WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense nanotechnology research

  1. Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-17

    that can be dyed to match specific patterns and woven into uniforms. • An electrospun fiberized adhesive has been developed for fabric laminates...150 by 30 crossbars ). • High moment, magnetic nano-tags have been fabricated that allow DNA fingerprinting without DNA amplification (i.e., the... learned , and DoD guidance is critical to assure both the optimum direction of ongoing research efforts and the optimum leveraging of this knowledge to

  2. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  3. Introduction to Nanotechnology for Defense Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) and Research Professionals in Support of the Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    www.denix.osd.mil/MERIT Ultra fine particles ~50 1713- Ramazzini described black 197 4- First GMO lung disease mouse created by Jaenisch Diesel...exhaust Engineered NP _____ _,.? • GMO Technology 1985- Oberdorster described inhalation toxicity of Ti02 2003-lssue recognized by EPA, NIOSH...other agencies 2004- California pass broad ban on GMO products Growing Body of EHS Research Far-reaching implications or singular exceptions

  4. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  5. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  6. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  7. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.

  8. Micro- and nanotechnologies in plankton research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Javeed Shaikh

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding of the vast range of plankton and their interactions with the marine environment would allow prediction of their large-scale impact on the marine ecosystem, and provide in-depth knowledge on pollution and climate change. Numerous technologies, especially lab-on-a-chip microsystems, are being used to this end. Marine biofouling is a global issue with significant economic consequences. Ecofriendly polymer nanotechnologies are being developed to combat marine biofouling. Furthermore, nanomaterials hold great potential for bioremediation and biofuel production. Excellent reviews covering focused topics in plankton research exist, with only a handful discussing both micro- and nanotechnologies. This work reviews both micro- and nanotechnologies applied to broad-ranging plankton research topics including flow cytometry, chemotaxis/toxicity assays, biofilm formation, marine antifouling/fouling-release surfaces and coatings, green energy, green nanomaterials, microalgae immobilization, and bioremediation. It is anticipated that developments in plankton research will see engineered exploitation of micro- and nanotechnologies. The current review is therefore intended to promote micro-/nanotechnology researchers to team up with limnologists/oceanographers, and develop novel strategies for understanding and green exploitation of the complex marine ecosystem.

  9. Nanotechnology research in Turkey: A university-driven achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Beyhan; M. Teoman Pamukçu

    2011-01-01

    We deal with nanotechnology research activities in Turkey. Based on publication data retrieved from ISI Web of SSCI database, the main actors and the main characteristics of nanotechnology research in Turkey are identified. Following a brief introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology research, it goes on with a discussion on nanotechnology related science and technology policy efforts in developing countries and particularly in Turkey. Then using bibliometric methods and social network an...

  10. Integrative filtration research and sustainable nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Drew Thompson; David Y.H.Pui

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of nanomaterials in an array of industries,more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace,and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems.Studies on environmental,health and safety (EHS) issues of nanomaterials play a significant role in public acceptance,and eventual sustainability,of nanotechnology.We present research results on three aspects of the EHS studies:characterization and measurement of nanoparticles,nanoparticle emission and exposure at workplaces,and control and abatement of nanoparticle release using filtration technology.Measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates using a newly developed instrument,the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer,is discussed.Nanoparticle emission and exposure measurement results for carbon nanotubes in the manufacture of nanocomposites and for silicon nanoparticles in their production at a pilot scale facility are presented.Filtration of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates are also studied.

  11. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  12. Research trends in nanotechnology studies across geo-economic areas

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current temporal and spatial research trajectories in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies in order to display the worldwide patterns of research fields across main economic players. The results show the leadership of Europe and North America in nanotechnology research, although the role of China has been growing over time. Current nanotechnology studies have been growing in chemistry and medicine because of applications of nanomaterials mainly in...

  13. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Please review the report findings and recommendations. I am interested in receiving your feedback for inclusion in programs wherever these...needed culture shift to utilize their existing authorities. Finally, expanded coordination among intermural basic research portfolios across the Labs...research portfolios across the Labs without creating additional administrative burdens is needed. The defense research enterprise should

  14. Research and application of nanotechnology in transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available effects that the technology may have on aspects such as safety, durability, economics and sustainability of the transportation infrastructure. The most important challenge in this endeavour is that of scaling nanotechnology to ensure that the benefits...

  15. Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Structuring matter on the nanometer range is much more that just making things smaller than in existing microscale devices. Rather the exploitation of phenomena that stem exclusively from the nanoscale dimensions of device elements holds the promise of new functionalities and applications in various fields as electronics, mechanics, optics or medicine. I will give a general introduction in the basics of nanotechnology, illustrated by existing and envisaged applications from which a strong impact on both science and our daily life is to be expected. I will also discuss the methodology and experimental techniques, as scanning probe microscopies and lithography.

  16. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  17. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Remillard, S.; Kapustka, L.; Goudey, S.

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field. There are currently over 500 consumer products available in the marketplace and the field of nanotechnology itself that will be worth over 1 trillion by 2012. However, with an increasing number of products emerging, there is also a consequent rise in ecological and human exposure. The risk and degree of exposure to nanoscale particles (NP) will vary depending on the form of the particle, for example, powder, liquid or encapsulated, when contact occurs. Although, general public exposure to NP is increasing due to the shear number of products available, the majority of human exposure still occurs in an occupational setting. Preliminary exposure studies demonstrate that NP may enter the body via the gastrointestinal, respiratory and integumentary systems and then translocate to other vital organs and systems (for example via the olfactory bulb). Historical data on ultrafine particles have shown a higher incidence of lung cancer and respiratory disorders associated with exposure. Due to these data and evidence emerging directly on NP, precautionary measures may be warranted to ensure worker safety. Regulatory agencies and manufacturers are beginning to consider standard practices that adequately protect workers from nanoscale particle exposure. The occupational hazards associated with exposure and the current safety recommendations will be discussed.

  18. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin

    2016-01-01

    Present an overview of the Nanotechnology Project at NASA's Game Changing Technology Industry Day. Mature and demonstrate flight readiness of CNT reinforced composites for future NASA mission applications?Sounding rocket test in a multiexperiment payload?Integrate into cold gas thruster system as propellant storage?The technology would provide the means for reduced COPV mass and improved damage tolerance and flight qualify CNT reinforced composites. PROBLEM/NEED BEING ADDRESSED:?Reduce weight and enhance the performance and damage tolerance of aerospace structuresGAME-CHANGING SOLUTION:?Improve mechanical properties of CNTs to eventually replace CFRP –lighter and stronger?First flight-testing of a CNT reinforced composite structural component as part of an operational flight systemUNIQUENESS:?CNT manufacturing methods developed?Flight qualify CNT reinforced composites

  19. The state of research after 25 years of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In 1990 the transistor was big—not just hugely prevalent in day-to-day devices but literally large in size compared with present day counterparts. Still, as Christoph Gerber describes in our latest Nanotechnology Discussions podcast [1], with transistor footprints decreasing every two years as described in Moore's law, by 1990 the electronics industry saw itself broaching new territory: nanotechnology. Atoms had made their debut as real-world observables with the first scanning probe microscopes only a few years previously, prompted by efforts to understand how physical systems behave at this scale. And in this heady climate of burgeoning nanoscale innovations Nanotechnology published its first issue, the world's first academic journal dedicated to nanoscale science and technology. This year the journal publishes its 25th volume and to celebrate we have commissioned a special issue presenting a snapshot of developments leading some of the most active areas in the field today [2]. As nanotechnology has matured both device-focused and fundamental research have placed high demands on improving fabrication processes to generate structures cheaply, efficiently and reliably. Since its discovery graphene has been under close scrutiny for the potential to exploit its optical transparency, mechanical flexibility and high carrier mobility. 'However', point out Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun Ahn and colleagues in Korea, 'it is still significantly challenging to develop clean and simple fabrication procedures'. They demonstrate how photo-curable ion gel gate dielectrics can be used to produce self-aligned flexible graphene transistors and inverters [3] simply without extra graphene-patterning steps. Sang Ouk Kim and colleagues at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology demonstrate another method for avoiding complex fabrication techniques, creating highly aligned graphene nanoribbon with their mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography and directed self-assembly [4

  20. Concise review: carbon nanotechnology: perspectives in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzhkova, Marina V

    2013-05-01

    Carbon nanotechnology has developed rapidly during the last decade, and carbon allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes, have already found a wide variety of applications in industry, high-tech fields, biomedicine, and basic science. Electroconductive nanomaterials have attracted great attention from tissue engineers in the design of remotely controlled cell-substrate interfaces. Carbon nanoconstructs are also under extensive investigation by clinical scientists as potential agents in anticancer therapies. Despite the recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. However, acquired experience with and knowledge of carbon nanomaterials may be efficiently used in the development of future personalized medicine and in tissue engineering.

  1. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  2. Brazilian research dedicated to nanotechnology and risks to health and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Maria Simone de Menezes; Bochner,Rosany; Dias, Miriam Ferreira Freire

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has great potential to transform science and industry in a lot of areas. Despite the large interest in research in this area, the safety risks and the impact of the use of nanotechnology on health are still underexplored. This study aims to identify the research conducted in Brazil regarding the risks involving the use of nanotechnology. It was based on Directory of Research Groups and on Currículo Lattes. We detected 798 articles about nanotechnology and health, but only 41 of...

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-06-01

    'Negative space' may be as important in the development of nanomaterials as it is in creating works of art. The term refers to the space around and between objects, an important aspect in artistic composition. In nanotechnology, while nanoposts and nanowires have been assiduously studied and exploited for enhancing the performance of solar cells [1], real-time chemical sensors [2], UV emitters [3] and many other applications, nanopore structures have also yielded important advances in a wide range of fields. In this issue Melnikov, Leburton and Gracheva report on the electrostatic properties of nanopores in a layered semiconductor, and show how they allow a more accurate characterization of DNA than pores in other membranes [4]. Nanoporous materials have been applied to a diverse range of technological challenges. In recognition of its potential in high-efficiency solar cells, Prakasam and colleagues in the US reported the first ever synthesis of self-aligned nanoporous haematite [5]. Haematite is abundant, stable, non-toxic and has a band gap in the visible region and, as their work demonstrates, the photoresponse of nanoporous haematite is very promising for energy harvesting applications. Nanoporous aluminum oxide has also proved to be a particularly valuable material in applications ranging from liquid display panels to biosensor microchips. A collaboration of researchers in Taiwan demonstrated that porous aluminum oxide on an indium tin oxide surface could act as an alignment layer in liquid crystal display panels that have a transmittance of 60-80%, and switch from black to bright with a response time of 62.5 ms [6]. In Korea, Chung, Son and Min investigated the effect of nanostructural parameters of porous aluminum oxide on cell adhesion and proliferation for cell-based microchips [7]. While aluminum oxide without any modifications is not favourable for adherent cell culture, the proliferation of cells dramatically increased in porous aluminum oxide

  4. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhov, A. I., E-mail: a.i.terekhov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing 'centers of excellence.' It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  5. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, A. I.

    2012-11-01

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing "centers of excellence." It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  6. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belicchi, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Cancedda, R. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Cedola, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Gavina, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Komlev, V.S. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); Institute for Physical Chemistry of Ceramics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ozernaya 48, 119361 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Renghini, C. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Rustichelli, F., E-mail: f.rustichelli@univpm.i [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  7. The role of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on development of nanotechnology in the field of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy that can improve the quality of life for patients with refractory diseases. However, this option is limited by the scarcity of tissues, ethical problem, and tumorigenicity. Nanotechnology is another promising therapy that can be used to mimic the extracellular matrix, label the implanted cells, and also can be applied in the tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce implementation of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research. Finally, the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also discussed.

  8. Science system path-dependencies and their influences: nanotechnology research in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaulova, Maria; Gök, Abdullah; Shackleton, Oliver; Shapira, Philip

    In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia's limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russian nanotechnology research: publication pathways and the gatekeeping role of the Russian Academy of Sciences; increasing geographical and institutional centralisation of nanotechnology research; limited institutional diffusion; and patterns associated with the internationalisation of Russian research. We discuss policy implications related to path dependence, nanotechnology research in Russia and to the broader reform of the Russian science system.

  9. 78 FR 4150 - Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan...: Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance. SUMMARY... and Prevention (CDC) seeks comment on the types of hazard identification and risk management...

  10. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood. © 2013.

  11. The Impact of Nanotechnology Energetics on the Department of Defense by 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    in combustible nano-materials, and a new class of very small, extremely lethal weapon system will emerge. Illinois University Prof D. Scott Stewart...Shock Waves, Vol. 45, 2009. Besley , John, Victoria Kramer, and Susanna Priest. “Expert Opinion on Nanotechnology: Risks, Benefits, and Regulation

  12. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  13. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  14. Research on the societal impacts of nanotechnology: a preliminary comparison of USA, Europe and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We initiate some comparisons between Japan, Europe and USA on how far there is governmental support for the ethical, legal, social and environmental dimensions of nanotechnology development. It is evident that in the USA and Europe nanotechnology is now firmly embedded in the consideration of ELSI. Yet Japan has not yet adequately recognized the importance of these dimensions. The history of bioethics in Japan is short. In Europe, as early as 2004, a nanotechnology report by the UK's Royal Society referred to the possibility of some nanotubes and fibres having asbestos-like toxicity. The negative history of asbestos in Europe and USA is not yet fully identified as a Japanese problem. Japan is therefore in the process of seeking how best to address societal aspects of nanotechnology. Should the precautionary principle be applied to Japan's nanotechnology initiative as in Europe? Should 5-10% of the government's nanotechnology budget be allocated to ELSI research and measures? We propose that the government and industrial sector in Japan play a much more proactive part in the regional and international growth of research into the wider risk assessment, social, health and environmental context of nanotechnologies, not simply try to borrow lessons from the West at a later date.

  15. [Responsible research and development? Translating absences from nanotechnology in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Paulo F C; Pereira, Tiago Santos

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how responsible innovation has been discussed and implemented in the context of one of the Portuguese government's main activities to foster nanotechnology. Through the actor-network theory and the sociology of absences, we investigate the process of coproduction at the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory to identify how concerns about responsible development have been implemented or ignored in the rules and practices. The institute emerged from a sociotechnical imagination that views it as an autonomous unit for producing technological innovations aimed exclusively at increasing competitiveness in a global market, which has been an obstacle to the materialization of robust responsible development practices.

  16. Structure of the Global Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    and stability of low-content gold- cerium oxide catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction Cluster Metrics Authors wu, sh 7 wang, xy 7 zheng...Nanoparticle; Nanotube; Nanostructure; Nanocomposite; Nanowire; Nanocrystal; Nanofiber; Nanofibre; Nanosphere; Nanorod; Nanotechnology; Nanocluster ...properties/thermal properties, crystal structure/crystallinity • Phenomena: Deposition, oxidation , crystallization, catalytic activity, nucleation

  17. [Contribution of research to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Boccuni, F

    2008-01-01

    The newly-fledged nanotechnologies offer opportunities for social development but uncertainties prevail about their impact on human and environmental health. Right now there is still a huge gap between technological progress and research into the health and safety aspects of nanomaterials. This is clear from the quantity of nano-products already on the market--more than 600--and the public and private funds dedicated to the development of nanotechnologies, which are almost a hundred times those available for research into their effects on health and safety. Estimates have it that by 2014 nanotechnologies will be widely used in our society, and ten million new jobs will be created. Therefore it becomes essential to plan an integrated approach to specific risk analysis at work. The following gaps and needs come to light: limited information; difficulties in relating nanotechnologies and production of nanomaterials to specific areas of application; efforts required to assess the hazards posed by nanomaterials in realistic exposure conditions; ethical issues about nanotechnology in the workplace likely to arise from today's knowledge about the hazards of nanomaterials and the risks they may pose to workers. An integrated approach to research, cooperation and communication strategies is essential if we are to direct our efforts towards responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnologies.

  18. Bio-Nanotechnology: Challenges for Trainees in a Multidisciplinary Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of nanotechnology have provided scientists with a new set of nanoscale materials, tools and devices in which to investigate the biological science thus creating the mulitdisciplinary field of bio-nanotechnology. Bio-nanotechnology merges the biological sciences with other scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry to engineering. Todays students must have a working knowledge of a variety of scientific disciplines in order to be successful in this new field of study. This talk will provide insight into the issue of multidisciplinary education from the perspective of a graduate student working in the field of bio-nanotechnology. From the classes we take to the research we perform, how does the modern graduate student attain the training required to succeed in this field?

  19. A South African research agenda to investigate the potential environmental, health and safety risks of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Ashton

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African perspective on nanotechnology, recently articulated through its national strategy, envisages nanotechnology to provide solutions to some of the country’s key development challenges, such as the provision of safe water and the innovative delivery of health services. The adoption of nanotechnology is therefore being encouraged and nanomaterials are being manufactured on a small scale for research and development purposes. The national strategy places the most emphasis on supporting the design, manufacture, synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials and developing human capital and infrastructure. However, South Africa has yet to develop a national research strategy to investigate the environmental, health and safety risks of nanotechnology. This paper provides a brief overview of the risk-related research challenges that have been reported internationally. These challenges form the basis of a research framework and a prioritised agenda is proposed to take research forward in the South African context. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the environmental, health and safety risks will help to ensure the long-term sustainability of nanotechnologies.

  20. 2nd FP7 Conference and International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 2nd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” and International Research and Practice Conference “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”, NANO-2013, which were held in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 25-September 1, 2013. These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Pr...

  1. Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmenta, Health, and Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    using in vitro methods. http://www.nano.gov/html/society/EHSprojects.html#B2-3 B2-4 Nanomedex, IncNanomedex Propofol Microemulsions: Preclinical Studies...To Fda Ind Application 2R44GM072142-02 The goal of this grant is to make a nanoparticle-based emulsion of the propofol , a widely used anesthetic...EHSprojects.html#B5-7 B5-8 University of WashingtonNanotechnology Platform for Pediatric Brain Cancer Image 5R01CA119408-02 The goal of this grant is to

  2. From nanotechnology to nanomedicine: applications to cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneuric, R; Markey, L; Nuyten, D S A; Dubernet, C; Evelo, C T A; Finot, E; Garrido, C

    2010-10-01

    Scientific advances have significantly improved the practice of medicine by providing objective and quantitative means for exploring the human body and disease states. These innovative technologies have already profoundly improved disease detection, imaging, treatment and patient follow-up. Today's analytical limits are at the nanoscale level (one-billionth of a meter) enabling a detailed exploration at the level of DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites which are in fact nano-objects. This translational review aims at integrating some recent advances from micro- and nano-technologies with high potential for improving daily oncology practice.

  3. Understanding researchers’ strategic behaviour in knowledge production: a case of social science and nanotechnology researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to understand the strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields – nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach The author conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic

  4. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Manjon, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany); Barcikowski, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.barcikowski@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Chair of Technical Chemistry I (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO{sub 2} or SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  5. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  6. Nanotechnology knowledge diffusion: measuring the impact of the research networking and a strategy for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Hsinchun; Larson, Catherine A.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2014-09-01

    Given the global increase in public funding for nanotechnology research and development, it is even more important to support projects with promising return on investment. A main return is the benefit to other researchers and to the entire field through knowledge diffusion, invention, and innovation. The social network of researchers is one of the channels through which this happens. This study considers the scientific publication network in the field of nanotechnology, and evaluates how knowledge diffusion through coauthorship and citations is affected in large institutions by the location and connectivity of individual researchers in the network. The relative position and connectivity of a researcher is measured by various social network metrics, including degree centrality, Bonacich Power centrality, structural holes, and betweenness centrality. Leveraging the Cox regression model, we analyzed the temporal relationships between knowledge diffusion and social network measures of researchers in five leading universities in the United States using papers published from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the most significant effects on knowledge diffusion in the field of nanotechnology were from the structural holes of the network and the degree centrality of individual researchers. The data suggest that a researcher has potential to perform better in knowledge creation and diffusion on boundary-spanning positions between different communities and when he or she has a high level of connectivity in the knowledge network. These observations may lead to improved strategies in planning, conducting, and evaluating multidisciplinary nanotechnology research. The paper also identifies the researchers who made most significant contributions to nanotechnology knowledge diffusion in the networks of five leading U.S. universities.

  7. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  8. Strategies on technology transfer and patents commercialization for nanotechnology at the Spanish National Research Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maira, Javier; Etxabe, Javier; Serena, Pedro A

    2017-06-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology made their appearance in the scientific scene at a time when both the economy of Spain and the Spanish Research and Innovation System were experiencing strong growth. This circumstance resulted in a remarkable development of nanoscience and nanotechnology especially in universities and public research institutions such as the Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - CSIC). However, this development in academia has not been reflected in a similar increment in the transfer of knowledge to the productive sector despite several efforts and initiatives were launched. The CSIC, the main generator of scientific knowledge in Spain, has designed and implemented a series of actions in order to take advantage of the knowledge generated in nanotechnology by its research groups by mean of an appropriate transfer to both the Spanish and the international industry. This article describes the measures taken in last decade for the protection and commercialization of research results in the field of nanotechnology, as well as the results that were achieved. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. NanoSTAIR: A new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipiña, J.M.L. de; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the

  10. Nanotechnology and Ethics: The Role of Regulation Versus Self-Commitment in Shaping Researchers' Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Harms, Rainer; Hatak, I.

