WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense medical human

  1. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  2. DMHRSwhy? The Value of the Defense Medical Human Resource System-Internet (DMHRSi) to the Military Health System (MHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Biography Lieutenant Colonel Jason Lennen is currently a student at Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He is a licensed and board...hospital, and medical center locations in a variety of student , staff, instructor, and leadership positions, and has deployed twice in support of...appointment pushed to the network. This example still fails to account for costs related to care continuity, patient satisfaction, and worker absenteeism

  3. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2006, Medical Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    assets for mobile support teams, labs, immunizations, latent TB screening, and post-deployment assessments.” (COL Eric Allely, Maryland State Surgeon...infarctions ! Diabetes ! Mental health problems ! Hypertension ! Diarrhea ! Heat injuries 30 State Defense Force Monograph Series, Summer 2006...for dysentery and vomiting ! Viral meningitis ! Injuries due to off-site fighting ! Tuberculosis ! HIV ! Special medical needs. See Figures 3

  4. Stop or move: Defensive strategies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline F; Vieira, Andre S; Oliveira, Jose M; Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G; Figueira, Ivan; Erthal, Fatima S; Volchan, Eliane

    2016-04-01

    Threatening cues and surrounding contexts trigger specific defensive response patterns. Potential threat evokes attentive immobility; attack evokes flight when escape is available and immobility when escape is blocked. Tonic immobility installs when threat is overwhelming and life-risky. In humans, reduced body sway characterizes attentive and tonic immobility, the former with bradycardia, and the later with expressive tachycardia. Here, we investigate human defensive strategies in the presence or absence of an escape route. We employed pictures depicting a man carrying a gun and worked with participants exposed to urban violence. In pictures simulating more possibility of escape, the gun was directed away from the observer; in those simulating higher risk and less chance of escape, the gun was directed toward the observer. Matched control pictures depicted similar layouts, but a non-lethal object substituted the gun. Posturographic and electrocardiographic recordings were collected. Amplitude of sway and heart rate were higher for gun directed-away and lower for gun direct-toward. Compared to their respective matched controls, there was a general increase in the amplitude of sway for the gun directed-away pictures; and a reduction in back-and-forth sway and in heart rate for gun directed-toward pictures. Taken together, those measures suggest that, when exposed to threat invading their margin of safety in a context indicating possible escape route, humans, as non-human species, engage in active escape, resembling the flight stage of the defensive cascade. When facing threat indicating less possibility of escape, humans present an immobile response with bradycardia.

  5. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc., and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure. Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corresponding changes in HF/E: (1 information becomes a tool, goal, mean and environment of a human activity, (2 it becomes a part of the human nature and this makes him/her unprotected, (3 human psycho-physiological status becomes not only a basis of effective performance, but an object of control and support, and means of a human security and safety should be a part of information habitat, (4 networking environment becomes an independent actor in a human activity. Accompanying cyber-security challenges and tasks are discussed, as well as types of networking threats and Human View regarding the cyber security challenges.

  6. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Zhang, Mingjun; Kretly, Luiz C.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease. PMID:27879858

  7. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Kretly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  8. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Zhang, Mingjun; Kretly, Luiz C

    2008-05-06

    This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  9. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication by Prescribed Medications: An Appellate Case Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    The defense of involuntary intoxication has long been an exception to the general notion that intoxication is not a defense to criminal liability. The consumption of medications prescribed by a physician can form the basis of an involuntary-intoxication defense. In this article, I review cases where defendants relied on the use of prescribed medications for an involuntary-intoxication defense. The medications most frequently implicated by defendants are listed by name and by class. From the case law, I provide a summary of the defense and a review of the pitfalls of the defense to serve as practice pointers for forensic evaluators.

  10. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  11. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  12. Human biomonitoring in civil defense; Humanbiomonitoring im Bevoelkerungsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen (Germany). Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on human biomonitoring (HBM) in civil defense covers the following issues within two sections: (1) general part: definition and importance of human biomonitoring; application in civil defense; practice in a CBRN (chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear) scenario; sampling following a CBRN assignment; HBM for antidote administration; peculiarities of sampling in case of biological agents; microbiological detection procedure; human biomonitoring of radioactive metal isotopes. (2) Special part: substance profiles; list of HBM laboratories; list of poison information centers; questionnaire for exposure assessment in case of dangerous substance accidents; agreement for human biomonitoring examination.

  13. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Roha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.

  14. The American Physical Society's Defense of Human Rights

    CERN Document Server

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The history of APS involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized. The summary will include illustrative specific Society human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists. It is noteworthy, and one of the reasons the Society can be proud, that this Committee is charged with monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists, not solely for physicists.

  15. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  16. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    network attack graphs. Paper presented at the IEEE Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security , Minneapolis, MN. Roberts, J.C. (2007). State of...Cyber security is a high-ranking national priority that is only likely to grow as we become more dependent on cyber systems. From a research perspective...Cyber security , cyber operations, human factors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a

  17. Medical devices and human engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Medical Devices and Human Engineering, the second volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biomedical sensors, medical instrumentation and devices, human performance engineering, rehabilitation engineering, and clinical engineering.More than three doze

  18. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  19. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-04

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  20. Human values in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J R

    1976-11-01

    Attitudes and values in medicine vary with the nature of the individual, his education and training, and the circumstances of his professional life. Comparisons are drawn between medical education in Britain 40 years ago and today. Though education has changed, British students are still mainly motivated by a desire to care for sick people. The impact of personal medicine on a country that has long accepted the need for some kind of national health service is described. It is postulated that as government and public become increasingly involved in health care, it is of paramount importance that medical education should provide a clear understanding of what a profession is and inculcate a determination to maintain true professional status. New responsibilities of the profession, to the public at large and to society, are suggested. The ability of medical education to exert a good influence on concern for human values in medicine depends in the final analysis on the ability to show excellence to medical students.

  1. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  2. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines.

  3. In defense of the passive voice in medical writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Few medical journals specifically instruct authors to use the active voice and avoid the passive voice, but advice to that effect is common in the large number of stylebooks and blogs aimed at medical and scientific writers. Such advice typically revolves around arguments that the passive voice is less clear, less direct, and less concise than the active voice, that it conceals the identity of the person(s) performing the action(s) described, that it obscures meaning, that it is pompous, and that the high rate of passive-voice usage in scientific writing is a result of conformity to an established and old-fashioned style of writing. Some of these arguments are valid with respect to specific examples of passive-voice misuse by some medical (and other) writers, but as arguments for avoiding passive-voice use in general, they are seriously flawed. In addition, many of the examples that stylebook writers give of inappropriate use are actually much more appropriate in certain contexts than the active-voice alternatives they provide. In this review, I examine the advice offered by anti-passive writers, along with some of their examples of "inappropriate" use, and argue that the key factor in voice selection is sentence word order as determined by the natural tendency in English for the topic of discourse ("old" information) to take subject position and for "new" information to come later. Authors who submit to this natural tendency will not have to worry much about voice selection, because it will usually be automatic.

  4. Natural Defense Mechanisms of the Human Brain against Chronic Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the structural bases of natural defense mechanisms of the human brain against chronic ischemia. Materials and methods. To accomplish this, histological, immunohistochemical (NSE, calbindin, NPY, p38 and morphometric examinations of intraoperative biopsy specimens were performed to determine the reorganization of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the ischemic penumbra of the temporal cerebral cortex (CC. Morphometric analysis was made using the specially developed algorithms to verify neurons and their elements in the ImageJ 1.46 program. Results. The reduction in the total numerical density of neurons and synapses in chronic ischemia was ascertained to be accompanied by the compensatorily enhanced expression of NSE, calbindin, p38, and NPY in the remaining CC neurons. There were signs of hypertrophy of inhibitory CC interneurons and growth of their processes. In consequence, the impact of inhibitory CC interneurons on excitatory neurons was likely to enhance. Conclusion. In chronic ischemia, the human brain is anticipated to respond to damage to some cells via compensatory excitatory and inhibitory neuronal reorganization directed towards its natural defense against excitatory damage and towards better conditions for compensatory recovery of the structure and function of CC. 

  5. In Defense of Four Principles Approach in Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dabbagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available "nPrinciplism, in general and Four Principles Approach in particular is largely discussed in current medical ethics. Accord­ing to principlism, the ethical relationship between physician and patient has to be categorized based on some princi­ples, the prin­ciples which are general, action-guiding and could help both the patient and the physician to arrange their ethical behav­ior. Four Principles Approach which is a principlistic view, has formulated the princi­ples which have to be considered in medi­cal ethics in the light of Rossian ethical framework as follows: respect for auton­omy, nonmalefi­cience, beneficence and jus­tice. Ethical Particularism, on the other hand, strongly criticizes princi­plism and repudi­ates the very idea of generalizabil­ity in the realm of ethics. According to particularists, the way in which a mor­ally relevant feature like fidelity and justice be­have in different ethical occasions is fully con­text-dependent so that they can­not be patternable in advance. It follows from this that fidelity, for instance, is not a good-making feature, generally speak­ing."nIn this paper, firstly, the Rossian ethics is discussed in order to make Four Principles Approach intelligible. Sec­ondly, the main particularists' argument against principlism is formulated. Finally, Particularists' argument is evalu­ated and its plau­si­bility is discussed.

  6. The Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    E M B E R 1 8 , 2 0 1 3 The Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More...Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the

  7. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  8. Bordetella pertussis modulates human macrophage defense gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Hugo Alberto; Oviedo, Juan Marcos; Gorgojo, Juan Pablo; Lamberti, Yanina; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, still causes outbreaks. We recently found evidence that B. pertussis can survive and even replicate inside human macrophages, indicating that this host cell might serve as a niche for persistence. In this work, we examined the interaction of B. pertussis with a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) that differentiates into macrophages in culture in order to investigate the host cell response to the infection and the mechanisms that promote that intracellular survival. To that end, we investigated the expression profile of a selected number of genes involved in cellular bactericidal activity and the inflammatory response during the early and late phases of infection. The bactericidal and inflammatory response of infected macrophages was progressively downregulated, while the number of THP-1 cells heavily loaded with live bacteria increased over time postinfection. Two of the main toxins of B. pertussis, pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase (CyaA), were found to be involved in manipulating the host cell response. Therefore, failure to express either toxin proved detrimental to the development of intracellular infections by those bacteria. Taken together, these results support the relevance of host defense gene manipulation to the outcome of the interaction between B. pertussis and macrophages.

  9. Defensive responses to threat scenarios in Brazilians reproduce the pattern of Hawaiian Americans and non-human mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shuhama

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A former study with scenarios conducted in Hawaii has suggested that humans share with non-human mammals the same basic defensive strategies - risk assessment, freezing, defensive threat, defensive attack, and flight. The selection of the most adaptive strategy is strongly influenced by features of the threat stimulus - magnitude, escapability, distance, ambiguity, and availability of a hiding place. Aiming at verifying if these strategies would be consistent in a different culture, 12 defensive scenarios were translated into Portuguese and adapted to the Brazilian culture. The sample consisted of male and female undergraduate students divided into two groups: 76 students, who evaluated the five dimensions of each scenario and 248 medical students, who chose the most likely response for each scenario. In agreement with the findings from studies of non-human mammal species, the scenarios were able to elicit different defensive behavioral responses, depending on features of the threat. "Flight" was chosen as the most likely response in scenarios evaluated as an unambiguous and intense threat, but with an available route of escape, whereas "attack" was chosen in an unambiguous, intense and close dangerous situation without an escape route. Less urgent behaviors, such as "check out", were chosen in scenarios evaluated as less intense, more distant and more ambiguous. Moreover, the results from the Brazilian sample were similar to the results obtained in the original study with Hawaiian students. These data suggest that a basic repertoire of defensive strategies is conserved along the mammalian evolution because they share similar functional benefits in maintaining fitness.

  10. Being skeptical about the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the author challenges the prevailing view that contemporary writing in the medical humanities is serving the needs of the various health care disciplines. The current medical humanities literature assumes that physicians are the appropriate target group. This is most notably the case within health care ethics literature. There appears to be an unexamined assumption that physician-centric approaches to clinical ethical decision-making are the standard by which appropriate ethical practice is judged. The author challenges this assumption and addresses the problems that this approach engenders. The medical humanities literature appears to reinforce hierarchical, patriarchal arrangements which are themselves not morally neutral.

  11. An upcoming program for medical humanities education in Fudan University's School of Basic Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-05-23

    Ideal medical care requires professional skills as well as appropriate communication skills. However, traditional medical education in medical schools mostly emphasizes the former. To remedy this situation, medical humanities education will be incorporated into education for medical students at Fudan University. Comprehensive medical education that includes both medical skills and humanities may greatly improve medical care.

  12. Whither (Whether) Medical Humanities? The Future of Humanities and Arts in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal for Learning through the Arts" focuses on the uses of literature and arts in medical education. The introductory article addresses current debate in the field of medical humanities (MH), namely the existential question of what is the purpose of integrating humanities/arts in medical education; and then examines how…

  13. Medical humanities and medical alterity in fiction and in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A widely accepted component of any answer to the question 'What is it to do good medical ethics?' is the commitment to benefit people's health, in principlist terminology, 'beneficence'. This paper addresses deliberate maleficence and the cultural otherness with which it is associated, focusing on the activities of the serial killer Dr Harold Shipman. It finds an uncanny 'fit' between the normal operation of healthcare services and this sort of alterity which has attracted little attention from bioethicists but has been addressed by novelists. To the extent that the medical humanities offers useful insights into hard moral problems, its capacities rest on taking account of both the fictional and the real.

  14. Humanizing the Dissertation Defense: One Woman of Color's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon-Cobb, Elisha J.

    2005-01-01

    This essay reflects the author's understanding of the doctoral experience, including the candidacy or qualifying exam, the role of the advisor, and the dissertation defense. In theory this process is the same for all students, but in practice the process may vary from department to department and university to university. She also includes a few…

  15. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    This book addresses the need for higher education to create a community of critical thinkers. It suggests that contemporary curricular reform is already producing citizens of the world as it advocates diversity and multicultural education. The central argument is a defense of the "new education," and is rooted in the ideal of the citizen who…

  16. The Host Defense Proteome of Human and Bovine Milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vries, de S.C.; Boeren, S.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components

  17. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  18. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  19. Defense of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Survivability ( Plaga ) • Wright, N; OSD and DSOC Helicopter Seating Studies Zehner, G; An Overview of USAF Anthropometry Plaga , J & Hill; SAFE Association...predictions. – 1230 - 1430 Standardization - 1472H (Poston) – 1230 - 1430 Human Factors in Extreme Environments & SS ( Plaga ) • Ganey, HCN...Classification (Personnel) LT Chris Foster Dr. Hector Acosta System Safety/Health Hazards/ Survivability (SS/HH/Sv) Mr. John Plaga Technical Society

  20. Recorded interviews with human and medical geneticists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    A series of 100 recorded interviews with human and medical geneticists has been carried out and some general results are reported here. Twenty countries across the world are represented, mostly European, with a particular emphasis on the United Kingdom. A priority was given to older workers, many of whom were key founders of human genetics in their own countries and areas of work, and over 20 of whom are now no longer living. The interviews also give valuable information on the previous generation of workers, as teachers and mentors of the interviewees, thus extending the coverage of human genetics back to the 1930s or even earlier. A number of prominent themes emerge from the interview series; notably the beginnings of human cytogenetics from the late 1950s, the development of medical genetics research and its clinical applications in the 1960s and 1970s, and more recently the beginnings and rapid growth of human molecular genetics. The interviews provide vivid personal portraits of those involved, and also show the effects of social and political issues, notably those arising from World War 2 and its aftermath, which affected not only the individuals involved but also broader developments in human genetics, such as research related to risks of irradiation. While this series has made a start in the oral history of this important field, extension and further development of the work is urgently needed to give a fuller picture of how human genetics has developed.

  1. Harnessing the medical humanities for experiential learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Barua, Purnima; Dhaliwal, Upreet; Singh, Navjeevan

    2017-01-01

    A month-long workshop on medical humanities was held in the Jorhat Medical College, Assam in September 2015. It employed experiential learning (both online and onsite) using humanities tools, such as the theatre of the oppressed, art, literature, reflective narratives, movies, the history of medicine, graphic medicine, poetry and diversity studies. As a result of the interactions, 28 volunteer participants, comprising students and faculty members, wrote reflective narratives on doctor​-patient relationships, produced a newsletter and a logo for their medical humanities group, and staged cultural performances and forum theatre. The narratives, participants' reflections and feedback received were subjected to qualitative analysis; the workshop was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's model. The participants learned to examine their attitudes and behaviour, communicate with their bodies, and experience respect for diversity. There was an improvement in their understanding of empathy, ethics and professionalism. The workshop achieved level-3 (behaviour) on Kirkpatrick's model, suggesting that such workshops can initiate a change in the ABCDE attributes (attitude, behaviour, communication, diversity, ethics and empathy) of medical professionals.

  2. Humanities for medical students? A qualitative study of a medical humanities curriculum in a medical school program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troein Margareta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, there is a trend towards establishing the medical humanities as a component of medical education. However, medical humanities programs that exist within the context of a medical school can be problematic. The aim of this study was to explore problems that can arise with the establishment of a medical humanities curriculum in a medical school program. Methods Our theoretical approach in this study is informed by derridean deconstruction and by post-structuralist analysis. We examined the ideology of the Humanities and Medicine program at Lund University, Sweden, the practical implementation of the program, and how ideology and practice corresponded. Examination of the ideology driving the humanities and medicine program was based on a critical reading of all available written material concerning the Humanities and Medicine project. The practice of the program was examined by means of a participatory observation study of one course, and by in-depth interviews with five students who participated in the course. Data was analysed using a hermeneutic editing approach. Results The ideological language used to describe the program calls it an interdisciplinary learning environment but at the same time shows that the conditions of the program are established by the medical faculty's agenda. In practice, the "humanities" are constructed, defined and used within a medical frame of reference. Medical students have interesting discussions, acquire concepts and enjoy the program. But they come away lacking theoretical structure to understand what they have learned. There is no place for humanities students in the program. Conclusion A challenge facing cross-disciplinary programs is creating an environment where the disciplines have equal standing and contribution.

  3. [New challenges for humanism in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón-Acevedo, G; García-Viveros, M; Narro-Robles, J

    1994-01-01

    This work is a review of the philosophical analysis surrounding the concept of "humanism" and what it means to be a human being, in relationship to daily life, education and medicine. The authors establish a direct relationship between humanism and bioethics as they relate to the new trends acquired through the development of institutional medicine and the increasing application of technological innovations in the health field. Both of these conditions tend to depersonalize the practice of medicine, and transform an ill person into a clinical file. Reflections are made about current topics, such as the knowledge and manipulation of human genome, assisted reproduction, abortion, survival of premature infants, organ transplants, technological innovation, euthanasia and disthanasia. Concepts and ideas are reviewed in relation to medical institutions and the sick, the physician and the community, and the physician and the government.

  4. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense in human gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Patlevič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, known together as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, and celiac disease are the most common disorders affecting not only adults but also children. Both IBDs and celiac disease are associated with oxidative stress, which may play a significant role in their etiologies. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide radicals (O2·−, hydroxyl radicals (·−OH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and singlet oxygen (1O2 are responsible for cell death via oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, and almost any other cellular constituent. To protect biological systems from free radical toxicity, several cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms exist to regulate the production of ROS, including enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways. Superoxide dismutase catalyzes the dismutation of O2·− to H2O2 and oxygen. The glutathione redox cycle involves two enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, which uses glutathione to reduce organic peroxides and H2O2; and glutathione reductase, which reduces the oxidized form of glutathione with concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. In addition to this cycle, GSH can react directly with free radicals. Studies into the effects of free radicals and antioxidant status in patients with IBDs and celiac disease are scarce, especially in pediatric patients. It is therefore very necessary to conduct additional research studies to confirm previous data about ROS status and antioxidant activities in patients with IBDs and celiac disease, especially in children.

  5. Science fiction and the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin; McFarlane, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Research on science fiction within the medical humanities should articulate interpretative frameworks that do justice to medical themes within the genre. This means challenging modes of reading that encourage unduly narrow accounts of science fiction. Admittedly, science studies has moved away from reading science fiction as a variety of scientific popularisation and instead understands science fiction as an intervention in the technoscientific imaginary that calls for investment in particular scientific enterprises, including various biomedical technologies. However, this mode of reading neglects science fiction's critical relationship to the construction of 'the future' in the present: the ways in which science fiction proposes concrete alternatives to hegemonic narratives of medical progress and fosters critical self-awareness of the contingent activity which gives 'the future' substance in the here-and-now. Moreover, the future orientation of science fiction should not distract from the function of medical science fiction as 'cognitive estrangement': the technological innovations that dominate science-fiction narratives are less concrete predictions and more generic devices that explain in historical time the origins of a marvellous world bearing provocative correspondences to our own, everyday reality. The editorial concludes with a series of introductions to the articles comprising the special issue, covering the print edition and a special online-only section.

  6. Medical humanities in nursing: thought provoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, A J; Murray, R

    1992-10-01

    Medical humanities is an innovative way of learning. Discussing literary texts of nursing practice has been used to help students analyse attitudes, values and ethics; it has also been used to help practitioners review and reflect on their own experience and philosophy of nursing. In nursing education, it has been used to explore difficult issues in a safe environment. The value of this approach in nursing education and practice is that it can encourage reflection, promote self-awareness and stimulate debate on difficult issues: for example, death and dying, power and institutionalization (of patients and staff) and pain. This paper gives a detailed worked example of how a literary text can be used in this way, the aim being to provide a resource which readers can then use with a group of students or colleagues. Finally, the authors explore the question of where medical humanities might have a place in the curriculum: as a lecture/tutorial in a course (e.g. Ethics), as a module in the curriculum, as a method of teaching nursing subjects (e.g. communication skills), as a discussion group (outside the curriculum), as a study guide, using literary texts alongside nursing text books. Any of these strategies can be a powerful vehicle for preserving the 'human factor' in both nursing education and continuing professional development.

  7. Design, fiction and the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Christopher Gordon

    2016-12-01

    This paper sets out to explore the similarities between the developing discipline of speculative and critical design (SCD) and science fiction, and their relevance to the medical humanities. SCD looks beyond 'commercial design' to consider what sort of things we should, or should not, be designing in order to create preferable futures. It does so by extrapolating from current social, economic, political and scientific knowledge, designing artefacts, experiences and scenarios which communicate futures and alternative realities in tangible ways. By first outlying the relevance of SCD to the medical humanities, through its ability to imagine and visualise preferable healthcare futures, the paper will then discuss several recent design projects which focus on current and future ethical issues raised by emerging biotechnology. Through these projects, the paper will look at SCD's ability to provoke, engage and critique science and society, while also critically reflecting on the limitations of the evolving design discipline. Through the paper it is hoped that there can be an increased understanding of SCD and its ambitions, as well as its limitations, in order for SCD to better approach issues relating to health and wellbeing, along with other difficult and challenging issues which will affect all us today and into the (sci-fi) future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Social Engineering: I-E based Model of Human Weakness for Attack and Defense Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is the attack aimed to manipulate dupe to divulge sensitive information or take actions to help the adversary bypass the secure perimeter in front of the information-related resources so that the attacking goals can be completed. Though there are a number of security tools, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems which are used to protect machines from being attacked, widely accepted mechanism to prevent dupe from fraud is lacking. However, the human element is often the weakest link of an information security chain, especially, in a human-centered environment. In this paper, we reveal that the human psychological weaknesses result in the main vulnerabilities that can be exploited by social engineering attacks. Also, we capture two essential levels, internal characteristics of human nature and external circumstance influences, to explore the root cause of the human weaknesses. We unveil that the internal characteristics of human nature can be converted into weaknesses by external circumstance influences. So, we propose the I-E based model of human weakness for social engineering investigation. Based on this model, we analyzed the vulnerabilities exploited by different techniques of social engineering, and also, we conclude several defense approaches to fix the human weaknesses. This work can help the security researchers to gain insights into social engineering from a different perspective, and in particular, enhance the current and future research on social engineering defense mechanisms.

  9. Medical Humanities Coursework Is Associated with Greater Measured Empathy in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeremy; Benson, Lauren M; Swanson, Judy; Potyk, Darryl; Daratha, Kenn; Roberts, Ken

    2016-12-01

    The primary focus of the study was to determine whether coursework in the medical humanities would ameliorate students' loss of and failure to develop empathy, a problem known to be common during medical education. Students were offered an elective course in the Medical Humanities for academic credit. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy Student Version (JSE-S) was administered at the beginning and end of an academic year in which humanities courses were offered. Changes in JSE-S scores among students who studied Medical Humanities were compared with changes in student who did not take any humanities coursework. Medical humanities coursework correlated with superior empathy outcomes among the medical students. Of students not enrolled in humanities courses, 71% declined or failed to increase in JSE-S score over the academic year. Of those who took humanities coursework, 46% declined or failed to increase in JSE-S scores. The difference was statistically significant (P = .03). The medical humanities curriculum correlated with favorable empathy outcomes as measured by the JSE-S. Elective medical humanities coursework correlated with improved empathy score outcomes in a group of US medical students. This may reflect a direct effect of the humanities coursework. Alternately, students' elective choice to take medical humanities coursework may be a marker for students with a propensity to favorable empathy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  11. MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedWatch alerts provide timely new safety information on human drugs, medical devices, vaccines and other biologics, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The alerts...

  12. MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedWatch alerts provide timely new safety information on human drugs, medical devices, vaccines and other biologics, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The alerts...

  13. The human genome project and the future of medical practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human genome project and the future of medical practice. ... the planning stages of the human genome project, the technology and sequence data ... the quality of healthcare available in the resource-rich and the resource-poor countries.

  14. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  15. Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Birch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs, and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.

  16. Library collaboration with medical humanities in an american medical college in qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.

  17. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of human Toll-like receptors and their different contributions to host defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Barreiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases have been paramount among the threats to health and survival throughout human evolutionary history. Natural selection is therefore expected to act strongly on host defense genes, particularly on innate immunity genes whose products mediate the direct interaction between the host and the microbial environment. In insects and mammals, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs appear to play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against microbes. In humans, however, it has been speculated that the set of TLRs could be redundant for protective immunity. We investigated how natural selection has acted upon human TLRs, as an approach to assess their level of biological redundancy. We sequenced the ten human TLRs in a panel of 158 individuals from various populations worldwide and found that the intracellular TLRs -- activated by nucleic acids and particularly specialized in viral recognition -- have evolved under strong purifying selection, indicating their essential non-redundant role in host survival. Conversely, the selective constraints on the TLRs expressed on the cell surface -- activated by compounds other than nucleic acids -- have been much more relaxed, with higher rates of damaging nonsynonymous and stop mutations tolerated, suggesting their higher redundancy. Finally, we tested whether TLRs have experienced spatially-varying selection in human populations and found that the region encompassing TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 has been the target of recent positive selection among non-Africans. Our findings indicate that the different TLRs differ in their immunological redundancy, reflecting their distinct contributions to host defense. The insights gained in this study foster new hypotheses to be tested in clinical and epidemiological genetics of infectious disease.

