforms of nuclear emergency preparedness in Japan and its challenges. Case studies on stakeholder involvement in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness in France and its implications for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the experiences with the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan is now making a comprehensive review of nuclear emergency preparedness. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has changed drastically its basic concept of nuclear emergency arrangements from their dependence on the prediction methods to advance planning-oriented arrangements. In order to implement such changes in an effective enough manner, this report examines how to improve stakeholder involvement focusing on the French cases, where the Local Information Commissions (CLI) plays a critical role, and thereby derives concrete lessons for Japan. Case studies on CLI's involvement in French nuclear emergency preparedness revealed the following implications for Japan; 1. Improving continuously the disaster prevention plans of local governments and of nuclear utilities thorough recursive cycles of disaster-preparedness drill and its evaluation for the benefits of local inhabitants, 2. Setting appropriate ranges wherein local stakeholders involve constantly in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness without alienating completely other stakeholders, 3. Utilizing the prediction systems not as a means to support decision-making in emergency situations but as a tool for facilitating stakeholder involvement in the phase of advance planning, and 4. Integrating nuclear emergency preparedness into other disaster preventions for reducing complex and unrecognized risks. (author)

  12. Survey on current status of international organizations and foreign countries for emergency preparedness and response and consider technical issues on guideline for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masanori; Ishikawa, Jun; Homma, Toshimitsu; Sato, Sohei

    2010-06-01

    This review report describes survey results on current status of nuclear emergency preparedness and response in international organizations such as ICRP and IAEA, and consideration results of technical issues on the 'Guideline for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness' issued by the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). First, we summarized the following points. The principle of intervention for protection of the public in radiological emergency indicated by ICRP recommendations. The basic concept on nuclear emergency preparedness and response shown by IAEA Safety Standard Series. Next, we considered technical issues on the guideline, such as basic requirements for nuclear emergency preparedness and response, development of EPZ, intervention level for protective measurement, decision criteria for selecting the proper protective action measurement and concept for the support system of experts, based on these survey results. In order to respond to nuclear emergency more effectively in Japan, the guideline should show the basic concept of nuclear emergency preparedness and response for the period between the beginning of the nuclear emergency and the termination of early protective actions. Then, it is important to develop the method of the threat assessment for nuclear facilities, emergency action level (EAL) for the emergency classification, the range of precautionary action zone (PAZ) and urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) in emergency planning phase, and the basic concept on the implement of protective measurements and operational intervention level (OIL) in emergency response phase. (author)

  13. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  14. Defense Civil Support: DOD, HHS, and DHS Should Use Existing Coordination Mechanisms to Improve Their Pandemic Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    ensuring the proper disposal of contaminated products and the decontamination of affected food facilities in order to protect the public health...could be almost twice the total number of battlefield fatalities in all of America’s wars since the American Revolution in 1776. A pandemic...since the American Revolution in 1776.1 In comparison, the number of U.S. fatalities (approximately 650,000) from the 1918-1919 “Spanish flu” pandemic

  15. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    sources. Taking advantage of global competition could also result in benefits to the U.S. military such as better technological innovation, reduction... globalization of the DoD acquisition process and proves the U.S. defense industry is not the end-all answer to achieving technological superiority on...dominance, and even more so now that the defense industry is moving towards globalization . Numerous means of technology transfer exist, including

  16. The self-care practices of family caregivers of persons with poor prognosis cancer: differences by varying levels of caregiver well-being and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Taylor, Richard A; Rocque, Gabrielle B; Azuero, Andres; Acemgil, Aras; Martin, Michelle Y; Astin, Meka; Ejem, Deborah; Kvale, Elizabeth; Heaton, Karen; Pisu, Maria; Partridge, Edward E; Bakitas, Marie A

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the impact of family caregiving for adults with poor prognosis cancer on caregivers' own individual self-care practices. We explored differences in caregivers' discrete self-care practices associated with varying levels of caregiver well-being, preparedness, and decision-making self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey within eight community-based southeastern U.S. cancer centers was conducted. Family caregivers of Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years with pancreatic, lung, brain, ovarian, head and neck, hematologic, or stage IV cancer completed measures of individual self-care practices (health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, stress management, and sleep), well-being (anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life [HRQoL]), preparedness, and decision-making self-efficacy. Caregivers (n = 294) averaged 66 years, were mostly female (72.8%), white (91.2%), Protestant (76.2%), retired (54.4%), and patients' spouse/partner (60.2%). Approximately, half were rural-dwellers (46.9%) with incomes 1 year (68%). Nearly a quarter (23%) reported high depression and 34% reported borderline or high anxiety. Low engagement in all self-care practices was associated with worse caregiver anxiety, depression, and mental HRQoL (all p values Caregivers with lower health responsibility, spiritual growth, interpersonal relation, and stress management scores had lower preparedness and decision-making self-efficacy. A significant proportion of caregivers simultaneously report low engagement in all forms of self-care practices, high depression and anxiety, and low HRQoL mental health scores. Caregiver well-being, preparedness, and decision-making self-efficacy might be optimized through interventions targeted at enhancing health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and spiritual growth self-care practices.

  17. Defense mechanisms in congenital and acquired facial disfigurement: a clinical-empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J

    2012-04-01

    It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style.

  18. Good practices in transportation evacuation preparedness and response : results of the FHWA Workshop Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This document provides an overview of the good practices identified during a series of multi-state workshops on Transportation Evacuation Preparedness and Response in four regions across the United States. Good practices are not presented in priority...

  19. Improving emergency preparedness and crisis management capabilities in transportation : year 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    While disaster preparedness and emergency management have had a high public : profile over the past decade, Hurricane Katrina revealed serious weaknesses in the : United States emergency response capabilities. There is thus much left to do : befor...

  20. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... response, including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness... INFORMATION: Written comments are sought in light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health...