    2012-01-01

    The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus regul

  11. NanoSTAIR: A new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipiña, J.M.L. de; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the

  12. Research councils facing new science and technology : the case of nanotechnology in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Most, F.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates how research funding organizations (RFOs) respond to a new emerging field of science and technology. It takes nanoscience and nanotechnology (nanotechnology for short) as its case and compares the responses of RFOs in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Finland.

  13. 76 FR 8788 - National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...-EU Workshop: Public Meeting AGENCY: National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, STPO. ACTION: Notice... nanomaterials and nanotechnology-enabled products, to encourage joint US-EU programs of work that would leverage... contact/ interest groups/themes between key US and EU researchers for near-term and future...

  14. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R&D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described.

  15. Potential of nanotechnology as a delivery platform against tuberculosis: current research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Kusum Devi, V

    2015-03-28

    This review focusses on the current ongoing research in the field of tuberculosis comprising the resistant strains. It specifies a proper data analysis with results in concise form from areas gripping in: diagnostic nanotechnology, vaccine nanotechnology and the prime field of interest i.e., therapeutic nanotechnology. Primarily, therapeutic area recollects the research findings from advanced drug delivery (primary era) to the targeted drug delivery (modern era). The vaccine-based area derives the immune-specific targeting with enhanced emphasis on vaccine extraction and preparation of nanoparticles. Finally, the diagnostic area signifies the imaging techniques that may be employed in the diagnosis of TB. Not only that, there are some researches that emphasized on finding the comparable diagnostic differences between normal and resistant strains. With the advent of carbon nanotubes, metallic NPs, a newer hope has emerged out in diagnostic research, which may extend to therapeutic research applications too. Modifications of natural polymers, least or no use of organic solvents, size controlled NPs, optimized methodology, etc., are fields that need more effort to bypass toxicity. If above desired possibilities get the priority during research, it may lead to shift in the timeline towards much more oriented research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  17. Selected proceedings of the FP7 International Summer School Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Brodin, Mikhaylo; Nanomaterials imaging techniques, surface studies, and applications

    2013-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research on a wide range of nanotechnology techniques and applications.  It features contributions from scientists who participated in the International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 26 – September 2, 2012 funded by the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning implemented by the Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and partner institutions: University of Tartu (Estonia), European Profiles A.E. (Greece), University of Turin (Italy) and Université Pierre et Marie Curie (France).  Worldwide experts present the latest results on such key topics as microscopy of nanostructures; nanocomposites; nanostructured interfaces and surfaces; nanooptics; nanoplasmonics; and enhanced vibrational spectroscopy.  Imaging technique coverage ranges from atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy, multiphoton imagery, and laser diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanostructures, to resonance ...

  18. Research on Vibration Isolation Systems Used in Laser and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Kuncė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the efficiency of a vibration isolation system made of the optical table and two negative-stiffness tables and considers excitation referring to harmonic and nonharmonic methods in the frequency range of 0,2–110 Hz. The article reviews the types and sources of vibrations and types of vibration isolation systems, including those of negative-stiffness. The paper also presents the methodology of experimental tests and proposes research on vibration transmissibility. A composite system consisting of two vibration isolation table having negative stiffness and an air table has been tested. The results and conclusions of experimental analysis are suggested at the end of the article.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Research priorities to advance eco-responsible nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro J J; Colvin, Vicki; Lead, Jamie; Stone, Vicki

    2009-07-28

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are rapidly being incorporated into a wide variety of commercial products with significant potential for environmental release, which calls for eco-responsible design and disposal of nanoenabled products. Critical research needs to advance this urgent priority include (1) structure-activity relationships to predict functional stability and chemistry of MNMs in the environment and to discern properties that increase their bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity; (2) standardized protocols to assess MNM bioavailability, trophic transfer, and sublethal effects; and (3) validated multiphase fate and transport models that consider various release scenarios and predict the form and concentration of MNMs at the point of exposure. These efforts would greatly benefit from the development of robust analytical techniques to characterize and to track MNMs in the environment and to validate models and from shared reference MNM libraries.

  20. Nanotechnology Characterization Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  1. Nanotechnology and Global Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrian M Ionescu

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper provides an introduction to nanotechnology as a strategic research and industry field, presents trends with key potential impact and examines related policy and security implications...

  2. Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    critical feature size of Si-based, field-effect transistors has dropped below 50 nm, and yet continued reduction in transistor dimensions is...varied in our experiments, we cannot determine the overall effect it has on switching behavior. A distinguishing feature of the TiOx-based devices...Slocik, J.E. Van Nostrand, N.J. Halas, and R.R. Naik, “Electrical conductivity of cationized ferritin decorated gold nanoshells ”, J. Appl. Phys. 111

  3. South African research agenda to investigate the potential environmental, health and safety risks of nanotechnology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available . Nanomaterials – the driving force. Nanotoday. 2003;12:20–29. 2. Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars. A nanotechnology consumer products inventory project on emerging nanotechnologies [homepage on the Internet]. c2008 [cited 2008 Sep 16... of nanotechnologies. Project on emerging nanotechnologies, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN 10 [document online]. c2007 [cited 2008 Aug 14]. Available from: http://www.nanotechproject.org/ publications/archive/pen_10_-_where_does/ 13. Musee N...

  4. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Nanotechnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ...--Nanotechnology Enterprise Consortium Notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of... venture are: Nanotechnology Enterprise, Inc. Columbia, MO; The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL; CertTech, LLC... collaborate on applying nanotechnology to create innovation products for commercial and military use...

  5. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims Bainbridge, William [National Science Foundation, Division of Information and Intelligent Systems (United States)], E-mail: wbainbri@nsf.gov

    2002-12-15

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society.

  6. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  7. 3rd International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights the most recent advances in nanoscience from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond.  It features contributions from participants of the 3rd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations,” held in Yaremche, Ukraine on August 23-26, 2014 and of the 2nd International NANO-2014 Conference, held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 27-30, 2014.  These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France).  Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results in the areas of nanocomposites and nanomaterials, nanostructured surfaces, microscopy of nano-objects, nano-optics and nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, nanochemistry, na...

  8. Report of the Defense Science Board Subcommittee on Department of Defense Research Policy. Part 1. Policy on Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-12-31

    f. .. AD-A955 482 Report of the Defen e Science Board Subcomtnittee on Depart•eat of Defense RESEARCH POLICY OTIC SELECTED NOV 2 91J88 0(/H...ACCESSION NO NA 11 TITLE (inc/ud* Stcunty Oassificat/on) Report of the Defense Science Board Subcomittee on Department of Defense Research Policy , Part...Defense Research Policy Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering Washington, D. C. 31 December 1963 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE

  9. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Situation in Europe and the World: A Code of Conduct for Responsible European Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiay, Philippe

    The code of conduct for responsible research in nanoscience and nanotechnology adopted and proposed to the Member States of the European Union by the European Commission on 7 February 2008 is the only one of its kind in the world. It results from an approach that is unusual enough to deserve deeper analysis.

  11. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  12. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Autonomous Language Exploitation ...................................................................... 33 Figure 35: Bio-inspired "Big Dog" quadruped robot is... Acqusition , Technology and the United States, while creating Logistics Kenneth J. Krieg technological surprise for our • Under Secretaryof Defense for...working to maintain our global lead in this technology (Section 3.7). " Real-Time Accurate Language Translation: real-time machine language

  13. Nanotechnology in Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasimha, Sudhindra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nanotechnology has revolutionized our approach to medical diagnostics as well as therapeutics and has spanned an entirely new branch of research. This review addresses the potential applications of Nanotechnology in Urology. This article is based on the Dr. Sitharaman Best Essay award of the Urological Society of India for 2016. Methods: A PubMed search was performed for all relevant articles using the terms, “nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanoscaffolds, and nanofibers.” Results: The developments in diagnostics include novel techniques of imaging of genitourinary malignancies, prostate-specific antigen measurement, early detection of mutations that are diagnostic for polycystic kidney disease. The potential applications of nanotechnology are in the targeted therapy of genitourinary malignancies, erectile dysfunction, overactive bladder, bladder reconstruction, construction of artificial kidneys and biodegradable stents as well as in robotic surgery. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging branch of research in urology with diverse and clinically significant applications in diagnostics as well as therapeutics. PMID:28197024

  14. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societ

  15. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  16. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  17. Research on Nonlinear Dynamics with Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    numerical verifications, we have experimentally realized the scheme by using a Duffing -type of nonlinear electronic oscillator (originally developed by C...circuits In defense applications it may be desirable to induce chaos in nonlinear oscillators operating in a stable regime. Examples of such oscillators ...evolutions of the target Duffing circuit and deliver resonant perturbations to generate robust chaotic attractors. A brief account of the work has been

  18. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  19. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  20. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  1. Making Department of Defense Basic Research Purple (Joint), but NOT the Department of Defense Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    outside of government, where they report to the chief executive officer (CEO) or to the CEO through a chief technology officer ( CTO ). The panel...Technology ASDR&E Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering CEO chief executive officer COE Center of Excellence CTO chief

  2. In Defense of Positivist Research Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Presents a prototypical case illustrating what positivist research means and argues that even critics of positivist research are logically committed to propositions that can be tested only through positivist research paradigms. The relationship between the nature of a community's research enterprise and its educational provisions must be causal.…

  3. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    compensation point model include measures of wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and leaf apoplast chemistry (Sutton et al...Supporting Researcher(s) and Staff: Ignacio Moore (Virginia Tech); 1 post-doctoral researcher Hypotheses: 1. Stress hormone levels of target bird...velocity, barometric pressure, humidity, solar radiation, SEDIMENTOLOGY Texture and composition, sediment compaction and distribution of hard bottom

  4. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 3, Issue 78, July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    for National Security and Resource Strategy Dr. J. Ronald Fox Harvard Business School Mr. David Gallop Defense Acquisition University Dr. Jacques...Predator: The Secret Origins of the Drone Revolution Written by Richard Whittle Reviewed by Julien Demotes-Mainard Mr. Patrick Fitzgerald Defense...Defense Acquisition Research Journal, formerly the Defense Acquisition Review Journal, is published quarterly by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU

  5. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  6. Nanotechnology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana, Kumar R; Vijayalakshmi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  7. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saravana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  8. What Students and Researchers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Should Know about PUS and STS: A Look at Fages and Albe's Viewpoint on Social Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Master's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe ("Cult Stud Sci Educ" 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of…

  9. Cyber Defense Research and Monitoring Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility acts as a fusion point for bridging ARL's research in tactical and operational Information Assurance (IA) areas and the development and assessment of...

  10. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  11. Institutional Research: Offense, Defense, Coach, or Referee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    A college or university's intercollegiate athletics program is a visible and sensitive component of a campus about which pressures for data and information can become intense quickly. The campus institutional research professional and other campus administrators must be prepared to face this challenge knowledgeably and responsibly. (MSE)

  12. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , private foundations, and others (Figure 1b). These disparate funding sources may fund...Reed and his team’s discovery and confirmation of the transmission of deadly diseases such as typhoid fever and yellow fever. 5 Researchers also...contributed to the development of intravenous therapy for cholera ; 6 and the development of anti- malarial agents such as chloroquine, doxycycline

  13. Analysis of Co-Authorship Indicators, Betweenness Centrality and Structural Holes of the Iranian Nanotechnology Researchers in Science Citation Index (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate Iranian papers on nanotechnology area against some scientometrics indicators such as most prolific, most cited and so on. The statistical population were all papers have been published by Iranian researchers on nanotechnology in the Science Citation Index (SCI from 1991 to 7 August 2011 (4605 records that has been done with the aim of identifying, the most prolific, most cited and most effect of Iranian nanotechnology scientists. The results showed that the collaborative index in per-document was 3.39. The highest collaborative index was in 1997 with six authors by per-document. Iranian nanotechnology researchers' degree of collaboration was 0.96 this indicates, greater tendency of nanotechnology authors towards co-authorship. Considering total collaboration coefficient (0.64, nanotechnology authors have shown tendency to production of scientific collaborative document. The highest collaboration coefficient (0.83 And the lowest collaboration coefficient (0.5 have been allocated to the 1997 and 1991 respectively.

  14. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunxiang; Zhang Li; Chen Pengdian [Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Chen Guizhen, E-mail: cgzhen2000@163.com [Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunxiang; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guizhen; Chen, Pengdian

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Nanotechnology: legal and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a very vast field which includes a range of technologies at the nano scale, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, genomics, neuroscience, robotics and information technologies. Nanotechnology is the latest technological innovation in global debates on risk regulation and international cooperation. Regulatory bodies have started dealing with the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. Since 2004 the UE has been developing a regulatory policy to tighten control and to improve regulatory adequacy and knowledge of nanotechnology risks. Currently, specific provisions on nanomaterials have been introduced for biocides, cosmetics, food additives, food labelling and materials in contact with foodstuff. The statement that nanotechnologies do inevitably imply ethical questions. The main problems are public trust, potential risks, issues of environmental impact, transparency of information, responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research. The aim of this article is to analysis the main problems regulating nanotechnology and some aspects of ethics.

  17. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort.

  18. An Analysis of the Function and of CAS In National Nanotechnology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zilong; MENG Wei; LIU Peihua

    2005-01-01

    @@ NBIC, namely nanoscience & nano-technology, biotechnology & biomedicine (including genetic engineering), information technology (including computing and communications) and cognitive science (including cognitive neuroscience) are universally regarded as four R&D disciplines to critically influence human life in the near future. Providing technological groundwork for the latter three's healthy development, nanoscience and related technologies now become the most active S&T frontiers in the world today.

  19. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  20. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 555 - Director of Defense Research and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Director of Defense Research and Engineering A... Engineering June 14, 1974. Memorandum for Assistant Secretaries of the Military Departments (R&D) Subject: Non... Engineering Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller). Subject: Non-Defense Work in DOD Laboratories and R...

  2. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-05-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as "nano") given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  3. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  4. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  5. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  6. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  7. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  8. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  12. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  13. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  14. SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 38 (April 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This April 2009 issue of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter highlights the following research: "Join MDA [Maritime Defense and Awareness] Outreach on ODNI [Office of the Director of National Intelligence] Bridge" and "NPS Cooperative Operations and Applied Science & Technology Studies." It also provides links to future events, reports, articles, and NPS Theses regarding maritime defense and security.

  15. Interfaces e organização da pesquisa no Brasil: da Química à Nanotecnologia Research organization in Brazil: from chemistry to Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique E. Toma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology can be viewed as a powerful tool, capable of shaping the chemistry of atoms and molecules, converting them into exciting nanosized and nanostructured materials, devices and machines. However, in pursuing this task, an exceptional ability is required to deal with complex inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, as imposed by the nanoscale. A new research organization framework, capable of promoting cooperative interactions in many complementary areas, including the industries, is demanded. In this sense, an interesting example are the nanotechnology networks and millenium institutes recently created in Brazil. The highlights and weakness of such cooperative research networks are discussed, in addition to relevant nanotechnology themes focusing on the special needs and resources from the developing nations.

  16. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  17. Nanotechnology researchers' collaboration relationships: a gender analysis of access to scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Woolley, Richard; Cañibano, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, particularly at higher levels of organizations. This article investigates the impact of this underrepresentation on the processes of interpersonal collaboration in nanotechnology. Analyses are conducted to assess: (I) the comparative tie strength of women's and men's collaborations, (2) whether women and men gain equal access to scientific information through collaborators, (3) which tie characteristics are associated with access to information for women and men, and (4) whether women and men acquire equivalent amounts of information by strengthening ties. Our results show that the overall tie strength is less for women's collaborations and that women acquire less strategic information through collaborators. Women and men rely on different tie characteristics in accessing information, but are equally effective in acquiring additional information resources by strengthening ties. This article demonstrates that the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has an impact on the interpersonal processes of scientific collaboration, to the disadvantage of women scientists.

  18. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  1. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  2. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  3. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000-2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  4. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000-2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  5. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshpreet Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. At present international hospitals are working on projects to develop new medical devices with the help of nanotechnology to better serve the world. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Nanosensors are used mainly include various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots

  6. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Elena [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Alicante, Carretera Alicante-San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain); Rus, Guillermo; Garcia-Martinez, Javier [Dpt. Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politecnico de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Nanotechnology is generating a lot of attention these days and therefore building great expectations not only in the academic community but also among investors, the governments, and industry. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide number of fields. Among them, significant breakthroughs are especially required in the energy sector that will allow us to maintain our increasing appetite for energy, which increases both with the number of people that join the developed economies and with our demand per capita. This needs to be done in a way that includes the environment in the wealth production equation as we gather more evidences of the human impact on the climate, biodiversity and quality of the air, water and soil. This review article does not cover in detail all the specific contributions from nanotechnology to the various sustainable energies, but in a broader way, it collects the most recent advances of nanotechnology to sustainable energy production, storage and use. For this review paper, solar, hydrogen and new generation batteries and supercapacitors are described as the most significant examples of the contributions of nanotechnology in the energy sector. The aim of this review article is to present some significant contributions from many research groups who are mainly unconnected and are working from different viewpoints, to find solutions to one of the great challenges of our time, i.e., the production and use of energy, without compromising our environment, from one of the most exciting and multidisciplinary fields, nanotechnology. (author)

  7. Identifying creative research accomplishments: Methodology and results for nanotechnology and human genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinze, Thomas; Shapira, Philip; Senker, Jacqueline; Kuhlmann, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by concerns about the organizational and institutional conditions that foster research creativity in science, we focus on how creative research can be defined, operationalized, and empirically identified. A functional typology of research creativity is proposed encompassing theoretical, me

  8. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  9. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  10. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Issue 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    exclusivity and the egos of A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil 477 Defense ARJ, January 2014, Vol. 21 No. 1: 466–484...the decreasing strength of their fleet relative to Japan’s. As Professor John Kuehn emphasizes, this multidimensional threat drasti- cally altered

  11. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BOON OR BANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the physical and chemical attributes of molecular scale structures, and they can be combined to form larger structures for human use. Because of this dimensional range, nanoparticles and structure get some unusual and novel properties. Nanotechnology deals with the study and analysis of these properties also. Indeed it is an emerging area of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale generally 100nm or smaller. The impact of nanotechnology is expanding and nothing will remain untouched. Applications are enormous and limitless. Nanotechnology enables doing things better than in the conventional technology viz.•Economic development•Improving food security•Health Diagnosis, Monitoring and Scanning•Safe Drinking Water•Environmental pollution•Agriculture•Energy Storage, Production and ConservationAs a coin has two sides, nanotechnology also has a flip side. No doubt, nanotechnology will be incorporated into every facet of our lives, making things easier, faster and longer lasting. Potential dangers of technology that are being discussed in various forms includes•Possible increased inflammatory response in the body due to small size•Potential terrorist use•Social disruption from new products/ lifestyles•Risks of a “Grey Goo” (hypothetical end of the worldNow there is a critical need to fund researchers and engineers across disciplines and institutional boundaries in order to advance in the arena of nanotechnologies. There must be innovative partnerships that integrate research and education, accelerate applications and fully explore the implications of nanotechnology on our health, wealth and lives.

  12. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition 225.7016 Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. ...

  13. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: the Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches –– an analysis of coastal defense poli

  14. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: The Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches — an analysis of coastal defense polic

  15. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu S. Bag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale approaches to chiraltechnology such as asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, chiral separation and detection, and enantiomericanalysis. Chiral sensors have also been included. The state-of-the-art chiral research at DMSRDE,Kanpur isalso presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.626-635, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1685

  16. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    O nanowires generate a piezoelectric signal that acts as both the power source and the gas sensing information as a result of the different screening effects different gases present on the piezoelectric charges. As they explain 'Our results can provoke a possible new direction for the development of next-generation gas sensors and will further expand the scope of self-powered nanosystems'. Over 50 years ago C P Snow delivered and subsequently published a lecture entitled 'The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution'. In it he lamented a gaping fissure separating the sciences and the humanities to the ultimate detriment of civilization and progress. The increasingly specialized activities in academia may suggest that if anything the gulf separating the two cultures may yet be increasing. It may seem that not only do 'natural scientists' speak a different language from 'literary intellectuals' but that biologists speak a different language from physicists, and so on down the increasingly fine dichotomies of academic endeavour. One of the exciting accompaniments to the rise in nanotechnology research has been a certain amount of liberation from these academic segregations. The breadth of fascinating properties found in a single system beg a strongly multidisciplinary approach and has attracted conversations not only between different sectors within the sciences, but with art as well [12]. The resulting cross-fertilisation between disciplines has already yielded an awesome cornucopia of multitasking devices, and no doubt the best is yet to come. References [1] Xue X, Nie Y, He B, Xing L, Zhang Y and Wang Z L 2013 Surface free-carrier screening effect on the output of ZnO nanowire nanogenerator and its potential as self-powered active gas sensors Nanotechnology 24 225501 [2] Torchilin V P 2006 Multifunctional nanocarriers Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1532-55 [3] Weissleder R, Lee A S, Khaw B A, Shen T and Brady T J 1992 Antimyosin-labeled monocrystalline iron oxide allows detection

  17. What students and researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology should know about PUS and STS: a look at Fages and Albe's viewpoint on social issues in nanoscience and nanotechnology Master's degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe (Cult Stud Sci Educ 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of science. First, it would allow them to become acquainted with less naive conceptualizations of the capacities of citizens. Second, it would help them to consider the nature and role of scientific expertise from richer, more nuanced and less stereotypical conceptual angles. Third and lastly, it would allow future researchers and engineers to become familiar with different models of interaction between citizens, scientists and decision.