  19. Harnessing Full Value from the DoD Serum Repository and the Defense Medical Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ahead of print). 7. Eick AA, Hu Z, Wang Z, Nevin RL. Incidence of mumps and immunity to measles , mumps and rubella among U.S. military recruits, 2000...Tracking Application MEPS Military Entrance Processing Station MILVAX Military Vaccine Agency MRMC Medical Research and Materiel Command MSMR Medical...readiness (class 1 or 2 per annual dental exam2), (4) immunization status (current for total force/all services vaccines ), (5) med- ical readiness

  20. Developing Vibrant State Defense Forces: A Successful Medical and Health Service Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    MEDICAL AND HEALTH SERVICE MODEL Colonel (MD) H. Wayne Nelson, Ph.D. Colonel (MD) Robert Barish, M.D. Brigadier General (MD) Frederic Smalkin, J.D...Its Deputy Commander and MRC project action officer was (one of the authors, Nelson), a professor in the Health Science Department in Towson ...Director COL Wayne Nelson, to select “medically-qualified soldiers” who would accept assignment to “participate in humanitarian missions in response and

  1. Advancing the defensive explanation for anxiety disorders: lorazepam effects on human defense are systematically modulated by personality and threat-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A M; Ettinger, U; Weaver, K; Schmechtig, A; Schrantee, A; Morrison, P D; Sapara, A; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Corr, P J

    2013-04-16

    Clinically effective drugs against human anxiety and fear systematically alter the innate defensive behavior of rodents, suggesting that in humans these emotions reflect defensive adaptations. Compelling experimental human evidence for this theory is yet to be obtained. We report the clearest test to date by investigating the effects of 1 and 2 mg of the anti-anxiety drug lorazepam on the intensity of threat-avoidance behavior in 40 healthy adult volunteers (20 females). We found lorazepam modulated the intensity of participants' threat-avoidance behavior in a dose-dependent manner. However, the pattern of effects depended upon two factors: type of threat-avoidance behavior and theoretically relevant measures of personality. In the case of flight behavior (one-way active avoidance), lorazepam increased intensity in low scorers on the Fear Survey Schedule tissue-damage fear but reduced it in high scorers. Conversely, in the case of risk-assessment behavior (two-way active avoidance), lorazepam reduced intensity in low scorers on the Spielberger trait anxiety but increased it in high scorers. Anti-anxiety drugs do not systematically affect rodent flight behavior; therefore, we interpret this new finding as suggesting that lorazepam has a broader effect on defense in humans than in rodents, perhaps by modulating general perceptions of threat intensity. The different patterning of lorazepam effects on the two behaviors implies that human perceptions of threat intensity are nevertheless distributed across two different neural streams, which influence effects observed on one-way or two-way active avoidance demanded by the situation.

  2. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, M S; Pandit, Shobha

    2009-07-01

    A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.

  3. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.

  4. Introducing medical humanities in the medical curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A pedagogical experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie E Abdel-Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a marked shift from the modern positivist materialist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, Western medical educators are now beginning to realize the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building up in Europe and North America on the need to give more emphasis to the study of humanities disciplines such as history of medicine, ethics, religion, philosophy, medically related poetry, literature, arts and medical sociology in medical colleges with the aim of allowing graduates to reach to the heart of human learning about meaning of life and death and to become kinder, more reflective practitioners. The medicine taught and practiced during the Islamic civilization era was a vivid example of the unity of the two components of medical knowledge: natural sciences and humanities. It was also a brilliant illustration of medical ethics driven by a divine moral code. This historical fact formed the foundation for the three medical humanities courses presented in this article reporting a pedagogical experiment in preparation for starting a humanities program in Alfaisal University Medical College in Riyadh. In a series of lectures alternating with interactive sessions, active learning strategies were employed in teaching a course on history of medicine during the Islamic era and another on Islamic medical ethics. Furthermore, a third course on medically relevant Arabic poetry was designed and prepared in a similar way. The end-of-the-course feedback comments reflected effectiveness of the courses and highlighted the importance of employing student-centered learning techniques in order to motivate medical students to become critical thinkers, problem solvers, life-long learners and self-learners.

  5. Introducing medical humanities in the medical curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A pedagogical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E; Alkattan, Khaled M

    2012-05-01

    In a marked shift from the modern positivist materialist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, Western medical educators are now beginning to realize the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building up in Europe and North America on the need to give more emphasis to the study of humanities disciplines such as history of medicine, ethics, religion, philosophy, medically related poetry, literature, arts and medical sociology in medical colleges with the aim of allowing graduates to reach to the heart of human learning about meaning of life and death and to become kinder, more reflective practitioners. The medicine taught and practiced during the Islamic civilization era was a vivid example of the unity of the two components of medical knowledge: natural sciences and humanities. It was also a brilliant illustration of medical ethics driven by a divine moral code. This historical fact formed the foundation for the three medical humanities courses presented in this article reporting a pedagogical experiment in preparation for starting a humanities program in Alfaisal University Medical College in Riyadh. In a series of lectures alternating with interactive sessions, active learning strategies were employed in teaching a course on history of medicine during the Islamic era and another on Islamic medical ethics. Furthermore, a third course on medically relevant Arabic poetry was designed and prepared in a similar way. The end-of-the-course feedback comments reflected effectiveness of the courses and highlighted the importance of employing student-centered learning techniques in order to motivate medical students to become critical thinkers, problem solvers, life-long learners and self-learners.

  6. NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations AMedP-6(B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    food products by humans or animals. Naturally occurring trichothecenes have been identified in agricultural products and have been implicated in a...disease of animals known as moldy corn toxicosis or poisoning. (b) There are no well-documented cases of clinical exposure of humans to trichothecenes ...Rate Exposure of Whole-Body Irradiation to Healthy Adults (9 of 9) Figure 6-II. Smoothed Average Time-Course of Neutrophil Changes in Human Cases from

  7. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  8. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  9. Standardizing Medication Error Event Reporting in the U.S. Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    States due to medical errors is between 44,000 and 98,000. This number far exceeds the annual number of deaths resulting from AIDS, breast cancer , or...Potassium Chloride Furosemide Diazepam Fentanyl Ketorolac Potassium Chloride Furosemide Meperidine Metoprolol Ipatropium Hydromorphone Vancomycin * 2002

  10. Medical Entomology in the United States Department of Defense: Challenging and Rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    insect and vector control programs. In 2003, the Republic of Palau requested US assist- ance in conducting surveillance for Aedes aegypti , a primary...preventive medi- cine teams remain vigilant on a global basis. Military medical entomologists have a long and proud history of ‘serving those who

  11. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Proud

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes.

  12. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-10-01

    Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is

  13. An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide Is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, David J; Lee, Song Hee; Kumar, Vineeth Tv; Bouvier, Nicole M; Krammer, Florian; Ellebedy, Ali H; Wrammert, Jens; Lowen, Anice C; George, Sanil; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Jacob, Joshy

    2017-04-18

    Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. Using electron microscopy, we showed that this peptide physically destroyed influenza virions. It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  15. Medical ethics and human rights in wartime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-09

    Mar 9, 2015 ... Dr Wouter Basson was charged with violating this medical ethics norm during the ... a criminal trial, with a higher standard of proof than a civil trial ... cannot escape responsibility by relying on a military order; that as long as a ...

  16. A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Dunoyer, Patrice; Arar, Khalil; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Eyquem, Stephanie; Himber, Christophe; Saïb, Ali; Voinnet, Olivier

    2005-04-22

    In eukaryotes, 21- to 24-nucleotide-long RNAs engage in sequence-specific interactions that inhibit gene expression by RNA silencing. This process has regulatory roles involving microRNAs and, in plants and insects, it also forms the basis of a defense mechanism directed by small interfering RNAs that derive from replicative or integrated viral genomes. We show that a cellular microRNA effectively restricts the accumulation of the retrovirus primate foamy virus type 1 (PFV-1) in human cells. PFV-1 also encodes a protein, Tas, that suppresses microRNA-directed functions in mammalian cells and displays cross-kingdom antisilencing activities. Therefore, through fortuitous recognition of foreign nucleic acids, cellular microRNAs have direct antiviral effects in addition to their regulatory functions.

  17. Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lessons in medical humanism: the case of Montaigne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Alan G

    2007-06-05

    Michel de Montaigne, the great French humanist and inventor of the personal essay, suffered from frequent and severe renal colic. He wrote about his illness in his travel journal and in his last and greatest essay, "Of Experience." In his illness narratives, Montaigne integrated disease and suffering into his life and art. He humanized rather than conquered his disease. A mature humanism replaced his youthful Stoic philosophy of detachment and disengagement and provides a worthy model for our own medical humanism.

  19. Human multidrug resistance ABCB and ABCG transporters: participation in a chemoimmunity defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András

    2006-10-01

    In this review we give an overview of the physiological functions of a group of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, which were discovered, and still referred to, as multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. Although they indeed play an important role in cancer drug resistance, their major physiological function is to provide general protection against hydrophobic xenobiotics. With a highly conserved structure, membrane topology, and mechanism of action, these essential transporters are preserved throughout all living systems, from bacteria to human. We describe the general structural and mechanistic features of the human MDR-ABC transporters and introduce some of the basic methods that can be applied for the analysis of their expression, function, regulation, and modulation. We treat in detail the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) and the ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP) proteins and describe emerging information related to additional ABCB- and ABCG-type transporters with a potential role in drug and xenobiotic resistance. Throughout this review we demonstrate and emphasize the general network characteristics of the MDR-ABC transporters, functioning at the cellular and physiological tissue barriers. In addition, we suggest that multidrug transporters are essential parts of an innate defense system, the "chemoimmunity" network, which has a number of features reminiscent of classical immunology.

  20. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans , and physician competencies , because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be...

  1. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  2. A New Medical Image Enhancement Based on Human Visual Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ai-bin; HE Jun

    2013-01-01

    Study of image enhancement shows that the quality of image heavily relies on human visual system. In this paper, we apply this fact effectively to design a new image enhancement method for medical images that improves the detail regions. First, the eye region of interest (ROI) is segmented; then the Un-sharp Masking (USM) is used to enhance the detail regions. Experiments show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of medical image enhancement and has a significant effect.

  3. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse.

  4. Medical management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempen John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic has pervasive effects on culture, economics, policy, and human development. All organs can be affected by complications of HIV/AIDS, including the eye. When sufficient resources are available and widespread antiretroviral resistance does not exist, the four available classes of antiretroviral agents - nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors - can be combined to provide highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. For many (not all patients, HAART converts an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic disease with a fairly good prognosis. Use of HAART often induces partial immune recovery, which has predominantly beneficial effects on ocular complications of AIDS. However, HAART-induced immune recovery sometimes results in immune recovery inflammatory syndromes, such as immune recovery uveitis. Use of HAART is the single most useful intervention for most patients with ocular complications of AIDS. However, specific ocular therapy is also critical to avoid blindness in the early months before immune recovery can occur, or if HAART is unavailable. Increasing availability of HAART worldwide shows great promise to alleviate one of the world′s greatest plagues. However, predictable secular trends in the AIDS epidemic make it likely that the number of cases of ocular complications of AIDS will increase substantially before they decrease. Ophthalmologists worldwide should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis - the most common ocular complication of AIDS - and should establish partnerships with physicians who are able to provide HAART. Research is needed to determine the optimal approach for managing cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource-constrained settings.

  5. Melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes cultured in the presence of chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otreba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders and belongs to phenothiazine class of neuroleptic drugs. It shows severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms as well as ocular and skin disorders, but the mechanism is still not fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chlorpromazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes. It has been demonstrated that chlorpromazine induces concentration dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC(50) was calculated to be 2.53 μM. Chlorpromazine in lower concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μM) increased the melanin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) content and tyrosinase activity, while changes of antioxidant enzymes activity were not observed. It suggests that long-term chlorpromazine therapy, even with low drug doses, may lead to hyperpigmentation disorders in skin and/or eye. The use of the analyzed drug in higher concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 μM) caused significant alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in normal melanocytes, what may explain a potential role of chlorpromazine in the depletion of cellular antioxidant status leading to other adverse effects associated with the high-dose and/or long-term therapy.

  6. Community-oriented Curriculum Design for Medical Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duu-Jian Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Various recent surveys in Taiwan show physicians' decreasing satisfaction and increasing frustration with their working environment. Their major complaints are stress, long hours, salary, management's disrespect, and lack of trust from patients and society. To move towards restoration of social trust, this paper proposes incorporating the concept of “doctor as mediator in the changing relationship with patients” into the medical curriculum, as will be described in detail. This paper argues that structured community service for medical students facilitates self-learning, and will not only motivate them to develop good clinical and communication skills, but will also lead them to realize that the essence of medicine must be social trust. These effects have been seen after several years of an experimental curriculum involving more than 800 students. A program using methodology for community empowerment has been realized in a two-stage curriculum design. Students' self-assessment of achievements in these courses included further improvement in communication skills, courage to express own position, appropriate planning in advance, management of human resources, ability to deal with limited space and time, and experience of a profoundly moving learning process. In conclusion, community-based curriculum designs that facilitate self-learning for medical students should be the key element of reformed humanities education in Taiwan medical schools. Moreover, medical humanities continues to be a key element contributing to ongoing intellectual movements in Taiwan for building civil society and rooting democracy in the community.

  7. Humanism or professionalism? The White Coat Ceremony and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judah L

    2008-08-01

    In this article, the author challenges the widely held assumption that humanism and professionalism are necessarily complementary themes in medical education. He argues that humanism and professionalism are two very different value systems with different rationales, different goals, and different agendas. Whereas humanism is a universal, egalitarian ideology, professionalism represents the parochial, culturally determined practices of a particular professional group that may or may not conform to lay expectations. Distinguishing professionalism from humanism is crucial to understanding the divergent attitudes of providers and lay persons with regard to health care delivery and physician behavior. Moreover, it highlights the tension that medical students experience as they are tacitly asked to leave behind their lay, humanistic values and embrace a new professional identity, a transition that the common blurring of humanism and professionalism fails to recognize. In this context, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation's widely acclaimed White Coat Ceremony for entering medical students may actually be inhibiting, rather than encouraging, the genuine growth of humanism in medicine.

  8. The limits of narrative: provocations for the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Angela

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to (re)ignite debate about the role of narrative in the medical humanities. It begins with a critical review of the ways in which narrative has been mobilised by humanities and social science scholars to understand the experience of health and illness. I highlight seven dangers or blind spots in the dominant medical humanities approach to narrative, including the frequently unexamined assumption that all human beings are 'naturally narrative'. I then explore this assumption further through an analysis of philosopher Galen Strawson's influential article 'Against Narrativity'. Strawson rejects the descriptive claim that "human beings typically see or live or experience their lives as a narrative" and the normative claim that "a richly Narrative outlook is essential to a well-lived life, to true or full personhood". His work has been taken up across a range of disciplines, but its implications in the context of health and illness have not yet been sufficiently discussed. This article argues that 'Against Narrativity' can and should stimulate robust debate within the medical humanities regarding the limits of narrative, and concludes by discussing a range of possibilities for venturing 'beyond narrative'.

  9. Creating an interdisciplinary medical home for survivors of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Melinda; Held, Theodore; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2014-09-01

    Health care providers play an important role in identifying victims of human trafficking and addressing their unique medical needs. In response to a recently published call to action in Obstetrics & Gynecology, an interdisciplinary medical home has been created in central Texas to serve as a model for delivery of care to survivors of human trafficking that is sensitive to their history of trauma, or "trauma-informed." An overview of the topic is provided along with a description of the stakeholders involved and the steps that were taken to create the clinic. This information is presented with the intention of educating health care providers on the long-term medical needs of survivors and on how they can establish a similar clinic in other parts of the country.

  10. Scientific and medical aspects of human reproductive cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Science

    2002-01-01

    ...), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). It is a result of work done by the Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning, a joint panel of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and the Board on Life Sciences (BLS). The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard ...

  11. Innate Defense against Influenza A Virus: Activity of Human Neutrophil Defensins and Interactions of Defensins with Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; White, Mitchell R.; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection, in part by modifying interactions with neutrophils. Human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibit infectivity of enveloped viruses, including IAV. Our goal in this study was to characte......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection, in part by modifying interactions with neutrophils. Human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibit infectivity of enveloped viruses, including IAV. Our goal in this study...... with the hemagglutination-inhibiting activity of SP-D. HNPs had significant viral neutralizing activity against divergent IAV strains. However, the HNPs generally had competitive effects when combined with SP-D in assays using an SP-D-sensitive IAV strain. In contrast, cooperative antiviral effects were noted in some...

  12. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-machine analytics for closed-loop sense-making in time-dominant cyber defense problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Matthew H.

    2017-05-01

    Many defense problems are time-dominant: attacks progress at speeds that outpace human-centric systems designed for monitoring and response. Despite this shortcoming, these well-honed and ostensibly reliable systems pervade most domains, including cyberspace. The argument that often prevails when considering the automation of defense is that while technological systems are suitable for simple, well-defined tasks, only humans possess sufficiently nuanced understanding of problems to act appropriately under complicated circumstances. While this perspective is founded in verifiable truths, it does not account for a middle ground in which human-managed technological capabilities extend well into the territory of complex reasoning, thereby automating more nuanced sense-making and dramatically increasing the speed at which it can be applied. Snort1 and platforms like it enable humans to build, refine, and deploy sense-making tools for network defense. Shortcomings of these platforms include a reliance on rule-based logic, which confounds analyst knowledge of how bad actors behave with the means by which bad behaviors can be detected, and a lack of feedback-informed automation of sensor deployment. We propose an approach in which human-specified computational models hypothesize bad behaviors independent of indicators and then allocate sensors to estimate and forecast the state of an intrusion. State estimates and forecasts inform the proactive deployment of additional sensors and detection logic, thereby closing the sense-making loop. All the while, humans are on the loop, rather than in it, permitting nuanced management of fast-acting automated measurement, detection, and inference engines. This paper motivates and conceptualizes analytics to facilitate this human-machine partnership.

  14. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life.

  15. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    Full Text Available A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, elastase and rhamnolipids and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor.

  16. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  17. Music and health. Phenomenological investigation of a medical humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-05-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question 'how can music heal?' We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a co-operative inquiry with a professional musician interested in health. All researchers and six respondents kept audio or written diaries. Three respondents were interviewed in depth. A medical school head (and experienced musician) critiqued the phenomenological analysis of respondents' accounts of music, health, and its relationship with undergraduate medical education. Respondents experienced music as promoting health, even in seriously diseased people. Music affected people's identity and emotions. Through the medium of structure and harmony, it provided a means of self-expression that adapted to whatever condition people were in. Music was a communication medium, which could make people feel less isolated. Immersion in music could change negative states of mind to more positive ones. A transport metaphor was commonly used; music 'taking people to better places'. Exercising control by becoming physically involved in music enhanced diseased people's self-esteem. Music was able to bring the spiritual, mental, and physical elements of their lives into balance, to the benefit of their wellbeing. Music could help medical students appreciate holistically that the state of health of people who are either well or diseased can be enhanced by a 'non-technical' intervention.

  18. Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordie; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekic, Snezana; Savic, Slobodan; Aleksandric, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Trafficking in human beigns (THB) is recognized as a global public health issue as well as a violation of human rights. Trafficking has been identified to be associated with several health risks including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, and substance misuse. Public and media reports suggest that the morbidity and mortality associated with trafficking are substantial. The need of medico-legal healthcare for THB victims is being neglected. Forensic medical examination, as specific intervention, is a highly desirable element of ermegency health care provided for victims of tracking. Acting in such a way, the investigation should establish the facts related to the allegatation of trafficking, thereby assisting in identifying those responsible, but also contributing to the procedures designed to obtain redress for the victims. Local anti-trafficking policies and interventions, however, have not acknowledged these needs. Therefore, the agenda of anti-trafficking policies needs to be redrawn to include forensic medical assessment of victims for legal purposes.

  19. Medical and human genetics 1977: trends and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1978-03-01

    Our field is in a rapid state of evolution. The broader concerns of human genetics not of immediate medical interest such as behavioral genetics are often investigated by persons not trained or identified as human geneticists. Both medical genetics and human genetics in general have prospered when various biologic techniques have been applied to genetic concepts. A search for novel biologic methods may provide new insights and may bridge the gulf between Mendelian and biometric approaches in studies of behavior and of common diseases. Medical geneticists need to broaden their fields of interest to encompass other fields than those of pediatric interest alone. We need to attract more basic scientists. Our field is evolving from a largely research oriented science to a service-oriented specialty. This logical development is a sign of increasing maturity and makes available to the public the results of our research. The resulting stresses and strains need careful watching to prevent their slowing the momentum of our science which can contribute continued insights into the many problems of behavior, health, and disease.

  20. Could Staying Human in Medical Training Help Make Medicine Humane? Review of Allan D. Peterkin, Staying Human During Residency Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros, Fabián

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Staying Human During Residency Training. How to survive and Thrive after Medical School, Dr. Allan D. Peterkin provides guidance and tools to medical residents, with a common thread the wellbeing of the person in each resident, essential to staying humane during the demanding training called residency. This review focuses on ethics, as presented in the author’s discourse, in a chapter specifically dealing with clinical ethics.

  1. Agent-based modeling approach of immune defense against spores of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eTokarski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi like the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are a majorthreat to immunocompromised patients. An impaired immune system renders the body vulnerable to inva-sive mycoses that often lead to the death of the patient. While the number of immunocompromised patientsis rising with medical progress, the process and dynamics of defence against invaded and ready to germinatefungal conidia are still insufficiently understood.Besides macrophages, neutrophil granulocytes form an important line of defence in that they clear conidia.Live imaging shows the interaction of those phagocytes and conidia as a dynamic process of touching, drag-ging and phagocytosis. To unravel strategies of phagocytes on the hunt for conidia an agent-based modelingapproach is used, implemented in NetLogo. Different modes of movement of phagocytes are tested regard-ing their clearing efficiency: random walk, short term persistence in their recent direction, chemotaxis ofchemokines excreted by conidia and communication between phagocytes.

  2. Human choline dehydrogenase: medical promises and biochemical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Gadda, Giovanni

    2013-09-15

    Human choline dehydrogenase (CHD) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria primarily in liver and kidney and catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. Its physiological role is to regulate the concentrations of choline and glycine betaine in the blood and cells. Choline is important for regulation of gene expression, the biosynthesis of lipoproteins and membrane phospholipids and for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; glycine betaine plays important roles as a primary intracellular osmoprotectant and as methyl donor for the biosynthesis of methionine from homocysteine, a required step for the synthesis of the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine. Recently, CHD has generated considerable medical attention due to its association with various human pathologies, including male infertility, homocysteinuria, breast cancer and metabolic syndrome. Despite the renewed interest, the biochemical characterization of the enzyme has lagged behind due to difficulties in the obtainment of purified, active and stable enzyme. This review article summarizes the medical relevance and the physiological roles of human CHD, highlights the biochemical knowledge on the enzyme, and provides an analysis based on the comparison of the protein sequence with that of bacterial choline oxidase, for which structural and biochemical information is available.

  3. Missions of the French Defense Radiation Protection Service Concerning The Medical Management of Radio-contaminated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagna, G; Pégorié, A; Entine, F; Michel, X; Dondey, M; Amabile, J-C

    2016-08-01

    The French Defense Radiation Protection Service (SPRA) is an institution of the French Armed Forces (SSA) that provides technical support in radiation protection matters for French military units. It provides services for the armed forces and when necessary for the national public health system. The aim of this note is to describe the variety of services provided by the SPRA in France and abroad, not only in a military context but also in the broader field of radiation protection.

  4. [Development of an evidence-based managerial decision aid to assist in the provision of secondary medical services in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ilan; Huerta, Michael; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Fire, Gil

    2009-04-01

    Increasing global expenditures on health, together with increased patient demand for quality and service, have created a need for health care management tools based on economic and quaLity-based criteria. Despite the recognition of this need, decision-support tools are Lacking. In the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), policy change and budgetary and quality constraints necessitated the development of an evidence-based managerial decision aid, to assist in providing medical services at acceptable quality and availability leveLs, while addressing economic concerns. To develop a decision-support model for the IDF Medical Corps, that balances the conflicting considerations of service avaiLabiLity and cost. The authors developed a manageriaL model to characterize regional secondary medical care, and to compare it to country-wide patterns and to historic regional patterns. Secondary care systems were then analyzed by specialty. Finally, the relative costs of medical encounters for each speciaLty were anaLyzed. Core specialties examined included dermatology, orthopedics and otolaryngology. Two-thirds of all referrals to core specialists were made to intra-organizational resources. Furthermore, several intra-organizationaL clinics were found to have short waiting times and low output indices. In response to the application of the model, IDF Medical Corps policy was updated and suppliers were reprioritized, yielding substantial savings of up to NIS 5.5 million in 2006 alone. This cost saving enabled budgetary reallocation and alternative investment in the emergency and primary health care systems. Applying efficient managerial tools can lead to cost savings and to increased quality and availability of services. These tools must effectively follow changes in the dynamics of the health care system. These changes are to be impLemented rapidly, in order to provide practical guidance for medical administrators and to enable them to infLuence the real-time utiLization of medical

  5. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  6. [Half a century of human and medical cytogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, P

    2009-01-01

    In 1956, the number of chromosomes in humans is set at 46; in 1959, the link between a disability (mongolism) and a chromosomal anomaly (the Down syndrome) is established: human and medical cytogenetics were born. Since then, progress has been remarkable: the techniques of chromosomal and molecular cytogenetics can reach a resolution of the size of a single gene with a pangenomic scope. Practical applications are constantly expanded. The clinical impact is significant, from the genetic counselling in constitutional to the targeted therapies. Fifty years later, cytogenetics can be defined as the science which aims to detect chromosomal abnormalities, whether constitutional or acquired, using chromosomal or molecular techniques aiming to study the arrangement of genes in chromosomes, to quantify the number of gene copy and to look for the presence of gene fusion.

  7. Medical humanism in the poetry of Raymond Carver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, Sandra Lee

    2006-01-01

    There is an analogy between a scientific approach to medicine in which the patient ultimately becomes an object of study rather than a whole person, and a post/modern aesthetic in literature in which the subject has little or no agency in a chaotic linguistic universe. Raymond Carver died of cancer in 1988, and in both his pre- and post-diagnostic poetry there is humanistic lyricism that contributes to re-establishing empathic bonds between readers and characters, and to re-humanizing the patient as a whole person in the context of contemporary health institutions. Close readings of poems with descriptions of the autopsy room and of patient-doctor relations bring out the medical humanism in Carver's verse.

  8. Defense of the Human Rights in opposition to the regressive dictatorships: A comparison between the Argentinian and the Uruguayian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano ALONSO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a tentative comparison between the social movements in defense of fundamental human rights, against the dictatorships of Uruguay (1973-1985 and Argentina (1976-1983. Variations among both movements are systematically identified. The temporalities, the problems relative to his endogenous or exogenous origins as the differentiations that they registered during both dictatorships and in the transitions to the constitutional governments are analyzed. The text relativizes the conception of the Uruguayan movement like later and weaker than the Argentinean, and suggests some provisional explanations of the differences. The main points of comparison are: a The political inscription of the social actors and the mode in which were organized the majority of the syndical and political groups, b The rate of violence applied by both dictatorships, c The different types of activism in defense of fundamental human rights, d The modalities of the transition, e The ways of government (governmentality, and f The scale and geographical and demographic characteristics.