  18. Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John; Lyons, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the fast growing science of the ultra small; it is creating engineered particles in the size range 1 to 100 nanometres. At this size, materials exhibit novel behaviours. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding multibillion dollar industry, with research being heavily promoted by governments, and especially the US. Nanoscale materials are already incorporated into more than 580 consumer products, including food, packaging, cosmetics, clothing and paint. Nanotechnology has been ...

  19. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  20. Analysis of heterogeneous collaboration in the German research system with a focus on nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Jansen, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    The German research system is functionally differentiated into various institutional pillars, most importantly the university system and the extrauniversity sector including institutes of the Helmholtz Association, the Max Planck Society, the Leibniz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. While the

  1. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    drug and gene therapy , nanostructures for tissue engineering, and a variety of other biomedical applications, in addition to research tools that aid...therapeutic efficacy. In addition to the real-time assessment of targeted therapy with enhanced efficacy, the identification of quantitative in vivo...are examining the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Some of this research concerns bacterially mediated production of quantum dots

  2. Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT and E): Appropriations Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Department of Defense Research , Development , Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Appropriations Structure John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in...Congressional Research Service Summary The Department of Defense (DOD) conducts research , development , testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) in support...is for applied research ; 6.3 is for advanced technology development ; 6.4 is for advanced component development and prototypes; 6.5 is for systems

  3. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Wim

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applicatio

  4. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  5. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  6. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  7. Astronomy and Cancer Research: X-Rays and Nanotechnology from Black Holes to Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    It seems highly unlikely that any connection is to be found between astronomy and medicine. But then it also appears to be obvious: X-rays. However, that is quite superficial because the nature of X-rays in the two disciplines is quite different. Nevertheless, we describe recent research on exactly that kind of link. Furthermore, the linkage lies in atomic physics, and via spectroscopy which is a vital tool in astronomy and may also be equally valuable in biomedical research. This review begins with the physics of black hole environments as viewed through X-ray spectroscopy. It is then shown that similar physics can be applied to spectroscopic imaging and therapeutics using heavy-element (high-Z) moieties designed to target cancerous tumors. X-ray irradiation of high-Z nanomaterials as radiosensitizing agents should be extremely efficient for therapy and diagnostics (theranostics). However, broadband radiation from conventional X-ray sources (such as CT scanners) results in vast and unnecessary radiation exposure. Monochromatic X-ray sources are expected to be considerably more efficient. We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology—Resonant Nano-Plasma Theranostics (RNPT)—that encompasses the use of monochromatic X-ray sources and high-Z nanoparticles. Ongoing research entails theoretical computations, numerical simulations, and in vitro and in vivo biomedical experiments. Stemming from basic theoretical studies of Kα resonant photoabsorption and fluorescence in all elements of the Periodic Table, we have established a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program involving researchers from physics, chemistry, astronomy, pathology, radiation oncology and radiology. Large-scale calculations necessary for theory and modeling are done at a variety of computational platforms at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. The final goal is the implementation of RNPT for clinical applications.

  8. Trust in Nanotechnology? On Trust as Analytical Tool in Social Research on Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am, Trond Grønli

    2011-04-01

    Trust has become an important aspect of evaluating the relationship between lay public and technology implementation. Experiences have shown that a focus on trust provides a richer understanding of reasons for backlashes of technology in society than a mere focus of public understanding of risks and science communication. Therefore, trust is also widely used as a key concept for understanding and predicting trust or distrust in emerging technologies. But whereas trust broadens the scope for understanding established technologies with well-defined questions and controversies, it easily fails to do so with emerging technologies, where there are no shared questions, a lack of public familiarity with the technology in question, and a restricted understanding amongst social researchers as to where distrust is likely to arise and how and under which form the technology will actually be implemented. Rather contrary, 'trust' might sometimes even direct social research into fixed structures that makes it even more difficult for social research to provide socially robust knowledge. This article therefore suggests that if trust is to maintain its important role in evaluating emerging technologies, the approach has to be widened and initially focus not on people's motivations for trust, but rather the object of trust it self, as to predicting how and where distrust might appear, how the object is established as an object of trust, and how it is established in relation with the public.

  9. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the frame of the research «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicate» new nanocomposite materials based on polyvinylchloride elastron with organomodified montmorillonite and combinations of it with non-halogen fire flame retardant have been developed. The experiment shows that carbamide-containing organoclay is the efficient filler of polyvinylchloride elastron. The receipts and production method for new polymer nanocomposites based on PVC elastron and organomodified montmorillonite have been designed. The paper provides information on the methods to obtain nanodimensional natural fillers; principles for choosing organomodifiers and their influence on the quality of nanodimensional flaked silicate fillers; application efficiency of organoclays when modifying properties of polymer materials. All that makes the results of the research to be very useful for specialists engaged into the area of filler manufacture, creation and processing of polymer composite material and designing products of them. Specialists can use published materials in their scientific and practical activities.

  10. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. These are main results of the research «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride»: technological recommendations on the use of multilayer carbon nanotubes, silicagel functionalized with the sulfur and silica sol in receipts of shape-moulded PVC-products for construction industry which allow increasing strength by 12–25%, thermal stability by 35–50% and decreasing melt viscosity (the factor increases 2–5 times; receipts and technology for production of high-filled construction composites based on PVC functionalized with silica sol and wood flour with population up to 68 mass.% when molding index is increased 12 times and thermal stability is increased by 60%. The specialists may be interested in the results of the following research: – I.S. Maeva «Modification of anhydride compositions with ultra- and nanodispersed additives»; – E.G. Chebotareva «Nanomodified composites of construction purpose with the use of epoxy resin»; – A.A. Volodchenko «Non-autoclave silicate materials with the use of natural nanodispersed raw materials»; – O.V. Popkova «Production and properties of metal-containing nanoparticles (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ce, Cd, Pd, Ag, Mo, stabilized by nanodiamond of denotational synthesis and high pressure polyethylene»; – M.A. Fronya «Complex study of mechanical properties and structure of polymer composite materials with carbon modification fillers: nanotubes and ultradispersed diamonds»; – M.S. Babaeva «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of N,N-diallyl-N,N-chloride dimethylammonium and natrium dodecylsulfate». Published materials can be used by the specialists in their scientific and practical activities in construction, housing and communal services as well as in the joint economical

  11. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  12. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of research «Cement composites with additives of multi-layer carbon nanotubes (MLCN» is a new production technology and optimal compositions for complex nanomodified additives (CNMA. Introduction of such additives in the quantity of 12 mass.% of cement mass provides within 8–12 hours early stripping strength more than 15–40 Mpa, water impermeability more than W20 and frost resistance F60–F700. The technology provides double increase of work performance and metalriging turnover. The difference between the new production technology and the traditional one is that the line of production of chemical additives contains a new unit designed for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN. The unit consists of precision feeder (the size of dose is 5 g., ultrasound dispersant with power 4 kW and frequency of operation 22 kHz and turbulent mixer with power 7,5 kW. The developed technology provides precise dose and even distribution of CNMA in mixture. The author developed technical conditions № 5745-111-02069622-2013 for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN of different refinement purity and dispersiveness for high strength reinforced-concrete blocks used as finishing materials in subway tunnels. The specialists may be also interested in results of the research «Nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete based on it» by Miroshnikov E.V., «Constructional steel fiber concretes modified with complex carbon micro- and nanosize additives» by Alatorceva U.V., «Physical and chemical study of nanocomposite template-assembled materials produced with the controlled sol-gel synthesis» by Krekoten' A.V., «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of chloride N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonio and dodecylsulfate sodium» by Babaeva M.S.,

  13. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  14. Potentials of nanotechnology application in forest protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; K. Lian; Q. Wu; Y. Li; M. Danzy; R. Menard; K.L. Chin; D. Collins; F. Oliveria; Kier Klepzig

    2013-01-01

    This joint research project formed by Southern University, Louisiana State University, and the USDA Forest Service focuses on applying nanotechnology in forest health and natural resource management. The targeted nanotechnology is derived from a new generation of renewable composite nano-material called Copper-Carbon Core-Shell Nanoparticles (CCCSNs), which have...

  15. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of f

  16. National Defense Research Institute Annual Report: Contract Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-14

    Policy, concentrated on cocaine and mar- The RAND team recommended a measure more juana smuggling. Interdiction of the third major directly related to... sors of the Center’s work include both the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management and Person- PROCUREMENT nel) and the Assistant Secretary of

  17. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forloni, Gianluigi, E-mail: forloni@marionegri.it [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ' Mario Negri' , Department of Neuroscience (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed

  18. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach to

  19. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  20. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering.

  1. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Development of polymer composite materials based on epoxy binder and functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT» radio-absorbing materials based on epoxy binder and f-CNT have been created. These materials possess the similar absorbing and reflecting characteristics but their thicknesses are 25–30 times less than those of composites based on microsize carbon fillers (technical carbon and graphite and 1,5–2,0 times less in respect to the composites based on native CNT. Such composites with the same thicknesses and weakening factor are characterized with reflection factor which is 4,5–5,5 times less than that of composites based on microsize carbon fillers and 1,1–1,4 times less in respect to the composites based on native CNT. Within the range «Production and properties of metal-containing nanoparticles (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ce, Cd, Pd, Ag, Mo stabilized by detonation synthesis nanodiamond and high pressure polyethylene » composite nanodimensional materials were obtained. These materials have great application potentialities to solve the problems of electromagnetic compatibility and in particular to create multi-layer radio wave absorbing materials and coatings possessing high efficiency, that was shown in the work. Composite nanomaterials can be used as the model systems to study their interaction with electromagnetic emission and to create metamaterials based on these com posite nanomaterials with the use of distinctive feature of physical properties of nanosize substance. Specialists can use published materials in their scientific and practical activities.

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Since the development of x-rays the ability to image inside our bodies has provided medicine with a potent diagnostic tool, as well as fascinating us with the eerie evidence of our mechanistic mortality. In December 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y Tsien received a Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein. The award recognised a new discovery that further facilitated our abilities to follow cellular activities and delve deeper into the workings of living organisms. Since the first observation of green fluorescent protein in jelly fish over thirty years ago, quantum dots have emerged as a potential alternative tool for imaging [1]. The advantages of quantum dots over organic dyes and fluorescent proteins include intense luminescence, high molar extinction coefficient, resistance to photobleaching, and broad excitation with narrow emission bands. However, one drawback for biological applications has been the layer of hydrophobic organic ligands often present at the surface as a result of the synthesis procedures. One solution to improve the solubility of quantum dots has been to conjugate them with a hydrophilic substance, as reported by Nie et al [2]. Chitosan is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable substance and has been conjugated with quantum dots such as CdSe-ZnS [2] for bioassays and intracellular labelling. As well as luminescence, different nanoparticles present a variety of exceptional properties that render them useful in a range of bio applications, including MRI, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia therapy. The ability to harness these various attributes in one system was reported by researchers in China, who incorporated magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent quantum dots and pharmaceutical drugs into chitosan nanoparticles for multifunctional smart drug delivery systems [3]. More recently silicon quantum dots have emerged as a less cytotoxic alternative to CdSe for bio

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  4. Nanotechnology and Public Interest Dialogue: Some International Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines nanotechnology within the context of the public interest. It notes that though nanotechnology research and development investment totalled US$9.6 billion in 2005, the public presently understands neither the implications nor how it might be best governed. The article maps a range of nanotechnology dialogue activities under…

  5. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  6. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  7. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  8. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  9. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    OpenAIRE

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich; SHAMELKHANOVA Nelya A.; AIDAROVA Saule B.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are spe...

  10. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  11. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  12. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 2, Issue 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    an industrialist and a business professor, with 20-plus years of experience in many facets of business from both a pragmatic perspective and real...two dilemmas to create a solution. Columbia Journal of World Business , 79(4), 63-67. DefenseARJApril2015, Vol.22No.3:216-839 235 A...Your Culture Encourage Innovation? CDR Craig Whittinghill, USN, David Berkowitz, and Phillip A. Farrington Online-only Article DoD Comprehensive

  13. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 2, Issue 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Competition, sponsored by our partner organization, the Defense Acquisition University Alumni Association (DAUAA) at http://www.dauaa.org. For 2014...initiation to satisfaction . Organizations Involved in Resolution of Urgent Needs The organizations examined in this article that support, develop...sef c c = > Where: ef = measure of effectiveness on interval (0, 1) os = level of satisfaction of the objective (rated on a scale of 0 to 1) oc = cost

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 24, Number 1, Issue 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    87(3), 333–347. Henderson, R. (1994). Managing innovation in the information age. Harvard Business Review , 72(1), 100–107. Information Technology...VA: Author. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard—Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review , 70(1), 71–79...Strategy Dr. J. Ronald Fox Harvard Business School Mr. David Gallop Defense Acquisition University Dr. Jacques Gansler University of Maryland RADM

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 3, Issue 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of Science, 30(5), 737–757. Porter , M. E. (1980). Value chain analysis. London: Oxford Press Ltd. Porter , M. E. (2008). The five competitive...2007). Reinventing project management: The diamond approach to successful growth and innovation. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press. 736Defense...can be used in a CBA (e.g., to analyze threats, etc.). Generally criticized for its lack of depth and rigor. Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis ( Porter

  16. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics.

  17. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2014-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance natural materials like living tissue.

  18. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance na

  19. Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Razini, Paola; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan; Belicchi, Marzia

    2010-03-12

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT). This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  20. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Belicchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT. This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  1. Multifunctional Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    low-power operation, and that is well suited for processing spatio-temporal data. Neuromorphic or neuro -inspired computer architectures are...continued performance scaling. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spatio-Temporal Data, Memristor, Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) 16. SECURITY ...spatio-temporal data. Neuromorphic or neuro -inspired computer architectures are particularly worthwhile given the increasing number of big data

  2. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  3. Nanotechnologies, bioethics and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale science, research, and technology present a complex set of circumstances. First of all, this field involves many different subjects, including biology, chemistry, physics, and environment sciences. Secondly, although scientists are working increasingly at a molecular level, nanotechnology is about much more than a reduction of scale. Indeed, nanoscience and Nanotechnologies offer an unprecedented ability to control and manipulate nature, offering hope for progress. Ethical perspectives vary considerably in this field, but commentators and researchers share a concern about a specific worrisome issue: the lack of appropriate ethical and legal principles and processes (associated with issues including health risks, human body manipulation, and private life violation), to guide nanotechnological R&D, commercialization, and final use. Some authors partially reject this concern by suggesting that Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies do not constitute an autonomous category, and that they are instead just the operative result of combining other traditional areas of study. However the nanotechnological debate brings up the semantic and content issues of bioethics and foments a contentious discussion emphasizing human dignity. Issues include enhancement versus therapeutic intervention, traceability versus privacy, and societal benefits versus risks. From these preliminary considerations, we will move on to discuss (I) the traditional, although still controversial, relationship between bioethics and human dignity, and (II) return to the subject of nanotechnology. We will discuss how today in Europe, although still indefinite, the principle of respect for human dignity is a welcomed contributor to "ethical vigilance" about the uncertain development of new nano-scale technologies. We will also note how U.S. strategy in this regard is simply lacking and appears only as a purely discursive "key issue in long term ".

  4. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  5. Nanotechnology Risk Communication Past and Prologue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Löfstedt, Ragnar E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnologies operate at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales, at scales where matter behaves differently than at larger scales and quantum effects can dominate. Nanotechnologies have captured the imagination of science fiction writers as science, engineering, and industry have leapt to the challenge of harnessing them. Applications are proliferating. In contrast, despite recent progress the regulatory landscape is not yet coherent, and public awareness of nanotechnology remains low. This has led risk researchers and critics of current nanotechnology risk communication efforts to call for proactive strategies that do more than address facts, that include and go beyond the public participation stipulated by some government acts. A redoubling of nanotechnology risk communication efforts could enable consumer choice and informed public discourse about regulation and public investments in science and safety. PMID:21039707

  6. Taking a precautionary approach to nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dónal P. O’Mathúna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is developing at a rapid pace. Concerns have been raised about the risks nanotechnology may carry for human health and the environment. The precautionary principle has developed within environmental ethics as a way to reduce the risk of harm with emerging technologies. It has been incorporated into a number of documents addressing nanotechnology risks, including the European Commission’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research. The central features of the precautionary principle are reviewed here. These include addressing situations of scientific uncertainty and serious or irreversible harm, developing a proportionate response, and having reasonable grounds for concern. These factors will be applied to carbon nanotubes to demonstrate how the precautionary principle can lead to practical guidelines during the development of nanotechnology.

  7. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications.

  8. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Ozimek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications in food system. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, bioactives, farmafoods, etc. are very recent example of it. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are a natural part of food processing and conventional foods, because the characteristic properties of many foods rely on nanometer sized components. Some of the areas where nanotechnologies are set to make a difference in meat processing in near future relate to intelligent packaging of meat and meat products, meat derived bioactive peptides, pro- and pre-biotics inclusion in processed meat products, fat based nanoemulsions for antioxidant delivery, nanosensors and nanotracers for meat biosecurity tracing and nanostructured meat products with defined functions. New horizons for nanotechnology in meat science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules. However, it shall be mentioned that nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are calling for their regulations and safety assessment as some of the materials are new and their safety never tested before.

  9. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, George D. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Tauritz, Daniel Remy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  10. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  11. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricotti, Leonardo, E-mail: l.ricotti@sssup.it; Menciassi, Arianna [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, The BioRobotics Institute (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  12. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  13. Research on the Propagation Models and Defense Techniques of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yun Huang

    2008-01-01

    Internet worm is harmful to network security, and it has become a research hotspot in recent years. A thorough survey on the propagation models and defense techniques of Internet worm is made in this paper. We first give its strict definition and discuss the working mechanism. We then analyze and compare some repre sentative worm propagation models proposed in recent years, such as K-M model, two-factor model, worm-anti worm model (WAW), firewall-based model, quarantine based model and hybrid benign worm-based model, etc. Some typical defense techniques such as virtual honeypot, active worm prevention and agent-oriented worm defense, etc, are also discussed. The future direction of the worm defense system is pointed out.

  14. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  15. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  16. DNA Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-11-01

    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  17. Applications of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Chirilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiotechnology is a new field in research, constituting the interface between the life sciences and nanotechnology. In this field, the size of the working range is between 1 nm and 100 nm. This new domain it proposes the exploitation of quality biomolecules and processes involved in the development of materials or devices with definite activity in medicine. Therapeutic nanotechnology seeks to provide specific features that can reduce morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, of which the most important are: a minimal invasive therapy, high density functions and the concentration in very small volumes. The first origins of the concept of nano-medicine are from Feynman's, who had the visionary idea of the nanorobots and similar mechanisms that could be designed, constructed, and placed in the body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. With the priorities crystallization in the medicine domain of XX and especially of the XXI’s century, also nanomedicine gained the momentum. In this respect the review proposes to introduce the reader to this fascinating field. There are provided information about cancer’s nanotherapy, examples of systems, applications of DNA, magnetic separation and manipulation of cells and biomolecules, nanotechnology applications in tissue engineering and many more. Also there are presented applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and about nano-robots.

  18. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix II research laboratories and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This document contains summaries of the research facilities that support the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for FY 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: (1) Advanced materials sciences and technologies; chemistry and materials, explosives, special nuclear materials (SNM), and tritium. (2) Design sciences and advanced computation; physics, conceptual design and assessment, and computation and modeling. (3) Advanced manufacturing technologies and capabilities; system engineering science and technology, and electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components. Section I gives a brief summary of 23 major defense program (DP) research and technology facilities and shows how these major facilities are organized by program elements. Section II gives a more detailed breakdown of the over 200 research and technology facilities being used at the Laboratories to support the Defense Programs mission.

  19. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  20. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  1. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science an

  2. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  3. Applications of Nanotechnology in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and Sri N. Balaji

    Full Text Available In the recent years the application of nanotechnology in human and veterinary medicine has shown a great progress. Scientists foresee that this progress in the field of nanotechnology could represent a major breakthrough in addressing some of the technical challenges faced by human and veterinary profession. While the great hopes of nanomedicine are disease detection and new pharmaceuticals for humans, veterinary applications of nanotechnology may become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. Nanotechnology has the potential to impact not only the way we live, but also the way we practice veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, the security of animal food products, modification of animal waste, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. These building blocks of nanotechnology are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. This article describes some of the principal areas of nanotechnology currently being undertaken in the world of medicine.The main purposes of this article are to trigger the interest of discoveries of veterinary profession in the field of nanotechnology and to provide a glimpse at potential important targets for nanotechnology in the field of veterinary medicine. Also it is important to mention that because nanotechnology is at a very early stage of development, it may take several years to perform the necessary research and conduct clinical trials for obtaining meaningful results. This tool as it develops over the next several decades will have major implications in veterinary and animal science

  4. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  5. In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wendler, David; Rid, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recogni...

  6. Collaborative Core Research Program for Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    collaborators at the University of Cincinnati’s Metabolic Diseases Institute (UC-MDI) and the Battelle Memorial Institute’s Biomedical Research Center...at the University of Cincinnati’s Metabolic Diseases Institute (UC-MDI) and the Battelle Memorial Institute’s Biomedical Research Center (BBRC) is...Research Center (UC-DDRC, part of UC-MDI). Using an EvoTec robot, single point (10 μM final solution test chemical concentration) 2 measurements

  7. EDITORIAL: Trends in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2004-04-01

    With effect from August 2004 the journal Nanotechnology will discontinue the `Letters to the Editor' section. The increase in publication speed achieved for all articles now means that letters have no advantage. Fully electronic publication processes including electronic submission, refereeing and proofing, ensure that all papers are processed with minimum delay and are published as soon as they are ready. The journal will continue to publish high-quality original research papers, reviews and tutorials, as well as papers on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology at the discretion of the Editorial Board. All submitted papers will undergo a pre-selection procedure for suitability by the Editors of the journal. If a paper is accepted for consideration by the journal it will be sent to independent experts in the field for peer review. To speed up the publication process, we encourage authors to suggest five independent experts in their field as potential referees and supply their title, name, affiliation and e-mail address. The Editors of the journal may use these names at their discretion. Authors may also request that certain people are not to be used as referees. Papers of special interest will be given the utmost priority and on acceptance will be publicized further through worldwide press releases and reviews on the Institute of Physics website and on nanotechweb.org. As a service to authors and to the international physics community, and as part of our commitment to give authors' work as much visibility as possible, all papers are freely available online for 30 days from their electronic publication date. This means open access for citations to everyone in the world. We will also send an electronic offprint of your published paper to ten colleagues of your choice, giving your article an increased chance of being cited quickly. In the meantime, we are pleased to announce an increase in the Impact Factor of the journal in 2003 to 2.304, which means

  8. Nanotechnology, Society, and Freshman, Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Crone, Wendy; Ellison, Karin; Leung, Ricky; Miller, Clark; Zenner, Greta

    2005-03-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad and exciting, yet ill-defined, field of scientific research and technological innovation. Important questions have arisen about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications by prominent technology leaders, nanotechnology boosters, science fiction authors, policy officials, and environmental organizations. We have developed a freshman-level seminar course that offers an opportunity for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, and engineering, to learn about nanoscience and nanotechnology and to explore these questions and reflect on the broader place of technology in modern societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking and research skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanotech. Continuous assessment is used to gain information about how effective the class discussions are and how well the overall course enhances students' understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.

  9. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  10. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  11. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  12. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  13. Dr. John H. Hopps Jr. Defense Research Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Aparecio Peggins (Psychology) Past Research Experience • Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships, University of New Hampshire (Summer 2011...Psychology Neurobiology of Circadian Entrainment Aparecio Peggins Duane Cooper Professor and Chair of Mathematics Mathematics student and

  14. Nanotechnology in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Issue 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    its greatest impact in Plants C and D. In our research, we came to describe this arrangement as a free- market approach to fostering standardization...Validation tailored to multilevel or mixed mod- els (Ryan et al., 2013). It results in the aggregation of 70 separate analyses (one for each program...research interests include classification and detection methods, diagnos- tic testing, information fusion, and multilevel modeling. Dr. Schubert Kabban

  16. In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Rid, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this gap in the literature, recent articles by Alan Wertheimer and David Resnik argue that the extant justifications for the social value requirement are unpersuasive. Both authors conclude, contrary to almost all current guidelines and regulations, that it can be acceptable across a broad range of cases to conduct clinical research which is known prospectively to have no social value. The present article assesses this conclusion by critically evaluating the ethical and policy considerations relevant to the claim that clinical research must have social value. This analysis supports the standard view that social value is an ethical requirement for the vast majority of clinical research studies and should be mandated by applicable guidelines and policies.

  17. Guidance for the implementation of Market Research fundamentals at a Department of Defense Field Contracting Activity

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, James Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a Federally mandated requirement, Market Research within the Federal Acquisition arena has made little progress since its inception well over a decade ago. It is the researcher's belief that the slow progress realized in the area of Market Research is in par due to Department of Defense Field Contracting Activities not really understanding how to incorporate the process into their existing routine and what skills are required of the...

  18. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  19. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Belicchi; Yvan Torrente; Franco Rustichelli; Fabrizio Fiori; Paola Razini; Silvia Erratico; Chiara Villa

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission ...

  20. 75 FR 18034 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type Determination (DFARS Case 2006-D053) AGENCY... a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) to select the contract type for a development program... requires DoD to modify regulations regarding the determination of contract type for development programs...

  1. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanotechnology applied to treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Roselena S; Baldo, Guilherme; Teixeira, Helder F

    2016-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are genetic disorders caused by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans due to deficiencies in the lysosomal enzymes responsible for their catabolism. Current treatments are not fully effective and are not available for all MPS types. Accordingly, researchers have tested novel therapies for MPS, including nanotechnology-based enzyme delivery systems and gene therapy. In this review, we aim to analyze some of the approaches involving nanotechnology as alternative treatments for MPS. Areas covered: We analyze nanotechnology-based systems, focusing on the biomaterials, such as polymers and lipids, that comprise these nanostructures, and we have highlighted studies that describe their use as enzyme and gene delivery systems for the treatment of MPS diseases. Expert opinion: Some protocols, such as the use of polymer-based systems or nanostructured carriers associated with enzymes and nanotechnology-based carriers for gene therapy, along with combined approaches, seem to be the future of MPS therapy.

  3. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  4. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  5. Origins of life: a route to nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, S J; Holm, N G; Petersen, G B

    2001-06-01

    The origins of life and nanotechnology are two seemingly disparate areas of scientific investigation. However, the fundamental questions of life's beginnings and the applied construction of a Drexlerian nanotechnology both share a similar problem; how did and how can self-reproducing molecular machines originate? Here we draw attention to the coincidence between nanotechnology and origins research with particular attention paid to the spontaneous adsorption and scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of purine and pyrimidine bases self-organized into monolayers, adsorbed to the surfaces of crystalline solids. These molecules which encode biological information in nucleic acids, can form supramolecular architectures exhibiting enantiomorphism with the complexity to store and encode putative protobiological information. We conclude that the application of nanotechnology to the investigation of life's origins, and vice versa, could provide a viable route to an evolution-driven synthetic life.

  6. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  7. 纳米技术在医学领域的研究应用%Research and Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦云; 司丽芳; 李健; 郭建军; 李会芳

    2014-01-01

    纳米是长度的度量单位,又称毫微米,即百万分之一毫米。目前,纳米技术已在多个行业得到了应用,如纳米物理学、纳米电子学、纳米生物学、纳米化学、纳米计量学和纳米加工学等。应用于药物学领域的纳米技术称为纳米药物学。纳米粒在药物学上的应用主要有纳米药物载体和纳米药物制剂2种。纳米药物的生产成本低、效率高、自动化程度高、规模大,而药物的作用也实现了器官靶向、高效和低毒等革命性的突破,并具有稳定性好、对胃肠刺激性小等优点。因此,纳米药物在国际工业领域以及医药领域均具有广阔的发展前景。阐述了纳米技术在医学领域的研究及应用。%Nanometer is a measurement unit of length, also named as millimicron (one millionth of a millimeter). Nowadays, nanotechnology has been applied in many industries, such as nanophysics, nanoelectronics, nanobiology, nanochemistry, nanometrology, nano-machining. The nanotechnology applied in pharmacology field was named as nanopharmics. The nano-particles applied in pharmacology included nano-drug carrier and nano-medicine preparation. The nano-drugs had low production cost, high efficiency, high automation degree and large scale. And the nano-drugs realized organ targeting, high efficiency, low toxicity and other revolutionary breakthrough. The nano-drugs had advantages of good stability, small stimulation to stomach and intestines, etc. Therefore, nano-drugs had a broad development foreground in industry field and medical field in the world. The research and application of nanotechnology in medical field were reviewed.

  8. 结构DN A纳米新技术的研究现状与应用%Research status and application of structural DNA nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春; 侯贺伟; 叶盟盟; 李萌萌; 崔光照; 王延峰

    2014-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology was systematic summarized,including the research status of DNA self-assembly,DNA origami and SST self-assembly.In the design of Zhengzhou University of Light Industry badge for instance,DNA origami and SST self-assembly were introduced to devise and establish DNA struc-tural model of school badge with hollow structure.With this example,structural DNA nanotechnology was valued and investigated.The main application of the technique was in the aspects of the assembly of guiding inorganic nanoparticles with precision,the equipment of nano-bio-chip,as well as the combination with micro-machining technology.In view of this it was proposed that structural DNA nanotechnology would play a more active role in the application field of nano-electronic circuits and devices,nano-optoelectronics,bio-sensors of high sensitivity and high specificity,molecular robotics,materials science and nano-medicine etc.in future development.%综述了结构DNA纳米技术---DNA自组装、DNA折纸术和SST自组装的研究现状,并以郑州轻工业学院校徽设计中引入DNA折纸术构建校徽DNA结构模型、利用SST自组装方法设计构造镂空结构的校徽图形为例,对结构DNA纳米技术予以评析与探讨;鉴于该技术目前主要应用于引导无机纳米粒子精确装配、装备纳米生物芯片以及与微加工技术相结合等方面,提出:纳米电子电路及器件、纳米光电子学、高灵敏度高特异性生物传感器、分子机器人、材料学和纳米医学等领域,将是结构DNA纳米技术应用未来的发展方向。

  9. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  10. [Nanotechnology--possibilities and hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopczyński, Tomasz; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are the objects with at least one demension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles exist in nature or can be produced by human activities, intentionally or unintentionally. Nanotechnology is an emerging science involving manipulation of matter at nanometer scale. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with electronics, throught medicine, cosmetology, and ending with automotive industry and construction industry. Depending on the use of nanoparticles, the routes of exposure may be inhalation, dermal, oral or parenteral. Nanoparticles have a greater active surface area per unit mass than larger particles. Together with an increase of surface area, toxicity and potential health effects may also increase. Toxicity of nanoparticles depend on many factors, for example: size, shape, chemical composition, solubility, surface area and surface charge. Risk assessment related to human health, should be integrated at all stages of the life cycle of the nanotechnology, starting at the point of conception and including research and development, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal or recycling.

  11. The Implementation of Innovation and Resource Allocation with Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    All natural and living systems are governed by atomic and molecular behavior at the nanoscale. Research is now seeking systematic approaches to create revolutionary new products and technologies by control of matter at the same scale.Nanotechnology is expected to have a profound impact on our society.The vision,research and development strategy,and timeline of the nanotechnology initiative are presented by using several recent scientific discoveries, innovations and results from industry. This article demonstrates the implications of innovation for nanotechnology development. To deal with the innovation, a theory of nanotechnology development must come to terms with the developmental, organisational, and strategic dimensions of innovative resource allocation.

  12. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been spurred by science, technology and innovation policies in most Latin American countries since the last decade. Public policies and funding have been accompanied by a common rhetoric, highlighting the potential of nanotechnology for increasing competitiveness and growth and providing the region with more efficient and innovative products. Based on an assessment of nanotechnology policies and capabilities in nine countries this article highlights three characteristics of nanotechnology in Latin America that might hinder its contribution to an equitable development within the region. The first characteristic is the conspicuous trend towards an intra-regional gap in capacity building as a result of the unequal historical development of science and technology among these countries and the large differences in equipment and financial resources devoted to nanotechnology.  The second characteristic is the strength of “international signals” vis-à-vis the national needs in the orientation of nanotechnology. On the one hand, nanotechnology is main and foremost oriented to achieve international competitiveness, which may lead its development to international market demands. On the other hand, nanotechnology research in Latin American countries has been configured within internationalized academic networks, which may influence local research agendas towards foreign research priorities. The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  13. Applications of electrochemistry and nanotechnology in biology and medicine II

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The study of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers apply electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. These two related volumes in the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Series review recent developments and breakthroughs in the specific application of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and medicine. Internationally renowned experts contribute chapters that address both fundamental and practical aspects of several key emerging technologies in biomedicine, such as the processing of new biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of bio

  14. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  15. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  16. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  17. Future of Computing. Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Frant

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM. Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel phenomena.

  18. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  19. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  20. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Concerns over health and ecological implications as living organisms are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles are constantly raised. Yet the use of nanoscale structures in technology and medicine has already infiltrated daily life in countless ways. from cosmetics and sun cream to mobile phones. The potential of nanotechnology in medicine is particularly difficult to ignore and ranges from cancer treatment to immune system activation [1]. The reduced dimensions of nanostructures lend them to targeted diagnostic and therapeutic practices that enable treatment with greater accuracy and less discomfort. Striking a balance between over caution and recklessness can be tricky, and provides an additional drive to investigate and learn more about the science of the nanoscale. Alongside investigations to exploit nanoparticles in medicine and technology, there have been a substantial number of studies to investigate the possible effects on our health, as well as some studies on the environmental ramifications. Researchers in the US have investigated the effects on aquatic life of ZnO nanoparticles, which may pollute lakes and rivers through accidental release during fabrication or as wash out from consumer materials [2]. The study is focused on zebrafish during early development. Zhu et al observe that while there may be evidence that Zn2+ ions and ZnO nanoparticles have toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, these effects are apparently mitigated by a type of sediment formulated from the nanoparticles. The positive contribution of nanotechnology in cancer treatment is an area of particularly high research activity at present. Although traditional chemotherapeutic agents can be effective against the growth of cancerous cells, they can have a detrimental effect on the immune system, which is critical in combating cancer. Researchers in China studied the behaviour of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles in vivo and found that they play important roles in the anti-tumour process by activating

  2. Defense Biometric and Forensic Office Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    for the DBFO investment strategy and ensures that projects the office funds trace back to the DoD’s science and technology (S&T) principles and...Power 3. 0, the DoD Research and Engineering Enterprise and the Reliance 21 operating principles . It also ensures that the DBFO’s approach links...view of biometric and forensic RDT &E investments across the Department of Defense. I look forward to advancing our common efforts to achieve the

  3. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Noela

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  4. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela.invernizzi@gmail.com [Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Science and Technology Innovation Program (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  5. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  6. NANOTECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating materials at the atomic and molecular level to develop new or enhanced materials and products. In December 2004, EPA’s Science Policy Council created a cross-Agency workgroup to identify and describe the issues EPA must address to ensure protection of human health and the environment as this new technology is developed. The draft white paper on nanotechnology is the product of the workgroup. The draft white paper describes the technology, and provides a discussion of the potential environmental benefits of nanotechnology and its applications that can foster sustainable use of resources. Risk management issues and the Agency’s statutory mandates are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of risk assessment issues. The paper identifies research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology and concludes with recommendations on next steps for addressing science policy issues and research needs. Supplemental information is provided in a number of appendices. The Agency will use the white paper to address research needs and risk assessment issues concerning nanotechnology. The draft white paper will undergo independent expert review, which will be conducted in the February time frame. All public comments received by January 31, 2006 will be submitted to the external review panel for their consideration. Comments received beyond that time will be considered by EPA. Follo

  7. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  8. Nanotechnology for electronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Korkin, Anatoli; Labanowski, Jan K

    2007-01-01

    Quickly becoming the hottest topic of the new millennium (2.4 billion dollars funding in US alone) Current status and future trends of micro and nanoelectronics research Written by leading experts in the corresponding research areas Excellent tutorial for graduate students and reference for "gurus" Provides a broad overlook and fundamentals of nanoscience and nanotechnology from chemistry to electronic devices.

  9. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit asso

  10. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  12. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  13. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  14. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  15. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  16. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  18. EDITORIAL: New developments for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welland, Mark

    2007-01-01

    relevance and impact of nanotechnology in general. With all this growth and change there are always some constant factors that specifically concern authors. Prominent amongst these is the speed of publication. Remarkably, our current publication times are among the most competitive internationally with current receipt to publication times of less than three months. Although this time will be shortened by weekly publication, it will be further reduced by the introduction of an article numbering system as opposed to page numbering. Here, an accepted article is assigned a number and published immediately; there is no need to wait for other articles to form a complete issue. Articles will be published on the web as soon as they are available. The number of nano-related journals continues to grow, making for a highly congested and competitive market. The fact that Nanotechnology, the longest established journal in the field, continues to grow in size, is able to dynamically change in response to authors and readers alike, and can draw on the renowned academic publishing capabilities of IOP Publishing, means that we look forward to an exciting and productive future. As we strive to deliver the best possible service to our authors and readers we aim to attract the very best of international nanoscience and nanotechnology so that Nanotechnology becomes the pre-eminent journal for reporting research in the field.

  19. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy applications. In particular the book covers nanostructured electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, low temperature electrolyzers and electrochemical valorization. The function of this book is to provide an introduction to basic principles of electrocatalysis, together with a review of the main classes of materials and electrode architectures. This book will illustrate the basic ideas behind material design and provide an introductory sketch of current research focuses. The easy-to-follow three part book focuses on majo

  20. Understanding the nanotechnology revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique introduction for general readers to the underlying concepts of nanotechnology, covering a wide spectrum ranging from biology to quantum computing. The material is presented in the simplest possible way, including a few mathematical equations, but not mathematical derivations. It also outlines as simply as possible the major contributions to modern technology of physics-based nanophysical devices, such as the atomic clock, global positioning systems, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, readers are able to establish a connection between nanotechnology and day-to-day

  1. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  2. Narrowing the zone of uncertainty between research and development in biological warfare defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxsoll, D L

    1992-12-31

    Although "research" is not prohibited by the Biological Weapons Convention, States Parties to the Convention have maintained the spirit of the Convention in actions relating to research. The confidence-building measures agreed to at RC2 refer to research facilities, publication of research results, and promotion of contacts between scientists engaged in research related to the Convention. However, assessment of basic research on biological agents is not a productive way to distinguish an offensive from a defensive program. Additionally, if a country were to initiate a biological weapons program, basic research on biological agents may not be necessary. For example, the extensive published research on Bacillus anthracis, both as a cause of anthrax in cattle and other species and as a biological-warfare agent, would enable any motivated group or nation to initiate a biological weapons program that could immediately advance to the development and scale-up stages. Research on biological agents for offensive purposes would be characterized by activities such as selection for growth, virulence, and toxin production; improving stability under varying environmental conditions; and selection of strains that might overcome existing means of prophylaxis and treatment. A biological program with an offensive intent would in most cases be characterized by evidence of development efforts in mass production and dissemination, which are often agent-specific. Thus, an assessment of development may distinguish offensive from defensive programs. If a country were to initiate a biological weapons research program, and were willing to risk worldwide condemnation should existence of such a program become known, it is likely that such a program would include development and production capabilities. If a country were not committed to production capability, there would be no rationale for an offensive biological research that would bring worldwide condemnation. Critics of the U

  3. Nanotechnology: From Feynman to Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, K. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The revolutionary Feynman vision of a powerful and general nanotechnology, based on nanomachines that build with atom-by-atom control, promises great opportunities and, if abused, great dangers. This vision made nanotechnology a buzzword and launched the global nanotechnology race. Along the way, however, the meaning of the word has shifted. A…

  4. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  5. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  6. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  7. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  8. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  9. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  10. Research in micro-nanotechnology and systems: a European perspective. Opportunities in framework programme 7: 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, I.; Van Caenegem, G.; Ibáñez, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Research European Programmes have paid attention to the area of microsystems since the early 90's when the Research was focused on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. Since then the interest has grown into an area of Microsystems and Micro Nano Technology for a wide set of applications in which the multidiscipline and the convergence of technologies play an important role. Systems combining sensing, processing and actuating are increasingly complex involving different disciplines and integrating different technologies, and making the field of Microsystems technology expands to the field of 'Smart Integrated Systems'. Today the attention is focused in the increasing complexity and miniaturization of the systems, networking capabilities and autonomy. The recently launched 7th Framework Programme and the coordination of national or regional research initiatives will help to realise the research agenda for this strategic field for Europe. This paper will give some results of ongoing initiatives, some visions and an outlook for the future with focus in micro and nanosytems.

  11. Nutritional and Nanotechnological Modulators of Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Zhang, Issan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological, and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota, and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single-cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented. PMID:27471505

  12. Nanotechnology Review: Molecular Electronics to Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approaches to the concepts of design and simulation of carbon nanotube based molecular electronic and mechanical devices will be presented. The concepts of nanotube based gears and motors will be discussed. The above is a non-technical review talk which covers long term precompetitive basic research in already published material that has been presented before many US scientific meeting audiences.

  13. Historical overview of nanotechnology and nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Although scientists have been studying nanoscience phenomena for many decades, technological developments in the second half of the twentieth century provided valuable tools that permitted researchers to study and develop materials in the nanoscale size range and helped formalize nanotechnology as a scientific field. This chapter provides a brief history of the field of nanotechnology, with an emphasis on the development of nanotoxicology as a scientific field. A brief overview of the worldwide regulatory activities for nanomaterials is also presented. The future development and safe use of nanomaterials in a diverse range of consumer products will be interesting, intellectually challenging, exciting, and hopefully very beneficial for the society.

  14. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-02-01

    Existing literature in people's attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people's attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  15. Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels. The term "nanotechnology" was first coined in 1974. Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods. The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

  16. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Increasing of concrete strength with carbon nanotubes by means of hydrodynamic cavitation» contains the calculation of prime cost of the main raw components which are necessary to produce fine-grained concrete with strength class B55, that demonstrates the economic efficiency of application of CNT as modifying additive for cement composites. M...