  9. Mycoplasma genitalium Infection Activates Cellular Host Defense and Inflammation Pathways in a 3-Dimensional Human Endocervical Epithelial Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Chris L.; Radtke, Andrea L.; Abraham, Kyle; Martin, David H.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background. Because Mycoplasma genitalium is a prevalent and emerging cause of sexually transmitted infections, understanding the mechanisms by which M. genitalium elicits mucosal inflammation is an essential component to managing lower and upper reproductive tract disease syndromes in women. Methods. We used a rotating wall vessel bioreactor system to create 3-dimensional (3-D) epithelial cell aggregates to model and assess endocervical infection by M. genitalium. Results. Attachment of M. genitalium to the host cell's apical surface was observed directly and confirmed using immunoelectron microscopy. Bacterial replication was observed from 0 to 72 hours after inoculation, during which time host cells underwent ultrastructural changes, including reduction of microvilli, and marked increases in secretory vesicle formation. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we identified a host defense and inflammation signature activated by M. genitalium during acute infection (48 hours after inoculation) that included cytokine and chemokine activity and secretion of factors for antimicrobial defense. Multiplex bead-based protein assays confirmed secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, several of which are involved in leukocyte recruitment and hypothesized to enhance susceptibility to human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Conclusions. These findings provide insight into key molecules and pathways involved in innate recognition of M. genitalium and the response to acute infection in the human endocervix. PMID:23493725

  10. Bioastronautics: optimizing human performance through research and medical innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    A strategic use of resources is essential to achieving long-duration space travel and understanding the human physiological changes in space, including the roles of food and nutrition in space. To effectively address the challenges of space flight, the Bioastronautics Initiative, undertaken in 2001, expands extramural collaboration and leverages unique capabilities of the scientific community and the federal government, all the while applying this integrated knowledge to Earth-based problems. Integral to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions in space is the reduction of risk of medical complications, particularly during missions of long duration. Cumulative medical experience and research provide the ability to develop evidence-based medicine for prevention, countermeasures, and treatment modalities for space flight. The early approach applied terrestrial clinical judgment to predict medical problems in space. Space medicine has evolved to an evidence-based approach with the use of biomedical data gathered and lessons learned from previous space flight missions to systematically aid in decision making. This approach led, for example, to the determination of preliminary nutritional requirements for space flight, and it aids in the development of nutrition itself as a countermeasure to support nutritional mitigation of adaptation to space.

  11. Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fieschi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: to evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

  12. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  13. Thinking regionally: narrative, the medical humanities and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Keir

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on multiple literatures from history, geography, anthropology, sociology and literature, this essay asks questions about what we mean by region and why narratives of region should matter to the medical humanities. The essay surveys how region can be used as a lens of analysis, exploring the various academic approaches to region and their limitations. It argues that regions are dynamic but also unstable as a category of analysis and are often used uncritically by scholars. In encouraging scholars working in the medical humanities to be aware that regions are not simple objective or analytical boxes, the essay shows how an awareness of region helps challenge metropolitan whiggism and ideas of core and periphery to give a more prominent place to hinterlands, market towns and rural environments. Furthermore, the essay considers how incorporating region into our understanding of illness can offer new insights. It demonstrates the need for scholars to be attuned to the narratives constructed around regions, suggesting that regions can be viewed as discursive formations that provide a frame for understanding both collective and personal ideas of, and responses to, health and illness, disease and healing, to create what Megan Davies calls a more nuanced 'intellectual cartography'.

  14. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population.

  15. The quarantine of philosophy in medical education: why teaching the humanities may not produce humane physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, W E

    1999-01-01

    Patients increasingly see physicians not as humane caregivers but as unfeeling technicians. The study of philosophy in medical school has been proposed to foster critical thinking about one's assumptions, perspectives and biases, encourage greater tolerance toward the ideas of others, and cultivate empathy. I suggest that the study of ethics and philosophy by medical students has failed to produce the humane physicians we seek because of the way the subject matter is quarantined in American medical education. First, the liberal arts are seen as the province of undergraduate education, and not medical school. Second, philosophy, when taught in medical school, is seen by students as just one subject to be mastered along with many other more important ones, and not as a way to foster critical thinking and empathy. What is needed is a new pedagogy that combines both cognitive and affective elements to implant and nourish the liberal arts in students. Removing the quarantine of philosophy from other facets of medical education is an important first step.

  16. Allied Medical Publication AMedP-7.6(A), Commander’s Guide to Medical Operations in Support of CBRN Defensive Operations: Study Draft 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    degradation of operational capability due to use of physical protection. While assuming a protected posture (Mission Oriented Protective Posture ... hygiene measures (e.g., limits on physical contact) Guidance on issues requiring operational-level coordination, advice, assessment SOPs for movement...Information and Coordination System MOPP Mission Oriented Protective Posture MRIIT Medical Radiation Incident Investigation Team MTF Medical Treatment

  17. Arsenic alters transcriptional responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and decreases antimicrobial defense of human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Britton C; Rayack, Erica J; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen. Bronchial epithelial cells line the airway surface, providing a physical barrier and serving critical roles in antimicrobial defense and signaling to professional immune cells. We used RNA-seq to define the transcriptional response of HBE cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and investigated how arsenic affected HBE gene networks in the presence and absence of the bacterial challenge. Environmentally relevant levels of arsenic significantly changed the expression of genes involved in cellular redox homeostasis and host defense to bacterial infection, and decreased genes that code for secreted antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Using pathway analysis, we identified Sox4 and Nrf2-regulated gene networks that are predicted to mediate the arsenic-induced decrease in lysozyme secretion. In addition, we demonstrated that arsenic decreased lysozyme in the airway surface liquid, resulting in reduced lysis of Microccocus luteus. Thus, arsenic alters the expression of genes and proteins in innate host defense pathways, thereby decreasing the ability of the lung epithelium to fight bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defense Health Care Reform: Actions Needed to Help Realize Potential Cost Savings from Medical Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    dentists , nurses, therapists, and laboratory technicians) and expended approximately $655 million on such training in fiscal year 2013. This includes...medical training to health professionals dedicated to a career as a physician, dentist , or nurse in DOD or the U.S. Public Health Service...promote learning and continuous improvement; (6) create enhanced value in military medical markets using an integrated approach specified in 5-year

  19. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  20. Using films and television shows with a medical theme as a medium to accelerate the spread of medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Qian, Haihong

    2017-05-23

    People have more visual experiences than ever before, and the same is true for situations in medicine. More mature films and television shows with a medical theme have been available over the past 20 years. In mainland China, the TV series "Angel Heart" has generated a wave of universal concern since it truly depicts the work of health care workers and it reflects the sharp distinction between doctors and patients to a certain extent. Riding this wave, many medical documentaries like The Human World have also been launched in China and have garnered sizable audiences. Such films and television shows with a medical theme strive to depict the lives of ordinary people. When watching these medical documentaries, audiences are able to better comprehend the work of health care workers in light of their life experiences and feelings towards current society. Audiences can gain a profound understanding of the medical humanities through films and television shows with a medical theme. We look forward to more such films and television shows with a medical theme that depict "hospitals-the realest place" on camera. Films and television shows with a medical theme can serve as a storytelling medium to accelerate the spread of medical humanities and to promote harmony among doctors, patients, and the public.

  1. The Potential Linkage between Emergency Medical Services Systems and Health Systems Agencies to Civil Defense Related Health and Medical Care Plans and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Objective 10 B. Study Methodology 10 IV. E 7SS/HSA LINKAGE TO CIVIL DEFEN SE 13 V. HEALTH AND MEDICAL PLANNING FUNCIONS 31 A. Primarily Non-Health...Department Responsibilities 31 B. Primarily Health Department Responsibilities 41 VI. DISASTER MEDICAL PLANNING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 62 VII...Agency B-i APPENDIX C - State Emergency Health Service Planning Functions: Potential Agency Input C-i APPENDIX D - San Francisco Bay Area Planning D

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Resistant to Inclusion Ubiquitination and Associated Host Defense in Gamma Interferon-Primed Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Arun K.; Piro, Anthony S.; Finethy, Ryan; Espenschied, Scott T.; Brown, Hannah E.; Giebel, Amanda M.; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Nelson, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces cell-autonomous immunity to combat infections with intracellular pathogens, such as the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The present study demonstrates that IFN-γ-primed human cells ubiquitinate and eliminate intracellular Chlamydia-containing vacuoles, so-called inclusions. We previously described how IFN-γ-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) employ ubiquitin systems to mark inclusions for destruction in mouse cells and, furthermore, showed that the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum blocks ubiquitination of its inclusions by interfering with mouse IRG function. Here, we report that ubiquitination of inclusions in human cells is independent of IRG and thus distinct from the murine pathway. We show that C. muridarum is susceptible to inclusion ubiquitination in human cells, while the closely related human pathogen C. trachomatis is resistant. C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions attract several markers of cell-autonomous immunity, including the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, the ubiquitin-like protein LC3, and guanylate-binding protein 1. Consequently, we find that IFN-γ priming of human epithelial cells triggers the elimination of C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions. This newly described defense pathway is independent of indole-2,3-dioxygenase, a known IFN-γ-inducible anti-Chlamydia resistance factor. Collectively, our observations indicate that C. trachomatis evolved mechanisms to avoid a human-specific, ubiquitin-mediated response as part of its unique adaptation to its human host. PMID:27965446

  3. Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Karen D

    2015-07-01

    In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine.

  4. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans - Understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille eDühring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important humanpathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within thehuman host for a long time. Alterations in the host environment, however, can render C. albicansvirulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and thehuman innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategiesincluding immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation,pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. FurthermoreComputational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactionare highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. Anoutlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defenseand evasion mechanisms is given.

  5. Human Rights Disclosure Litigation: Uncovering Invisible Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena Chadha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines disclosure process and disclosure jurisprudence in human rights litigation. Based on a study of a decade of human rights disclosure rulings from across the country, this article finds that there have been increasing numbers of disclosure demands in human rights litigation and a substantial number of cases in which the disclosure pertained to personal documents and medical records of human rights claimants. While disclosure applications were adjudicated according to a relevance-confidentiality framework used ostensibly to balance privacy and procedural fairness, in reality significant personal information was disclosed based on assumptions of relevancy and under the guise of neutral labels. A closer examination of the different types of materials sought for disclosure in three employment human rights cases reveals that the medical core of certain records are rendered invisible and thereby open for access when tribunals neglect to look behind document categories and titles. The article concludes that there is heightened vulnerability on the part of persons with disabilities as targets of disclosure demands for their confidential medical information. Cet article examine le processus de divulgation et la jurisprudence sur la divulgation dans le domaine de litiges en rapport avec les droits de la personne. Basé sur une étude d’une dizaine d’années de décisions partout au pays au sujet de la divulgation dans le domaine des droits de la personne, cet article conclut que le nombre de demandes de divulgation dans le domaine de litiges en rapport avec les droits de la personne augmente et que dans un nombre considérable de cas, la divulgation avait rapport à des documents personnels et des dossiers médicaux des réclamants de droits de la personne. Quoique on ait statué au sujet de requêtes de divulgation selon un cadre de pertinence/confidentialité utilisé de toute apparence pour maintenir un équilibre entre le

  6. Twelve tips on teaching and learning humanism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby Gordon; Sherif, Youmna Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    The teaching of humanistic values is recognized as an essential component of medical education and continuing professional development of physicians. The application of humanistic values in medical care can benefit medical students, clinicians and patients. This article presents 12 tips on fostering humanistic values in medical education. The authors reviewed the literature and present 12 practical tips that are relevant to contemporary practices. The tips can be used in teaching and sustaining humanistic values in medical education. Humanistic values can be incorporated in formal preclinical environments, the transition into clinical settings, medical curricula and clinical clerkships. Additionally, steps can be taken so that medical educators and institutions promote and sustain humanistic values.

  7. Friction of Human Skin against Different Fabrics for Medical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Vilhena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tribology of human skin is essential to improve and optimize surfaces and materials in contact with the skin. Besides that, friction between the human skin and textiles is a critical factor in the formation of skin injuries, which are caused if the loads and shear forces are high enough and/or over long periods of time. This factor is of particular importance in bedridden patients, since they are not moving about or are confined to wheelchairs. Decubitus ulcers are one of the most frequently-reported iatrogenic injuries in developed countries. The risk of developing decubitus ulcers can be predicted by using the “Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk” that was developed in 1987 and contains six areas of risk (cognitive-perceptual, immobility, inactivity, moisture, nutrition, friction/shear, although there are limitations to the use of such tools. The coefficient of friction of textiles against skin is mainly influenced by: the nature of the textile, skin moisture content and ambient humidity. This study will investigate how skin friction (different anatomical regions varies, rubbing against different types of contacting materials (i.e., fabrics for medical use under different contact conditions and their relationship in the formation and prevention of decubitus ulcers.

  8. The Impact of Baccalaureate Medical Humanities on Subsequent Medical Training and Practice: A Physician-Educator's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Lauren

    2017-06-17

    This reflective essay is an attempt to organize trends in feedback I have observed during ten years of coursework, conversations, and correspondence with former students associated with the Medical Humanities Program at Baylor University. Over the years, recurrent themes arise when speaking with alumni about whether and how their medical humanities experience intersects with their current training. I have identified five particular domains in which baccalaureate medical humanities training affects students' subsequent healthcare professions training and practice: context and complementarity, clinical relevance, reflective practice, professional preparedness and vocational calling. I created an instrument of open-ended questions for each of these categories and posted it to social media with an invitation for alumni to respond. This informal survey was conceived as an exploratory exercise with the intent to help generate a foundation for more formal qualitative research in these five domains. In this essay, I offer my own reflections together with those of former students on the impact of baccalaureate-level medical humanities training in order to illustrate the benefits in each domain for subsequent healthcare training and practice. The need for qualitative research that explores the impact of baccalaureate medical humanities merits collaboration between multiple centers of investigation across many disciplines, and across the divide between premedical and medical educators.

  9. The effects of human interest framing in television news coverage of medical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2013-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed the increasing dissemination of information on medical advances such as new medical treatments and prevention/diagnosis technologies through television news. To engage lay audiences with complex information, medical journalists often personalize news stories about medical advances by exemplifying individual patients and their personal experiences. This study investigates the effects of this journalistic technique, which is referred to as human interest framing, on audiences. The results of an experiment provide empirical evidence that the human interest framing of medical news stories can increase audiences' involvement in those stories and facilitate their positive perception of medical advances.

  10. Defense Infrastructure: Documentation Lacking to Fully Support How DOD Determined Specifications for the Landstuhl Replacement Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    additional environmental and efficiency features into the design of the replacement medical center and expects to exceed the U.S. Green Building Council’s...Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building standards, which have been adopted by several federal agencies.25 The...benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings, according to the nonprofit U.S. Green Building Council

  11. Biological Defense: DOD Has Strengthened Coordination on Medical Countermeasures but Can Improve Its Process for Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    diseases such as equine encephalitis and Ebola have contributed to concerns about the nation’s vulnerability to biological attacks and naturally occurring...the traditional egg-based production techniques that require much more lead time and Emerging and Genetically Modified Biological Threat Agents...pharmaceuticals, biologics, medical and surgical supplies and equipment that are needed by HHS or DOD to prepare for, respond to, or recover from a public

  12. The Human Side of Automation: Lessons for Air Defense Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    unreasonable” ( Kantowitz & Sorkin, 1987). Unreasonable task sets can arise in two ways: First, the workload created by the task set may not match human...difficult or even impossible for human operators to form a suitable mental model. Kantowitz and Sorkin (1987) remark that an incoherent task set is a...the traditional function allocation methods are useful. Kantowitz and Sorkin (1987) remark that traditional methods are often more applicable when

  13. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans-understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühring, Sybille; Germerodt, Sebastian; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important human pathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within the human host for a long time. However, alterations in the host environment can render C. albicans virulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and the human innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategies including immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation, pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. Furthermore, Computational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactions are highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. An outlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defense and evasion mechanisms is given.

  14. The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, Version 7.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    human factors ” are causal in a majority of military mishaps. This report also reports on a Department of Defense (DoD) effort to improve the system...used to categorize causal and contributing human factors . Specifically, recent attempts to improve coding methods with the goal of achieving better...only as causal . Factor – Any deviation, out-of-the-ordinary, or deficient action or condition discovered in the course of a mishap investigation

  15. Defensive dehumanization in the medical practice: a cross-sectional study from a health care worker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Jeroen; Muratore, Martina

    2013-03-01

    Health care workers are often required to consider the emotions of their patients making their work susceptible for burnout. Extending recent developments in work on dehumanization, the present study tested whether or not considering a patient's suffering in terms of uniquely human compared to more basic emotions, would be linked with burnout especially for those health care workers that frequently encounter emotional demands through their contact with suffering patients. Professional health care workers were presented with the fictitious case of a terminal patient and asked to infer her emotional state in terms of uniquely human or basic, primary emotions. As expected, humanizing a patient's suffering positively predicted symptoms of burnout especially for those participants that had higher levels of direct contact with patients.

  16. Human Factors Performance Data for Future Forward Area Air Defense Systems (FAADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    did not meet operational requirements. 3. Allocation of function to man and machine is still an uncertain art (Price, 1985; Kantowitz & Sorkin, 1987... Kantowitz , B. H., & Sorkin, R. D. (1987). Allocation of functions. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors (Chapter 3.3, pp. 355-369). New York

  17. An open-ended future: In defense of a new humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonputtkamer, J.

    1984-01-01

    The edge between technology and humanism is discussed. Advances in biology, in medicine, energy technology, tools and weapons, communications, psychology, problem solving and information storage, transportation, and other fields are presented. Ecology in self-transcendence and space travel as a survival tool are considered.

  18. Innate immune defense in the inner ear - mucines are expressed by the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin N; Kirkeby, Svend; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    The human endolymphatic sac has been shown recently to have immunological capacities and has thus been proposed as the main entity protecting the inner ear from pathogen invasion, equivalent to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Although the sac expresses molecules of the innate immune sys...

  19. Problem-Based Learning of Social Sciences and Humanities by Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A required fourth-year course integrating the social sciences and humanities into the required clinical medical curriculum at Dartmouth Medical School is intended to prepare students to deal with the social and humanistic issues involved in medical practice, including law, ethics, economics, and social anthropology. (MSE)

  20. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  1. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  2. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  3. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  4. Human innate B cells: a link between host defense and autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Eric C B; Anolik, Jennifer; Cappione, Amedeo; Sanz, Iñaki

    2005-03-01

    B cells play a variety of immunoregulatory roles through their antigen-presentation ability and through cytokine and chemokine production. Innate immune activation of B cells may play a beneficial role through the generation of natural cross-reactive antibodies, by maintaining B cell memory and by exercising immunomodulatory functions that may provide protection against autoimmunity. In this article, we review human B cell populations and their functional properties, with a particular focus on a population of inherently autoreactive B cells, which seem to play an important physiological role in innate immunity, but which, if selected into adaptive immune responses, appear to become pathogenic agents in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  5. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  6. Human calprotectin is an iron-sequestering host-defense protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashige, Toshiki G; Zhang, Bo; Krebs, Carsten; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    Human calprotectin (CP) is a metal-chelating antimicrobial protein of the innate immune response. The current working model states that CP sequesters manganese and zinc from pathogens. We report the discovery that CP chelates iron and deprives bacteria of this essential nutrient. Elemental analysis of CP-treated growth medium establishes that CP reduces the concentrations of manganese, iron and zinc. Microbial growth studies reveal that iron depletion by CP contributes to the growth inhibition of bacterial pathogens. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that CP coordinates Fe(II) at an unusual hexahistidine motif, and the Mössbauer spectrum of (57)Fe(II)-bound CP is consistent with coordination of high-spin Fe(II) at this site (δ = 1.20 mm/s, ΔEQ = 1.78 mm/s). In the presence of Ca(II), CP turns on its iron-sequestering function and exhibits subpicomolar affinity for Fe(II). Our findings expand the biological coordination chemistry of iron and support a previously unappreciated role for CP in mammalian iron homeostasis.

  7. Human Calprotectin Is an Iron-Sequestering Host-Defense Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashige, Toshiki G.; Zhang, Bo; Krebs, Carsten; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Human calprotectin (CP) is a metal-chelating antimicrobial protein of the innate immune response. The current working model states that CP sequesters manganese and zinc from pathogens. We report the discovery that CP chelates iron and deprives bacteria of this essential nutrient. Elemental analysis of CP-treated growth medium establishes that CP reduces the concentrations of manganese, iron, and zinc. Microbial growth studies reveal that iron depletion by CP contributes to the growth inhibition of bacterial pathogens. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that CP coordinates Fe(II) at an unusual hexahistidine motif, and the Mössbauer spectrum of 57Fe(II)-bound CP is consistent with coordination of high-spin Fe(II) at this site (δ = 1.20 mm/s, ΔEQ = 1.78 mm/s). In the presence of Ca(II), CP turns on its iron-sequestering function and exhibits sub-picomolar affinity for Fe(II). Our findings expand the biological coordination chemistry of iron and support a previously unappreciated role for CP in mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:26302479

  8. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  9. New trends in medical and service robots human centered analysis, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallereau, Christine; Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes; Rodić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Medical and service robotics integrates several disciplines and technologies such as mechanisms, mechatronics, biomechanics, humanoid robotics, exoskeletons, and anthropomorphic hands. This book presents the most recent advances in medical and service robotics, with a stress on human aspects. It collects the selected peer-reviewed papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Nantes, France in 2015, covering topics on: exoskeletons, anthropomorphic hands, therapeutic robots and rehabilitation, cognitive robots, humanoid and service robots, assistive robots and elderly assistance, surgical robots, human-robot interfaces, BMI and BCI, haptic devices and design for medical and assistive robotics. This book offers a valuable addition to existing literature.

  10. The Medical Humanities Program at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwood, Bryan; Casiro, Oscar; Hennen, Brian

    2003-10-01

    The current Medical Humanities Program at the University of Manitoba has evolved from a series of voluntary sessions into an integral element of the curriculum since its inception as the Human Values Program in 1986. With strong academic and financial support, the Medical Humanities Program has greatly benefited from dedicated leadership and a commitment to ongoing curricular review and redevelopment. The current Medical Humanities Program comprises six distinct components: Clinical Ethics; History of Medicine; Law; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Palliative Care; and Human Values. Each of these components is compulsory and the first five are tested through examinations and assignments. Human Values sessions are designed to be experiential and to explore the human side of medicine as well as the intersections between medicine and the arts, literature, social psychology, and spirituality. The authors outline the origins and evolution of this successful program and describe its current components, student and faculty opinions, funding, advantages, disadvantages, and anticipated growth.

  11. Martha C. Nussbaum – Another Approach for the Defense of the Human Being and the Human Rights of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Monereo Atienza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper confronts the advantagesand disadvantages of Nussbaum´s theory inseeking equality for women. Nussbaum under-stands that people in general and women in par-ticular have a number of common capabilitiesbecause they are ends in themselves. You cannot treat another person as a mere object, andthis deserves a cross-cultural consensus on whatis the human being. The universal concept ofthe subject that she offers, based on a minimumcommon to all, open to dialogue and politicalconsensus, is very interesting. However, we cannot forget other approaches like the discourse ofrights.

  12. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  13. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  14. Redox-dependent induction of antioxidant defenses by phenolic diterpenes confers stress tolerance in normal human skin fibroblasts: Insights on replicative senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana C; Gomes, Andreia C; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Lima, Cristovao F

    2015-06-01

    Mild stress-induced hormesis represents a promising strategy for targeting the age-related accumulation of molecular damage and, therefore, for preventing diseases and achieving healthy aging. Fruits, vegetables, and spices contain a wide variety of hormetic phytochemicals, which may explain the beneficial health effects associated with the consumption of these dietary components. In the present study, the induction of cellular antioxidant defenses by the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) were studied in normal human skin fibroblasts, and insights into the aging process at the cellular level investigated. We observed that CA and CS induced several cytoprotective enzymes and antioxidant defenses in human fibroblasts, whose induction was dependent on the cellular redox state for CS and associated with Nrf2 signaling for both compounds. The stress response elicited by preincubation with CS conferred a cytoprotective action against a following oxidant challenge with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, confirming its hormetic effect. Preincubation of normal fibroblasts with CS also protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence. Furthermore, cultivation of middle passage normal human skin fibroblasts in the presence of CS ameliorated the physiological state of cells during replicative senescence. Our results support the view that mild stress-induced antioxidant defenses by CS can confer stress tolerance in normal cells and may have important implications in the promotion of healthy aging.

  15. German medical students' interest in and knowledge about human sexuality in 1972 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Jopt, Konstantin; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer

    2014-08-01

    During the 1970s, a growing number of medical schools began to recognize the importance of medical education concerning human sexuality. Currently, most medical schools provide at least some instruction in human sexuality. In light of this development, the present study aimed to compare the interest in and knowledge about human sexuality of medical students from two different time periods. The answers to a self-constructed questionnaire of 236 students in 1972 were compared with those of 259 students in 2012. Students were asked whether they were interested in education regarding human sexuality and which specific topics they felt should be included in the medical curriculum. The students' knowledge in the following domains was assessed: sexual development, sexual behavior, sexual physiology and psychology, and sexual medicine. The two cohorts were compared with regard to those specific sexuality-related topics in which the students were most and least interested in. Furthermore, the number of correct responses to the knowledge questions was compared. While in 1972, 99.2% of the students were interested in medical education about human sexuality, in 2012, 80.3% showed an interest. The connection of disorders from different medical disciplines with sexuality was rated as most interesting by both the students from 1972 and 2012. Medical students from 2012 gave 50.3% correct answers to the knowledge questions, whereas students from 1972 correctly answered 46.3% of the questions. Although interest in education concerning human sexuality has decreased, the majority of students view it as an important topic. Nevertheless, medical students still lack knowledge about important aspects of human sexuality (e.g., psychosexual development and relative safety of different contraceptives). Therefore, more time should be dedicated to education concerning human sexuality and its cultural, societal, and health aspects in particular. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Awareness and attitude regarding human papilloma virus and its vaccine among medical students in a medical school in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasireesha Challa

    2014-08-01

    Results: Most of the participants know well about the etiology and prevention of cervical cancer but information regarding the dosage, schedule, site and route of administration was lacking in majority of them. Conclusion: The medical students know the association between Human Papilloma Virus and cervical cancer, but the awareness about HPV vaccine was low among study population. Medical schools should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving awareness regarding HPV and its vaccine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1607-1611

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates antioxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the United States. We reported previously that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in NOD mice, a model for both Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and antioxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major antioxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these antioxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting the EGCG-mediated increase in protective antioxidant capacity is regulated in part through MAPK pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

  18. [The concept of medical entomology: the determination of the effect of arthropods on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnitsyn, S P

    1996-01-01

    A new concept of medical entomology is proposed, according to which this discipline should comprehensively study the effects of arthropods on human health and possible control of these effects. Thus, the tasks of medical entomology are markedly widened to embrace cognitively and practically important problems, which have been neglected. This approach does not negate the accepted understanding of medical entomology but includes it as an essential component.

  19. Promoting competence in undergraduate medical students through the humanities: The ABCDE paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upreet Dhaliwal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders, including patients and employers, find that skills pertaining to professionalism, humanism, diversity, communication, and ethics are as important for patient care as the doctor’s ability to diagnose and treat illness. Practitioners should be able to demonstrate these skills in real time, yet they are not explicitly taught in the medical course – students are expected to learn them through observation of role models. Some students may never witness such role modeling. Research suggests that the creative instincts of medical students could be utilized through exposure to the humanities to explicitly develop these skills. Medical educators worldwide are examining newer ways to actively train and assess learners in professionalism and related competencies. Using Rudyard Kipling’s “Five Ws and One H” guide to writing a scientific paper, we propose the ABCDE paradigm and demonstrate why it is most appropriate to use the medical humanities to teach professionalism and humanism.