  17. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  18. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  19. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 4. Defense Agency Projects, Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards from FY 1989 SBIR Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    LABORATORY UNDER THE CODE NAME " DELPHI ", FOR THE OFFICE OF STRATEGIC DEFENSE; AND BETATRON RESEARCH CONDUCTED BY BOTH U.S. AND SOVIET SOURCES SUPPORTS THE...TITLE: HYPERGOLIC FUEL INJECTOR FEATURES INCREASED UTILITY FOR REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLES (RPVs) INCREASED RANGE ENDURANCE PAYLOAD MULTI.. TOPIC# 20...OFFICE: PM/SBIR IDENT#: 33860 A HYPERGOLIC FUEL INJECTOR IS DESCRIBED THAT ENABLES MULTIFUEL OPERATION, LOWER FUEL CONSUMPTION, AND ENHANCED ALL WEATHER

  20. Nanotechnology and Nanoscale Science: Educational challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Blonder, Ron; Gardner, Grant E.; Albe, Virginie; Falvo, Michael; Chevrier, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been touted as the next 'industrial revolution' of our modern age. In order for successful research, development, and social discourses to take place in this field, education research is needed to inform the development of standards, course development, and workforce preparation. In addition, there is a growing need to educate citizens and students about risks, benefits, and social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. This position paper describes the advancements that have been made in nanoscale science and nanotechnology, and the challenges that exist to educate students and the public about critical nanoscience concepts. This paper reviews the current research on nanotechnology education including curricula, educational programs, informal education, and teacher education. Furthermore, the unique risks, benefits and ethics of these unusual technological applications are described in relation to nanoeducation goals. Finally, we outline needed future research in the areas of nanoscience content, standards and curricula, nanoscience pedagogy, teacher education, and the risks, benefits, and social and ethical dimensions for education in this emerging field.

  1. A longitudinal analysis of nanotechnology literature: 1976-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin, E-mail: xinli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Dang Yan; Lin Yiling; Larson, Catherine A. [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Nanotechnology research and applications have experienced rapid growth in recent years. We assessed the status of nanotechnology research worldwide by applying bibliographic, content map, and citation network analysis to a data set of about 200,000 nanotechnology papers published in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded database (SCI) from 1976 to 2004. This longitudinal study shows a quasi-exponential growth of nanotechnology articles with an average annual growth rate of 20.7% after 1991. The United States had the largest contribution of nanotechnology research and China and Korea had the fastest growth rates. The largest institutional contributions were from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The high-impact papers generally described tools, theories, technologies, perspectives, and overviews of nanotechnology. From the top 20 institutions, based on the average number of paper citations in 1976-2004, 17 were in the Unites States, 2 in France and 1 in Germany. Content map analysis identified the evolution of the major topics researched from 1976 to 2004, including investigative tools, physical phenomena, and experiment environments. Both the country citation network and the institution citation network had relatively high clustering, indicating the existence of citation communities in the two networks, and specific patterns in forming citation communities. The United States, Germany, Japan, and China were major citation centers in nanotechnology research with close inter-citation relationships.

  2. Nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics: a new research frontier of nanotechnology and its challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lixin; Bandarra Filho, Enio P; Thome, John R

    2008-07-01

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size solid particles in base fluids. As a new research frontier, nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics have the potential to improve heat transfer and energy efficiency in thermal management systems for many applications, such as microelectronics, power electronics, transportation, nuclear engineering, heat pipes, refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems. So far, the study of nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics is still in its infancy. This field of research provides many opportunities to study new frontiers but also poses great challenges. To summarize the current status of research in this newly developing interdisciplinary field and to identify the future research needs as well, this paper focuses on presenting a comprehensive review of nucleate pool boiling, flow boiling, critical heat flux, condensation and two-phase flow of nanofluids. Even for the limited studies done so far, there are some controversies. Conclusions and contradictions on the available nanofluid studies on physical properties, two-phase flow, heat transfer and critical heat flux (CHF) are presented. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it has been realized that the physical properties of nanofluids such as surface tension, liquid thermal conductivity, viscosity and density have significant effects on the nanofluid two-phase flow and heat transfer characteristics but the lack of the accurate knowledge of these physical properties has greatly limited the study in this interdisciplinary field. Therefore, effort should be made to contribute to the physical property database of nanofluids as a first priority. Secondly, in particular, research on nanofluid two-phase flow and heat transfer in microchannels should be emphasized in the future.

  3. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  4. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  5. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  6. Unique benefits of nanotechnology to drug delivery and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers many potential benefits to medical research by making pharmaceuticals more efficacious and by decreasing their adverse side-effects. Preclinical characterization of nanoparticles intended for medical applications is complicated--due to the variety of materials used, their unique surface properties and multifunctional nature. This chapter serves as an introduction to the volume, giving a broad overview of applications of nanotechnology to medicine, and describes some of the beneficial aspects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery. We define nanotechnology and provide brief descriptions of the major classes of nanomaterials used for medical applications. The following two chapters discuss scientific and regulatory hurdles involved in the use of nanotechnology in medicine. The remaining bulk of the volume provides the reader with protocols that have been tested against clinically relevant nanoparticles and describes some of the nuances of nanoparticle types and necessary controls.

  7. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  8. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolles, William A.

    1994-12-01

    The subject of nanoscience and/or nanotechnology is of considerable interest as a rapidly expanding frontier of research. This report documents information gathered at 44 laboratories in Europe by the author over a six month period. Research activities in physics, electronics, materials, chemistry, and biotechnology are included. Fundamental advances in fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanostructures are presented. Areas of greatest interest include nanostructures for electronic and optical materials and devices, sensors, and other applications envisioned. Research programs covered include lithography, materials, self-assembly, local probes, transport properties, quantum dots and wires, surface film behavior, some magnetic and optical behavior, including nonlinear spectroscopy, high frequency device behavior, and mechanical measurements at nanodimensions. A short description of the environment at each laboratory visited is included.

  9. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of the research «Nanomodified sulphurous binders for construction materials of general and special purpose» is the new methodological principles for development nanomodified sulphurous binders which are based on the consistent decomposition of quality criteria system of such materials, identification of elementary controlling receipt and technological factors through classification properties by phenomena, processes and components, scientific justification of material components choice, and then definition of experiment and statistic dependencies of influence of controlling factors on the material properties and performance of multicriterion optimization of receipt and technology for production of the material. The decomposition of quality criteria system of nanomodified sulphurous binders is based on the data about the possible application areas (chemically resistant concretes, capsulating of high toxic and radioactive wastes, seal of joints in chemically resistant coatings, etc. and requirements of GOST 4.200-78 «Quality criteria system for products. Construction. Basic regulations». Decomposition of a property (or a set of the properties by phenomena, processes and phases with identification of elementary factors is the base for identification of and ranking of controlling receipt and technological factors. Dispersed phase of nanomodified sulphurous binders has been grounded. It was shown thatit’s necessary to consider the possibility of formation of sulfide in the structure of obtained material and perform selection of raw mix taking into account the properties of forming sulfides and operation conditions of these construction materials and structures (first of all such as humidity, temperature and presence of any aggressive environments. The specialists may be also interested in the

  10. Research Advances of Nanotechnology in Ovarian Carcinoma%纳米技术在卵巢癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思思(综述); 周英琼(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the female reproductive sys-tem,with concealed early onset,late stage diagnosis and high mortality.Because of the small diameter,uni-form distribution, better tissue compatibility and target localization ability after surface modification , nano material has become one of the hot topics in the research of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer .Here is to make a review of the most recent advances of the characteristics of different nano carriers and nanotechnol-ogy in ovarian cancer cell specific capture,ultrasound,computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis,chemotherapy,radiotherapy and gene therapy.%卵巢癌是女性生殖系统最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,早期起病隐匿,确诊多为中期晚,致死率高。纳米材料因其直径小、分布均匀,经表面修饰后的纳米粒子具有较好的组织相容性以及靶向定位能力,日益成为卵巢癌诊断和治疗的研究热点之一。该文综述了纳米药物不同载体的特性、纳米技术在卵巢癌肿瘤细胞特异捕获及超声、计算机断层扫描、磁共振成像等在化疗、放疗和基因治疗中的最新研究进展。

  11. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content» set the theory and experimentally proves the opportunity to use magma rock of acid composition for production of nanostructured modifier of the materials of autoclave hardening. Activity of nanostructured modifier is provided by its composition and production technology: high specific surface with formation of nanodispersed polymineral; surface amorphization of rock-forming minerals; processes of mechanical and chemical dissolution of quartz and feldspar components with formation of active silica and alumina silica acids. The research has determined the character of the influence of nanostructured modifier in the sand blend on the gas formation, expansion of concrete mix and finally on the structure formation of the materials during preautoclave period. The authors proposed the compositions for the materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier made of granite to produce: pressed articles (silicate brick of density 1835–1950 kg/m², ultimate compressive strength – 17,8–23,3 МPа, thermal conductivity – 0,56–0,6 W/m°С., frost resistance – 40–55 cycles, water absorption – 11,4–12,2%. The developed articles meet the requirements of the existing codes: strength grade М150–М200 and frost resistance grade F35–F50. The specialists may be also interested in the following research: «Physical and chemical properties and structure of monomeric and polymer acetylenecarboxylated metals and nanocomposites based on them», «Nanomodified sulphuric binders for the construction materials of general and specific purpose», «Synthesis and catalytic properties of mesoporous nanomaterials based on СеО₂», «Synthesis and properties of

  12. Nanotechnology in Disease Diagnostic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Reema; Shah, Darshini; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shankar, Rishi; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-06-25

    Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are for the identification of the cause of illnesses, monitoring the improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could be further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.

  13. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A J; Cemlyn-Jones, J; Robalo Cordeiro, C

    2013-01-01

    The recently emergent field of Nanotechnology involves the production and use of structures at the nanoscale. Research at atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, has led to new materials, systems and structures on a scale consisting of particles less than 100 nm and showing unique and unusual physical, chemical and biological properties, which has enabled new applications in diverse fields, creating a multimillion-dollar high-tech industry. Nanotechnologies have a wide variety of uses from nanomedicine, consumer goods, electronics, communications and computing to environmental applications, efficient energy sources, agriculture, water purification, textiles, and aerospace industry, among many others. The different characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, shape, surface charge, chemical properties, solubility and degree of agglomeration will determine their effects on biological systems and human health, and the likelihood of respiratory hazards. There are a number of new studies about the potential occupational and environmental effects of nanoparticles and general precautionary measures are now fully justified. Adverse respiratory effects include multifocal granulomas, peribronchial inflammation, progressive interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and oxidative stress. The authors present an overview of the most important studies about respiratory nanotoxicology and the effects of nanoparticles and engineered nanomaterials on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  15. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  16. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  17. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 3. ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The previous publications [1, 2] dealt with the analysis of the main indicators to the world market of nanotechnological construction materials. Today this market is estimated at 12 milliard of dollars, and its rapid growth is expected soon. The present paper analyses the Russian market.

  18. Symposium by NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII on Computer-Based Instruction in Military Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Weddle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...

  19. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  20. Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Evidence from Increased Plant Biomass, Fruit Yield and Phytomedicine Content in Bitter Melon,” BMC Biotechnology , PubMed, April 26, 2013, http...contrast to many previous emerging technologies—such as semiconductors, satellites, software, and biotechnology —the U.S. lead is narrower, and the...approximately $67.5 billion. Cientifica also concluded that the United States had fallen behind both Russia and China in nanotechnology R&D funding on a

  1. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  2. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Increasing of concrete strength with carbon nanotubes by means of hydrodynamic cavitation» contains the calculation of prime cost of the main raw components which are necessary to produce fine-grained concrete with strength class B55, that demonstrates the economic efficiency of application of CNT as modifying additive for cement composites. Modification of concrete matrix with CNT leads to higher breaking point of compressive strength and that makes it possible to reduce discharge intensity of cement by the strength unit of the material. In this case introduction of 0,05% initial CNT of binder mass into concrete led to 1,5 times increased strength-to-weight ratio. The amount of saved resources was determined as the cost difference between amount of raw materials which are necessary to produce concrete B55 class of traditional composition and the concrete similar by the class obtained due to introduction of carbon nanomodifier into it. The choice of the cost of 1 gram of multilayer CNT was based on the analysis of commercial offers of Russian and foreign companies that are specilized in manufacture and realization of carbon nanomaterials. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Podgorny I.I. «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content», Satjukov А.B. «Nanomodified composite binder for special construction mortars», Hammadi Mustafa Abdul Madzhid Hamid «The method to nanomodify cement concretes with nanomortar», Altynnik N.I. «Aeroconcrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier», Volkov D.S. «Complex approaches to characterization of nanodiamonds of detonation synthesis and their colloid solutions», Ermolin М.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating

  3. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  4. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  5. Introduction to the Field of Nanotechnology Ethics and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linton, J.D.; Walsh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanoscience have generated an unprecedented global research and development race involving dozens of countries. The understanding of associated environmental, ethical, and societal implications lags far behind the science and technology. Consequently, it is critical to consider

  6. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    . While there is some debate about whether this vision is realisable, amongst those who accept it the discussion focuses on rather extreme outcomes, both utopian and dystopian. There is also an emerging debate amongst those more focused on short-term outcomes. This pits those who believe that the rapid growth of nanotechnotogy will have strongly positive economic benefits, and those who on the grounds of environmentalism and social equity seek to slow or halt its development. One immediate issue that is growing in prominence is whether existing regulatory regimes are robust enough to deal with any special qualities that nanostructured materials may have, or whether new solutions are required. These diverging views on nanotechnotogy and the increasingly public debate, involving civil society, non-governmental organisations and the media, have led to concerns that there will be a backlash against nanotechnology akin to that over genetic modification. In response the call is for social science to take a role focused on promoting social awareness and acceptance of nanotechnology. The agenda for the social sciences needs to be broader than the public-science interface. Three themes stand out as important: the governance of technological change; social learning and the evaluation of risk and opportunity under uncertainty; the role of new technology in ameliorating or accentuating inequity and economic divides. Tackling these themes will involve a range of social science issues, many of which are topical independently of nanotechnology, for instance technology transfer, ageing, the commercialisation of science, and change management. Nonetheless there may well be issues unique to nanotechnology, arising from its inherent interdisciplinarity and its capacity to affect the human-machine-nature interface. A programme of research designed to address the diverse social science issues should thus both build on existing research and develop fresh avenues, particularly through

  7. Development of green nanotechnology and factors influencing it in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Qiao, Guanghui

    2013-03-01

    The rise of nanotechnology brings an unprecedented change to us, but its uncertainty may also causes unforeseen hazards to human health and the environment. Many countries around the world are actively researching and developing green nanotechnology which is non-toxic, environmentally friendly for the interests of humanity, and this systematic project needs the collaboration and efforts of government, research institutions, enterprises and public groups.

  8. Nanotechnology - Enabling Future Space Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    OFFICIAL USE ONLY – PENDING AWC PUBLIC AFFAIRS RELEASE nanotechnology will occur in the fields of medicine , protective clothing, energy, water...on Accelerating Change, 2008. 29 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 30. 30 Garreau...Radical Evolution, 53, 58-9. 31 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 17. 32Ibid

  9. Strategic Workshops on Cancer Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Larry A.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Molnar, Linda K.; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in-vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in-vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry, the non-profit sector, and the Federal government discussed opportunities in the field of cancer nanotechnology and barriers to its implementation. PMID:20460532

  10. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Diaz, Encarnacion; Simonet, Bartolome M.; Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es [University of Cordoba, Department of Analytical Chemistry (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1-100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research-Development-Innovation (R and D and I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N and N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today's society.

  11. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Díaz, Encarnación; Simonet, Bartolomé M.; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1-100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research-Development-Innovation (R&D&I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N&N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today's society.

  12. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  13. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Fromer, Neil A.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  14. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Fromer, Neil A. [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Jhon, Myung S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  15. Scientometrics Analysis of Nanotechnology in MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asgharzadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. An alternative method for considering the trend of research activities in countries is quantitative analysis of scientific output. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of scientific output in the field of nanotechnology in MEDLINE during a period of 10 years 2001-2010. Method: The extraction of data was restricted to the data set that was indexed as a major main heading of “nanotechnology” in MEDLINE through 2001 – 2010. Data about patent applications was obtained from WIPO Statistics Database. Database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE was selected from Web of Science to obtain publications indexed under the topic of nanotechnology. Result: Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanotechnology have been increased steady through the period of study. The number of publications in 2010 was ~ 84 times greater than those in 2001. English language consisting of 98% of total publications was the most dominant language of publications. Based on Bradford’s scattering’s law the journal of “ Nanoscience and Nanotechnology“ distributing 12.8% of total publications was the most prolific journal. Conclusion: The USA contributing 39% of world’s publications in the field was the most productive country followed by China (10%, Germany (6%, Japan (6%, Korea (5% and UK (4%. The most majority of world’s publications (70% were produced by these six countries. The tremendous growth of publications was simultaneously with the rapid growth of patent application in the field of Micro-structural and nano-technology in WIPO.

  16. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are specific. The paper presents methodological principles of innovative training of specialists for science-intensive industry that were realized according to grant given by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  17. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  18. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  19. Multidisciplinary Cognitive Content of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanotechnology as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent terms. Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (1991-1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some...

  20. Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment. A systems approach to Nanotechnology and the environment:Synthesis of Results Obtained at a Workshop Washington, DC 2–3 October 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Klöpffer, Walter; Curran, Mary Ann; Frankl, Paolo; Heijungs, Reinout; Köhler, Annette; OLSEN Stig Irving

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of “Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment,” a twoday workshop jointly convened by the Woodrow Wilson Center Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development; and the European Commission, RTD.G4 “Nano S&T: Converging Science and Technologies.” Held in October 2006, the workshop involved international experts from the fields of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and nanotechnology. The m...

  1. Nanotechnology publications and citations by leading countries and blocs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youtie, Jan, E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.ed [Enterprise Innovation Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Shapira, Philip, E-mail: pshapira@gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Public Policy (United States); Porter, Alan L., E-mail: aporter@isye.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This article examines the relative positions with respect to nanotechnology research publications of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Japan, Germany, China, and three Asian Tiger nations (South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The analysis uses a dataset of nanotechnology publication records for the time period 1990 through 2006 (part year) extracted from the Science Citation Index obtained through the Web of Science and was developed through a two-stage modularized Boolean approach. The results show that although the EU and the US have the highest number of nanotechnology publications, China and other Asian countries are increasing their publications rapidly, taking an ever-larger proportion of the total. When viewed in terms of the quality-based measure of citations, Asian nanotechnology researchers also show growth in recent years. However, by such citation measures, the US still maintains a strongly dominant position, followed by the EU.

  2. Nanotechnology publications and citations by leading countries and blocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Porter, Alan L.

    2008-08-01

    This article examines the relative positions with respect to nanotechnology research publications of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Japan, Germany, China, and three Asian Tiger nations (South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The analysis uses a dataset of nanotechnology publication records for the time period 1990 through 2006 (part year) extracted from the Science Citation Index obtained through the Web of Science and was developed through a two-stage modularized Boolean approach. The results show that although the EU and the US have the highest number of nanotechnology publications, China and other Asian countries are increasing their publications rapidly, taking an ever-larger proportion of the total. When viewed in terms of the quality-based measure of citations, Asian nanotechnology researchers also show growth in recent years. However, by such citation measures, the US still maintains a strongly dominant position, followed by the EU.

  3. Potential Collaborative Research topics with Korea’s Agency for Defense Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Univ. of California, San Diego

    2012-08-23

    This presentation provides a high level summary of current research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-University of California Jacobs School of Engineering (UCSD) Engineering Institute that will be presented at Korea's Agency for Defense Development (ADD). These research activities are at the basic engineering science level with different level of maturity ranging from initial concepts to field proof-of-concept demonstrations. We believe that all of these activities are appropriate for collaborative research activities with ADD subject to approval by each institution. All the activities summarized herein have the common theme that they are multi-disciplinary in nature and typically involved the integration of high-fidelity predictive modeling, advanced sensing technologies and new development in information technology. These activities include: Wireless Sensor Systems, Swarming Robot sensor systems, Advanced signal processing (compressed sensing) and pattern recognition, Model Verification and Validation, Optimal/robust sensor system design, Haptic systems for large-scale data processing, Cyber-physical security for robots, Multi-source energy harvesting, Reliability-based approaches to damage prognosis, SHMTools software development, and Cyber-physical systems advanced study institute.

  4. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  5. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  6. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  7. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

  8. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  9. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future.

  10. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 4. Defense Agencies Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    MORIN STREET, BIDDEFORD INDUSTRIAL PARK Office: DSO BIDDEFORD, ME 04005 Contract #: Phone: (207) 282-5911 PI: PAUL CHAYKA Title: Creep Resistant Yttrium...MOLECULAR PROBES, INC. Topic#: 92-129 ID#: 9211146 4849 PITCHFORD AVENUE Office: UWO EUGENE, OR 97402 Contract #: DAAH0192CR224 Phone: (503) 344...513) 436-4454 PI: PAUL ZIDEK Title: Positive Combat Identification Abstract: Spectra Research, Inc. proposes to research and synthesize advanced

  11. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is shrinking quantity wise, increasing quality wise at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level — at the nanoscale. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and treat and prevent diseases. NANOMEDICINE: Is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science. NANOBOTS: Smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots. NANOCOMPUTERS: To direct nanobots in their work, there are special computers. NANOTWEEZERS: devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes. NANOCHIP: Is an integrated circuit that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles

  13. Gestion inter-organisationnelle des connaissances : le cas des nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martelo, Constanza,

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with knowledge management processes and associated practices in interorganizational contexts. With an insight of intellectual craftsmanship, we focus on the case study of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NST) that involves a wide diversity of participant organizations and knowledge fields. By studying three specific contexts –a Colombian network of research groups, a European collaborative project, and a laboratory of materials belonging to a micro and nanotechnology cluster o...

  14. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The most important problem for the future research is the evaluation of the risk associated with nanomaterials exposure.

  15. Micro and nanotechnological tools for study of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2012-07-01

    Micro and nanotechnologies have originally contributed to engineering, especially in electronics. These technologies enable fabrication and assembly of materials at micrometer and nanometer scales and the manipulation of nano-objects. The power of these technologies has now been exploited in analyzes of biologically relevant molecules. In this review, the use of micro and nanotechnological tools in RNA research is described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

  17. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    arisen regarding the safety of nanomaterials, and researchers and companies will need to prove that these nanotechnologies do not have more of a negative impact on the environment. PMID:24966671

  18. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    arisen regarding the safety of nanomaterials, and researchers and companies will need to prove that these nanotechnologies do not have more of a negative impact on the environment.

  19. Electronics Industry Study Report: Semiconductors and Defense Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Lucent Technologies, Madrid, Spain Ministry of Defense, Madrid, Spain Ministry Of Defense, Prague, Czech Republic Tesla Blatna, Blatna, Czech... Nicolas Mokhoff , “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi Cycles,” Electronic Engineering Times, November 25, 2002, p. 20 61 Rob Fixmer, “Moore’s Law...2001). Moad, Jeff and Vaas, Lisa, IT Job Outlook, eWeek, 10/7/02, Vol. 19, Issue 40, p. 37 Mokhoff, Nicolas . “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi

  20. 3rd International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 3rd International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2015) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 26-30, 2015. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Turin (Italy), Pierre and Marie Curie University (France), and European Profiles A.E. (Greece). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engine...

  1. 4th International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 4th International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2016) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 24-27, 2016. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engineering and medical applications Co...

  2. [Nanotechnologies: from information sciences to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The considerable breakthroughs of the physics during the last 30 years allowed us to conceive components, devices or materials at the nanoscale level and to manipulate them. Applications are already envisaged in the field of the medical and pharmaceutical sciences. These nanotechnologies will be applied to the biology as well as the diagnosis, the therapeutics and the functional rehabilitation (nanomedicine). Consequences in the pharmaceutical research and development are also possible in a near future.

  3. China and the United States--Global partners, competitors and collaborators in nanotechnology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Biyu; Shen, Weiyu; Sinko, Patrick J; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huijuan; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    USA and China are two leading countries engaged in nanotechnology research and development. They compete with each other for fruits in this innovative area in a parallel and compatible manner. Understanding the status and developmental prospects of nanotechnology in USA and China is important for policy-makers to decide nanotechnology priorities and funding, and to explore new ways for global cooperation on key issues. We here present the nanoscience and nanomedicine research and the related productivity measured by publications, and patent applications, governmental funding, policies and regulations, institutional translational research, industrial and enterprise growth in nanotechnology-related fields across China and USA. The comparison reveals some marked asymmetries of nanotechnology development in China and USA, which may be helpful for future directions to strengthen nanotechnology collaboration for both countries, and for the world as a whole.

  4. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 4. Defense Agencies Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    CHANNEL) . THE -0 SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH ( SBR ) PROGRAM - PHASE I PAGE 628 0 BY SERVICE FISCAL YEAR 1987 DNA SJBMTTFD BY NATURE OF THE...OXYGEN CONTAMINATION. THEIR HIGH PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES CAUSE PROBLEMS SUCH AS INABILITY TO CONTROL THE AS/P RATIO IN ALLOYS CONTAINING BOTH ELEMENTS...LUBRICITY. GRAPHITE FIBER GROWN FROM PYROLYSIS OF HYDROCARBON GAS, WHICH IS THEN PROCESSED TO YIELD USEFUL VALUES FOR ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, IS A MATERIAL

  5. 我国企业反竞争情报研究综述%An Overview of Defensive Competitive Intelligence Research in Enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维军; 廖志宏

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, remarkable achievements have been made in the research on competitive intelligence.Meanwhile, defensive competitive intelligence is also becoming a hot subject in competitive intelligence re-search.This paper studies the articles on defensive competitive intelligence published in China since 1994, and points out the problems to be solved in current research.

  6. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology - applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems - lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  7. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  8. Cultural cognition of the risks and benefits of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M.; Braman, Donald; Slovic, Paul; Gastil, John; Cohen, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    How is public opinion towards nanotechnology likely to evolve? The `familiarity hypothesis' holds that support for nanotechnology will likely grow as awareness of it expands. The basis of this conjecture is opinion polling, which finds that few members of the public claim to know much about nanotechnology, but that those who say they do are substantially more likely to believe its benefits outweigh its risks. Some researchers, however, have avoided endorsing the familiarity hypothesis, stressing that cognitive heuristics and biases could create anxiety as the public learns more about this novel science. We conducted an experimental study aimed at determining how members of the public would react to balanced information about nanotechnology risks and benefits. Finding no support for the familiarity hypothesis, the study instead yielded strong evidence that public attitudes are likely to be shaped by psychological dynamics associated with cultural cognition.

  9. Progress of nanotechnology research in NASA%NASA在纳米技术领域的研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸿; 邢焰; 刘泊天; 张静静; 蒋晋东

    2016-01-01

    NASA drafted a 20yr+ roadmap for the development of nanotechnology and injected the related nanotechnologies into its launch missions. Those nanotechnologies are considered to enable a precise control of desired material properties, and after being fully utilized, could lead to the manufacture of smaller spacecrafts with better environmental applicability in the future. This paper follows the important projects concerned, include: 1) Advanced structural materials and their applications; 2) Energy generation and storage; 3) Thermal control materials and their applications; 4) Sensors, electronics and devices; 5) New patterns of propellant and propulsion.%NASA一直致力于先进航天技术探索与应用,其中,为推动纳米技术的发展与应用,规划了20年的研究发展计划。相关纳米技术被认为能够精确实现材料的预想性能,并可制备出更小、更具环境稳定性的航天器。文章跟踪介绍NASA在纳米技术领域的研究和应用进展,包括:1)先进结构材料及其应用;2)能量的生成与储存;3)热控制材料及其应用;4)纳米传感器的发展;5)推进剂及推进器的革新等。

  10. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo-de la Torre, Argelia; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; García, Perla; Lazarowski, Alberto; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Furthermore, it is associated to diminished health-related quality of life and is thus considered a major public health problem. In spite of the large number of available and ongoing development of several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a high percentage of patients with epilepsy (35-40%) are resistant to pharmacotherapy. A hypothesis to explain pharmacoresistance in epilepsy suggests that overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins, such as P-glycoprotein, on the endothelium of the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for effective AED delivery and concentration levels in the brain. Proven therapeutic strategies to control pharmacoresistant epilepsy include epilepsy surgery and neuromodulation. Unfortunately, not all patients are candidates for these therapies. Nanotechnology represents an attractive strategy to overcome the limited brain access of AEDs in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This manuscript presents a review of evidences supporting this idea.

  11. Nanotechnology applications in osteodistraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Singleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most current strategies for bone regeneration have relatively satisfactory results. However, there are drawbacks and limitations associated with their use and availability, and even controversial reports about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The induction of new bone formation through distraction osteogenesis (DO is widespread clinical application in the treatment of bone defects, limb deformities, and fracture nonunions. However, a lengthy period of external fixation is usually needed to allow the new bone to consolidate, and complications such as refracture at the distraction gap often occur. Although various biomaterials have been used as injectable delivery systems in DO models, little has been reported on the use of nanobiomaterials as carrier materials for the sustained release of growth factors in bone regeneration. One area of focus in nanotechnology is the delivery of osteogenic factors in an attempt to modulate the formation of bone. This review article seeks to demonstrate the potential of nanobiomaterials to improve biological applications pertinent to osteodistraction.

  12. Nanostructures and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. • Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study • Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background • Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice • Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergra...

  13. Framing effects on risk perception of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Holger; Wiedemann, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract How do people judge nanotechnology risks that are completely unfamiliar to them? Drawing on results of previous studies on framing and risk perception, two hypotheses about potential influences on nanotechnology risk perception were examined in an experimental study: 1) Risk perception of nanotechnology is influenced by its benefit perception. 2) Risk perception of nanotechnology is ...

  14. Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Elena K.

    The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

  15. Protein nanotechnology: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Juliet A

    2013-01-01

    Protein nanotechnology is an emerging field that is still defining itself. It embraces the intersection of protein science, which exists naturally at the nanoscale, and the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. In this opening chapter, a select review is given of some of the exciting nanostructures that have already been created using proteins, and the sorts of applications that protein engineers are reaching towards in the nanotechnology space. This provides an introduction to the rest of the volume, which provides inspirational case studies, along with tips and tools to manipulate proteins into new forms and architectures, beyond Nature's original intentions.

  16. Nanotechnology: “Revolutionary Developments in Future”

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Introductory notes will be made on the definition, structures, phenomena, functions, synthesis, properties, and characterization at the nanoscale. Some indications on nanoMaterials research and markets in Europe will be given. The spectrum of structural and functional/smart nanomaterials: metallic and ceramic materials, coating, composites ….will be reviewed Key challenges for nanomaterials design and engineering will be highlighted. The range of applications for nanotechnologies will be sumarized: for nano-electronics (information and communication), health care, energy and transport, nuclear and accelerator technologies, security and safety etc NanoMaterials and Technologies are key in future accelerator engineering: construction, operation and experimentation. Nanotechnology in next generation industries is a must. Nanometrology and standardisation (materials and equipment) are also an important items. Environmental and health implications of nanomaterials science and technology: Some guidance and safe...

  17. Future Directions of the National Nanotechnology Initiative - NNI 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative is a collaboration of 20 Federal agencies and departments with shared interests in nanotechnology research, development and commercialization. These agencies recognize that the ability to understand and exploit the novel phenomena that occur at the nanoscale will enabled the development of new materials and devices with properties and performance that far exceeds that of conventional systems. Due to the combined investments of the Federal government, now close to $24B, and those of industry, nanotechnology has moved out of the laboratory and into commercial products that are enhancing our daily lives. Nanotechnology-based discoveries are poised to revolutionize the way we diagnose and treat disease, radically improve the energy efficiency of aircraft and ground transportation systems, and will someday enable human exploration of Mars. This presentation will provide an overview of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, highlight some accomplishments in nanotechnology research and development, and discuss the future of the initiative.

  18. Nanoethics: Ethics For, From, or With Nanotechnologies?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The concern for ethics is a leitmotiv when dealing with nanotechnologies. However, the target of this concern is far from being obvious, and the word 'nanoethics' itself has no clear-cut definition. Indeed, nanoethics is usually said to be 'the ethics of nanotechnologies', but it is never specified whether this 'ethics of nanotechnologies' is 'an ethics for nanotechnologies' or 'an ethics from nanotechnologies'. This paper aims to show that these two characterizations of nanoethics (for/from)...

  19. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  20. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    D (Moscow State University).Section "Nanotechnology in medicine" - Denis Logunov, PhD (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, RAMS).Section "Nanobiotechnology" - Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Konstantin Skryabin (Bioengineering Center, RAS), Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Rem Petrov (RAS), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Sergey Deev (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry).

  1. Nanosciences and nanotechnology evolution or revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmani, Marcel; Dupas-Haeberlin, Claire; Hesto, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.

  2. Regenerative nanotechnology in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future.

  3. An Exploration of Irish Consumer Acceptance of Nanotechnology Applications in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Greehy, Grainne; McCarthy, Mary; Henchion, Maeve M.; Dillon, Emma J.; McCarthy, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology has come to the attention of food stakeholders in recent years. It offers many potential benefits to food companies and consumers, for example the ability to produce healthier food without compromising taste, but it has also generated much debate, in particular about potential unknown risks associated with food applications of nanotechnology. This research provides some insights into Irish consumer acceptance of food related applications of nanotechnology and details the determ...

  4. EDITORIAL: Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Karn, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology offers immense promise for developing new technologies that are more sustainable than current technologies. All major industrial sectors have felt nanotechnology's impact, mainly from the incorporation of nanomaterials into their products. For example, nanotechnology has improved the design and performance of products in areas as diverse as electronics, medicine and medical devices, food and agriculture, cosmetics, chemicals, materials, coatings, energy, as well as many others. Moreover, the revenues from nanotechnology-enabled products are not trivial. For instance, Lux Research maintains that commercial sales in both Europe and the USA will attain revenues of over 1 trillion from nano-enabled products by 2015. The manufacturing of the nanomaterials for these products uses many processes equivalent to chemical manufacturing processes. As a result, manufacturing nanomaterials can produce either harmful pollutants or adverse environmental impacts similar to those from chemical manufacturing. Unlike the chemical industry, however, those same processes are not ingrained in the manufacturing of nanomaterials, and the opportunity exists at the initial design stage to purposely account for and mitigate out potentially harmful environmental impacts. While prevention has not been a priority in current industries, it can become a main concern for the new and future industries that manufacture nanomaterials on a bulk commercial scale. This is where green nanotechnology comes in. Green nanotechnology involves deliberate efforts aimed at developing meaningful and reasonable protocols for generating products and their associated production processes in a benign fashion. The goal is a conscious minimization of risks associated with the products of nanoscience. The green products of nanotechnology are those that are used in either direct or indirect environmental applications. Direct environmental applications provide benefits such as monitoring using nano

  5. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapi

  6. Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Learning and Teaching in Secondary Education: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingant, Benedicte; Albe, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review provides an overview of recent studies on the introduction of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in secondary education. Four salient research topics have emerged: questions and reflections preceding curriculum development on nanosciences and nanotechnologies lessons; research on students' conceptualisations of nano-related…

  7. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  8. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can del...

  9. Nanotechnology and health: From boundary object to bodily intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Karen-Marie Elah

    Nanotechnology is commonly understood to involve the manipulation of individual molecules and atoms. Increasingly, healthcare practices in British Columbia are articulated through the nanotechnological in relationship to the body. The hope for better treatment and diagnosis of disease is located in the specificity of nanotechnological applications -- the finely tuned targeting of cells and treatments geared towards individual molecular profiles. However, this same specificity also alarms regulators, activists and consumer groups in the potential for increased toxicity. Drawing from participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and theoretical orientations adopted by Susan Leigh Star and Jeffrey Bowker, this thesis explores three questions: 1) How can nanotechnology inhabit multiple contexts at once and have both local and shared meaning; 2) How can people who live in one community draw their meanings from people and objects situated there and communicate with those inhabiting another; and 3) What moral and political consequences attend each of these questions? Keywords: nanotechnology; medical anthropology; anthropology of the body; science studies; critical theory; feminist theory; ethnography; qualitative research; biomedicine; nanotoxicology; bionanotechnology; British Columbia; Canada; nanomedicine; medical nanotechnology.

  10. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  11. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  12. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  13. Socio-ethical education in nanotechnology engineering programmes: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Balamuralithara; Er, Pek Hoon; Visvanathan, Punita

    2013-09-01

    The unique properties of nanotechnology have made nanotechnology education and its related subjects increasingly important not only for students but for mankind at large. This particular technology brings educators to work together to prepare and produce competent engineers and scientists for this field. One of the key challenges in nanotechnology engineering is to produce graduate students who are not only competent in technical knowledge but possess the necessary attitude and awareness toward the social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. In this paper, a research model has been developed to assess Malaysian nanotechnology engineering students' attitudes and whether their perspectives have attained the necessary objectives of ethical education throughout their programme of study. The findings from this investigation show that socio ethical education has a strong influence on the students' knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to socio ethical issues related to nanotechnology.

  14. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Nuclear Forensics Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Technical Nuclear Forensics (TNF) Research and Development (R&D) Program's overarching goal is to design, develop, demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies and methodologies that improve the interagency operational capability to provide forensics conclusions after the detonation of a nuclear device. This goal is attained through the execution of three focus areas covering the span of the TNF process to enable strategic decision-making (attribution): Nuclear Forensic Materials Exploitation - Development of targeted technologies, methodologies and tools enabling the timely collection, analysis and interpretation of detonation materials.Prompt Nuclear Effects Exploitation - Improve ground-based capabilities to collect prompt nuclear device outputs and effects data for rapid, complementary and corroborative information.Nuclear Forensics Device Characterization - Development of a validated and verified capability to reverse model a nuclear device with high confidence from observables (e.g., prompt diagnostics, sample analysis, etc.) seen after an attack. This presentation will outline DTRA's TNF R&D strategy and current investments, with efforts focusing on: (1) introducing new technical data collection capabilities (e.g., ground-based prompt diagnostics sensor systems; innovative debris collection and analysis); (2) developing new TNF process paradigms and concepts of operations to decrease timelines and uncertainties, and increase results confidence; (3) enhanced validation and verification (V&V) of capabilities through technology evaluations and demonstrations; and (4) updated weapon output predictions to account for the modern threat environment. A key challenge to expanding these efforts to a global capability is the need for increased post-detonation TNF international cooperation, collaboration and peer reviews.

  15. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    1. Introduction Despite unprecedented government funding and public interest in nanotechnology, few can accurately define the scope, range or potential applications of this technology. One of the most pressing issues facing nanoscientists and technologists today is that of communicating with the non-scientific community. As a result of decades of speculation, a number of myths have grown up around the field, making it difficult for the general public, or indeed the business and financial communities, to understand what is a fundamental shift in the way we look at our interactions with the natural world. This article attempts to address some of these misconceptions, and explain why scientists, businesses and governments are spending large amounts of time and money on nanoscale research and development. 2. What is nanotechnology? Take a random selection of scientists, engineers, investors and the general public and ask them what nanotechnology is and you will receive a range of replies as broad as nanotechnology itself. For many scientists, it is nothing startlingly new; after all we have been working at the nanoscale for decades, through electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopies or simply growing and analysing thin films. For most other groups, however, nanotechnology means something far more ambitious, miniature submarines in the bloodstream, little cogs and gears made out of atoms, space elevators made of nanotubes, and the colonization of space. It is no wonder people often muddle up nanotechnology with science fiction. 3. What is the nanoscale? Although a metre is defined by the International Standards Organization as `the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second' and a nanometre is by definition 10- 9 of a metre, this does not help scientists to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to relate sizes by reference to everyday objects, and the commonest definition of

  16. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  17. DNA nanotechnology: a future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its genetic function, DNA is one of the most distinct and smart self-assembling nanomaterials. DNA nanotechnology exploits the predictable self-assembly of DNA oligonucleotides to design and assemble innovative and highly discrete nanostructures. Highly ordered DNA motifs are capable of providing an ultra-fine framework for the next generation of nanofabrications. The majority of these applications are based upon the complementarity of DNA base pairing: adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. DNA provides an intelligent route for the creation of nanoarchitectures with programmable and predictable patterns. DNA strands twist along one helix for a number of bases before switching to the other helix by passing through a crossover junction. The association of two crossovers keeps the helices parallel and holds them tightly together, allowing the assembly of bigger structures. Because of the DNA molecule's unique and novel characteristics, it can easily be applied in a vast variety of multidisciplinary research areas like biomedicine, computer science, nano/optoelectronics, and bionanotechnology. PMID:23497147

  18. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials that can be fictionalized with a vast array of novel properties, including antibiotic activity, self-cleaning and the ability to increase reaction rates by providing large surface areas to potential reactants. These materials are used not only as cloth fabric, but as filter materials, wound-healing gauzes and antibacterial food packaging agents in food industry. World demand for nano-materials will rise more than two-and-a-half times to $5.5 billion in 2016 driven by a combination of increased market penetration of existing materials, and ongoing development of new materials and applications. In recent years was demonstrated that nanotechnology can be used to enhance textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability and breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties in fibers, yarns and fabrics. The development of smart nanotextiles has the potential to revolutionize the production of fibers, fabrics or nonwovens and functionality of our clothing and all types of textile products and applications. Nanotechnology is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st century. Today is said that if the IT is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the future.

  19. QUALITY PARAMETERS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdoğan Eker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology concept which has added a new dimension to our lives in recent years, is finding a place in every sector day by day. The combined effect of nanotechnology is almost equal to the industrial revolution of last 200 years and have is able to fill all developments in a few years. However this development should be taken under control. Otherwise unstoppable new structures will not ease life but will be a problem for humanity. For this purpose, the main parameters (from the start up stage of nano-technologic applications to the obtained product should be checked. These parameters are actually not different than the adaptation of the classical quality indicators for nanotechnology applications. Especially it plays an important role in obtaining a uniform distribution and regarding the features of the end product in nano-technological ceramic and etc. applications. The most important problem faced in particles of that size is the accumulation they create. Another problem is the increasing friction force as size gets smaller. The friction force of asubstance increases proportionally with the cube of its surface area. Another problem is surface tension. The increasing surface tension due to increasing surface area will cause the particles to attract and stick to each other. The structures aimed to be obtained are mostly complex and especially in upwards approach, it is thermodynamically very hard for the atoms to get into that order. Therefore in this announcement, we stated the quality parameters that will be taken into consideration in nano-technological applications and the methods for obtaining those parameters. The aim is to explain these parameters with all dimensions so that they will lead the way to the future nano-technological applications.