  20. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. de Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for m

  1. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  2. Attitudes of medical students towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Mike Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to describe students' attitudes towards human genome research and towards genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients. The background of this investigation provided the increasing relevance ob human genetics research for clinical practice.Methods: A total of 167 medical students (54% female, aged 24 +/- 2 years from the second phase of their studies were surveyed in obligatory courses at the University of Leipzig, using a standardized questionnaire. Topics of the survey were attitudes towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as well as general values and socio-demographic data of the students.Results: The students consider human genome research as relevant and evaluate it positively, mainly based on expectations of medical uses. Genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as an application of human genetics is also evaluated as important. The students attribute high relevance to clinical procedures for identification of genetic backgrounds for cancer (family history, information about genetic diagnostic. Nevertheless, deficits in their medical education are highlighted und reflected upon: the increased integration of human genetic content into medical curricula is demanded.Discussion: In accordance with the newly formulated „Approbationsordnung für Ärzte", the results suggest that current human genetic development should be more emphasized in medical education. This could be realized by an enlarged ratio of human genetic courses within curricula and by the transformation of these courses from facultative into obligatory.

  3. Human guinea pigs and the ethics of experimentation: the BMJ's correspondent at the Nuremberg medical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, P

    1996-12-07

    Though the Nuremberg medical trial was a United States military tribunal, British forensic pathologists supplied extensive evidence for the trial. The BMJ had a correspondent at the trial, and he endorsed a utilitarian legitimation of clinical experiments, justifying the medical research carried out under Nazism as of long term scientific benefit despite the human costs. The British supported an international medical commission to evaluate the ethics and scientific quality of German research. Medical opinions differed over whether German medical atrocities should be given publicity or treated in confidence. The BMJ's correspondent warned against medical researchers being taken over by a totalitarian state, and these arguments were used to oppose the NHS and any state control over medical research.

  4. A Human-Centered Approach to Medical Informatics for Medical Students, Residents, and Practicing Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Richard W.; Gosbee, John W.; Gardner-Bonneau, Daryle J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of a curriculum in medical information science that focuses on practical problems in clinical medicine rather than details of information technology. Design was guided by identification of six key clinical challenges that must be addressed by practitioners in the near future and by examination of past failures of informatics…

  5. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  6. Medical Photography: Documentation, Art, and the Expression of Human Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aberer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical photography is the state of the art for the documentation of dermatological disease. Experienced photographers take pictures of the most typical skin lesions in order to assist the clinician in assessing disease morphology and activity. In this study, we present 6 individuals with a variety of dermatoses and the expression of the patients’ emotions. The patients were asked to show their diseased skin and to present typically involved areas in the respective disease. The feelings expressed by their body movements and positions are viewed and interpreted. The patients’ history will be reported retrospectively. The aim of the report is to show that the art of medical photography does not only document skin lesions but also the disease burden and the associated impairment of quality of life. Moreover, dermatologic photography is a sensitive intervention for patients viewed in the light of teaching and patient care.

  7. Medical Photography: Documentation, Art, and the Expression of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberer, Elisabeth; Stieber, Werner; Homayoon, Donja; Fink-Puches, Regina; Lichen, Roland; Salmhofer, Wolfgang; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Medical photography is the state of the art for the documentation of dermatological disease. Experienced photographers take pictures of the most typical skin lesions in order to assist the clinician in assessing disease morphology and activity. In this study, we present 6 individuals with a variety of dermatoses and the expression of the patients' emotions. The patients were asked to show their diseased skin and to present typically involved areas in the respective disease. The feelings expressed by their body movements and positions are viewed and interpreted. The patients' history will be reported retrospectively. The aim of the report is to show that the art of medical photography does not only document skin lesions but also the disease burden and the associated impairment of quality of life. Moreover, dermatologic photography is a sensitive intervention for patients viewed in the light of teaching and patient care.

  8. Human Milk for Ill and Medically Compromised Infants: Strategies and Ongoing Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLauro, Sara; Unger, Sharon; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The use of human milk (mother's own milk and/or donor milk) in ill or medically compromised infants frequently requires some adaptation to address medical diagnoses and/or altered nutrition requirements. This tutorial describes the nutrition and immunological benefits of breast milk as well as provides evidence for the use of donor milk when mother's own milk is unavailable. Several strategies used to modify human milk to meet the medical and nutrition needs of an ill or medically compromised infant are reviewed. These strategies include (1) the standard fortification of human milk to support adequate growth, (2) the novel concept of target fortification in preterm infants, (3) instructions on how to alter maternal diet to address cow's milk protein intolerance and/or allergy in breast milk-fed infants, and (4) the removal and modification of the fat in breast milk used in infants diagnosed with chylothorax.

  9. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-α staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-α production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells.

  10. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Witte

    Full Text Available Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630 on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-α staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-α production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells.

  11. A Methodological Review of the Assessment of Humanism in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Era; Holden, Mark; Szauter, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Humanism is a complex construct that defies simplistic measurement. How educators measure humanism shapes understanding and implications for learners. This systematic review sought to address the following questions: How do medical educators assess humanism in medical students, and how does the measurement impact the understanding of humanism in undergraduate medical education (UME)? Using the IECARES (integrity, excellence, compassion, altruism, respect, empathy, and service) Gold Foundation framework, a search of English literature databases from 2000 to 2013 on assessment of humanism in medical students revealed more than 900 articles, of which 155 met criteria for analysis. Using descriptive statistics, articles and assessments were analyzed for construct measured, study design, assessment method, instrument type, perspective/source of assessment, student level, validity evidence, and national context. Of 202 assessments reported in 155 articles, 162 (80%) used surveys; 164 (81%) used student self-reports. One hundred nine articles (70%) included only one humanism construct. Empathy was the most prevalent construct present in 96 (62%); 49 (51%) of those used a single instrument. One hundred fifteen (74%) used exclusively quantitative data; only 48 (31%) used a longitudinal design. Construct underrepresentation was identified as a threat to validity in half of the assessments. Articles included 34 countries; 87 (56%) were from North America. Assessment of humanism in UME incorporates a limited scope of a complex construct, often relying on single quantitative measures from self-reported survey instruments. This highlights the need for multiple methods, perspectives, and longitudinal designs to strengthen the validity of humanism assessments.

  12. 3D Human Scanning Solution for Medical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Sütő, Balázs; Könnyű, Zsolt; Tölgyesi, Zsolt; Skala, Tibor; Rudas, Imre; Kozlovszky, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Signal Processing in Medicine; International audience; Today anthropometry can be performed with three-dimensional scanners. Our aim is to establish a low-cost, easy-to-use hardware and software solution, which is capable to do automatic, computer-based anthropometry and medical measurements for health care. We have designed and build a large, remote controlled turntable and a 3D scanner application, which can be used to digitalize 0.2-2,6 m tall real world objects into 3D models. Wit...

  13. MEDICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES OF THE DECISIONS RENDERED BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhvadze, B; Chakhvadze, G

    2017-01-01

    The European Convention on Human rights is a document that protects human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, and the European Court of Human Rights and its case-law makes a convention a powerful instrument to meet the new challenges of modernity and protect the principles of rule of law and democracy. This is important, particularly for young democracies, including Georgia. The more that Georgia is a party to this convention. Article 3 of the convention deals with torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, while article 8 deals with private life, home and correspondence. At the same time, the international practice of the European court of human rights shows that these articles are often used with regard to medical rights. The paper highlights the most recent and interesting cases from the case-law of the ECHR, in which the courts conclusions are based solely on the European Convention on Human Rights. In most instances, the European Court of Human Rights uses the principle of democracy with regard to medical rights. The European court of human rights considers medical rights as moral underpinning rights. Particularly in every occasion, the European Court of Human Rights acknowledges an ethical dimension of these rights. In most instances, it does not matter whether a plaintiff is a free person or prisoner, the European court of human rights make decisions based on fundamental human rights and freedoms of individuals.

  14. The aspiration for holism in the medical humanities: Some historical and philosophical sources of reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the arts and health is now of interest to policy makers, patients, professionals and health researchers. This article historicises the potential for holism, a current aspiration within the medical humanities. This contemporary debate in the research community reflects philosophical positions about idealism and realism, with their traceable historical roots. This article summarises those roots and draws attention to their current relevance for health researchers. Starting with the recognition within the medical humanities that biomedical reductionism now attracts criticism, it moves to exploring the history of ideas in philosophy, the arts and science about holism and the challenge of researching health and illness within the complexity of being fully human.

  15. Perceptions of Medical Students and Professors Regarding the Free Informed Consent Form and Humanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Moreira Canuto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gather information on the perception of the free informed consent form (FICF and humanization among a population of medical students and professors of medicine. A total of 35 professors of medicine and 56 medical students took part in this study by answering an electronic survey. The collected data were subjected to content analysis using ALCESTE software. The analysis revealed the existence of three different classes: Class 1 designated the “FICF as a guarantee of rights in research”; Class 2 designated the “FICF as informative regarding research procedures”; and Class 3 designated “humanization as a necessary process.” The results show a preferential association of the FICF with research, rather than medical care. There was a consensus regarding the importance of humanization; however, a need to increase knowledge of and the possibilities for implementing both the FICF and humanization was also indicated

  16. [Modern medical problems of energy exchange in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K P

    2013-01-01

    In a living organism 72% of energy exchange occur in the visceral organs, which comprise only 5-6% of the total body mass. The remaining energy is spent at the expense of the skin, bones, connective tissues, resting muscles. The level ofenergy expenditure determines the general physiological state of a human organism, serves for the diagnostics of various diseases, in particular, the diseases of endocrine system, the disruptions of thermoregulation, protein, carbohydrate, and lipometabolism, etc. It should be mentioned that in modern textbooks of physiology, pathophysiology, and biology the problem of energy exchange in humans and animals is given inadequate consideration. Traditionally it occupies only 2-2.5% of the content. Meanwhile, new problems of energy exchange have appeared recently, which almost never were advanced earlier. These are,for example, the reasons and mechanisms of high energy expenditure under conditions of metabolism, the significance of the coefficient of efficiency of a human organism in physiology, special processes previously unknown of the organism heat exchange with the environment, physiological and social components of human energy exchange. There is also a problem of a theoretical possibility of life without energy.

  17. Yesterday's Doctors: The Human Aspects of Medical Education in Britain, 1957-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Second World War there was a movement to counterbalance the apparently increasingly technical nature of medical education. These reforms sought a more holistic model of care and to put people - rather than diseases - back at the centre of medical practice and medical education. This article shows that students often drove the early stages of education reform. Their innovations focused on relationships between doctors and their communities, and often took the form of informal discussions about medical ethics and the social dimensions of primary care. Medical schools began to pursue 'humanistic' education more formally from the 1980s onwards, particularly within the context of general practice curricula and with a focus on individual doctor-patient relationships. Overall from the 1950s to the 1990s there was a broad shift in discussions of the human aspects of medical education: from interest in patient communities to individuals; from social concerns to personal characteristics; and from the relatively abstract to the measurable and instrumental. There was no clear shift from 'less' to 'more' humanistic education, but rather a shift in the perceived goals of integrating human aspects of medical education. The human aspects of medicine show the importance of student activism in driving forward community and ethical medicine, and provide an important backdrop to the rise of competencies within general undergraduate education.

  18. Yesterday’s Doctors: The Human Aspects of Medical Education in Britain, 1957–93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Second World War there was a movement to counterbalance the apparently increasingly technical nature of medical education. These reforms sought a more holistic model of care and to put people – rather than diseases – back at the centre of medical practice and medical education. This article shows that students often drove the early stages of education reform. Their innovations focused on relationships between doctors and their communities, and often took the form of informal discussions about medical ethics and the social dimensions of primary care. Medical schools began to pursue ‘humanistic’ education more formally from the 1980s onwards, particularly within the context of general practice curricula and with a focus on individual doctor–patient relationships. Overall from the 1950s to the 1990s there was a broad shift in discussions of the human aspects of medical education: from interest in patient communities to individuals; from social concerns to personal characteristics; and from the relatively abstract to the measurable and instrumental. There was no clear shift from ‘less’ to ‘more’ humanistic education, but rather a shift in the perceived goals of integrating human aspects of medical education. The human aspects of medicine show the importance of student activism in driving forward community and ethical medicine, and provide an important backdrop to the rise of competencies within general undergraduate education. PMID:27998331

  19. Defense Headquarters: Improved Data Needed to Better Identify Streamlining and Cost Savings Opportunities by Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    approaches from the commercial sector to the department’s six core business processes— management of human resources , healthcare, financial flow... human resource programs for nonappropriated funds, and centrally managed information technology functions. Most of the personnel involved in these...Defense Contract Management Agency • Defense Finance and Accounting Service • Defense Health Agency • Defense Human Resource Activity • Defense

  20. The Almost Right Word: The Move From Medical to Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Therese; Blackie, Michael; Garden, Rebecca; Wear, Delese

    2017-07-01

    Since the emergence of the field in the 1970s, several trends have begun to challenge the original assumptions, claims, and practices of what became known as the medical humanities. In this article, the authors make the case for the health humanities as a more encompassing label because it captures recent theoretical and pedagogical developments in higher education such as the shift from rigid disciplinary boundaries to multi- and interdisciplinary inquiry, which has transformed humanities curricula in health professions. Calling the area of study health humanities also underscores the crucial distinction between medicine and health. Following a brief history of the field and the rationales that brought humanities disciplines to medical education in the first place-the "why" of the medical humanities-the authors turn to the "why" of the health humanities, using disability studies to illuminate those methodologies and materials that represent the distinction between the two. In addition, the authors make note of how humanities inquiry has now expanded across the landscape of other health professions curricula; how there is both awareness and evidence that medicine is only a minor determinant of health in human populations alongside social and cultural factors; and finally, how the current movement in health professions education is towards interdisciplinary and interprofessional learning experiences for students.

  1. Safe asleep? Human-machine relations in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Maggie; Goodwin, Dawn; Smith, Andrew F; Pope, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    In the process of anaesthesia the patient must surrender vital functions to the care of clinicians and machines who will act for, and advocate for the patient during the surgical procedure. In this paper, we discuss the practices and knowledge sources that underpin safety in a risky field in which many boundaries are crossed and dissolved. Anaesthetic practice is at the frontier not only of conscious/unconsciousness but is also at the human/machine frontier, where a range of technologies acts as both delegates and intermediaries between patient and practitioner. We are concerned with how practitioners accommodate and manage these shifting boundaries and what kinds of knowledge sources the 'expert' must employ to make decisions. Such sources include clinical, social and electronic which in their various forms demonstrate the hybrid and collective nature of anaesthetised patients. In managing this collective, the expert is one who is able to judge where the boundary lies between what is routine and what is critical in practice, while the junior must judge the personal limits of expertise in practice. In exploring the working of anaesthetic hybrids, we argue that recognising the changing distribution of agency between humans and machines itself illustrates important features of human authorship and expertise.

  2. [Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

    2014-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage.

  3. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  4. How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system. PMID:23408269

  5. Does medical student membership in the gold humanism honor society influence selection for residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan; Howard, Brian; Schlussel, Yvette R; Lazarus, Cathy J; Wong, Jeffrey G; Moutier, Christine; Savoia, Maria; Trooskin, Stanley; Wagoner, Norma

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of the Gold Humanism Honor Society (GHHS) in 2002, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation established a mechanism for recognizing medical students who demonstrate exemplary humanism/professionalism/communication skills. Currently, 80 medical schools have GHHS chapters. Selection is based on peer nomination using a validated tool. The objective of this survey was to assess the percentage of residency program directors (PDs) who are aware of and are using GHHS membership as a residency selection tool. Surgery (SURG) and internal medicine (IM) PDs in 4 United States regions were surveyed for familiarity with GHHS and perceived rank of GHHS membership relative to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, class rank, medical student performance evaluation (MSPE), clerkship grade, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) score, in evaluating an applicant's humanism/professionalism, service orientation, and fit with their program. Program demographics and familiarity with GHHS were also surveyed. The response rate was 56% (149 respondents). IM PDs rated GHHS membership higher than did SURG PDs when evaluating professionalism/humanism and service orientation. PDs familiar with GHHS ranked membership higher when considering professionalism/humanism (4.1 vs 3.2; p humanism F = 3.36; p humanism/professionalism/service orientation. PDs familiar with GHHS were from larger programs, were likely to know residents who were members, and were likely to think that GHHS membership predicted humanistic care. Membership in GHHS may set candidates apart from their peers and allow PDs to distinguish objectively the candidates who demonstrate compassionate medical care. Increased knowledge about the GHHS may therefore serve to be a useful adjunct for PDs when selecting medical students for their residency programs.

  6. Normal accidents: human error and medical equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Steven

    2002-01-01

    High-risk systems, which are typical of our technologically complex era, include not just nuclear power plants but also hospitals, anesthesia systems, and the practice of medicine and perfusion. In high-risk systems, no matter how effective safety devices are, some types of accidents are inevitable because the system's complexity leads to multiple and unexpected interactions. It is important for healthcare providers to apply a risk assessment and management process to decisions involving new equipment and procedures or staffing matters in order to minimize the residual risks of latent errors, which are amenable to correction because of the large window of opportunity for their detection. This article provides an introduction to basic risk management and error theory principles and examines ways in which they can be applied to reduce and mitigate the inevitable human errors that accompany high-risk systems. The article also discusses "human factor engineering" (HFE), the process which is used to design equipment/ human interfaces in order to mitigate design errors. The HFE process involves interaction between designers and endusers to produce a series of continuous refinements that are incorporated into the final product. The article also examines common design problems encountered in the operating room that may predispose operators to commit errors resulting in harm to the patient. While recognizing that errors and accidents are unavoidable, organizations that function within a high-risk system must adopt a "safety culture" that anticipates problems and acts aggressively through an anonymous, "blameless" reporting mechanism to resolve them. We must continuously examine and improve the design of equipment and procedures, personnel, supplies and materials, and the environment in which we work to reduce error and minimize its effects. Healthcare providers must take a leading role in the day-to-day management of the "Perioperative System" and be a role model in

  7. Student feedback on the use of paintings in Sparshanam, the Medical Humanities module at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piryani Rano M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paintings have been used in Medical Humanities modules in Nepal at Manipal College of Medical Sciences and KIST Medical College. Detailed participant feedback about the paintings used, the activities carried out, problems with using paintings and the role of paintings in future modules has not been previously done. Hence the present study was carried out. Methods The present module for first year medical students was conducted from February to August 2010 at KIST Medical College, Nepal. Paintings used were by Western artists and obtained from the Literature, Arts and Medicine database. The activities undertaken by the students include answering the questions 'What do you see' and 'What do you feel' about the painting, creating a story of 100 words about the scene depicted, and interpreting the painting using role plays and poems/songs. Feedback was not obtained about the last two activities. In August 2010 we obtained detailed feedback about the paintings used. Results Seventy-eight of the 100 students (78% participated. Thirty-four students (43.6% were male. The most common overall comments about the use of paintings were "they helped me feel what I saw" (12 respondents, "enjoyed the sessions" (12 respondents, "some paintings were hard to interpret" (10 respondents and "were in tune with module objectives" (10 respondents. Forty-eight (61.5% felt the use of western paintings was appropriate. Suggestions to make annotations about paintings more useful were to make them shorter and more precise, simplify the language and properly introduce the artist. Forty-one students (52.6% had difficulty with the exercise 'what do you feel'. Seventy-four students (94.9% wanted paintings from Nepal to be included. Conclusions Participant response was positive and they were satisfied with use of paintings in the module. Use of more paintings from Nepal and South Asia can be considered. Further studies may be required to understand whether

  8. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training......-I+II in muscle and plasma, as well as the deficient MT-I+II response to exercise, indicate that this antioxidant defense is impaired. This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine...

  9. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  10. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  11. Graduate Medical Education in Humanism and Professionalism: A Needs Assessment Survey of Pediatric Gastroenterology Fellows

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B; WOOLF, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...

  12. [The concept of medical entomology: the management of the influence of arthropods on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnitsyn, S P

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of medical entomology are analyzed with special reference to the development of methods of protection against the harmful influence of arthropods on human health and the use of these animals in health sciences. Special attention is paid to the following problems: characterization of individual and group features of humans and their relationship with arthropods, elucidation of the properties of arthropods, determination of the state of their populations, estimation of the efficiency of controlling measures, their ecological consequences, etc.

  13. A Study of Core Humanistic Competency for Developing Humanism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Seunghee; Yoo, Seong Ho; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Park, Joong Shin; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Oh, Seo Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, Min-Sup

    2016-06-01

    The authors conducted a survey on essential humanistic competency that medical students should have, and on teaching methods that will effectively develop such attributes. The participants consisted of 154 medical school professors, 589 medical students at Seoul National University College of Medicine, 228 parents, and 161 medical school and university hospital staff. They answered nine questions that the authors created. According to the results, all groups chose "morality and a sense of ethics," a "sense of accountability," "communication skills," and "empathic ability" were selected as essential qualities. According to the evaluation on the extent to which students possess each quality, participants believed students had a high "sense of accountability" and "morality," whereas they thought students had low "empathic ability," "communicate," or "collaborate with others". In terms of effective teaching methods, all sub-groups preferred extracurricular activities including small group activities, debates, and volunteer services. With regard to the speculated effect of humanism education and the awareness of the need for colleges to offer it, all sub-groups had a positive response. However the professors and students expressed a relatively passive stance on introducing humanism education as a credited course. Most participants responded that they preferred a grading method based on their rate of participation, not a relative evaluation. In order to reap more comprehensive and lasting effects of humanism education courses in medical school, it is necessary to conduct faculty training, and continuously strive to develop new teaching methods.

  14. Equality in Distribution of Human Resources: the Case of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, H; Hassani, A; Kashkalani, T; Khalilnejad, R; Chimeh, E Ehsani

    2013-01-01

    Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The fair allocation of human resources is one of the dimensions of equity, which was evaluated in this study. We evaluated the equity of human resources' distribution among Iran's medical science universities between 2005 and 2009 by inequality measures including Lorenze curve, Gini coefficient and Rabin hood indexes. In the distribution 60403 recruitment licenses among medical universities with 72456140 covered populations, Gini coefficient was 0.167 and Robin Hood Index 0.11. Calculations indicated Recruitment licenses are equitably distributed in MOH&ME of Iran. However a portion of recruitment licenses should redistributed for achieving perfect equal distribution among all public medical universities of Iran.

  15. Playing to our human strengths to prepare medical students for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their graduates? This article will give an overview of the evolving technological landscape of healthcare and examine the issues undergraduate medical education may have to address. The experience at The University of Hong Kong will serve as a case study featuring several curricular innovations that aim to empower medical graduates with the capabilities to thrive in the future.

  16. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine

    2017-05-11

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from 'popular' forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in 'medical gothic' fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 'Good Lady Ducayne' (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  18. 以医学人文教育为载体加强人文医学执业技能培养%Enhancement of Medical Humanity Practice Skill Training through Medical Humanities Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会萍

    2012-01-01

    The medical humanity practice skill training must be based on medical humanity education as a carrier, and the humanity spirit as the core. The training model of medical humanity practice skill in combination with practice and theory should be established in accordance with the purposes and contents of medical humanity education. The continuous and lifelong training of medical humanity practice skills should be enhanced according to the ways and courses of medical humanity education. The training system of medical practice skill for the primary health care should be perfected in line with the specific demands of medical humanity education.%人文医学执业技能的培养必须以医学人文精神为核心;以医学人文教育为载体.要结合医学人文教育的目标和内容;建立理论与实践相结合的人文医学执业技能教育模块;结合医学人文教育的方法和途径;加强人文医学执业技能培养的连续性和终身性;结合医学人文教育的具体要求完善服务基层卫生保健的人文医学执业技能培养体系.

  19. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  20. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module II. Human Systems and Patient Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on human systems and patient assessment is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Four units are presented: (1) medical terminology, which covers some common prefixes and suffixes and the use of the medical dictionary; (2) an overview of the…

  1. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  2. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  3. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  4. Religious morality (and secular humanism in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals - i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA or Lancet - be heard, speaking with one "consensual," authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics - e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular.

  5. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...... lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT...

  6. Humanism at heart: preserving empathy in third-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan; Howard, Brian; Schlussel, Yvette R; Herrigel, Dana; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Gable, Brian; Vasquez, Jennifer; Grigo, Heather; Kaufman, Margit

    2011-03-01

    Research suggests that medical student empathy erodes during undergraduate medical education. The authors evaluated the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy Medical Student Version (JSPE-MS) scores of two consecutive medical school classes to assess the impact of an educational intervention on the preservation of empathy. The authors conducted a before-and-after study of 209 Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (RWJMS) students enrolled in the classes of 2009 and 2010. Students' clerkships included a mandatory, longitudinal "Humanism and Professionalism" (H&P) component, which included blogging about clerkship experiences, debriefing after significant events, and discussing journal articles, fiction, and film. Students completed the JSPE-MS during their first and last clerkships. The results showed that (1) contrary to previous studies' findings, third-year students did not show significant decline in empathy as measured by the JSPE-MS (these students, from two consecutive RWJMS classes, experienced the H&P intervention), (2) students selected for the Gold Humanism Honor Society (GHHS) were significantly different from their peers in empathy scores as measured by JSPE-MS, and (3) knowledge of selection for the GHHS seems to positively influence students' JSPE-MS scores. Maintaining empathy during the third year of medical school is possible through educational intervention. A curriculum that includes safe, protected time for third-year students to discuss their reactions to patient care situations during clerkships may have contributed to the preservation of empathy. Programs designed to validate humanism in medicine (such as the GHHS) may reverse the decline in empathy as measured by the JSPE-MS.

  7. Practice and application of the construction of the human's secret science museum in medical colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhaoxin; Sui Yuelin; Lu Lanhong

    2015-01-01

    Human anatomy showroom is an important place for students to contact the theory with prac-tice, at the same time is also a window to exchange with other schools. How to make the high quality anatomy teaching resources to service the public? How to provide a place for medical practitioners' to continue learning? It is a subject that many anatomical workers have been studied all the way. This study is based on the human anatomy laboratory, and developing from basic construction, space layout to the design of Showcase and exhibition booth, sample production, writing materials and other aspects. Every link has been carefully argument and arranged. It puts science, knowledge, interest and artistry together. So we can build up the human's secret science museum to allow people to cognize human`s inner construction and open to primary and middle school students and the public. It has finally obtained good social and economic benefits.

  8. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  9. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Defense Health Board Subcommittees will present updates to the Board: National Capital Region Base... Forces, Military/ Occupational Health and Medical Surveillance, and the Psychological Health...

  10. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jun Cho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  11. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    ... grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing...

  12. Integration of human factors and ergonomics during medical device design and development: it's all about communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Li, Yunqiu; Blandford, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers of interactive medical devices, such as infusion pumps, need to ensure that devices minimise the risk of unintended harm during use. However, development teams face challenges in incorporating Human Factors. The aim of the research reported here was to better understand the constraints under which medical device design and development take place. We report the results of a qualitative study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in the design, development and deployment of interactive medical devices. A thematic analysis was conducted. Multiple barriers to designing for safety and usability were identified. In particular, we identified barriers to communication both between the development organisation and the intended users and between different teams within the development organisation. We propose the use of mediating representations. Artefacts such as personas and scenarios, known to provide integration across multiple perspectives, are an essential component of designing for safety and usability.