  20. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  1. Nanotechnology and its applications in Veterinary and Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Patil

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector. It can provide new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology, animal genetics, reproduction etc. which will allow researchers to handle biological materials such as DNA, proteins or cells in minute quantities usually nano-liters or pico-liters. Nanotechnology tools like microfluidics, nanomaterials, bioanalytical nanosensors, etc. has the potential to solve many more puzzles related to animal health, production, reproduction and prevention and treatment of diseases. It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology will have a profound impact, but not in the immediate future as it is in the early stages of its development and needs to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. But It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will revolutionize animal health and help to boost up livestock production. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 475-477

  2. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 3, Issue 67, October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    cycle. Randall and his col- leagues (2010) found: [that the] integrator acts as the network entrepreneur, bun- dling knowledge and capital resources...Termination OPORD Execution Plan Phases Le ve l o f M ilit ar y E �o rt Notional Operation Plan Phases LEGEND A Publication of the Defense Acquisition

  3. 78 FR 48331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) in a memorandum on... Executive Orders (E.O.s) 12866 and 13563 direct agencies to assess all costs and benefits of available... impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of...

  4. 77 FR 4632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... technology readiness level. The DTIC on-line form can be found at http://www.dtic.mil/ird/dticdb/index.html... independence of contractors to choose which technologies to pursue in IR&D programs. The public comment period... of Defense, International Technology Security. Therefore the respondent made the...

  5. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase I Awards. 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    34CANNED" PROGRAM. THE SYNERGY OF HELICAL SCAN AND CGI IS A TECHNICAL ADVANTAGE BY CON- CENTRATING THE PERCEIVED INFORMATION IN THE ROBOT PICK-UP RASTER...COUNT * NEEDED FOR THE CALCULATION. * NW SYSTEMS SDIO $ 0 36 PANORAMA TRAIL ROCHESTER, NY 14525 DR CAROL A NIZNIK TITLE: STRATEGIC DEFENSE DATA BASE

  6. The Legitimation of Novel Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroff, Anastasia E.

    Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I

  7. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhon BS

    2014-05-01

    one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have arisen regarding the safety of nanomaterials, and researchers and companies will need to prove that these nanotechnologies do not have more of a negative impact on the environment.Keywords: agriculture, food, nanotechnology, nanoparticle, nanopesticides, nanosensors, smart delivery systems

  8. Current applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.

  9. Technical structure of the global nanoscience and nanotechnology literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, Ronald N., E-mail: kostofr@onr.navy.mil; Koytcheff, Raymond G. [Office of Naval Research (United States); Lau, Clifford G. Y. [Institute for Defense Analyses (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the open source global nanotechnology and nanoscience research literature. An extensive nanotechnology/nanoscience-focused query was applied to the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index (SCI/SSCI) databases. The nanotechnology/nanoscience research literature technical structure (taxonomy) was obtained using computational linguistics/document clustering and factor analysis. The infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/journals/documents) for each of the clusters generated by the document clustering algorithm was obtained using bibliometrics. Another novel addition was the use of phrase auto-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase co-occurrence in Abstracts, and the use of phrase-phrase cross-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase relations due to the sharing of common co-occurring phrases. The {approx}400 most cited nanotechnology papers since 1991 were grouped, and their characteristics generated. Whereas the main analysis provided technical thrusts of all nanotechnology papers retrieved, analysis of the most cited papers allowed their characteristics to be displayed. Finally, most cited papers from selected time periods were extracted, along with all publications from those time periods, and the institutions and countries were compared based on their representation in the most cited documents list relative to their representation in the most publications list.

  10. Nanotechnology Based Treatments for Neurological Disorders from Genetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Kurek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparticles, nanoshells, quantum dots, genetic material and proteins as well as hordes of other forms of nanotechnology have been researched in order to determine their potential in enhancing disease treatments and diagnostics. Nanotechnology has shown countless applications and might eventually be used in every biotech/health industry. Nevertheless, many nanomaterials may pose some safety risks and whether their benefits overweigh the risk is still being debated. Once the proper ethical and safety protocols are established and enough research is completed, nanotechnology is expected to benefit the mankind enormously. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many ways in which, nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics will be used to help people with neurological disorders through the methods that we currently have at our disposal. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 12-32

  11. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin, E-mail: xinli@eller.arizona.edu; Hu, Daning, E-mail: hud@eller.arizona.edu; Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@eller.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Departmet of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States); Larson, Catherine A., E-mail: cal@eller.arizona.edu; Chan, Joyce, E-mail: joycepchan@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.eduhttp://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  12. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers' perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About 80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed `less concern' or `more concern' based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk-benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  13. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Saji, E-mail: saji-george@nyp.edu.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Kaptan, Gulbanu [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom); Lee, Joel [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn, E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  14. Twelve years of nanoscience and nanotechnology publications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edgar Záyago; Frederick, Stacey; Foladori, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Mexico is the second country in Latin America with regard to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Development, according to various indicators. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies are viewed as strategic areas in government policy since 2001. In the last few decades, important policy changes in Science and Technology (S&T) have been implemented with an aim to integrate the business sector with government scientific research. This article reviews information from the Web of Science relevant to articles on nanoscience and nanotechnology stretching back 12 years, and explains the changes in S&T policy. The information uncovered leads to three conclusions: the participation of the business sector is negligible; there is a significant concentration of scientific production among a very few institutions; and the country is essentially divided geographically, with scientific production concentrated in the center and north of the country.

  15. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem

  16. 基于博弈论的网络攻防策略与主动防御研究与实验%RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENT ON GAME THEORY-BASED NETWORK ATTACK AND DEFENSE STRATEGY AND PROACTIVE DEFENSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮铁权

    2013-01-01

    Network security is an important content in Internet research , but traditional network security gives the priority to passive defense.In this paper,we suggest the network defense graph model ,classification of attack and defense strategies as well as a game theory-based attack and defense strategy in combination with the demand of proactive defense , and design a selection algorithm of optimal proactive defense which is based on the above model .Finally, the instance of the simulation proves the scientificity and effectiveness of the proposed model .%网络安全是因特网研究的重要内容,传统网络安全采用被动防御为主。结合主动防御的需求,提出网络防御图模型、攻防策略分类,以及一种基于博弈理论的攻防策略,并设计基于上述模型的最优主动防御选取算法。最后通过实例模拟证明了该模型的科学性和有效性。

  17. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  18. NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer funds the Cancer Nanotechnology Training Centers collectively with the NCI Cancer Training Center. Find out about the funded Centers, to date, that train our next generation of scientists in the field of Canc

  19. Chemical engineers, nanotechnology and future green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is envisaged to address present human needs and secure living comforts of future generations cheaply, faster and more cleanly. To date, nanotechnology's impact on the economy and on our daily lives has been enormous....

  20. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  1. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  2. Contributions of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999-FY2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    allows visual tracking, free-floating Magnetic Levitation ( Maglev ) haptic feedback with real surgical tools and sce- nario-based training that can be...Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999–FY2004 J.D...Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999

  3. Nanophotonics: The link between nanotechnology and photonics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and importance ? CSIR 2012 www.csir.co.za/nano Slide 2 ? Birth and definition of nanotechnology ? Benefits of nanotechnology ? The link between nanotechnology and photonics: Nanophotonics ? Importance and future of nanophotonics... of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big ? Richard Feynman, 1959 Birth of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 1980...

  4. 纳米药物载体抗肿瘤多药耐药机制的研究进展%Research Progress of the Mechanisms of Nanotechnology in the Treatment of Multidrug Resistant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金香; 李耀华

    2015-01-01

    肿瘤细胞对化疗药物产生多药耐药(multidrug resistance,MDR)是临床化疗失败的一个重要原因,而纳米技术的发展为肿瘤药物的靶向输送提供了新的研究机遇。纳米载体可以通过避免和降低MDR肿瘤细胞的药物外排泵,靶向肿瘤干细胞(cancer stem cells,CSC)克服其复发性,阻断肿瘤细胞的互调及其作用的微环境,以及改变免疫反应等增强细胞对化疗药物的敏感性。本文综述了肿瘤多药耐药的机制,纳米药物载体抗肿瘤多药耐药的机制研究的新进展。%Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main reason for the failure of tumor chemotherapy, the development of nanotechnology sheds light on targeted delivery of antitumor drugs. Nanocarriers can not only enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemothera-peutic drugs but also downregulate the invasion and metastasis of tumor. The mechanisms of nanocarriers' anti-tumor effect involve in targeting cancer stem cells to overcome MDR and prevent recurrence, preventing the cross talk between cancer cells and their micro-environment, and modifying the immune response to improve the treatment of MDR cancers. In this review, new research progresses of the mechanisms of multidrug resistance and anti-tumor effects of nanotechnology are reviewed.

  5. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  6. A bibliometric analysis of the development of next generation active nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Arho; Li, Yin; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Delineating the emergence of nanotechnologies that offer new functionalities is an important element in an anticipatory approach to the governance of nanotechnology and its potential impacts. This paper examines the transition to next generation active nanotechnologies which incorporate functions that respond to the environment or systems concepts that combine devices and structures that are dynamic and which may change their states in use. We develop an approach to identifying these active nanotechnologies and then use bibliometric analysis to examine the extent of research papers and patents involving these concepts. We also examine references to environmental, health, and safety concepts in these papers, given that these next generation nanotechnologies are likely to have risk profiles that are different from those of first-generation passive nanomaterials. Our results show a steady growth overall in focus on active nanotechnologies in the research literature and in patents over the study period of 1990-2010. We also find an increase in consideration given to environmental, health, and safety topics. While gaps are highlighted in our understanding of research and innovation in active nanotechnologies, the results suggest that there is beginning to be a shift to active nanotechnologies, with the implication that governance processes need to be conscious of this shift and to prepare for it.

  7. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 4, Issue 75, October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    examines when and under what circumstances the government would benefit from buying a Technical Data Package (TDP) as part of an overall bid. He...jonathan.ritschel@afit.edu)  Image designed by Diane Fleischer TECHNICAL Data Packages : When Can They Reduce Costs for the Department of Defense...they “support the process [of ] taking engineering designs and technical data packages (TDPs) to optimize the manufacturing/production of a part

  8. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Issue 60, October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil 386 REFERENCES Alsop, R. (2008). The trophy kids grow up: How the millennial generation is shaking up the...being dropped from the FY 1981 buy . Both actions contribute significantly to the schedule and support purchases identified above. (p. 2) An...Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil 398 become a $39.3 billion program. This was partly due to an additional buy of 566

  9. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Issue 76, January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Competition • Is there evidence that competition between system portfolios is an effective means of controlling price and costs? • Does lack of...provided force feedback to the operator (Figure 9). Two hydraulic cylinders mounted on the 14 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 2–27 A...Lecturer Naval Postgraduate School Lt Col Troy J. Mueller, USAFR Portfolio Director, Judiciary Engineering and Modernization Center The MITRE

  10. Department of Defense Plan to Establish Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    any requirements or responsibilities on any Department of Defense (DoD) component. New policy and guidance will be issued in accordance with DoD...industrial base and commercialization of DoD technologies will also benefit entrepreneurship , and enhance economic growth and job creation. Through...and their format (numeric, date, text, etc.). In contrast, data is the actual data values such as the “U.S. Patent and Trade Office” or the “ Social

  11. Application of System and Integration Readiness Levels to Department of Defense Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    structural support (Struct), atmospheric propagation (Atmos), target, target acquisition, tracking, pointing ( ATP ), and battle management and...involve building the target, but the atmosphere and ATP form an interface with the target so an IRL is associated with the target, but no TRL. 264 Defense...Table 5, if most effort had been placed into developing the laser, beam director, ATP algorithms; and target infor- mation, but not much effort

  12. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Issue 61, January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    82ARJ, January 2012, Vol. 19 No. 1 : 075 — 098 Regulations (ITAR) through the United States Munitions List ( USML ) under the auspices of the Arms Export...Control Act of 1976. Through the USML , the Department of State primarily seeks to prevent sensi- tive technology, services, articles, and...Controls (DDTC), ITAR uses the USML to determine if an article or service is deemed defense-related through the following criteria (Department of State

  13. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 2, Issue 66, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...electricity made upgrading candles (for practical lighting) obsolete. The advent of low-profile, stealth-like characteristics made many sur- face-to... Color of money 101. Defense Acquisition University presentation to DMSMS and Standardization Conference, Hollywood, FL. Heuristic. (n.d.). In

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Issue 63, July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil Keywords: Agile, Systems Engineering, Information Technology (IT), DoD Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum ...individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other common...http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is designed for

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 24, Number 1, Issue 80, January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International Journal of Production Economics, 87(3), 333–347. Henderson, R. (1994). Managing innovation in the information age. Harvard Business Review , 72... Harvard Business Review , 70(1), 71–79. Keebler, J. S., Manrodt, K. B., Durtsche, D. A., & Ledyard, D. M. (1999). Keeping score: Measuring the business ...Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy Dr. J. Ronald Fox Harvard Business School Mr. David Gallop Defense Acquisition

  16. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 4, Issue 79, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    context to assist current defense decision makers, acquisition officials, and the acquisition schoolhouse. Review The Harvard Business School’s J...New Public Managers at All Levels Author(s): Michael D. Watkins, Peter H. Daly, with Cate Reavis Publisher: Harvard Business Review Press...Clayton M. Christensen Publisher: Harvard Business Review Press Copyright Date: 1997 ISBN: 978-0875845852 Hard/Softcover: Hardcover, 256 pages

  17. United States Department of Defense Research in Robotic Unmanned Systems for Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    first responder combat casualty care, and patient evacuation under hostile fire have compounded combat losses throughout history. Force protection of military first responders is complicated by current international and coalition troop deployments for peacekeeping operations, counter terrorism, and humanitarian assistance missions that involve highly visible, politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has significantly invested in autonomous vehicles, and other robots to support its Future Force. By leveraging

  18. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  19. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  20. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  1. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Wim H

    2009-12-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applications has yet to be widely adopted. In future, policy makers will need to anticipate new developments for clinical implementation and introduce technology assessments. Here we present an overview of the literature on the technology assessments that have already been undertaken on early stage nanotechnology in cancer care, with particular emphasis placed on clinical efficacy, efficiency, logistics, patient-related features and technology dynamics. Owing to the current stage of development of most nanotechnologies, we found only a limited number of publications describing the application of either Health Technology Assessment (HTA) or Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA). In spite of the promising conclusions of most papers concerning the benefits of clinical implementation, actual clinically relevant applications were rarely encountered, and so far only a few publications report application of systematic forms of technology assessment. Most articles consider aspects of environmental safety, regulation and ethics, often mentioning the need to investigate such issues more thoroughly. Evaluation of financial and organizational aspects is often missing. In order to obtain a realistic perspective on the translation and implementation process there is a need for a broad and systematic evaluation of nanotechnologies at early stages of development. Assessment methods taking technology dynamics into account, such as Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) should be considered for evaluation purposes.

  2. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  3. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  4. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  5. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  6. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., "carbon nanotube") shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals is the

  7. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojevic, Stasa, E-mail: smilojev@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Library and Information Science (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., 'carbon nanotube') shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals

  8. 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering which was held on September 23-26, 2015 in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. ICNBME-2015 continues the series of International Conferences in the field of nanotechnologies and biomedical engineering. It aims at bringing together scientists and engineers dealing with fundamental and applied research for reporting on the latest theoretical developments and applications involved in the fields. Topics include Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials Plasmonics and metamaterials Bio-micro/nano technologies Biomaterials Biosensors and sensors systems Biomedical instrumentation Biomedical signal processing Biomedical imaging and image processing Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering Clinical engineering, health technology management and assessment; Health informatics, e-health and telemedicine Biomedical engineering education Nuclear and radiation safety and security Innovations and technology transfer...

  9. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Chuen Wu, Ching-Li Tseng, Chi-Chang Wu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Edmund C So and Yang-Kao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. 2nd international conference on advanced nanomaterials and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D; Perumal, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology have occupied centre stage globally in modern scientific research and discourses in the early twenty first century. The enabling nature of the technology makes it important in modern electronics, computing, materials, healthcare, energy and the environment. This volume contains selected articles presented (as Invited/Oral/Poster presentations) at the 2nd international conference on advanced materials and nanotechnology (ICANN-2011) held recently at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, during Dec 8-10, 2011. The list of topics covered in this proceedings include: Synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials Nanoscale characterisation Nanophotonics & Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanocomposites  F   Nanomagnetism Nanomaterials for Enery Computational Nanotechnology Commercialization of Nanotechnology The conference was represented by around 400 participants from several countries including delegates invited from USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Taiwan, Italy, Singapor...

  11. Nanotechnology and Society: A discussion-based undergraduate course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Leung, Ricky; Zenner, G. M.; Ellison, K. D.; Crone, W. C.; Miller, Clark A.

    2006-05-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad, exciting, yet ill-defined field of scientific research and technological innovation. There are important questions about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications. We discuss an undergraduate course on nanoscience and nanotechnology for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, the humanities, and engineering. The course explores these questions and the broader place of technology in contemporary societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts. Continuous assessment was used to gain information about the effectiveness of class discussions and enhancement of student understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.

  12. Accelerating nano-technological innovation in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Stissing Jensen, Jens

    2007-01-01

      By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which...... concludes that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterised by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse....... The institutional features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support "incubation rooms" or marked...

  13. Nanotechnology and Society A discussion-based undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Tahan, C; Zenner, G M; Ellison, K D; Crone, W C; Miller, C A; Tahan, Charles; Leung, Ricky; Miller, Clark A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad and exciting, yet ill-defined, field of scientific research and technological innovation. Important questions have arisen about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications by prominent technology leaders, nanotechnology boosters, science fiction authors, policy officials, and environmental organizations. We have developed an undergraduate course that offers an opportunity for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, and engineering, to learn about nanoscience and nanotechnology, to explore these questions, and to reflect on the broader place of technology in modern societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts. Continuous assessment was used to gain information about the effectiveness of class discuss...

  14. Engineering applications of nanotechnology from energy to drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Nor

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of nanotechnology in several fields of engineering. Among others, the reader will find valuable information as to how nanotechnology can aid in extending the life of component materials exposed to corrosive atmospheres, in thermal fluid energy conversion processes, anti-reflection coatings on photovoltaic cells to yield enhanced output from solar cells, in connection with friction and wear reduction in automobiles, and buoyancy suppression in free convective heat transfer. Moreover, this unique resource presents the latest research on nanoscale transport phenomena and concludes with a look at likely future trends.

  15. The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian; Fiering, Steve N; Griswold, Karl E; Hoopes, P Jack; Kekalo, Katerina; Ndong, Christian; Paulsen, Keith; Petryk, Alicea A; Pogue, Brian; Shubitidze, Fridon; Weaver, John

    2015-01-01

    The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence - one of nine funded by the National Cancer Institute as part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and hyperthermia therapy. It brings together a diverse team of engineers and biomedical researchers with expertise in nanomaterials, molecular targeting, advanced biomedical imaging and translational in vivo studies. The goal of successfully treating cancer is being approached by developing nanoparticles, conjugating them with Fabs, hyperthermia treatment, immunotherapy and sensing treatment response.

  16. Citizenship Education to Nanotechnologies: Teaching Knowledge About Nanotechnologies and Educating for Responsible Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Panissal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a research based on a project for citizenship education tonanotechnologies in a French high school which aims at teaching the specific characteristics of nanotechnologies, of their fields of application and of the controversies which are linked to them. At the junction of Socially Acute Questions didactics and of the cultural-historical Vygotskian theory, we analyze the knowledge at work in a debate on the promises and risks connected with nanotechnologies. The knowledge mobilized by the students (17- to 18 yearsold in their dialogical interactions can refer back to the archetypal narrativeswhose origin lies in men’s social and cultural history. Through the joint effect of cumulative talk and exploratory talk, the students co-construct the concepts linked to the Social Ethical Issues: risks and human enhancement. We show that the debate at school leads students to be able to construct reasoned opinion and to position themselves in their environment in a responsible way. This educational innovation appears to be relevant for combining the learning of academic and cultural contents with social competencies necessary for committed citizenship education in the field of nanotechnologies.