  13. Defensive effects of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane against the 2,4-nonadienal-induced cell injury in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT and wrinkle formation in 3D-human skin tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-02-01

    We dissolved fullerene-C60 in squalane (LipoFullerene; LF-SQ, C60-eq.: 500 ppm) and examined its defensive effects against 2,4-nonadienal (NDA)-induced cell injury in HaCaT keratinocytes and wrinkle formation in three dimensional (3D)-human skin tissue model. NDA is an analog of 4-hydroxynonenal, one of major causes for human body odor indicative of aging and a lipophilic cell injury factor. Cell viability (% of the control) decreased to 31.6% on treatment with NDA (40 microM), but it increased to 66.0-97.5% when LF-SQ of 1-4% (C60-eq.: 5-20 ppm) was administered for 5 hr before NDA addition. The defensive effect by LF-SQ was superior to that of "squalane" alone at the same doses. NDA-induced DNA-fragmentation in HaCaT cells was suppressed by LF-SQ administered for 5 hr before NDA treatment, and LF-SQ protected HaCaT cells against apoptosis-like cell death. LF-SQ did not appreciably defend against hydrogen peroxide, though LF-SQ effectively defended against tert-butylhydroperoxide, a type of the intermediate hydrophilicity-lipophilicity degree out of other reactive oxygen species. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that NDA caused wrinkles and abnormal scales on keratinocytes of 3D-human skin tissue model, and structural homogeneity of the interstratum was broken, any of which were, however, markedly suppressed with LF-SQ. Squalane alone exhibited defensive effect against the skin tissue injury to some extent, but which was inferior to LF-SQ. LF-SQ might effectively capture and scavenge lipid radicals generated inside the cell membrane, because squalane acts as a lipophilic carrier of C60. C60 dissolved in squalane can be expected to serve as a cosmeceutical ingredient for anti-wrinkle formation.

  14. Seeing the other through the screen: movies, humanization of medical education and Family and Community Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Araújo Porto Landsberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented technological development observed in the last century and beginning of this one has expanded the horizons of the medical science exponentially, making the content to be envisaged by the colleges practically unfeasible. The incorporation of this knowledge in the curricula took place in detriment to human sciences, formerly included as a routine in the schools of medicine all over the world. Negligence of the humanization of medical education may keep from endowing future physicians with the affective resources necessary to the establishment of a satisfactory physical-patient relationship. This study proposes evaluating the use of motion pictures in the humanization of the way graduates see patients, providing them with capability and empathy toward their patients. Three documentaries that correlate indirectly with themes relative to Family and Community Medicine were selected: worker’s mental and community health. After screening to small groups of students, there was a multidisciplinary discussion covering all the several themes relevant to the medical practice. Finally, questionnaires were applied where the students evaluated the importance of the experience in their education, as well as replied to questions about their contact with arts and personal interests. All the students considered the level of correlation of the motion pictures chosen as a good or excellent medical practice. Questioned on the relevance of the themes covered in their education, 94,1% of them answered good or fine. The same percentage considered the curricular inclusion of methodology also good or fine. It was observed that the students evaluated read less than the national average, and a considerable amount of them is not interested in or has never been to a theater, an art exposition or a dance show. The movies, however, proved to be very popular - confirming its potential as a humanizing teaching resource.

  15. Medical and psychological examination of women seeking asylum: documentation of human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A; Patsalides, B

    1997-01-01

    Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.

  16. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  17. Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,41Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UKBackground: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area.Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation.Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment.Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to

  18. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  19. Cyclosporine A impairs nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (Nod1-mediated innate antibacterial renal defenses in mice and human transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Tourneur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pyelonephritis (APN, which is mainly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, is the most common bacterial complication in renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. However, it remains unclear how immunosuppressive drugs, such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, decrease renal resistance to UPEC. Here, we investigated the effects of CsA in host defense against UPEC in an experimental model of APN. We show that CsA-treated mice exhibit impaired production of the chemoattractant chemokines CXCL2 and CXCL1, decreased intrarenal recruitment of neutrophils, and greater susceptibility to UPEC than vehicle-treated mice. Strikingly, renal expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1, neutrophil migration capacity, and phagocytic killing of E. coli were significantly reduced in CsA-treated mice. CsA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced, Tlr4-mediated production of CXCL2 by epithelial collecting duct cells. In addition, CsA markedly inhibited Nod1 expression in neutrophils, macrophages, and renal dendritic cells. CsA, acting through inhibition of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs, also markedly downregulated Nod1 in neutrophils and macrophages. Silencing the NFATc1 isoform mRNA, similar to CsA, downregulated Nod1 expression in macrophages, and administration of the 11R-VIVIT peptide inhibitor of NFATs to mice also reduced neutrophil bacterial phagocytosis and renal resistance to UPEC. Conversely, synthetic Nod1 stimulating agonists given to CsA-treated mice significantly increased renal resistance to UPEC. Renal transplant recipients receiving CsA exhibited similar decrease in NOD1 expression and neutrophil phagocytosis of E. coli. The findings suggest that such mechanism of NFATc1-dependent inhibition of Nod1-mediated innate immune response together with the decrease in Tlr4-mediated production of chemoattractant chemokines caused by Cs

  20. Cyclosporine A Impairs Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain (Nod1)-Mediated Innate Antibacterial Renal Defenses in Mice and Human Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Emilie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Chassin, Cécilia; Bens, Marcelle; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Charles, Nicolas; Pellefigues, Christophe; Aloulou, Meryem; Hertig, Alexandre; Monteiro, Renato C.; Girardin, Stephen E.; Philpott, Dana J.; Rondeau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Acute pyelonephritis (APN), which is mainly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), is the most common bacterial complication in renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. However, it remains unclear how immunosuppressive drugs, such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), decrease renal resistance to UPEC. Here, we investigated the effects of CsA in host defense against UPEC in an experimental model of APN. We show that CsA-treated mice exhibit impaired production of the chemoattractant chemokines CXCL2 and CXCL1, decreased intrarenal recruitment of neutrophils, and greater susceptibility to UPEC than vehicle-treated mice. Strikingly, renal expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1), neutrophil migration capacity, and phagocytic killing of E. coli were significantly reduced in CsA-treated mice. CsA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced, Tlr4-mediated production of CXCL2 by epithelial collecting duct cells. In addition, CsA markedly inhibited Nod1 expression in neutrophils, macrophages, and renal dendritic cells. CsA, acting through inhibition of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs), also markedly downregulated Nod1 in neutrophils and macrophages. Silencing the NFATc1 isoform mRNA, similar to CsA, downregulated Nod1 expression in macrophages, and administration of the 11R-VIVIT peptide inhibitor of NFATs to mice also reduced neutrophil bacterial phagocytosis and renal resistance to UPEC. Conversely, synthetic Nod1 stimulating agonists given to CsA-treated mice significantly increased renal resistance to UPEC. Renal transplant recipients receiving CsA exhibited similar decrease in NOD1 expression and neutrophil phagocytosis of E. coli. The findings suggest that such mechanism of NFATc1-dependent inhibition of Nod1-mediated innate immune response together with the decrease in Tlr4-mediated production of chemoattractant chemokines caused by CsA may

  1. 让医学回归人性%Recurrence of Medical Humanities in Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2012-01-01

    医学是一门关于人的科学,以解除疾病给人们带来的痛苦为目的,其本质是人性的,即以人为本的。但后来随着科学主义、技术至善主义价值观的张扬,医学领域出现了技术化、市场化、医患关系物化的倾向,这与医学的人性本质相偏离。至今依然普遍存在,找回人性的医学,需要采取加快推进医药卫生制度的改革、加强医院管理和建立医务人员的医德评价、奖惩机制、强化医德教育等措施,但这些举措要建立在合理的价值选择的基础上,并体现和保证合理价值规范的实现。尊重病人自主,这一蕴含丰厚的人性底蕴的医学伦理原则是当今让医学回到人性的重要合理价值选择之一,全面、正确理解并认真贯彻、落实这一原则尤为必要。%Medicine is a science concerned about human health, whose ultimate purpose is to relieve physi- cal pain of the people caused by diseases. Thereafter, it is characteristic of humanity, that is, people - orien- ted. Nevertheless, with the publicity of scientism and technical perfectionism values, there arises a tendency of technicalization, marketization, and materialized doctor- patient relationships in the medical area, which obvi- ously is deviated from the humanity nature of medical science. In order to achieve the recurrence of medical hu- manity in medicine, measures have to be taken to accelerate the health system reform, optimize hospital man- agement, strengthen the medical ethics education, and establish medical ethics appraisal, rewards and punish- ment mechanisms for the medical personnel, and the like. Whatever measures adopted should be based on a sensible value choice which reflects and ensure the realization of medical value norms. Nowadays, respect for the autonomy of patient, which contains the very principles of human - oriented medical ethics, is one of the best value options for the recurrence of humanities in the

  2. The human sexuality education of physicians in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, D S; Ernst, J L; Lewis, R W; Prisant, L Michael; Mills, T M; Solursh, L P; Jarvis, R G; Salazar, W H

    2003-10-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for sexual problems frequently would like to turn to a source they consider knowledgeable and worthy of respect, their doctor. The objective was to assess how well the 125 schools of medicine in the United States and the 16 in Canada prepare physicians to diagnose and treat sexual problems. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The main outcome results were description of the medical educational experiences, teaching time, specific subject areas, clinical programs, clerkships, continuing education programs in the domain of human sexuality in North American medical schools. The results were as follows. There were 101 survey responses (71.6%) of a potential of 141 medical schools (74% of United States and 50% of Canadian medical schools). A total of 84 respondents (83.2%) for sexuality education used a lecture format. A single discipline was responsible for this teaching in 32 (31.7%) schools, but a multidisciplinary team was responsible in 64 (63.4%) schools (five schools failed to respond to the question). The majority (54.1%) of the schools provided 3-10 h of education. Causes of sexual dysfunction (94.1%), its treatment (85.2%) altered sexual identification (79.2%) and issues of sexuality in illness or disability (69.3%) were included in the curriculum of 96 respondents. Only 43 (42.6%) schools offered clinical programs, which included a focus on treating patients with sexual problems and dysfunctions, and 56 (55.5%) provided the students in their clerkships with supervision in dealing with sexual issues. In conclusion, expansion of human sexuality education in medical schools may be necessary to meet the public demand of an informed health provider.

  3. Effects of a "silent mentor" initiation ceremony and dissection on medical students' humanity and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Tsai, Po-Fang; Han, Der-Yan

    2017-09-16

    Many medical schools in Taiwan have adopted a dignified "silent mentor" initiation ceremony to strengthen student's medical humanity and increase their learning attitudes. This ceremony consists of introductions of the body donor's conduct and deeds, wreath-laying, and a tea party. However, few empirical studies have examined the influences of the ceremony and dissection on medical humanity. This study explored if the initiation ceremony and the course can help students care more about others, develop more positive attitudes toward death, improve learning effectiveness in the course, and decrease negative emotions the first time they see a cadaver. The Attitudes Towards Death and Love and Care subscales of the life attitude inventory, Learning Effectiveness of Gross Anatomy Laboratory Scale (LEGALS), and Emotional Reactions Towards Cadavers Scale were adopted to examine differences before (T1) and after (T2) medical students attended an initiation ceremony at a university in northern Taiwan. Whether these effects lasted to the end of the semester (T3) was also tested. After the ceremony, students' attitudes towards death increased, negative emotions towards cadavers decreased, but love and care and the LEGALS did not significantly change. Data from T3 showed a similar pattern, but high-level emotions (e.g., being respected, cherished, and grateful) and the LEGALS were significantly higher than those at T1. The initiation ceremony, which showed a body donor's deeds and attitudes toward life and death when they were alive, could help medical students gain more mature attitudes towards death and decreased negative emotions. Learning between T2 and T3 might have caused significant changes in high-level emotions and the LEGALS at T3. Arranging reflective writing with guided discussion by a teacher before and after the ceremony is highly recommended.

  4. Assessment of the U.S. Department of Defense Efforts to Develop an Effective Medical Logistics System within the Afghan National Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be...response: • NTM-A/CSTC-A - RecOimnendations 6a, 6c, 7, 8a, 8b, 8c, llb , 13a, 13b, 14a, 14c, 19b, and 20. • ISAF - Recommendations 17a. • Under Secretary...three battalion aid stations per combat brigade, one medical company and one medical platoon per Brigade Combat Service Support Battalion. ii

  5. A system for medical consultation and education using multimodal human/machine communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, M; Marsic, I; Medl, A; Bu, G

    1998-12-01

    Recent developments in networking and computing have enabled collaborative biomedical engineering research by geographically separated participants. One of the most promising goals is to use these technologies to extend human intellectual capabilities in medical decision making. These emerging technologies are poised to drastically reduce healthcare cost by providing service at remote locations. This also increases diagnosis capacity since information is made available to experts at any location. In this paper, we propose a novel application of a recently developed interactive and distributed system in medical consultation and education. Our approach builds on the notion that interactive and distributive capabilities of the system are crucial for medical consultation and education. The presented application uses a multiuser, collaborative environment with multimodal human/machine communication in the dimensions of sight, sound, and touch. The experimental setup, consisting of two user stations, and the multimodal interfaces, including sight (eye-tracking), sound (automatic speech), and touch (microbeam pen), were tested and evaluated. The system uses a collaborative workspace as a common visualization space. Users communicate with the application through a fusion agent by eye-tracking, speech, and microbeam pen. The audio/video teleconferencing is also included to help the radiologists to communicate with each other simultaneously while they are working on the mammograms. The system used in this study has three software agents: a fusion agent, a conversational agent, and an analytic agent. The fusion agent interprets multimodal commands by integrating the multimodal inputs. The conversational agent answers the user's questions and detects human-related or semantic errors and notifies the user about the results of the image analysis. The analytic agent enhances the digitized images using the wavelet denoising algorithm if requested by the user. To show how well the

  6. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  7. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  8. Mapping of interactions between human macrophages and Staphylococcus aureus reveals an involvement of MAP kinase signaling in the host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, M.; Dreisbach, A.; Otto, A.; Becher, D.; Bernhardt, J.; Hecker, M.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Dijl, J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious invasive diseases when it reaches the bloodstream. Recent studies have shown that S. aureus is highly resistant to killing by professional phagocytes and that such cells even provide a favorable environment for

  9. Human and animal isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica show significant serotype-specific colonization and host-specific immune defense properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa; Dersch, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans.

  10. Perceptions of human cadaver dissection by medical students: a highly valued experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Inaya; Dany, Mohammed; Forbes, William; Barremkala, Mallikarjuna; Thompson, Brent J; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Cadaver dissection remains a cornerstone in the study of anatomical sciences by medical students. However, this activity can cause emotions that may affect learning outcomes. This study, which involved medical students of various cultural backgrounds, assessed their responses to dissection. Medicine I year students (n = 100) at Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine were invited to complete a questionnaire after the first week of dissection, and again at the end of the course. The questionnaire asked for demographics, and assessed the students' appraisal of their dissection experience, cultural influences, coping activities and learning outcomes. After the first week of dissection, most of the students found the experience challenging, stimulating, exciting and informative, rather than nauseating or unbearable. Still, some students found the experience anxiety-provoking, especially when they thought about human mortality. Cultural background influenced the students' emotional development as they worked through the course. Most of the participants agreed that dissection promotes teamwork, familiarity with the human body, and integration of the theoretical knowledge with practical application. At the end of the course, dissection was significantly less anxiety-provoking, and, interestingly, the study found that culture and religious beliefs became more important to the students. Most students agreed that dissection is important, relevant, and necessary, and has the potential to improve learning outcomes that are essential to the development of physicians. The study suggests that an introductory course in social, behavioral and ethical considerations be presented at the beginning of the medical curriculum.

  11. Narrative medical enlightenment on medical humanities quality education in China%叙事医学对我国医学人文教育的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼; 张新华; 黄祁平; 文格波; 唐志晗; 彭娟

    2016-01-01

    Narrative medicine has brought new ideas to medical humanities education, and its con-notation is suitable to "Undergraduate Medical Education Standards-Clinical Medicine (Trial)". By analyz-ing the proposal and development of narrative medicine, its foundation and core, its programs and methods, as well as its forms and values, the author deepened the understanding of narrative medicine. And through the following four pathways including strengthening the renewal of ideas and concepts on medical humanities quality education, promoting the diversification of teaching ways and methods of medical humanities educa-tion, enhancing the effect of early exposure to clinical medical students, opening the path of integration narrative medicine and evidence-based medicine, the author analyzed narrative medical enlightenment on medical humanities quality education in China.%叙事医学为医学人文教育带来新思路,其内涵切合《本科医学教育标准———临床医学专业(试行)》。通过剖析叙事医学的提出和发展、基础和核心、程式和方法、形式和价值,加深教学者对于叙事医学的理解。并通过以下四条途径分析叙事医学对我国医学人文教育的启示:强化医学人文教育思想和观念的更新;促进医学人文教育教学方式、方法的多样化;增强医学生早期接触临床的效果;开辟叙事医学与循证医学整合的路径。

  12. Ethical Thought on Medical Humanities Quality Cultivating%医学人文品格培养的伦理思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟声; 杨晔; 陈新

    2012-01-01

    At present, the ethical missing in the medical humanities quality in medical staff is shown as the doctor - patient relationship apathy, the poor doctor - patient communication. The way of strengthening the humanities quality cultivation in medical staff is to cany forward humane spirits, to pay attention to the humanities quality cultivation in medical staff, promote the fusion of medical technology and humanistic spirit; to standardize the medical behaviors with medical ethics, guide medical practice with humanities quality, create a comfortable and harmonious medical environment, namely medical workers show the reverence for life; In medical practice, should promote " humanistic spirit" , remember " patients interest first" ; further carry forward the " humanistic care" and offer sincere love to patients.%目前,医务人员医学人文品格中的伦理性缺失表现为医患关系冷漠、医患沟通不畅等.加强医务人员人文品格的培养,其途径在于弘扬人文精神,注重医务工作者人文品格的培养,促进医疗技术与人文精神的融合;用医学伦理规范医疗行为,用人文品格指导医疗实践活动,努力营造宽松、和谐的医疗环境,即医务工作者要敬畏人的生命;医疗活动中,要倡导“人本精神”,牢记“患者利益至上”;进一步弘扬“人文关怀”,奉献真诚爱心.

  13. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  14. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    of damage and even threaten human race with extinction. Although extinction level impacts are extremely rare, statistically the chance still exists...will be the world’s most powerful rocket. Another example is the company Blue Origin that targets space as a new tourism opportunity. On November 23

  15. Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

  16. Medical Technology Base Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    action of candidate mnedical1 countermeasures - Analysis and characterization of candidate compounds and their inetabolites - Application of molecular ...expected that research in molecular biology will lead to medical ,.vphylaes and treatments that ofter improved speclicity and potency, thus increasing...Disease Hazards Research (Inlectious Disease, Medical Biologia Defense, and Military AIDS), Conbat Casualty Care Research, Medical Chem"ca Defense Research

  17. Human-centered risk management for medical devices - new methods and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janß, Armin; Plogmann, Simon; Radermacher, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Studies regarding adverse events with technical devices in the medical context showed, that in most of the cases non-usable interfaces are the cause for use deficiencies and therefore a potential harm for the patient and third parties. This is partially due to the lack of suitable methods for interlinking usability engineering and human-centered risk management. Especially regarding the early identification of human-induced errors and the systematic control of these failures, medical device manufacturers and in particular the developers have to be supported in order to guarantee reliable design and error-tolerant human-machine interfaces (HMI). In this context, we developed the HiFEM methodology and a corresponding software tool (mAIXuse) for model-based human risk analysis. Based on a two-fold approach, HiFEM provides a task-type-sensitive modeling structure with integrated temporal relations in order to represent and analyze the use process in a detailed way. The approach can be used from early developmental stages up to the validation process. Results of a comparative study with the HiFEM method and a classical process-failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) depict, that the new modeling and analysis technique clearly outperforms the FMEA. Besides, we implemented a new method for systematic human risk control (mAIXcontrol). Accessing information from the method's knowledge base enables the operator to detect the most suitable countermeasures for a respective risk. Forty-one approved generic countermeasure principles have been indexed as a resulting combination of root causes and failures in a matrix. The methodology has been tested in comparison to a conventional approach as well. Evaluation of the matrix and the reassessment of the risk priority numbers by a blind expert demonstrate a substantial benefit of the new mAIXcontrol method.

  18. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  19. Linking the Heart and the Head: Humanism and Professionalism in Medical Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Lynda; Loue, Sana; Stange, Kurt C

    2017-05-01

    This paper articulates a practical interpretive framework for understanding humanism in medicine through the lens of how it is taught and learned. Beginning with a search for key tensions and relevant insights in the literature on humanism in health professions education, we synthesized a conceptual model designed to foster reflection and action to realize humanistic principles in medical education and practice. The resulting model centers on the interaction between the heart and the head. The heart represents the emotive domains of empathy, compassion, and connectedness. The head represents the cognitive domains of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. The cognitive domains often are associated with professionalism, and the emotive domains with humanism, but it is the connection between the two that is vital to humanistic education and practice. The connection between the heart and the head is nurtured by critical reflection and conscious awareness. Four provinces of experience nurture humanism: (1) personal reflection, (2) action, (3) system support, and (4) collective reflection. These domains represent potential levers for developing humanism. Critical reflection and conscious awareness between the heart and head through personal reflection, individual and collective behavior, and supportive systems has potential to foster humanistic development toward healing and health.

  20. Study of the Levels of Human-Human and Human-Animal Empathy in Veterinary Medical Students from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Amor, Javiera; Luna-Fernández, Daniela; Tadich, Tamara

    Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy. The aims of this study were to investigate some determinants of the level of empathy and to gain insight into the possible correlation between human-animal and human-human empathy. For this, the Animal Empathy Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis were applied through an electronic survey system to freshmen and final-year students (n=452) from five schools of veterinary medicine in Chile. The correlation between the empathy scores of both instruments and their association with individual factors were studied using Spearman's correlation, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results suggest that both instruments correlate significantly, and that gender, year of study, diet, and area of interest have a significant association with the score for empathy toward animals. This research shows that individual characteristics and changes that occur during veterinary training can affect students' attitudes toward animals.

  1. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  2. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-05

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern that medical tourism may spread

  3. The innate defense regulator peptides IDR-HH2, IDR-1002, and IDR-1018 modulate human neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonsaba, François; Madera, Laurence; Afacan, Nicole; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-07-01

    Although HDPs were originally hypothesized to act as antimicrobial agents, they also have been shown to broadly modulate the immune response through the activation of different cell types. We recently developed a series of novel, synthetic peptides, termed IDRs, which are conceptually based on a natural HDP, bovine bactenecin. We showed that IDR-1 and IDR-1002 protect the host against bacterial infections through the induction of chemokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the IDRs on various functions of human neutrophils. Here, we demonstrated that IDR-HH2, IDR-1002, and IDR-1018 modulated the expression of neutrophil adhesion and activation markers. Moreover, these IDRs enhanced neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells in a β₂ integrin-dependent manner and induced neutrophil migration and chemokine production. The IDR peptides also increased the release of the neutrophil-generated HDPs (antimicrobial), human α-defensins, and LL-37 and augmented neutrophil-mediated killing of Escherichia coli. Notably, the IDRs significantly suppressed LPS-mediated neutrophil degranulation, the release of ROS, and the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-10, consistent with their ability to dampen inflammation. As evidenced by the inhibitory effects of MAPK-specific inhibitors, IDRs activated the MAPK pathway that was required for chemokine production. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence regarding the contribution of the IDR peptides to the innate immune response through the modulation of neutrophil functions. The results described here may aid in the development of IDRs as novel, anti-infective and immunomodulatory agents.

  4. Human rights from the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and institutions in medical ethics and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and the "Geneva Declaration" by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of human beings. All these associations were well aware of the crimes by medicine, in particular by the accused Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Doctors Trial (1946/47, sentence: August 1947). During the first conference of the World Medical Association (September 1947) issues of medical ethics played a major role: and a new document was drafted concerning the values of the medical profession. After the catastrophe of the War and the criminal activities of scientists, the late 1940s saw increased scrutiny paid to fundamental questions of human rights and medical ethics, which are still highly relevant for today's medicine and morality. The article focuses on the development of medical ethics and human rights reflected in the statement of important persons, codes and institutions in the field.

  5. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  6. Naming the body (or the bones): Human remains, anthropological/medical collections, religious beliefs, and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Human bones and biological remains conserved in anthropological, medical, and archaeological collections are foci of ethical debate, as recently illustrated by the affair of Charles Byrne's bones. In the near future, curators will have to choose between global conservation of all (or almost all) anthropological collections and systematic restitution to their original communities or families. Various proposals and examples of restitution and nonrestitution are given (with justifications) in order to support the concept that the body (especially the dead body) is not property. We propose that the only element supporting arguments in favor of restitution could be the name of the individual, highlighting the importance of all identification processes for such "artifacts." This is undoubtedly a universal value: naming the dead, identifying and then burying the person, i.e., reversing the progression along the timeline from individual to scientific specimen. Such elements could be of great interest to all universities and medical institutions that keep human remains in their collections for educational or historical purposes when they are confronted with ethical problems and/or repatriation requests.

  7. Human-machine interface for a VR-based medical imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapichler, Christian; Haubner, Michael; Loesch, Andreas; Lang, Manfred K.; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

    1997-05-01

    Modern 3D scanning techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) produce high- quality images of the human anatomy. Virtual environments open new ways to display and to analyze those tomograms. Compared with today's inspection of 2D image sequences, physicians are empowered to recognize spatial coherencies and examine pathological regions more facile, diagnosis and therapy planning can be accelerated. For that purpose a powerful human-machine interface is required, which offers a variety of tools and features to enable both exploration and manipulation of the 3D data. Man-machine communication has to be intuitive and efficacious to avoid long accustoming times and to enhance familiarity with and acceptance of the interface. Hence, interaction capabilities in virtual worlds should be comparable to those in the real work to allow utilization of our natural experiences. In this paper the integration of hand gestures and visual focus, two important aspects in modern human-computer interaction, into a medical imaging environment is shown. With the presented human- machine interface, including virtual reality displaying and interaction techniques, radiologists can be supported in their work. Further, virtual environments can even alleviate communication between specialists from different fields or in educational and training applications.

  8. Medical applications of VIS/NIR spectroscopy of human tissue surfaces by a novel portable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Liebold, Kristin; Fassler, Dieter; Wollina, Uwe; Fritzsch, Uwe; Gessner, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In medical diagnostics, non invasive optical techniques will become common at a variety of applications because they contribute to objectivity and precision. The spectral properties of human tissue are an important field of interest. They offer opportunities of detection of skin diseases and of evaluation of chronic wounds. In the visible range, the hemoglobin absorption corresponds to blood microcirculation and the melanin absorption to the skin-type. Two types of diode-array equipment will be described: a combined VIS-NIR spectrometer system from J&M Aalen/Germany (400 nm to 1600 nm) and a stand-alone spectrometer from COLOUR CONTROL Farbmesstechnik Chemnitz/Germany (400 nm to 1000 nm). Non-contacting sensing is essential for investigating chronic wounds (no disturbances of blood microcirculation by contact pressure). The spectroscopic VIS-NIR readings of chronic wounds mainly depend on the absorption of hemoglobin and water. Multivariate analysis was applied for an objective spectral classification of eight different wound scores. Some results regarding spectral measurements of wounds and skin will be discussed. The spectrometer of COLOUR CONTROL was tested in dental surgery. To select dentures, its color has to be determined exactly to meet beauty culture demands. Color determination by dentist is not sufficient enough because of possible metameric effects of illumination. Results of spectral evaluation of denture material and human teeth will be given. Medical examination requires portable and ease equipment suitable for precise measurements. This is solved by a modular measurement system comprising microcomputer, display, light source, fiber probe, and diode-array spectrometer. It is efficient to process primary spectral data to appropriate medical interpretations.

  9. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Donald West King, M.D. FNLM ... genetic foundation of all human beings; the second, a comprehensive information service to ...

  10. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  11. Early serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after medication abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, Katherine D; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B; Bartz, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Despite increased reliance on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for early pregnancy monitoring, there is limited information about hCG trends soon after medication abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a predictable decline in serum hCG values shortly after medication abortion. This is a retrospective study of women with early intrauterine pregnancies who underwent medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol and had a serum hCG level on Day 1 (day of mifepristone) and a repeat value on Day 2 to 6. The percent hCG decline was calculated from baseline to repeat measure, with repeat values from the same patient accounted for through repeated measure analysis of variance. Eighty-eight women with a mean gestational age of 5.5 weeks and median baseline hCG of 5220 IU met study criteria over a 3-year period. The mean decline (±SD) in hCG from the Day 1 baseline value was 56.9%±29.5% on Day 3, 73.5%±38.6% on Day 4, 86.1%±8.8% on Day 5, and 92.9%±3.4% on Day 6. Eighty-two women (93% of the cohort) had a complete abortion without further intervention. The least square means hCG decline among these women was 57.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 50.3-64.9%] on Day 3, 78.9% (95% CI: 75.0-82.8%) on Day 4 and 86.2% (95% CI: 81.3-91.1%) on Day 5. There is a rapid decline in serum hCG within the first few days after early medication abortion. Further research is needed to delineate how soon after medication abortion this decline may be specific enough to confirm abortion completion. This study provides the largest cohort of patients followed with serial hCG values in the first few days after medication abortion. Our findings demonstrate the trend in hCG decline in this population, which may be predictable by Day 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  13. The Defense Department’s Enduring Contributions to Global Health. The Future of the U.S. Army and Navy Overseas Medical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Degree programs, the overseas laboratories often make their resources available as educational tools. A generation of Egyptian doctors and...NAMRU-6 is active in every South American country except Brazil and Chile , which already boast strong research infrastructures. Similarly, WHO sees...Health Institute of Studies in Health, Sexuality and Human Development (IESSDEH) Dr. Carlos F. Cáceres, Dr. Segundo León Sandoval 1800-1830 ForoSalud

  14. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  15. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  16. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-08-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  17. Human beings' adaptability to extreme environmental changes from medical and physical points of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Ragulskaya, Maria; Dimitrova, Svetla; Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin; Samsonov, Sergey; Med. Dimitry Markov, Of; Nazarova, Of Med. Olga N.; Rudenchik, Evgeny

    The question about features of human reaction on the sharp environmental physical activity (EPA) changes is considered by international group of physicists and physicians on the base of results of monitoring of human health state in different cities spread on latitude and longitude. The typical reaction of human body on the influences, exceeding the organisms' ability to adaptation, is of stress-reaction character. From medical point of view there is no significant difference for human body -what external (EPA) agent shocked an organism (emotional or some physical threats). First attempt of the organism to restore its homeostasis is stress-reaction, being universal for many stress-factors. Its main stages (such as alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) are detectable by different medical equipments, but we tried to find universal, non-traumatic method of daily measurements, enough sensitive and appropriate for observation of people reaction both on weather and space weather (geomagnetic activity) changes. The experiment was based on a method of electrical conductivity measurements of biologically active (acupunctural) points of human skin. The used method (electroacupunctural method by Dr. R.Voll) is very sensitive to current state of an organism and characterize the functional condition of different organs and systems of human body and allows to express so-called "group's health status" in the units, suitable for comparison with meteorological and heliogeophysical parameters. We conduct the parallel investigations as a part of collaborative study in different geographic latitudes-longitudes (Baku:40° 23'43"N -49° 52'56"E, Troitsk (Moscow region): 55° 28'40"N -37° 18'42"E, Yakutsk: 62° 02'00"N -129° 44'00"E). Measurements were carried out on daily basis with permanent group of functionally healthy persons (Moscow -19, Yakutsk -22, CityBaku -12 volunteers). Daily monitoring of nervous, endocrinological, lymphatic systems, blood, lungs, thick and thin intestine

  18. 在临床实践中培养医学生的人文精神%Cultivation of Medical Students' Humanism in Clinical Medical Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志刚; 黄海涛; 黄晓华; 李静

    2015-01-01

    医乃仁术,作为一名合格的医生不仅要有扎实的理论知识和操作技能,还要有仁爱之心,也就是医学与生俱来的人文精神。在临床学习中,医学生与患者交流密切、体会深刻,便于理论联系实际进行教学,因而在人文精神的培养方面有着课堂教学无法比拟的优势。医疗活动中处处体现着人文精神,带教医生应该尽可能的在临床实践的各个环节中对医学生进行人文教育,培养仁爱之心,这有助于塑造医学生健全的"医格",培养合格的医学人才。%Medicine is a science charactered with humanity, so a qualified doctor should possess not only solid theory and medical operation skil s but also kindness known as humanism which is the inherent character of medicine. During clinical learning stage medical students have more opportunities to communicate with patients, so it is helpful for them to put theory into work in study. It is also good to cultivate medical students with humanism in this stage than in col ege classroom. Teachers should try to car y out humanitas education in every segment of clinical practical education, which can help medical students developing perfect medical personality to be a qualified doctor.

  19. The protective role of DJ-1 in ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin: DJ-1 levels in the stratum corneum as an indicator of antioxidative defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Shioji; Takahashi, Minako; Yasuda, Chie; Nakagawa, Maho; Saito, Yoshiro; Noguchi, Noriko; Matsukuma, Shoko

    2015-12-01

    DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein associated with Parkinson's disease and plays a significant role in protecting nerve cells from oxidative stress. DJ-1 is expressed in the skin, although its function there is unknown. In this study, we investigated DJ-1 function in keratinocytes. DJ-1 was induced by H2O2 exposure and UV irradiation in keratinocytes. DJ-1 knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after UVB irradiation, suggesting that DJ-1 reduces ROS and might protect skin cells from UV damage in vitro. To investigate the in vivo role of DJ-1 in the skin, we determined DJ-1 levels in human stratum corneum samples obtained by the tape-stripping method. DJ-1 levels in the stratum corneum (scDJ-1) correlated with total antioxidant capacity. We also examined the effect of scDJ-1 on changes in skin after UVB irradiation. DJ-1 was elevated in SC from the upper arm 1 to 2 weeks after UVB irradiation. One day after UVB irradiation, L* (brightness) and a* (redness) values, indicators of skin color, were altered regardless of scDJ-1 expression. However, these values recovered more quickly in subjects with high scDJ-1 expression than in those with low scDJ-1 expression. These data suggest that DJ-1 in skin plays a significant role in protection against UV radiation and oxidative stress, and that DJ-1 levels in the SC might be an indicator of antioxidative defense against UV-induced damage.

  20. Dental and Medical Students' Use and Perceptions of Learning Resources in a Human Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.

  1. Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Nitza; Dutson, Eric; Friedl, Karl; Hyman, William; Jemison, Mae; Klonoff, David

    2009-01-01

    The SRP believes strongly that regularly performed in-flight crew assessments are needed in order to identify a change in health status before a medical condition becomes clinically apparent. It is this early recognition in change that constitutes the foundation of the "occupational health model" expounded in the HRP Requirements Document as a key component of the HRP risk mitigation strategy that will enable its objective of "prevention and mitigation of human health and performance risks". A regular crew status examination of physiological and clinical performance is needed. This can be accomplished through instrumented monitoring of routine embedded tasks. The SRP recommends addition of a new gap to address this action under Category 3.0 Mitigate the Risk. This new gap is closely associated with Task 4.19 which addresses the lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capabilities for performing periodic clinical status evaluations and contingency medical monitoring. A corollary to these gaps is the critical emphasis on preventive medicine, not only during pre- and post-flight phases of a mission as is the current practice, but continued into the in-flight phases of exploration class missions.

  2. From competencies to human interests: ways of knowing and understanding in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-07-01

    When considering the teaching and learning of topics of social relevance in medicine, such as professionalism, medical ethics, the doctor-patient relationship, and issues of diversity and social justice, one is tempted to ask, are the ways of knowing in these fields different from that in the biomedical and clinical sciences? Furthermore, given that the competency approach is dominant in medical education, one might also ask, is the competency model truly appropriate for all of the types of knowledge necessary to become a good physician? These questions are not merely academic, for they are at the core of how these subjects are taught, learned, and assessed.The goal of this article is threefold: first, to explore the nature of knowing and the educational goals in different areas of medicine and, in particular, those areas that have social relevance; second, to critically review the concept of competencies when applied to education in these areas; and third, to explore alternative strategies for teaching, learning, and assessment. This discussion reflects a view that the goal of education in areas of social relevance in medicine should be the enhancement of an understanding of-a deep and abiding connection with-the social responsibilities of the physician. Moving beyond competencies, this approach aspires toward the development of practical wisdom (phronesis) which, when embodied in the physician, links the knowledge and skills of the biomedical and clinical sciences with a moral orientation and call to action that addresses human interests in the practice of medicine.

  3. What is nature capable of? Evidence, ontology and speculative medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savransky, Martin; Rosengarten, Marsha

    2016-09-01

    Expanding on the recent call for a 'critical medical humanities' to intervene in questions of the ontology of health, this article develops a what we call a 'speculative' orientation to such interventions in relation to some of the ontological commitments on which contemporary biomedical cultures rest. We argue that crucial to this task is an approach to ontology that treats it not as a question of first principles, but as a matter of the consequences of the images of nature that contemporary biomedical research practices espouse when they make claims to evidence, as well as the possible consequences of imagining different worlds in which health and disease processes partake. By attending to the implicit ontological assumptions involved in the method par excellence of biomedical research, namely the randomised controlled trial (RCT), we argue that the mechanistic ontology that tacitly informs evidence-based biomedical research simultaneously authorises a series of problematic consequences for understanding and intervening practically in the concrete realities of health. As a response, we develop an alternative ontological proposition that regards processes of health and disease as always situated achievements. We show that, without disqualifying RCT-based evidence, such a situated ontology enables one to resist the reduction of the realities of health and disease to biomedicine's current forms of explanation. In so doing, we call for medical humanities scholars to actively engage in the speculative question of what nature may be capable of. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Human Trafficking Identification and Service Provision in the Medical and Social Service Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Corinne; Unruh, Erik; Cronin, Katie; Evans-Simpson, Sarah; Britton, Hannah; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-06-01

    The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention. In the process of developing our intervention, we highlight the importance of using existing resources and services in a specific community to address critical gaps in coverage for trafficked persons. For example, we focus on those who are victims of labor trafficking, in addition to those who are victims of sex trafficking. We offer a framework informed by rights-based approaches to anti-trafficking efforts that addresses the practical challenges of human trafficking victim identification while simultaneously working to provide resources and disseminate services to those victims.

  5. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C B; Willems, Dick L

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or reviewing paperwork provided by investigators. However, because of a lack of guidelines and evidence, institutions have had little guidance in setting up their programmes. To help institutions make the right choices, we used interviews and document analysis to study how and why 11 US institutions have set up their monitoring programmes. Although these programmes varied considerably, we were able to distinguish two general types. 'Compliance' programmes on the one hand were part of the institutional review board office and set up to ensure compliance with regulations. Investigators' participation was mandatory. Monitors focused on documentation. Investigators could be disciplined, and could be obliged to take corrective actions. 'Quality-improvement' programmes on the other hand were part of a separate office. Investigators requested to be monitored. Monitors focused more on actual research conduct. Investigators and other parties received feedback on how to improve the research process. Although both types of programmes have their drawbacks and advantages, we argue that if institutions want to set up monitoring programmes, quality improvement is the better choice: it can help foster an atmosphere of trust between investigators and the institutional review board, and can help raise the standards for the protection of human subjects.

  6. The relation between flexibility of human resources and performance indexes of selected hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Alibakhshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, flexibility has turned to one of important issues in management theories and policies and most current discussions about flexibility patterns focus on management policies, so that these patterns are one of important aspects of human resources strategic management. This study was performed with the aim of assessing the flexibility rate of human resources and performance indexes of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals and determining the possible relation between these variables. The present study is descriptive – analytical which was conducted in cross-sectional form in 2015. The statistical population was selected by stratifies random sampling method as 317 persons from nursing, administrative and financial personnel of 5 hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University. Data collecting toll was hospitals performance indexes form and Wright & Snell flexibility questionnaire of human resources. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software and with the aid of descriptive statistical indexes and linear regression analysis. The results showed that personnel ( human resources had high flexibility = 4.16.\tthere was a significant relation between total flexibility and the index of bed circulation so that by one unit increase in bed circulation space, normally, the average of total flexibility decreased 0.64 units ( p-value<0.05. The results showed that human resources of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have high flexibility, so authorities and policy makers are suggested to adopt policies of human resources management for creating flexibility in human resources and improving hospitals performance and amending hospitals status.

  7. Humanities mini-course curricula for midcareer health professionals at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kimberly R; George, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    The field of medical humanities has traditionally focused on medical students and, more recently, on premedical undergraduates. Comparatively little formal humanities pedagogy has been dedicated to midcareer health professionals. To address this lack, the Department of Humanities at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center designed eight annual humanities mini-courses for faculty and staff throughout the college and medical center.These mini-courses fell into four categories: reading, reflection, and discussion; creative expression; technology; and ethics. They were geared toward midcareer health professionals who were seeking new intellectual and creative stimulation and variety in daily routine. They also provided humanities faculty the opportunity to devote attention to topics that capitalize on their professional training and that interest them personally.Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the mini-courses for four principal reasons: (1) learning the tools and methodologies of a new discipline or domain other than biomedicine, (2) using their minds and training in uncustomary ways, (3) forming new alliances with colleagues (which served to lessen the sense of professional isolation), and (4) enjoying a respite from the stressful flow of the workday. Humanities faculty facilitators provided more mixed responses but agreed that conducting the mini-courses had been a positive overall experience.Although this article provides a foundational framework for the development of a humanities mini-course series, the authors encourage others to replicate these curricula in other medical settings as an important step toward a robust pedagogy designed for midcareer health care professionals.

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  9. On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, S; Mattson, S

    1997-08-01

    Testicular carcinomas, pediatric tumors, and some mesenchymal tumors are examples of rapidly proliferating cell populations, for which the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) can be counted in days. Cancers from the breast, prostate, and colon are frequently slow-growing, displaying a TVDT of months or years. Irrespective of their growth rates, most human tumors have been found: to start from one single cell, to have a long subclinical period, to grow at constant rates for long periods of time, to start to metastasize often even before the primary is detected, and to have metastases that often grow at approximately the same rate as the primary tumor. The recognition of basic facts in tumor cell kinetics is essential in the evaluation of important present-day strategies in oncology. Among the facts emphasized in this review are: (1) Screening programs. Most tumors are several years old when detectable by present-day diagnostic methods. This makes the term "early detection" questionable. (2) Legal trials. The importance of so-called doctor's delay is often discussed, but the prognostic value of "early" detection is overestimated. (3) Analyses of clinical trials. Such analysis may be differentiated depending on the growth rates of the type of tumor studied. Furthermore, uncritical analysis of survival data may be misleading if the TVDT is not taken into consideration. (4) Analyses of epidemiological data. If causes of malignant tumors in humans are searched for, the time of exposure must be extended far back in the subject's history. (5) Risk estimations by insurance companies. For the majority of human cancers, the 5-year survival rate is not a valid measurement for cure. Thus, basic knowledge of tumor kinetics may have important implications for political health programs, legal trials, medical science, and insurance policies.

  10. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  11. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  12. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  13. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  14. Equality in Distribution of Human Resources: the Case of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, H; Hassani, A; Kashkalani, T; Khalilnejad, R; Chimeh, E Ehsani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Background: Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The fair allocation of human resources is one of the dimensions of equity, which was evaluated in this study. Methods: We evaluated the equity of human resources’ distribution among Iran’s medical science universities between 2005 and 2009 by inequality measures including Lorenze curve, Gini coefficient and Rabin hood indexes. Results: In the distribution 60403 recruitment licenses among medical universities with 72456140 covered populations, Gini coefficient was 0.167 and Robin Hood Index 0.11. Conclusions: Calculations indicated Recruitment licenses are equitably distributed in MOH&ME of Iran. However a portion of recruitment licenses should redistributed for achieving perfect equal distribution among all public medical universities of Iran. PMID:23865035

  15. Equality in Distribution of Human Resources: the Case of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khalilnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The fair allocation of human resources is one of the dimensions of equity, which was evaluated in this study.Methods: We evaluated the equity of human resources’ distribution among Iran’s medical science universities between 2005 and 2009 by inequality measures including Lorenze curve, Gini coefficient and Rabin hood indexes.Results: In the distribution 60403 recruitment licenses among medical universities with 72456140 covered populations, Gini coefficient was 0.167 and Robin Hood Index 0.11.Conclusions: Calculations indicated Recruitment licenses are equitably distributed in MOH&ME of Iran. However a portion of recruitment licenses should redistributed for achieving perfect equal distribution among all public medical universities of Iran.

  16. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  17. Construction of Medical Humanities Education Mode%论医学人文教育模式的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐平; 王伦安; 唐宏川

    2014-01-01

    当前的医学人文教育实践存在教育内容滞后,教育途径重认知、轻实践,教育目的智育化、工具化,制度支持缺失等问题。为此,我们认为医学人文教育应坚持“以生为本、医学教育与人文教育融合”的理念,以思想教育为主导,以心理相容为基础,以制度强化为保障。这一医学人文教育模式既是对当前医学教育疏离社会、疏离人的主体性的时代回应,又是对客体化人文教育模式的超越,充分反映了当代医学生的个性特点,同时也体现了医学生人文行为养成与发展的规律。%There are such problems as the contents of education lag , overemphasising cognition and intellectu-alization, despising practice and system supporting in current medical humanities education practice .We think that the medical humanistic education should adhere to the concept of student -oriented, medical education and human-ities education fusion , the idea of ideological education as the leading factor , the psychological compatibility as the base ,the system strengthening as the security .The medical humanities education mode is not only the response of the main current medical education mode of social alienation and human alienation , but also the surpassing of the object of humane education mode .It fully reflects the personality characteristics of the contemporary medical students , embodies the regularities of nurturing and development of human behavior in medical students .

  18. The Soviet Civil Defense Medical Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    emergency ambulance service staffed by physicians. In addition, there is a network of hygiene- epidemological stations with their own physicians. In the... Epidemological Stations (SES) at republic, oblast, and city levels and also at institutes of epidemiology, microbiology, and hygiene. The mission of these... epidemological control in host areas and in shelters. o Planning for and preparation of the evacuation of urban CDMS formations and health institutions, their

  19. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , private foundations, and others (Figure 1b). These disparate funding sources may fund...Reed and his team’s discovery and confirmation of the transmission of deadly diseases such as typhoid fever and yellow fever. 5 Researchers also...contributed to the development of intravenous therapy for cholera ; 6 and the development of anti- malarial agents such as chloroquine, doxycycline

  20. AtNFXL1, an Arabidopsis homologue of the human transcription factor NF-X1, functions as a negative regulator of the trichothecene phytotoxin-induced defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tomoya; Masuda, Daisuke; Yasuda, Michiko; Nakashita, Hideo; Kudo, Toshiaki; Kimura, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Nishiuchi, Takumi

    2008-02-01

    Trichothecenes are a closely related family of phytotoxins that are produced by phytopathogenic fungi. In Arabidopsis, expression of AtNFXL1, a homologue of the putative human transcription repressor NF-X1, was significantly induced by application of type A trichothecenes, such as T-2 toxin. An atnfxl1 mutant growing on medium lacking trichothecenes showed no phenotype, whereas a hypersensitivity phenotype was observed in T-2 toxin-treated atnfxl1 mutant plants. Microarray analysis indicated that several defense-related genes (i.e. WRKYs, NBS-LRRs, EDS5, ICS1, etc.) were upregulated in T-2 toxin-treated atnfxl1 mutants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, enhanced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation was observed in T-2 toxin-treated atnfxl1 mutants, which suggests that AtNFXL1 functions as a negative regulator of these defense-related genes via an SA-dependent signaling pathway. We also found that expression of AtNFXL1 was induced by SA and flg22 treatment. Moreover, the atnfxl1 mutant was less susceptible to a compatible phytopathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Taken together, these results indicate that AtNFXL1 plays an important role in the trichothecene response, as well as the general defense response in Arabidopsis.

  1. Emphasis on Medical Humanism to Promote the Harmony Physician-patient Relationship%重视医学人文精神促医患关系和谐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁维瑜

    2012-01-01

    本文主要从医学人文精神和医务人员对患者的人文关怀角度阐述了加强医学人文精神建设和人文关怀的重要性,重视医学人文精神,把人文关怀的理念落实到医疗服务工作中,从而使患者满意,才能真正做好服务,做出成效.%This article described the importance of strengthening the medical humanism construction and humane care from the medical humanism and humane care point of medical personnel to the patients, emphasized the medical humanism, and implemented the concept of humane care to medical services, so as to make patient satisfaction, really provide good service and make effectiveness.

  2. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  3. Improvement of Motivation and Learning Level in Neuroanatomy Among Hamadan Medical Students Using Human Brain Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Using new methods in teaching anatomy could have a significant impact on students’ learning. Objectives Neuroanatomy is one of the most complicated courses in anatomy. Absence of educational assistance equipment is one the most important problems in this field. Using human brain sections could solve some of the problems and enhance students’ learning. Materials and Methods The brains of cadavers in dissection room of medicine faculty of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were used in the present study. After fixation, the brains cut in three coronal, transverse and sagittal sections. Then, the sections were presented to one group of students in practical classes. Another group continued as control with routine educational method. The students filled out a questionnaire and declared their ideas about the new methods in Neuroanatomy education. Finally, two groups were compared for marks gained in the final exam. Results Using present method had remarkable effect on learning progress and prevention of exhaustion of students in the classroom. Moreover, it increased marvelously their ability in three-dimensional imagination in anatomy. Quantitative analysis of the final examination showed significant increase in the marks of experimental group (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to the subjective and objective results, the new method used in anatomy education had a good effect on learning of anatomy and interested students in anatomy. Besides, it decreased students’ stress at exam time. It can be a complementary method for conventional methods. It is very useful for those who need retraining courses.

  4. Medical evidence of human rights violations against non-Arabic-speaking civilians in Darfur: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis. We sought to characterize the nature and geographic scope of allegations of human rights violations perpetrated against civilians in Darfur and to evaluate their consistency with medical examinations documented in patients' medical records. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective review and analysis of medical records from all 325 patients seen for treatment from September 28, 2004, through December 31, 2006, at the Nyala-based Amel Centre for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture, the only dedicated local provider of free clinical and legal services to civilian victims of torture and other human rights violations in Darfur during this time period. Among 325 medical records identified and examined, 292 (89.8% patients from 12 different non-Arabic-speaking tribes disclosed in the medical notes that they had been attacked by Government of Sudan (GoS and/or Janjaweed forces. Attacks were reported in 23 different rural council areas throughout Darfur. Nearly all attacks (321 [98.8%] were described as having occurred in the absence of active armed conflict between Janjaweed/GoS forces and rebel groups. The most common alleged abuses were beatings (161 [49.5%], gunshot wounds (140 [43.1%], destruction or theft of property (121 [37.2%], involuntary detainment (97 [29.9%], and being bound (64 [19.7%]. Approximately one-half (36 [49.3%] of all women disclosed that they had been sexually assaulted, and one-half of sexual assaults were described as having occurred in close proximity to a camp for internally displaced persons. Among the 198 (60.9% medical records that contained sufficient detail to enable the forensic medical reviewers to render an informed judgment, the signs and symptoms in all of the medical records were assessed to be consistent with, highly consistent with, or virtually diagnostic of the alleged abuses

  5. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  6. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  7. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  8. Thinking about thinking and emotion: the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin G

    2014-01-01

    Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition--“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”--offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully

  9. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  10. Assessment of the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany--analysis of available data and desiderata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Deleré, Yvonne; Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany, the data of the relevant surveillance and of the registration systems as well as prescriptions submitted to the statutory health insurance (SHI) were assessed. In all, 2441 of the 81 280 total examinations for rabies conducted on animals were performed subsequent to contact with humans. In this context 54% of exposures were attributed to wild animals and 46%, to domestic animals. In 2006 and 2007 there were still 0.42 and 0.34 veterinary medical analyses per 100 000 inhabitants, respectively, subsequent to human contact. After the proclamation that Germany was free of terrestrial rabies, these indices dropped to 0.2 in 2009 and 2010. During the survey period, 21 700 doses of rabies vaccine were issued annually for SHI prescriptions on average; they would have been adequate for approximately 7230 complete courses of rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis or 4340 complete post-exposure treatments. For which of these two principal indications the vaccines were actually used cannot be determined from the SHI prescriptions. Taken together, the officially available data from rabies surveillance or registration systems even in combination with a nearly complete record of SHI prescription numbers did not allow an even nearly adequate reconstruction of the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany. If one desired to achieve this, one would have to use, for example, an approach that is known from other European countries such as France, Finland, or The Netherlands.

  11. Human Errors May Explain a False Epide Prescription Pain Medication Overdose Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen J Salerian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the validity of a public perception promoted by Centers Control that prescription pain medications have contributed to an epidem deaths and illicit use of heroin. No scientific evidence has been found to su causative link between prescription pain medications and an epidemic of deaths and illicit use of heroin. The study results suggest highly complex m medical and psychosocial influences to be predominant in the increasing overdose deaths.

  12. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the needs among HIV-infected adults.

  13. 75 FR 57906 - Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... appraisals and make recommendations to the Director, DCAA, regarding final performance ratings and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra L. Burrell, Chief, Human Resources Management Division, Defense Contract Audit... of the Secretary Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service...

  14. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of Samuel Shem's "House of God," medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and…

  15. Defensive medicine among obstetricians and gynecologists in tertiary hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Asher

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the daily work practice under the threat of defensive medicine among obstetricians and gynecologists. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional survey of obstetricians and gynecologists working at tertiary medical centers in Israel. RESULTS: Among the 117 obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey, representing 10% of the obstetricians and gynecologists registered by the Israel Medical Association, 113 (97% felt that their daily work practice is influenced by concern about being sued for medical negligence and not only by genuine medical considerations. As a result, 102 (87% physicians are more likely to offer the cesarean section option, even in the absence of a clear medical indication, 70 (60% follow court rulings concerning medical practices, and 85 (73% physicians mentioned that discussions about medical negligence court rulings are included in their departments' meetings. CONCLUSIONS: Defensive medicine is a well-embedded phenomenon affecting the medical decision process of obstetricians and gynecologists.

  16. Defense and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the Economy C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A

  17. "You are a number, not a human being": Israeli breast cancer patients' experiences with the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sered, S; Tabory, E

    1999-06-01

    In the course of interviews with Israeli women who had recently been treated for breast cancer, we found that our informants tended to offer us "treatment narratives" rather than, or sometimes in addition to, the "illness narratives" made famous by Arthur Kleinman. For the women we interviewed, treatment narratives constitute verbal platforms on which to explore what it means to be human during a period in which one's body, spirit, and social identity are undergoing intense transformations. A central theme in these narratives is the Hebrew word yachas, loosely translated as "attitude," "attention," or "relationship." The women consistently contrasted the good yachas of medical staff who treated them "like humans" or like "real friends" with the bad yachas of staff who treated them like numbers, machines, or strangers. We argue that the women used language (in various contexts) as a means of resisting the medical culture's pattern of treating patients as "nonhumans."

  18. Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la formación médica Social Sciences and Humanities within undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Macías Llanes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El papel de las Humanidades Médicas en la formación del profesional de la salud ha sido entendido de diversas maneras. Se propone como objetivo ofrecer una valoración del significado de las Humanidades en los procesos formativos de la profesión médica. En primer lugar, se brindará una panorámica de este desarrollo y de sus diversas interpretaciones. En segundo lugar, se reflexionará sobre el encargo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la producción de conocimientos en Salud; en el contexto socio-político, económico y cultural actual latinoamericano. Por último, se analizará la contribución de este campo en los procesos formativos a través de la actividad del Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud a lo largo de una década.The Medical Humanities have been understood in different ways. This paper deals with their importance for undergraduate medical education. Firstly, it analyzes their development and various readings. Secondly, it reflects on the role of the Social Sciences and Humanities in the production of health knowledge, within the political socioeconomic cultural Latin-American context. Finally, it considers their contribution to the educational processes, by way of the Center for the Development of Social Sciences and Humanities.