  17. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-09-25

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  18. From supramolecular chemistry to nanotechnology : assembly of 3D nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Xing Yi

    2008-01-01

    Fabricating well-defined and stable nanoparticle arrays and crystals in a controlled fashion receives growing attention in nanotechnology owing to the potential application in optoelectronic devices, biological sensors, and photonic structures. The research described in this thesis aims to construct

  19. Neurosurgery in the realm of 10(-9), part 1: stardust and nanotechnology in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James B; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology as a science has evolved from notions and speculation to emerge as a prominent combination of science and engineering that stands to impact innumerable aspects of technology. Medicine in general and neurosurgery in particular will benefit greatly in terms of improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. The recent explosion in nanotechnology products, including diverse applications such as beauty products and medical contrast agents, has been accompanied by an ever increasing volume of literature. Recent articles from our institution provided an historical and scientific background of nanotechnology, with a purposeful focus on nanomedicine. Future applications of nanotechnology to neuroscience and neurosurgery were briefly addressed. The present article is the first of two that will further this discussion by providing specific details of current nanotechnology applications and research related to neuroscience and clinical neurosurgery. This article also provides relevant perspective in scale, history, economics, and toxicology. Topics of specific importance to developments or advances of technologies used by neuroscientists and neurosurgeons are presented. In addition, advances in the field of microelectromechanical systems technology are discussed. Although larger than nanoscale, microelectromechanical systems technologies will play an important role in the future of medicine and neurosurgery. The second article will discuss current nanotechnologies that are being, or will be in the near future, incorporated into the armamentarium of the neurosurgeon. The goal of these articles is to keep the neuroscience community abreast of current developments in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and, in particular, nanoneurosurgery, and to present possibilities for future applications of nanotechnology. As applications of nanotechnology permeate all forms of scientific and medical research, clinical applications will continue to emerge. Physicians of the

  20. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  1. Nanotechnology and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Serrano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This book intends to present a comprehensive overview of recent progress with regard to different aspects of nanomaterials research and development that are closely related to their manufacture process, through to their release to the environment, identifying the critical areas undergoing further research.

  2. 高校参与国防科研的问题与对策%Problems and Strategy for Universities to Participate in the National Defense Scientific Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘征; 田永常; 吕世峰; 岳晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Universities are scientific and technological innovation and basic research base,they play important roles in national defense scientific research.However,the participation in national defense scientific research remains many problems to be solved urgently.This article in view of the university to participate in national defense scientific research problems,analysis of one by one,the corresponding countermeasures were put forward,finally introduced the work and effectiveness of China University of Geosciences(Wuhan) in the national defense scientific research.The author hopes it draw lessons from a meaning for China's universities to participate in the national defense scientific research.%高校是科技创新和基础研究的基地,在国家国防科研中发挥了重要作用。然而高校在参与国防科研中存在着许多突出问题。本文针对高校参与国防科研存在的问题,逐一分析,提出了相应的对策。最后介绍了中国地质大学(武汉)在国防科研方面已开展的工作及其成效,以期能对我国高校参与国防科研带来借鉴意义。

  3. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies: Microarray Analysis and Photodynamic Therapy implementation, which methodology can be extrapolated to other nanotechnologies in oncology. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is used for the introduction of technologies that are still in a dynamic phase of development or in an early stage of diffusion. The selection of studied aspects in CTA is based on: clinical aspects (safety, efficacy, and effectiveness), economic (cost-effectiveness), patient related (QoL, ethical/juridical and psychosocial), organizational aspects (diffusion and adoption) and scenario drafting. The features of the technology and the phase of implementation are decisive for choices and timing of the specific aspects to be studied. A framework was drafted to decide on the relevant aspects. In the first case, early implementation of Microarray Analysis; clinical effectiveness, logistics, patient centeredness and scenario drafting were given priority. Related to the diffusion-phase of Photodynamic Therapy however other aspects were evaluated, such as early cost-effectiveness analysis for possible reimbursement. Often CTA will result in a mixed method design. Especially scenario drafting is a powerful instrument to predict possible developments that can be anticipated upon in the assessment. CTA is appropriate for the study of early implementation of new technologies in oncology. In early TA small series often necessitate a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The features of nanotechnology

  4. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targe

  5. Nanotechnology Infrared Optics for Astronomy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard A.; Frogel, Jay (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The program "Nanotechnology Infrared Optics for Astronomy Missions" will design and develop new, nanotechnology techniques for infrared optical devices suitable for use in NASA space missions. The proposal combines expertise from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Physics Department at the Queen Mary and Westfield College in London, now relocated to the University of Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales. The method uses individually tailored metal grids and layered stacks of metal mesh grids, both inductive (freestanding) and capacitive (substrate-mounted), to produce various kinds of filters. The program has the following goals: 1) Model FIR filter properties using electric-circuit analogs and near-field, EM diffraction calculations. 2) Prototype fabrication of meshes on various substrates, with various materials, and of various dimensions. 3) Test filter prototypes and iterate with the modeling programs. 4) Travel to related sites, including trips to Washington, D.C. (location of NRL and GSFC), London (location of QMW), Cardiff, Wales, and Rome (location of ISO PMS project headquarters). 5) Produce ancillary science, including both publication of testing on mesh performance and infrared astronomical science.

  6. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil JT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratory for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles, the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤100 nm as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.Keywords: nanomaterial, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, bacteria, antibacterial, biofilm

  7. Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  8. Nanotechnology: a slightly different history

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory articles and books about nanotechnology have been written to disseminate this apparently new technology, which investigate and manipulates matter at dimension of a billionth of a meter. However, these texts show in general a common feature: there is very little about the origins of this multidisciplinary field. If anything is mentioned at all, a few dates, facts and characters are reinforced, which under the scrutiny of a careful historical digging do not sustain as really founding landmarks of the field. Nevertheless, in spite of these flaws, such historical narratives bring up important elements to understand and contextualize this human endeavor, as well as the corresponding dissemination among the public: would nanotechnology be a cultural imperative?

  9. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  10. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  11. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field.

  12. Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, B S; Raj, Baldev; Rath, B B; Murday, James

    2013-01-01

    This book is meant to serve as a textbook for beginners in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can also be used as additional reading in this multifaceted area. It covers the entire spectrum of nanoscience and technology: introduction, terminology, historical perspectives of this domain of science, unique and widely differing properties, advances in the various synthesis, consolidation and characterization techniques, applications of nanoscience and technology and emerging materials and technologies.

  13. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  14. Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLouise, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintentional nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature suggest that the positive benefit of engineered nanoparticles for use in cosmetics and as tools for understanding skin biology and curing skin disease outweigh potential toxicity concerns. Discoveries reported in this journal are highlighted. This review begins with a general introduction to the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine. This is followed by a discussion of the current state of understanding of nanoparticle skin penetration and their use in three therapeutic applications. Challenges that must be overcome to derive clinical benefit from the application of nanotechnology to skin are discussed last, providing perspective on the significant opportunity that exists for future studies in investigative dermatology.

  15. Nanotechnology for the Prevention and Treatment of Cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review recent advances in the applications of nanotechnology in cataract treatment and prevention strategies. A literature review on the use of nanotechnology for the prevention and treatment of cataract was done. Research articles about nanotechnology-based treatments and prevention technologies for cataract were searched on Web of Science, and the most recent advances were reported. Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, natural antioxidants, biologic and chemical chaperones, and chaperones such as molecules have found great application in preventing and treating cataracts. Current scientific research on new treatment strategies, which focuses on the biochemical basis of the disease, will likely result in new anticataract agents. However, none of the drug formulations will be approved for use unless efficient delivery is promised. Nanoparticle engineering together with biomimetic strategies enable the development of next-generation, more efficient, less complex, and personalized treatments. The only currently available treatment for cataracts, surgical replacement of the opacified lens, is not an easily accessible option in developing countries. New treatment strategies based on topical drugs would enable treatment to reach massive populations facing the threat of blindness and more effectively deal with the postsurgical complications. Nanotechnology plays a key role in improving drug delivery systems with enhanced controlled release, targeted delivery, and bioavailability to overcome diffusion limitations in the eye.

  16. Virginia Tech part of $14 million National Science Foundation nanotechnology grant

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Researchers from geosciences and civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech are part of a consortium of four principal universities and five other schools awarded a multi-million dollar grant to study nanotechnology and the environment.

  17. New York's nanotechnology model: building the innovation economy : summary of a symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wessner, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    "New York's Nanotechnology Model: Building the Innovation Economy is the summary of a 2013 symposium convened by the National Research Council Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy and members of the Nano Consortium...

  18. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  19. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  20. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Ozimek; Edward Pospiech; Suresh Narine

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechn...

  1. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Ozimek; Edward Pospiech; Suresh Narine

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechn...

  2. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s 2006 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    NIST Center for Neutron Research and expansion for greater user access to nanocharacterization tools. NSF, DOD, NASA, DOE: Plans and activities...industry, academia, and government. The NIST Center for Neutron Research will expand to enable greater user access to nanocharacterization tools

  3. Nanotechnology, risk and the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William; Thompson, Paul B

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnologies are already interacting with the environment. Scientists and engineers are manipulating matter at the nanoscale, and these nanoscale processes and products are being used by industry in commercially available products. These products are either applied directly to the environment or end up in the environment through indirect pathways. This review examines the state of current environmental risk assessment of nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is described generally, then both the possible benefits of nanotechnology and the risks are reviewed in a traditional way. Subsequently, a philosophical criticism of the traditional way of looking at risks is offered.

  4. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  5. Nanotechnology applications in urology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Callaghan, Cameron; John, Vijay; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the current literature and summarise some of the promising areas with which nanotechnology may improve urological care. A Medline literature search was performed to elucidate all relevant studies of nanotechnology with specific attention to its application in urology. Urological applications of nanotechnology include its use in medical imaging, gene therapy, drug delivery, and photothermal ablation of tumours. In vitro and animal studies have shown initial encouraging results. Further study of nanotechnology for urological applications is warranted to bridge the gap between preclinical studies and translation into clinical practice, but nanomedicine has shown significant potential to improve urological patient care.

  6. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  7. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Technology Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Flint, Stephanie; Pollack, Lawrence P.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR (trademark) EX, a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) instrument, is a portable, ruggedized unit that was designed for the Department of Defense (DoD) with its reagent chemistries traceable to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract beginning in 2002. The PCR instrument's primary function post 9/11 was to enable frontline soldiers and first responders to detect biological threat agents and bioterrorism activities in remote locations to include field environments. With its success for DoD, the instrument has also been employed by other governmental agencies including Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The RAZOR (Trademark) EX underwent stringent testing by the vendor, as well as through the DoD, and was certified in 2005. In addition, the RAZOR (trademark) EX passed DHS security sponsored Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays (SPADA) rigorous evaluation in 2011. The identification and quantitation of microbial pathogens is necessary both on the ground as well as during spaceflight to maintain the health of astronauts and to prevent biofouling of equipment. Currently, culture-based monitoring technology has been adequate for short-term spaceflight missions but may not be robust enough to meet the requirements for long-duration missions. During a NASA-sponsored workshop in 2011, it was determined that the more traditional culture-based method should be replaced or supplemented with more robust technologies. NASA scientists began investigating innovative molecular technologies for future space exploration and as a result, PCR was recommended. Shortly after, NASA sponsored market research in 2012 to identify and review current, commercial, cutting edge PCR technologies for potential applicability to spaceflight operations. Scientists identified and extensively evaluated three candidate technologies with the potential to function in microgravity. After a thorough voice-of-the-customer trade study and extensive functional and

  8. Special Issue on Nanotechnology, Optoelectronics and Photonics Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    International Conference on Nanotechnology, Optoelec- tronics and Photonics Technologies (NOPT) is an annual International Conference sponsored by Photonics and Microelectronics Society and Components, Packaging & Manufacturing Society of IACSIT (International Associa- tion of Computer Science and Information Technology), and sponsored by JEST (International), Journal of Electronic Science and Technology. The annual conference aims to provide a forum for researchers and experts in the relevant fields to share ideas, present current states of researches, and discuss both theoretical and application issues.

  9. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s FY 2008 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-31

    initial steps toward the identification , prioritization, and implementation of the research and other activities required to support responsible...Amherst University of Puerto Rico, Rio Pedras Mount Holyoke College TIAX LLC Lucent Technologies Springfield Technical Community College Center

  11. Integrated Approach of Agri-nanotechnology: Challenges and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Keswani, Chetan; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology representing a new frontier in modern agriculture is anticipated to become a major thrust in near future by offering potential applications. This integrating approach, i.e., agri-nanotechnology has great potential to cope with global challenges of food production/security, sustainability and climate change. However, despite the potential benefits of nanotechnology in agriculture so far, their relevance has not reached up to the field conditions. The elevating concerns about fate, transport, bioavailability, nanoparticles toxicity and inappropriateness of regulatory framework limit the complete acceptance and inclination to adopt nanotechnologies in agricultural sector. Moreover, the current research trends lack realistic approach that fail to attain comprehensive knowledge of risk assessment factors and further toxicity of nanoparticles toward agroecosystem components viz. plant, soil, soil microbiomes after their release into the environment. Hence in the present review we attempt to suggest certain key points to be addressed in the current and future agri-nanotechnology researches on the basis of recognized knowledge gaps with strong recommendation of incorporating biosynthesized nanoparticles to carry out analogous functions. In this perspective, the major points are as follows: (i) Mitigating risk assessment factors (responsible for fate, transport, behavior, bioavailability and toxicity) for alleviating the subsequent toxicity of nanoparticles. (ii) Optimizing permissible level of nanoparticles dose within the safety limits by performing dose dependent studies. (iii) Adopting realistic approach by designing the experiments in natural habitat and avoiding in vitro assays for accurate interpretation. (iv) Most importantly, translating environmental friendly and non-toxic biosynthesized nanoparticles from laboratory to field conditions for agricultural benefits. PMID:28421100

  12. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  13. The US Department of Defense Hemorrhage and Resuscitation Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    discovery research through clini- cal development. The purpose is to provide improved methods , drugs, and devices to stop life-threatening bleeding...improve survivability and reimagine future combat care. Army AL&T: 80Y84, 2015. 4. Rasmussen TE, Rauch TM, Hack DC: Military trauma research

  14. Cellular nanotechnology: making biological interfaces smarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula M

    2013-12-21

    Recently, there has been an outburst of research on engineered cell-material interfaces driven by nanotechnology and its tools and techniques. This tutorial review begins by providing a brief introduction to nanostructured materials, followed by an overview of the wealth of nanoscale fabrication and analysis tools available for their development. This background serves as the basis for a discussion of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavour to develop nanostructured materials as smart interfaces for fundamental cellular studies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The review covers three major aspects of nanostructured interfaces - nanotopographical control, dynamic behaviour and intracellular manipulation and sensing - where efforts are continuously being made to further understand cell function and provide new ways to control cell behaviour. A critical reflection of the current status and future challenges are discussed as a conclusion to the review.

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has an extremely high potential to benefit society through applications in food packaging. It can make the products cheaper and the production more efficient by producing less waste and using less energy. However, any new technology carries an ethical responsibility for wise application and the recognition that there are potential unforeseen risks that may come with the tremendous positive potential. The concept of nanocomposites represents a stimulating route for creating new and innovative materials, also in the area of natural polymers. The use of protective coatings and suitable packaging by the food industry has become a topic of great interest because of their potentiality for increasing the shelf life of many food products. Research and development of bio-nanocomposite materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymeric materials and composites with inorganic nano-particles.

  16. Sectorial analysis of nanotechnology companies in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Lau, Edgar Záyago; Carroza, Tomás; Appelbaum, Richard P.; Villa, Liliana; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we identify 37 companies that produce nano-enabled products in Argentina. We locate the products of these firms in terms of both their economic sector and position in a value chain. The research was done through a four-step methodology. Firstly, an inventory of firms was created. Secondly, the firms were classified by their economic sector, following the United Nations economic classification. Thirdly, the firms were located within a simple nanotechnology value chain. Finally, the products were classified according to their final destination, being either means of production or final consumer products. The results show that healthcare, cosmetics, and medicine is the most represented sector along the value chain, followed by electronics.

  17. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  18. Review of "Cancer Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology" by Stephen R. Grobmyer (Editor, Brij M. Moudgil (Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Nicole F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death. Research and resulting technologies have contributed to rising numbers of cancer survivors. Cancer nanotechnology is a novel and burgeoning field with the promise to open the door for the development of improved cancer therapies and detection methods. Cancer nanotechnology has the potential to become clinical reality.

  19. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology ad Industry. Supplement to the President’s 2009 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    level of individual cells, enabling earlier detection and less-invasive treatment with greater specificity - Affordable flexible arrays of...cell phone - Nanowires only a few atoms across, graphene films, and other nanostructured materials that have remarkable properties, like the...biota, studies of microbially mediated production of quantum dots and other nanosized inorganic particles, and research on nanomaterials in wastewater

  20. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s 2011 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    engineering of multifunctional systems for drug and gene therapy , nanostructures for tissue engineering, and a variety of other biomedical...capabilities to track delivery and determine therapeutic efficacy. In addition to the real-time assessment of targeted therapy with enhanced efficacy...organisms. Additionally, USGS scientists are examining the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Some of this research concerns bacterially

  1. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s FY 2007 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    NIST, NSF: Ongoing operation of the NIST Center for Neutron Research and expansion of user access to nanocharacterization tools. NSF, NASA, DOD, DOE...neutron nanocharacterization tools and is developing new neutron diffraction and spectroscopy instrumentation that will provide unique nanoscale

  2. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.

  3. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  4. Middle and High School Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology and Intention to Implement it in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nadira I.

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between attitudes toward nanotechnology and the intention of implementing it in science classrooms; to detect the relationship between attitudes and other influential factors (knowledge and self-confidence, professional development, professional context, personal research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms); to highlight the salient attitudes of science teachers toward nanotechnology and implementing its related content, materials, and activities in science classrooms; and to identify the salient factors that would facilitate the process of integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology (STAT-N) survey and semi-structured interview were both used to collect data. Correlation was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and intention, and between attitudes and the above mentioned factors. The grounded theory approach was applied to identify science teachers' salient attitudes toward nanotechnology and implementing it in science classrooms, and to determine the facilitators that would help with the process of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Regression analysis was also used to identify the facilitators that would help science teachers with integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Statistical analyses revealed a statistically significant relationship between attitudes and intention, p research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms), p research were statistically significant factors in predicting and teachers' intention of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Professional development (PD) factor was the best predictor (beta = .32) among other factors. Qualitative results unfolded that attitudes toward nanotechnology and its implementation in science classrooms are influenced by personal perspectives and by inhibiting

  5. Why Do We Need to Know What the Public Thinks about Nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormick, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Public debate on nanotechnology is a large topic within governments, research agencies, industry and non-government organisations. But depending who you talk to the perception of what the public thinks about nanotechnology can be very varied. To define coherent policy and to invest in research and development that aligns with public preferences, needs more than just perceptions of public perceptions. Public attitude studies are vital in understanding what the public really think, but they need to go further than simplistic polling and should examine factors such as changes over time, drivers of attitude change, different attitudes to different applications and be supported by qualitative data. This paper summarises the findings of a three year tracking study of public attitudes towards nanotechnology, highlighting both concerns and aspirations for nanotechnology and discusses the impacts of that data on public engagement programs.

  6. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy; Rapport annuel 2003. Information et sante, defense, energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  7. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  8. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  9. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  10. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for ne...

  11. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology : unmet needs in drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Park, K.; Florence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gaining interest within and outside the scientific community. Conferences addressing different aspects of this rapidly growing field are organized at many different places. In May 2009 the LTS Academy organized a two-day workshop to discuss the relevance of nanotechnology to

  12. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  13. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  14. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  15. What drives public acceptance of nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currall, Steven C.; King, Eden B.; Lane, Neal; Madera, Juan; Turner, Stacey

    2006-12-01

    How do the risks and benefits of nanotechnology, as viewed by the public, compare with those associated with other technologies such as genetically modified organisms, stem cells, biotechnology and nuclear power? And when deciding to use a specific nanotechnology product, will consumers consider the risks, the benefits, or both? We report the first large-scale empirical analyses of these questions.

  16. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological...

  17. Laypeople's and experts' perception of nanotechnology hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kastenholz, Hans; Frey, Silvia; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-02-01

    Public perception of nanotechnology may influence the realization of technological advances. Laypeople's (N=375) and experts' (N=46) perception of 20 different nanotechnology applications and three nonnanotechnology applications were examined. The psychometric paradigm was utilized and applications were described in short scenarios. Results showed that laypeople and experts assessed asbestos as much more risky than nanotechnology applications. Analyses of aggregated data suggested that perceived dreadfulness of applications and trust in governmental agencies are important factors in determining perceived risks. Similar results were observed for experts and laypeople, but the latter perceived greater risks than the former. Analyses of individual data showed that trust, perceived benefits, and general attitudes toward technology influenced the perceived risk of laypeople. In the expert sample, confidence in governmental agencies was an important predictor of risks associated with nanotechnology applications. Results suggest that public concerns about nanotechnology would diminish if measures were taken to enhance laypeople's trust in governmental agencies.

  18. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...... and understand the articles. It is the objective of this survey to find out if the images used in conjunction to articles that in the text body mention nanotechnology support the general message of the article or, in some way, convey other meanings about nanotechnology. Methods The study uses the newspaper...... database InfoMedia to construct a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology. The images found in the sample are coded using an existing analytical framework put forward by Greek science education scholars, Dimopoulos et al. (2003), in their study of visual images in school...

  19. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life...

  20. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-06

    RESTORATIVE ALGORITHM TO RECOVER A SET OF IMAGES OF PARALLEL SURFACES WITHIN THE OBJECT. THE METHOD IS COMPLEMENTARY TO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT); BUT...OUT- LINING VARIOUS PERIODONTAL AND ORAL SURGERY APPLICATIONS. WHILE NOT INTENDED TO COMPLETELY REPLACE RADIOGRAPHS, THE RESEARCH AS OUTLINED HEREIN...TITLE: APPLICATION OF COMPTON INTERACTION TOMOGRAPHY FOR NON- DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES TOPIC: 99 OFFICE: NASC AN