  19. Insisting on the Healer's Art: The Implications of Required Participation in a Medical School Course on Values and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabow, Michael W; Lapedis, Marissa; Feingold, Anat; Thomas, Mark; Remen, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    Elective courses, by definition, allow medical students to self-select for participation in the class. In a small-group learning setting, students uninterested or not ready for a particular learning topic might change the educational experience ("poison the well") for those students most interested in the topic. It is not known how medical students required to take a course in humanism (that they otherwise would not have elected to take) might be impacted by the course or how their presence might affect students originally interested in the course. Medical students in a required course on humanism and values in medicine will have different experiences based on whether a particular student might have or not have elected to enroll in the course. Students uninterested in taking a course in humanism and values, but required to enroll, will limit the benefit of the course for those students originally interested in participating. In 2012, all 1st-year students at a U.S. medical school were required to take the Healer's Art, an elective on professional values and humanism offered at more than 90 other schools in the United States and internationally. Students completed pre/postcourse surveys assessing emotional exhaustion, work engagement, positive emotions, and cynicism. We analyzed differences between those who would have elected to take the course (Elective students) and those who would not have elected to take it (Required students). Elective students did not differ from Required students in baseline demographic characteristics, emotional exhaustion, work engagement, or positive emotions. At baseline, Elective students did report feeling safer to talk openly, a greater sense of community, and higher levels of cynicism. Over time, there were no differences in course evaluations or outcomes between Elective and Required students. Required students do not differ greatly from those who would have elected to take Healer's Art, and all students appear to have similar

  20. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  1. Malpractice Liability and Defensive Medicine: A National Survey of Neurosurgeons

    OpenAIRE

    Nahed, Brian V.; Babu, Maya A.; Smith, Timothy R.; Heary, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of...

  2. Using Complementary Learning Clusters in Studying Literature to Enhance Students' Medical Humanities Literacy, Critical Thinking, and English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency.

  3. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  4. 32 CFR 324.13 - Access to medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to medical and psychological records. 324.13 Section 324.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Individual Access to Records § 324.13 Access to medical and psychological...

  5. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  6. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  7. Humanism and values in the medical short stories of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A E; Key, J D

    1992-05-01

    In 1894 Arthur Conan Doyle published 15 medical short stories under the title of Round the Red Lamp, a red lamp being the symbol for a physician's office in Victorian England. These 19th-century vignettes do not indulge in scientific descriptions of diseases, their processes, or their treatment. Instead, they are based upon the effects of illness on the lives, sentiments, and emotions of the afflicted, their families, and their physicians. The stories are suffused with romance and humor. Conan Doyle's medical fiction of almost 100 years ago constitutes a superbly written and engaging collection that ranges from the comic to the pathetic. They contain universal themes that are especially appropriate today when humanistic elements are being usurped by rampant technology in both medical education and medical practice. These tales can make a significant contribution in related seminars for both students and practitioners.

  8. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  9. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  10. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  11. Public Health History Corner Edmund Pellegrino: a modern day prophet for medical humanities in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bucci

    2009-01-01

    Abraham Flexner lit the fire that freed American doctors from obsolete aspects of their training. Edmund Pellegrino was the prudent fireman who acknowledged the risk of too broad a fire and put in place safe guards to protect those aspects that needed to be saved. The prodigious leap forward in medicine due to the “laboratory centred” training introduced by Flexner’s proposals for medical training began to have negative effects in daily medical practice, particularly with regards to the incre...

  12. Public Health History Corner Edmund Pellegrino: a modern day prophet for medical humanities in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Bucci, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Abraham Flexner lit the fire that freed American doctors from obsolete aspects of their training. Edmund Pellegrino was the prudent fireman who acknowledged the risk of too broad a fire and put in place safe guards to protect those aspects that needed to be saved. The prodigious leap forward in medicine due to the “laboratory centred” training introduced by Flexner’s proposals for medical training began to have negative effects in daily medical practice, particularly with regards to the incre...

  13. Coronal leakage of four intracanal medications after exposure to human saliva in the presence of a temporary filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verissimo Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the time required for the recontamination of root canals medicated with four different materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 intact, caries-free, human single-rooted teeth with straight roots were selected for this study. After chemo-mechanical preparation they must be changed in the specimens into seven groups: 10 teeth medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH 2 + Camphorated paramonochlorophanol (CPMC (G.1; 10 medicated with 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL (G.2; 10 medicated with 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX in gel (G.3; 10 medicated with 2% CHX in gel + Ca(OH 2 (G.4; 10 without intracanal medicament and sealed with a coronal temporary filling (G.5. Five teeth were without intracanal medicament and coronally unsealed, used as the positive control group (PC (G.6 and 5 teeth with intact crowns used as the negative control group (NC (G.7. Glass vials with rubber stoppers were adjusted for use. The medicaments were prepared and injected into the root canals using sterile plastic syringes. An apparatus was used to evaluate for 30 days leakage. The chamber was filled with 3 ml of human saliva and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth, incubated at 37°C and checked daily for the appearance of turbidity in the BHI broth. Results: Recontamination was detected after an average time of 2.6 days in group 2, 15.9 days in group 3, 30 days in group 1, 27.6 days in group 4, 2.9 days in group 5, 1 day in the positive control, and there was no contamination in the negative control group. Conclusion : The NaOCl group showed the highest worst average of recontamination; on the other hand, high averages were also shown by Ca(OH 2 + CPMC and Ca(OH 2 + 2% CHX in gel.

  14. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail.

  15. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  16. Will they lead by example? Assessment of vaccination rates and attitudes to human papilloma virus in millennial medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Nelia M; Kavanagh, Maurice J; Swanberg, Stephanie M; Schulte, Jeanne M; Wunderlich, Tracy; Lucia, Victoria C

    2017-01-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It is also well established that HPV viruses are responsible for a variety of cancers. Little is known about the prevailing knowledge and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine in our future healthcare providers, a majority of whom were among the first in the target age group to receive the vaccine; the same vaccine that they will in turn be expected to recommend to their patients. The aims of this pilot study were to examine the HPV vaccination rate among medical students and determine their knowledge about HPV and attitudes toward vaccination. To aid in the development of an HPV educational intervention, a needs assessment survey was administered to discover medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine. All medical students at a Midwestern US medical school were invited to complete the survey. Two hundred fourteen of 390 medical students completed the survey with 44% having been previously vaccinated. Although 82% of all respondents believed they would recommend the vaccine to family and friends, only 40% felt knowledgeable about the vaccine and 40% felt comfortable counseling patients. More positive attitudes and better knowledge scores were found in fully vaccinated students compared to non-vaccinated students. Provider recommendation was strongly associated with HPV vaccination status. This study revealed the unique perspectives of U.S. millennial medical students as the first group of future healthcare providers to have personally encountered the HPV vaccine. Overall, students' knowledge as well as their comfort level in counseling patients was lacking. This assessment has guided the development of targeted educational interventions to address knowledge gaps and prepare students to appropriately discuss the vaccine with patients and parents and help protect young people from life threatening cancers.

  17. Use of social media in graduate-level medical humanities education: two pilot studies from Penn State College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Social media strategies in education have gained attention for undergraduate students, but there has been relatively little application with graduate populations in medicine. To use and evaluate the integration of new social media tools into the curricula of two graduate-level medical humanities electives offered to 4th-year students at Penn State College of Medicine. Instructors selected five social media tools--Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, blogging and Skype--to promote student learning. At the conclusion of each course, students provided quantitative and qualitative course evaluation. Students gave high favourability ratings to both courses, and expressed that the integration of social media into coursework augmented learning and collaboration. Others identified challenges including: demands on time, concerns about privacy and lack of facility with technology. Integrating social media tools into class activities appeared to offer manifold benefits over traditional classroom methods, including real-time communication outside of the classroom, connecting with medical experts, collaborative opportunities and enhanced creativity. Social media can augment learning opportunities within humanities curriculum in medical schools, and help students acquire tools and skill-sets for problem solving, networking, and collaboration. Command of technologies will be increasingly important to the practice of medicine in the twenty-first century.

  18. Alfred Russel Wallace's medical libertarianism: state medicine, human progress, and evolutionary purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), naturalist and explorer of South America and the Malay Archipelago, secured his place in history by independently discovering the theory of natural selection. His letter outlining the theory was sent from Ternate in eastern Indonesia and received at Down House, according to Charles Darwin (1809-82), on June 18, 1858, prompting the now-famed evolutionist to rush his languishing manuscript to press. Wallace's contributions to evolutionary biology, biogeography, and anthropology are well known, but his medical views have received far less attention. Within the context of a strident populist antivaccination movement and an ominous elitist eugenics campaign, Wallace took his stand, which revealed itself in a libertarianism that defended traditional socialist constituencies (the working poor, the lumpenproletariat, and feminist reformers) against state-mandated medical interventions. Rather than viewing Wallace as a heterodox contrarian, this article argues that his positions were logical outgrowths of his medical libertarianism and evolutionary and social theories.

  19. Awareness about Human Papilloma Virus and its Vaccine Among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita Mehta; Shalini Rajaram; Geetika Goel; Neerja Goel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common malignancy amongst women in India. Identification of its pre-cancerous lesions and prevention by HPV vaccine may go a long way in decreasing the incidence. Aim: The aim was to study the awareness about the various aspects of the HPV infection and vaccine among medical students. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. Materials and Methods: 150 medical students aged between 1...

  20. Evaluating oversight of human drugs and medical devices: a case study of the FDA and implications for nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jordan; Tisdale, Alison W; Hall, Ralph F; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the oversight of drugs and medical devices by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) using an integration of public policy, law, and bioethics approaches and employing multiple assessment criteria, including economic, social, safety, and technological. Criteria assessment and expert elicitation are combined with existing literature, case law, and regulations in an integrative historical case studies approach. We then use our findings as a tool to explore possibilities for effective oversight and regulatory mechanisms for nanobiotechnology. Section I describes oversight mechanisms for human drugs and medical devices and presents current nanotechnology products. Section II describes the results of expert elicitation research. Section III highlights key criteria and relates them to the literature and larger debate. We conclude with broad lessons for the oversight of nanobiotechnology informed by Sections I-III in order to provide useful analysis from multiple disciplines and perspectives to guide discussions regarding appropriate FDA oversight.

  1. Murder, insanity, and medical expert witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, J R

    1992-06-01

    Recent advances in the ability to study brain anatomy and function and attempts to link these findings with human behavior have captured the attention of the legal system. This had led to the increasing use of the "neurological defense" to support a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. This article explores the history of the insanity defense and explores the role of the medical expert witnesses in integrating clinical and laboratory findings, eg, computed tomographic scans, magnetic resonance scans, and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans. Three cases involving murder and brain dysfunction are discussed: the first case involves a subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting in visual perceptual and memory impairment; the second case, a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; and the third case, the controverted diagnosis of complex partial seizures in a serial killer.

  2. Disability and General Recommendations of UN Human Rights Committees: An asymmetric relationship between invisibility, medical model and human rights model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lidón Heras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the level of inclusion of Disability in the UN Committees General Comments, and if this is done from a human rights perspective. The methodology used focuses on a critical and emancipatory analysis. In particular investigated the different approached used (mainstreaming or specific treatment, discrimination definition, disability model used and it also compares with other excluded groups. The analysis allows to show different level of commitment with disability, the asymmetric treatment, the lacks in understanding disability as a human rights issue. The main finding is the need of a compulsory expansion of the Convention of the rights of persons with disabilities.

  3. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Curran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  4. Responding to the implications of the genetics revolution for the education and training of doctors: a medical humanities approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirklin, Deborah

    2003-02-01

    Rapid advances in the field of genetics continue to present medical educators with significant challenges. Whilst there is undoubtedly a pressing need to educate doctors about genetic disorders, research and therapies, there is a parallel need to provide a context for all of these. An interdisciplinary, arts and humanities based approach, responding to this need, is described. This teaching has been successfully delivered both as optional and core undergraduate teaching, and as part of continuing professional development. THE HUMAN PERSPECTIVE: STORIES NOT HISTORIES: Understanding of the patient's perspective can be significantly improved by drawing on both written and oral stories of illness. THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: LEARNING FROM THE PATIENT: Experiential learning provides insights into the social history of developments in genetics, thereby placing the current concern and debate about the new genetics in context. THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA: THE POWER TO PERSUADE: Critical reading skills can be developed and the power of the popular press to influence the reader acknowledged by analysing and employing the skills of the journalist when reporting developments in biotechnology. LEARNER ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: Assessment, both formative and summative, demonstrates sophisticated insights and perspectives into the lived experience of genetic illness. Learner evaluation of the teaching is high. Medical humanities offers a powerful way to convey an understanding of how genetic disorders impact on the lives of patients and families, and to set this against the background of a history rich in the uses, and abuses, of knowledge of heredity.

  5. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Mirelman, Andrew; Dickson, Kim; Adamu, Tigistu; Cherutich, Peter; Mahler, Hally; Fimbo, Bennett; Mavuso, Thembisile Khumalo; Albertini, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Laura; Bock, Naomi; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Stanton, David

    2011-11-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  6. Awareness about Human Papilloma Virus and its vaccine among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common malignancy amongst women in India. Identification of its pre-cancerous lesions and prevention by HPV vaccine may go a long way in decreasing the incidence. Aim: The aim was to study the awareness about the various aspects of the HPV infection and vaccine among medical students. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. Materials and Methods: 150 medical students aged between 18-25 years were requested to complete a 35 point questionnaire regarding cervical malignancy, HPV infection, HPV vaccine and the answers were then analyzed. Results: None of the students knew the correct incidence of cervical cancer in India and 18% of them did not know that the HPV vaccination prevents cervical cancer and 50% thought that vaccination induces false sense of security. Fifty percent were unaware of HPV infection and its association with other STD′s and cervical cancer. The information regarding the mechanism of action, dosage, schedule and cost of the HPV vaccine was lacking in majority of them. The limitation of this study is that it does not reflect the knowledge or awareness of a layman or full-fledged medical doctor. Conclusions: To conclude gaps in knowledge regarding HPV infection and vaccination existed amongst the medical students and a more integrated teaching regarding HPV carcinogenesis, vaccination and cervical cancer needs to be introduced.

  7. The Use of Autonomous Systems in Emergency Medical Services: Bridging Human Intelligence and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    35 D. REMOTE OPERATION CONTROL ...................................................37 E. TELEMETRY INTEGRATION...40 Figure 11. Medical Telemetry Architecture Example .................................................41 Figure 12...intelligence that may be integrated into AS applications. Naranjo et al., and Panagao et al., describe the processing of dual mode operations and

  8. [Health policies and politicized health? An analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru from the perspective of medical ethics, quality of care, and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals view medical ethics as a discipline that provides the basis for more adequate patient care. In recent years the concepts of quality of care and human rights - with their attending discourses - have joined the concept of medical ethics among the paradigms to consider in care for humans both at the individual and health policy levels. The current study seeks to analyze such paradigms, based on a case study of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru in the last 10 years.

  9. Ethical Guidelines and Practices for US Military Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    JS. Utilitarianism . Hackett Publishing Company; 1979. 143. Thomasma DC, Marshall PA. Clinical medical ethics : cases and reading. New York, NY: New...Defense Health Board Defense Health Board Ethical Guidelines and Practices for U.S. Military Medical Professionals March 3, 2015 [This page...22042-5101 DEFENSE HEALTH BOARD MEMORANDUM FOR ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR HEALTH AFFAIRS SUBJECT: Ethical Guidelines and Practices for

  10. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Comparison of medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin testing and in-office assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Erin L; Chen, Beatrice A; Meyn, Leslie A; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to compare lost to follow-up (LTFU) rates in women having a medical abortion who chose follow-up by in-office ultrasound assessment or serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) testing. This retrospective chart review included 865 women who underwent medical abortion in a free-standing outpatient clinic from September 1, 2007, through September 30, 2010. Patients had a 1-week follow-up evaluation after receiving the medications consisting of in-office ultrasound assessment or serial serum β-hCG testing. Ultrasound assessment was offered throughout the study period, and serum β-hCG testing was offered as of September 1, 2008. Demographic and medical data were reviewed to evaluate LTFU rates based on patient's chosen method of follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors that were independently associated with lack of follow-up. LTFU rates increased from 18% to 27% in the first and third years of the study period, respectively (p=.009). LTFU rates with ultrasound and β-hCG testing were 22.9% and 33.7%, respectively (p=.024). In multivariable analysis, follow-up method was not associated with increased LTFU. Increased parity, any previous induced abortion, increased distance from home to clinic site and unemployment were independently associated with increased LTFU. Although LTFU rates are higher with serum β-hCG testing than in-office ultrasound follow-up in our patient population, the women who choose this method are inherently more likely not to follow-up because of other characteristics that predict a high likelihood of being LTFU. Offering serum β-hCG testing does not decrease the LTFU rate in women having a medical abortion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  13. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  14. The application of additive technologies in creation a medical simulator-trainer of the human head operating field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, L. N.; Kashapov, N. F.; Kashapov, R. N.; Pashaev, B. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the work was to determine the possible application of additive manufacturing technology during the manufacturing process as close as possible to reality of medical simulator-trainers. In work were used some additive manufacturing technologies: selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), binder Jetting. As a result, a prototype of simulator-trainer of the human head operating field, which based on the CT real patient, was manufactured and conducted its tests. It was found that structure, which is obtained with the use of 3D-printers ProJet 160, most appropriate and closest to the real properties of the bone.

  15. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  16. Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce, Defense Personnel Support Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    AD-A274 243 Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center DTIC %!" . FLECTE .: UEC3 0 199 3 -I CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 93 12...220 3 &tiuini nm Best Available Copy Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center NTIS C? ~- j CUSTOMER Avao OrK...Concept of Operations and Projects ........... 6-4 Benefits and Costs of Electronic Commerce in the Medical Directorate

  17. Human cloning and embryo research: the 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    The author, a member of the U.S. President's Council on Bioethics, discusses ethical issues raised by human cloning, whether for purposes of bringing babies to birth or for research purposes. He first argues that every cloned human embryo is a new, distinct, and enduring organism, belonging to the species Homo sapiens, and directing its own development toward maturity. He then distinguishes between two types of capacities belonging to individual organisms belonging to this species, an immediately exerciseable capacity and a basic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is the second type of capacity that is the ground for full moral respect, and that this capacity (and its concomitant degree of respect) belongs to cloned human embryos no less than to adult human beings. He then considers and rejects counter-arguments to his position, including the suggestion that the capacity of embryos is equivalent to the capacity of somatic cells, that full human rights are afforded only to human organisms with functioning brains, that the possibility of twinning diminishes the moral status of embryos, that the fact that people do not typically mourn the loss of early embryos implies that they have a diminished moral status, that the fact that early spontaneous abortions occur frequently diminishes the moral status of embryos, and that his arguments depend upon a concept of ensoulment. He concludes that if the moral status of cloned human embryos is equivalent to that of adults, then public policy should be based upon this assumption.

  18. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  19. [Defining trials of medicinal products according to the revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, E J; Huitema, A D R

    2006-09-23

    The revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO), which implements the European directive regarding 'good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use' (2001/20/EC), became effective on March 1, 2006. The revision places additional requirements on trials of medicinal products. Whether a trial should be regarded as a trial of a medicinal product is therefore an important question. The law does not provide adequate guidance for the classification of trials in which biological samples are collected, e.g. for genomic, proteomic or pharmacokinetic studies, while a medicinal product is given for a registered indication. Classifying these types of trials as trials of medicinal products does not enhance the safety of the participants. Therefore, these studies should not be considered as trials of medicinal products to avoid the increased administrative burden required by the revised WMO.

  20. Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRI-trackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Lu, Zhao; Pouponneau, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Although nanorobots may play critical roles for many applications in the human body such as targeting tumoral lesions for therapeutic purposes, miniaturization of the power source with an effective onboard controllable propulsion and steering system have prevented the implementation of such mobile robots. Here, we show that the flagellated nanomotors combined with the nanometer-sized magnetosomes of a single Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) can be used as an effective integrated propulsion and steering system for devices such as nanorobots designed for targeting locations only accessible through the smallest capillaries in humans while being visible for tracking and monitoring purposes using modern medical imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Through directional and magnetic field intensities, the displacement speeds, directions, and behaviors of swarms of these bacterial actuators can be controlled from an external computer.

  1. Just Another Reproductive Technology? The Ethics of Human Reproductive Cloning as an Experimental Medical Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Elsner

    2006-01-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice...

  2. De Novo Human Cardiac Myocytes for Medical Research: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Veronique; Cheng, Kang; Liao, Shudan; Lu, Aizhu; Zheng, Yong; Chen, Yawen; Xie, Yucai

    2017-01-01

    The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts), from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells), and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes. We also discuss several challenges for the use of such cells in research and regenerative medicine, such as the immature phenotype and heterogeneity of de novo cardiac myocytes obtained with existing protocols. We focus on the recent advancements in addressing such challenges.

  3. St. Edward Mercy Medical Center, Fort Smith, AR. Human resource planning identifies institutional need, available personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, J M

    1981-04-01

    Human resource planning, which allows health care facilities to identify future staffing needs and to project staffing availability, will increase as institutions seek to balance quality, costs, employees' needs.

  4. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Please review the report findings and recommendations. I am interested in receiving your feedback for inclusion in programs wherever these...needed culture shift to utilize their existing authorities. Finally, expanded coordination among intermural basic research portfolios across the Labs...research portfolios across the Labs without creating additional administrative burdens is needed. The defense research enterprise should

  5. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Wireless Information Assurance • Steganography • Air Force Enterprise Defense (AFED) 10 Distributed Agents for Information Warfare Operational...information (images, documents, overlays, audio , links, etc.) •multi-level data release to coalition forces; key-based access •covert communication...maximize throughput of communication channels Data Hiding/Embedding Steganography Watermarking Steganalysis 14 Payoffs • Integrates existing

  6. Robust Preallocated Preferential Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Frye , W.H. and Ullman, L.L., Methodology for Calculating Minuteman Defense Effectiveness, SRD-EGI4, Stanford Research Institute, October 1973. 4. Hogg...Corporation 1500 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22209 ATTN: Dr. Tucker Battle Dr. James Skouras Dr. Iram Weinstein Northrop Corporation 8900 E. Washington

  7. The insanity defense: Related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested. McNaughton's rules stressed on “understandability of right and wrong” and “intellectual” rather than a moral or affective definition dominated in its formulation. Lack of control and irresistible drives or impulses were neglected Going by the current understanding of neurological evidences of compulsion and lack of impulse control, rationality tests without the inclusion of lack of control, seem to be outdated. Separate “Control determination” than the “Rationality determination” by the jurors may improve the accuracy of Juror's categorizations. There is a suggestion that Relevance ratio is ideal for ‘Evidentiary relevance” and there should be a quality control on expert testimonies. With progress in neuroscience, the law may need to abandon or alter some of its current assumptions about the nature of voluntary conduct, which underlies various defenses PMID:28216769

  8. Applying human factors to develop an improved package design for (Rx) medication drug labels in a pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Julie M; Spriggs, Holly; Hampton, Tonja W; Hoy, Rose Mary B; Strochlic, Allison Y; Proulx, Susan; Goetchius, Debra B

    2015-12-01

    As many as 98,000 people die every year from preventable medical errors. Among pharmacists, the most common error reported is the selection of the wrong drug. Merck met with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the optimization of the U.S. label for solid oral dosage forms of Merck medications. These discussions led to the development of revised label designs for six products that were then evaluated using failure modes and effects analysis and an expert review by human factors specialists. There were no errors among 425 filled prescriptions in the validation test of the final label. Key changes to the original labels include the use of a non-branded logo, high-contrast color bands for dosage strength, and an enhanced three-dimensional tablet image. The redesigned labels were approved by the US FDA in June 2011. The redesigned label should improve the accurate selection of medications from pharmacy shelves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. 论医学人文教育在创新型医学人才培养中的作用和实施路径%On the Role of Medical Humanities Education in the Cultivation of Innovative Medical Talents and Its Implementation Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 韩翠霞

    2012-01-01

    医学人文教育在创新型医学人才培养中发挥着重要作用,而当前医学院校医学人文教育现状制约医学创新人才的培养。%Medical humanities education plays an important role in the cultivation of innovative medical talents,but the present situation of medical humanities education in medical colleges restricts the cultivation of medical innovative talents.

  10. Discussion about the Humanities Social Science and the High Level Medical Science Education%浅论人文社会科学与高等医学教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋生; 蒲丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Against the Losing of Medical Humanism Spirit,the paper has analyzed the relation between humanities and high medical education,then has retrospected recent development of the high medical education home and abroad,at last the paper has positioned humanities in the medical school.%针对目前我国医学院校中人文精神的缺失,文章探讨了人文社会科学与高等医学教育的关系,回顾了国内外医学教育中人文社会科学教育的近况,最后提出了人文社会科学在医学院校中的定位。

  11. Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    According to the human factors paradigm for patient safety, health care work systems and innovations such as electronic medical records do not have direct effects on patient safety. Instead, their effects are contingent on how the clinical work system, whether computerized or not, shapes health care providers' performance of cognitive work processes. An application of the human factors paradigm to interview data from two hospitals in the Midwest United States yielded numerous examples of the performance-altering effects of electronic medical records, electronic clinical documentation, and computerized provider order entry. Findings describe both improvements and decrements in the ease and quality of cognitive performance, both for interviewed clinicians and for their colleagues and patients. Changes in cognitive performance appear to have desirable and undesirable implications for patient safety as well as for quality of care and other important outcomes. Cognitive performance can also be traced to interactions between work system elements, including new technology, allowing for the discovery of problems with “fit” to be addressed through design interventions. PMID:21479125

  12. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  13. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L; Correa, Maria T; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L Barth; Fowler, Vance G

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  14. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pinto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls. MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2% households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175. These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  15. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  16. Application of local binary pattern and human visual Fibonacci texture features for classification different medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram; Agaian, Sos

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to (a) test the nuclei based Computer Aided Cancer Detection system using Human Visual based system on the histopathology images and (b) Compare the results of the proposed system with the Local Binary Pattern and modified Fibonacci -p pattern systems. The system performance is evaluated using different parameters such as accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value on 251 prostate histopathology images. The accuracy of 96.69% was observed for cancer detection using the proposed human visual based system compared to 87.42% and 94.70% observed for Local Binary patterns and the modified Fibonacci p patterns.

  17. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  18. Prospective Comparative Study of Human Vas Occlusion with Chinese and Netherlandish Medical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 余智超; 王恭肃; 张震; 叶英; 梅焕猷; 陈振文

    1995-01-01

    To find a new vas occlusive material and verify the efficacy of Zhao's traditional vas occlusion with medical polyurethane (MPU), we used the approved medical silicone rubber (MSR) made in the Netherlands, for a prospective study in comparison with the contraceptive effect of these two materials. We adopted the standardized MPU vas occlusion method to 13 subjects and the unified MSR vas occlusion method to 11 subjects. All subjects received semen analysis and related physical examination before the operation, and semen analysis and complication examination in the 3th, 6th and 12th months after operation. Neither of groups had complication and notable uncomfortable symptoms following operation. The sperm disappearance rate in MPU group was 92.31% (12/13) while in MSR group, only one patient's sperm disappeared 3 moths after operation. During the other postoperative follow up periods all operated patients had spermatozoa although the sperm density decreased obviously and indicated partial vas occlusion. These results indicate that the MPU vas occlusion has a good sterilization effect, but the MSR has not.

  19. IMASIS computer-based medical record project: dealing with the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Baranera, M; Planas, I; Palau, J; Sanz, F

    1995-01-01

    The Institut Municipal d'Assistència Sanitària (IMAS) is a health care organization in Barcelona, comprising two general hospitals, a psychiatric hospital, a surgical clinic, a geriatric center, some primary care clinics, and a research institute. Since 1984, IMAS has been engaged in creating a multicenter integrated hospital information system (IMASIS). Currently, IMASIS offers the possibility to manage administrative data, laboratory results, pathology and cytology reports, radiology reports, and pharmacy inpatient orders; it also shares this information on-line among IMAS centers. IMASIS users may also work with a word processor, a spreadsheet, a database, or a statistical package and have access to MEDLINE. A second phase of IMASIS development began in December 1993 focused on clinical information management. The goal was to move towards an integrated multimedia medical record [1]. As a first step, the implementation experiences of the most advanced hospital information systems around the world were studied. Some of these experiences detected behavioral, cultural, and organizational factors [2] as the main sources of delay, or even failure, in HIS projects. A preliminary analysis to define such factors, assess their potential impact, and introduce adequate measures to deal with them seemed unavoidable before structuring of the project. In our approach to physician attitudes analysis, two survey techniques were applied. First, every hospital service head was contacted to schedule an interview, with either a service representative or a group of staff physicians and residents. The aim was to provide detailed information about project objectives and collect personal opinions, problems encountered in the current HIS, and specific needs of every medical and surgical specialty (including imaging needs). Every service head was asked to distribute a questionnaire among all clinicians, which assessed frequency of use of IMASIS current applications, user's satisfaction

  20. US medical researchers, the Nuremberg Doctors Trial, and the Nuremberg Code. A review of findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, R R; Lederer, S E; Moreno, J D

    1996-11-27

    The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), established to review allegations of abuses of human subjects in federally sponsored radiation research, was charged with identifying appropriate standards to evaluate the ethics of cold war radiation experiments. One central question for ACHRE was to determine what role, if any, the Nuremberg Code played in the norms and practices of US medical researchers. Based on the evidence from ACHRE's Ethics Oral History Project and extensive archival research, we conclude that the Code, at the time it was promulgated, had little effect on mainstream medical researchers engaged in human subjects research. Although some clinical investigators raised questions about the conduct of research involving human beings, the medical profession did not pursue this issue until the 1960s.

  1. NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake Measurement; 3) Nutrition; 4) CCISS; 5) Sleep; 6) Braslet; 7) Integrated Immune; 8) Epstein Barr; 9) Biophosphonates; 10) Integrated cardiovascular; and 11) VO2 max.

  2. Human Factors Tools for Improving Simulation Activities in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagull, F. Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Human factors (HF) is a discipline often drawn upon when there is a need to train people to perform complex, high-stakes tasks and effectively assess their performance. Complex tasks often present unique challenges for training and assessment. HF has developed specialized techniques that have been effective in overcoming several of these…

  3. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  4. Electroconvulsive Therapy Malpractice: Verdict for the Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Theodore; McCall, W Vaughn

    2015-09-01

    Malpractice cases involving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are rare. Even rarer are those malpractice cases alleging ECT-related brain damage. The few cases of ECT malpractice lawsuits are not described in the medical literature in detail. We provide a detailed account of a case of a patient and subsequent alleged ECT-related malpractice. The details of the case were collated using the handwritten notes of one of the authors who was present at the trial and the pretrial documents of discovery that were entered into evidence. The plaintiff alleged complete autobiographical amnesia after ECT, supposedly as a result of ECT-related brain damage. The defense was aided by the presence of extensive neurological examination and brain imaging both before and after ECT. The defense team also offered to the jury the concept of "dissociative amnesia" as an alternative explanation for the plaintiff's memory complaints. The case went to trial and was successfully defended. Electroconvulsive therapy malpractice cases alleging brain damage can be successfully defended, and the successful defense is aided by adequate documentation before, during, and after ECT. Malpractice cases, especially if they are baseless, can occur unpredictably, but they can be defended if the medical documentation is thorough.

  5. The innate defense antimicrobial peptides hBD3 and RNase7 are induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical inflammatory cytokines but not Th17 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Sakinc, Türkan; Rieg, Siegbert

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity. In this study we investigated whether endothelial cells actively contribute to innate defense mechanisms by expression of antimicrobial peptides. We therefore stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines, heat-inactivated bacteria, bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Stimulation with single cytokines induced discrete expression of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) by IFN-γ or IL-1β and of ribonuclease 7 (RNase7) by TNF-α without any effects on LL-37 gene expression. Stronger hBD3 and RNase7 induction was observed after combined stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ and was confirmed by high hBD3 and RNase7 peptide levels in cell culture supernatants. In contrast, Th17 cytokines or stimulation with LTA did not result in AMP production. Moreover, only BCM of an invasive S. aureus bacteremia isolate induced hBD3 in HUVEC. We conclude that endothelial cells actively contribute to prevent dissemination of pathogens at the blood-tissue-barrier by production of AMPs that exhibit microbicidal and immunomodulatory functions. Further investigations should focus on tissue-specific AMP induction in different endothelial cell types, on pathogen-specific induction patterns and potentially involved pattern-recognition receptors of endothelial cells.

  6. The silent defense: Micro-RNA directed defense against HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajit

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs play critical role in regulating gene expression. MicroRNA profile of particular cell type bears the signature of cell type specific gene expression. Given that viral pathogens replicate by evading host defenses, research is now focused on the miRNA-regulated genes that critically regulate HIV-1 propagation in human host cells.

  7. 32 CFR 564.37 - Medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical care. 564.37 Section 564.37 National... REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.37 Medical care. (a) General. The definitions of medical care; policies outlining the manner, conditions, procedures, and eligibility for care; and the sources from...

  8. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  9. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  10. Motivating Human Resources for Health at Govt Medical Colleges: The leaders' Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Nath Bansal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector organisations have limited scope for incentives, performance based pay and promotions. Leaders can influence public service motivation through several mechanisms including engaging employees existing values, infusing jobs with meaning and highlighting and rewarding public service values. Current research was aimed to study the impact of leader behaviour aspects on motivation levels of different types of personnel working at a non-profit making teaching medical college. Results suggested that impact of leaders behaviour must be studied separately for different professional groups. Approach to motivating different category of professionals needs to be different. Not all leader behaviour aspects have similar impact on motivation of different professional groups and organsiations. Government sector organisations having limited scope for external motivation and must look at creating provisions for contingent rewards. Nursing professionals need immediate management focus for better patient care.

  11. From Collective Adaptive Systems to Human Centric Computation and Back: Spatial Model Checking for Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Belmonte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on formal verification for Collective Adaptive Systems (CAS pushed advancements in spatial and spatio-temporal model checking, and as a side result provided novel image analysis methodologies, rooted in logical methods for topological spaces. Medical Imaging (MI is a field where such technologies show potential for ground-breaking innovation. In this position paper, we present a preliminary investigation centred on applications of spatial model checking to MI. The focus is shifted from pure logics to a mixture of logical, statistical and algorithmic approaches, driven by the logical nature intrinsic to the specification of the properties of interest in the field. As a result, novel operators are introduced, that could as well be brought back to the setting of CAS.

  12. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  13. Defensive Minefield Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Minefield Planning by Carlos Vallejo Game Lieutenant, Ecuadorian Navy B. S., Escuela Superior Naval, Ecuador 1980 Submitted in partial fulfillment of...was a superior open-ocean naval force to the North Koreans, defensive minewarfare was able to, at least temporarily, defeat U.S. Navy objectives in...Oswaldo Rosero 1 Unit 8 Coastal Route 1 Monterey, California 93940 77 11. Office of the N’aval Attache 4 Direccion de Educacion 2535 15th. st. N. W

  14. A new medical research model: ethically and responsibly advancing health for humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Patricia N; Ganzert, Robin R

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of genomics, computational analytics, emerging technologies, and personalized medicine, the possibility of a new research model is emerging. Using the clues from thousands of species living on our planet, scientists from many disciplines (medicine, veterinary medicine, wildlife) must collaborate, prioritize, and strategize on how to address causes of health and disease. Such clues should guide disease prevention, as well as the development of innovative, efficacious, and gentler therapies. Geographic and language barriers must be broken down, and scientists--even within a single academic, corporate, or government research site--must be vigilant in seeking the help of nonmedical disciplines of colleagues from whence answers might come. The public will become more interested in and demanding of such a model, desiring that all family members (humans and animals) have an opportunity for a long and healthy life. Above all, such activities will be humanely conducted with outcomes having the greatest chance for success.

  15. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  16. [Baccio Baldini (1517-1589), protomedicus on the medical court between humanism and experimentalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, Silvia; Giuffra, Valentina; Kieffer, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to shed light on some particular aspects of the activity and the scientific thought of Baccio Baldini, Director of the Laurentian Library and Court physician of the Medici family in Florence. The analysis of his work as a humanist and the recovery of some unpublished documents enable to define the figure of Baldini as a paradigmatic example of the court physicians of modern age in Italy, highlighting the complementarity between humanism and experimentalism in the Renaissance medicine.

  17. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  18. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trend within the first few days after medical abortion: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, Katherine D; Bartz, Deborah; Maurer, Rie; Stenquist, Asha; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2017-03-01

    To prospectively describe the decline in serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the first 5 days after complete medical abortion and evaluate the influence of initial hCG and gestational duration. We conducted a prospective, physiologic study of women ≤63 days gestation who underwent medical abortion with 200 mg mifepristone and 800 mcg buccal misoprostol. We stratified enrollment into two gestational cohorts, hCG values on Day 1 (day of mifepristone), Day 3, Day 5 and a routine follow up hCG on Days 7-14. We calculated the percent hCG decline from Day 1 to each repeat measure and evaluated trends based on initial serum hCG level and gestation. We enrolled 66 women; 59 were protocol-adherent and included in our analysis. Mean gestation on Day 1 was 49 days and mean baseline hCG was 72,332 IU. Fifty-seven subjects (97%) had a complete medical abortion without further intervention. The mean serum hCG decline among subjects with complete medical abortion was 70.0±10.6% [range 36.9-98.6%] on Day 3 and 91.4±4.4% [range 68.4-97.7%] on Day 5. The mean serum hCG decline from Day 1 to routine follow-up on Days 7-9 was 97.1±1.7% [range 92.4-99.2%], from Day 1 to Day 10-11 was 98.5±1.4% [range 94.7-99.6%] and from Day 1 to Day 12-14 was 98.7±2.8% [range 86.7-99.9%]. There was no difference in percent hCG decline stratified by initial hCG or gestation. There is a rapid and predictable decline in serum hCG as early as Day 5 after complete medical abortion through 63 days gestation. Rate of hCG decline is not affected by initial hCG or gestational duration. For women who require confirmation of complete abortion sooner than 1 week after mifepristone, due to patient preference, logistical constraints or in the setting of pregnancy of unconfirmed location, a single repeat hCG on Day 5 may be clinically useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  20. 医学人文教育融入人体解剖学教学的思考%Thought on anatomical teaching combining with medical humanities education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟震亚; 田国忠; 李艳君; 扈清云; 赵振富; 杨宇

    2009-01-01

    本文分析了当前人体解剖学教学过程中的"医学人文缺乏症";指出人体解剖学与医学人文学源远流长、互促共荣,人体形态就是解剖学与艺术的高度统一,人体解剖学不仅是医学生的入门课程,也是医学人文精神教育的课堂,人体解剖学教学有机地融入医学人文教育势在必行;并就融入式医学人文教育的内容进行了探讨.%In this paper the poverty of medical humanities in current anatomical teaching was analyzed.There wag a long history for anatomy and medical humanities to promote mutually and develop in common.The configuration of human body is the hish unity of anatomy and art.Anatomy was not only the first academic course but also the basis of medical humanities education for medical students,thus it was imperative to combine the anatomical teaching course with the medical humanities education organically and the contents of the education were also discussed.

  1. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs. Annual Report to Congress 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    challenges. (see Figure 1.) The program depends on support in three priority areas: (1) Stable funding for the Transformational Medical Technolgies ...defense, speed of mass (life and mobility ) and information, fiscal barriers, values, and attitudes. The principles of jointness and developing an...Battlefield anti-intrusion Detection System (BaiS) an/PrS9 (Fue 2QFY06) 13. mobile Detection assessment response System (mDarS) (1QFY07) 14. Joint

  2. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V Nahed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. METHODS: A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. RESULTS: A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%, laboratory tests (67%, referring patients to consultants (66%, or prescribing medications (40%. Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  3. Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Minutes of the Meeting, (15th), Held at San Diego, California, on 5-7 November 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Anthropometry of US Military Personnel 30 Jun 81 Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel 28 Jun 85 HE Guidelines for Mgt Info Sys I SAE...tor_and system effectiveness. Paper presented at NATd~De" fence "Research Group Panel Vl£l~Uorkshop, Shrivenhara, England. Geer, C.W...DUE OT«E [ SPE CIFICATION CHECKS jwj] ANTHROPOMETRY ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS FACILITY, WORKSTATION EVAl DISPIAYTASK ANALYSIS ERROR RATE

  4. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  5. The use of a human patient simulator in the evaluation of and development of a remedial prescription for an anesthesiologist with lapsed medical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Meg A; Abrams, Kenneth J

    2002-01-01

    The New York State Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Continuing Medical Education and Remediation has been charged by the Office of Professional Medical Conduct of the New York State Department of Health to develop a remediation program for individuals ordered into retraining. We describe the development of an anesthesiology-specific evaluation to identify areas of deficiency to both determine a candidate's suitability, as well as to facilitate the creation of an appropriate prescription for retraining. A human patient simulator was used to aid in the gathering of information during the evaluation process. Specifically, the use of simulation allowed the exploration of a candidate's preparation, approach to clinical situations, technical abilities, response to clinical problems, ability to problem solve, and accuracy of medical record keeping. Human patient simulation should be considered a valuable tool in the process of evaluating physicians with lapsed medical skills.

  6. Medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin compared with ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2013-03-01

    To estimate whether follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) results in fewer unplanned visits and interventions than follow-up with ultrasonography. Women were randomized to either in-clinic serum hCG or ultrasound follow-up after medical abortion. The primary outcome, unplanned interventions and visits, was measured as a composite binary outcome including: additional clinic or emergency room visits, repeat dosing of misoprostol, and surgical evacuation of the uterus. Surveys were administered at initial follow-up and again 1 month after abortion to inquire about unscheduled visits, interventions, and patient satisfaction. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of additional interventions and visits. A total of 376 patients was randomized. Most participants were white (56%), single (83%), nulliparous (63%), and had completed high school (96%). Average participant age was 26±6 years and average gestational age was 46±6 days. Within 2 weeks of abortion, there was no significant difference in the rate of unplanned interventions and visits between arms, 8.2% (13/159) in the serum hCG arm compared with 6.6% (10/151) in the ultrasound arm (relative risk 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-2.73, P=.60). By 4 weeks postabortion, 4.4% (6/135) in the ultrasound arm and 1.4% (2/142) in the hCG arm had undergone surgical evacuation (relative risk 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.54, P=.16). The majority in both the serum hCG (88%) and ultrasound (95%) arms was satisfied with their assigned follow-up method. Medical abortion follow-up with serum hCG does not reduce the rate of unplanned interventions and visits compared with ultrasonography. Overall, the number of unplanned interventions is low and both methods of follow-up are acceptable to women.

  7. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J M; Wood, J C; Lopes, N C; Poder, K; Abel, R L; Alatabi, S; Bryant, J S J; Jin, A; Kneip, S; Mecseki, K; Symes, D R; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z

    2015-08-18

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications.

  8. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. M.; Wood, J. C.; Lopes, N. C.; Poder, K.; Abel, R. L.; Alatabi, S.; Bryant, J. S. J.; Jin, A.; Kneip, S.; Mecseki, K.; Symes, D. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications. PMID:26283308

  9. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  10. Homeopatia: prática médica humanística Homeopathy: a humanistic approach to medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na última década, o modelo médico vigente busca resgatar um incremento na relação médico-paciente, com propostas de humanização nas áreas da educação, assistência e política médica. Valorizar características holísticas das práticas não convencionais em saúde sugere a incorporação de aspectos diversos das ciências humanas no entendimento do processo de adoecimento do indivíduo, ressaltando que o interesse do médico por aspectos aparentemente não relacionados ao órgão acometido (história de vida do paciente, personalidade, interesses etc. deve ser acrescentado à consulta médica técnica e não-humanizada. Tendo em vista que a homeopatia utiliza esta ampla abordagem semiológica como prática inerente, empregando a totalidade de sintomas característicos do enfermo para avaliar o desequilíbrio orgânico e escolher o meio de tratamento, a prática clínica homeopática tem muito a contribuir com o humanismo da medicina.During the last decade, the traditional medical model has endeavoured to retrieve an improvement in the patient-physician relationship by means of propositions for humanization in the areas of education, medical care and policies. To enhance holistic characteristics of non-conventional practices in health, the incorporation of several aspects of humanities in understanding the process of the individual's illness, stressing that the physician's interest in aspects apparently not related to the impaired organ (history of the patients life, personality, interests, etc. should be added to the technical and less humanized consultation. Since homeopathy embraces this wide semiological approach as inherent practice, using the totality of characteristic symptoms to evaluate organic unbalance and choose means of treatment, homeopathic clinical practice can signnificantly contribute to humanism in medicine.

  11. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  12. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hoque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River, that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  13. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J.; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R.; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M.; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. PMID:28003435

  14. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in <1.5% of brains, including copy number gains of PRPH that were overrepresented in AD. Clinical, pathological, and genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. © 2017 Keogh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. A role for the antioxidant defense system in preventing the transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Harold D

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five years of experience with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have established that it is relatively difficult to transmit. The chance of medical personnel acquiring this virus by needlestick injury is only 0.3%. Similarly, the odds of an HIV-positive male infecting a female partner during one unprotected sexual encounter is 9 in 10,000. Furthermore, the per-act risk of infection from penal-anal intercourse with an HIV-positive male partner is established at 82 in 10,000. Since those who are not infected by such exposures do not develop antibodies against HIV, there must be an earlier line of defense. The global diffusion pattern of HIV/AIDS is strongly suggestive of a protective role for the trace element selenium. It is hypothesized here that the body's antioxidant defense system, especially the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, acts as an initial defense against viral infection, preceding the formation of antibodies. For this reason, HIV is having its greatest difficulty in infecting those with diets elevated in amino acids and the trace element selenium which, when eaten together, stimulate the body's production of glutathione peroxidase.

  16. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. 326.11 Section 326.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.11 Special procedures...

  17. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  18. Contributions of the S100A9 C-terminal tail to high-affinity Mn(II) chelation by the host-defense protein human calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Gaillard, Aleth; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-27

    Human calprotectin (CP) is an antimicrobial protein that coordinates Mn(II) with high affinity in a Ca(II)-dependent manner at an unusual histidine-rich site (site 2) formed at the S100A8/S100A9 dimer interface. We present a 16-member CP mutant family where mutations in the S100A9 C-terminal tail (residues 96-114) are employed to evaluate the contributions of this region, which houses three histidines and four acidic residues, to Mn(II) coordination at site 2. The results from analytical size-exclusion chromatography, Mn(II) competition titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy establish that the C-terminal tail is essential for high-affinity Mn(II) coordination by CP in solution. The studies indicate that His103 and His105 (HXH motif) of the tail complete the Mn(II) coordination sphere in solution, affording an unprecedented biological His6 site. These solution studies are in agreement with a Mn(II)-CP crystal structure reported recently (Damo, S. M.; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 3841). Remarkably high-affinity Mn(II) binding is retained when either H103 or H105 are mutated to Ala, when the HXH motif is shifted from positions 103-105 to 104-106, and when the human tail is substituted by the C-terminal tail of murine S100A9. Nevertheless, antibacterial activity assays employing human CP mutants reveal that the native disposition of His residues is important for conferring growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Within the S100 family, the S100A8/S100A9 heterooligomer is essential for providing high-affinity Mn(II) binding; the S100A7, S100A9(C3S), S100A12, and S100B homodimers do not exhibit such Mn(II)-binding capacity.

  19. [Unravelling medical leadership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Judith J; van Rensen, Elizabeth L J; Noordegraaf, Mirko; Schneider, Margriet M E

    2015-01-01

    Medical leadership is a popular topic in the Netherlands, and several interest groups now incorporate medical leadership into postgraduate medical education. However, there is no consensus on what this concept entails. By conducting a discourse analysis, a qualitative method which uses language and text to reveal existing viewpoints, this article reveals three perspectives on medical leadership: administrative leadership, leadership within organisations and leadership within each doctor's daily practice. Text analysis shows that the first two perspectives refer to medical leadership mainly in a defensive manner: by demonstrating medical leadership doctors could 'take the lead' once again; patient care only seems to play a small part in the process. These perspectives are not free of consequences, they will determine how the medical profession is constructed. For this reason, it is argued that there should be more emphasis on the third perspective, in which the quality of care for patients is of primary importance.

  20. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P < 0.001, effect size d = -0.32) and 0.3% lower, respectively, with DAVR available compared to previous years. However, there were positive correlations between students' cadaveric anatomy question scores with the number and total time of DAVR viewed (Y2, r = 0.171, 0.090, P = 0.002, n.s., respectively; and Y3, r = 0.257, 0.253, both P < 0.001). Students accessing all DAVR scored 7.2% and 11.8% higher than those accessing none (Y2, P = 0.015, d = 0.48; and Y3, P = 0.005, d = 0.77, respectively). Further development and promotion of DAVR are needed to improve engagement and learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  2. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  3. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  4. 医学伦理学教学的三个人文思维立场%Three Standpoints of Humanity Thought on Medical Ethics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯蕾

    2014-01-01

    Medical science calls humanity idea and multiple care, and medical ethics is the most important front on education of medical humanity. By establishing standpoints of humanity thought in teaching, it is useful to pull humanity paradigm and path into sight of medical students and to realize combination of science and humanity. The view of humanity is able to establish concept on property of value for human;systematic cognition makes criti-cal and whole thought integrate smoothly into distinction of medical moral rules;naturalistic feelings is a kind of vi-sion and spirit which can put aside secularity and utility so that return freedom and truth to medicine.%医学呼唤人文理念和多元关怀,医学伦理学是医学人文教育的重要阵地。在教学中建立人文思维立场,有助于将人文范式和路径拉入进医学生视野,实现科学与人学的契合。人学视角能够确立对人价值属性的概念;系统化认知将思辨、整体、批判的思想方式融入医德规范的分野;博物学情怀则是一种眼光和精神,它可以撇开世俗和功利,还医学一份自由与本真。

  5. Eye-movement study and human performance using telepathology virtual slides: implications for medical education and differences with experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Tillack, Allison A; Richter, Lynne; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Scott, Katherine M; Graham, Anna R; Descour, Michael R; Davis, John R; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2006-12-01

    A core skill in diagnostic pathology is light microscopy. Remarkably little is known about human factors that affect the proficiency of pathologists as light microscopists. The cognitive skills of pathologists have received relatively little attention in comparison with the large literature on human performance studies in radiology. One reason for this lack of formal visual search studies in pathology has been the physical restrictions imposed by the close positioning of a microscope operator's head to the microscope's eyepieces. This blocks access to the operator's eyes and precludes assessment of the microscopist's eye movements. Virtual slide microscopy now removes this barrier and opens the door for studies on human factors and visual search strategies in light microscopy. The aim of this study was to assess eye movements of medical students, pathology residents, and practicing pathologists examining virtual slides on a digital display monitor. Whole histopathology glass slide digital images, so-called virtual slides, of 20 consecutive breast core biopsy cases were used in a retrospective study. These high-quality virtual slides were produced with an array-microscope equipped DMetrix DX-40 ultrarapid virtual slide processor (DMetrix, Tucson, Ariz). Using an eye-tracking device, we demonstrated for the first time that when a virtual slide reader initially looks at a virtual slide his or her eyes are very quickly attracted to regions of interest (ROIs) within the slide and that these ROIs are likely to contain diagnostic information. In a matter of seconds, critical decisions are made on the selection of ROIs for further examination at higher magnification. We recorded: (1) the time virtual slide readers spent fixating on self-selected locations on the video monitor; (2) the characteristics of the ways the eyes jumped between fixation locations; and (3) x and y coordinates for each virtual slide marking the sites the virtual slide readers manually selected for

  6. Pathogen-mediated proteolysis of the cell death regulator RIPK1 and the host defense modulator RIPK2 in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G Madrigal

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is the primary etiologic agent of periodontal disease that is associated with other human chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. The ability of P. gingivalis to invade and persist within human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC has been postulated to contribute to a low to moderate chronic state of inflammation, although how this is specifically achieved has not been well defined. In this study, we demonstrate that P. gingivalis infection of HAEC resulted in the rapid cleavage of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIPK1, a mediator of tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1-induced cell activation or death, and RIPK2, a key mediator of both innate immune signaling and adaptive immunity. The cleavage of RIPK1 or RIPK2 was not observed in cells treated with apoptotic stimuli, or cells stimulated with agonists to TNF-R1, nucleotide oligomerization domain receptor 1(NOD1, NOD2, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 or TLR4. P. gingivalis-induced cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK2 was inhibited in the presence of a lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp inhibitor. RIPK1 and RIPK2 cleavage was not observed in HAEC treated with an isogenic mutant deficient in the lysine-specific gingipain, confirming a role for Kgp in the cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK2. Similar proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP was observed. We also demonstrated direct proteolysis of RIPK2 by P. gingivalis in a cell-free system which was abrogated in the presence of a Kgp-specific protease inhibitor. Our studies thus reveal an important role for pathogen-mediated modification of cellular kinases as a potential strategy for bacterial persistence within target host cells, which is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of pathogen-mediated chronic inflammatory disorders.

  7. Pathogen-mediated proteolysis of the cell death regulator RIPK1 and the host defense modulator RIPK2 in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Andrés G; Barth, Kenneth; Papadopoulos, George; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is the primary etiologic agent of periodontal disease that is associated with other human chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. The ability of P. gingivalis to invade and persist within human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) has been postulated to contribute to a low to moderate chronic state of inflammation, although how this is specifically achieved has not been well defined. In this study, we demonstrate that P. gingivalis infection of HAEC resulted in the rapid cleavage of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIPK1), a mediator of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 (TNF-R1)-induced cell activation or death, and RIPK2, a key mediator of both innate immune signaling and adaptive immunity. The cleavage of RIPK1 or RIPK2 was not observed in cells treated with apoptotic stimuli, or cells stimulated with agonists to TNF-R1, nucleotide oligomerization domain receptor 1(NOD1), NOD2, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4. P. gingivalis-induced cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK2 was inhibited in the presence of a lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) inhibitor. RIPK1 and RIPK2 cleavage was not observed in HAEC treated with an isogenic mutant deficient in the lysine-specific gingipain, confirming a role for Kgp in the cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK2. Similar proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was observed. We also demonstrated direct proteolysis of RIPK2 by P. gingivalis in a cell-free system which was abrogated in the presence of a Kgp-specific protease inhibitor. Our studies thus reveal an important role for pathogen-mediated modification of cellular kinases as a potential strategy for bacterial persistence within target host cells, which is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of pathogen-mediated chronic inflammatory disorders.

  8. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so.

  9. Pharmaceutical aspects of the recombinant human serum albumin dimer: structural characteristics, biological properties, and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2012-09-01

    Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood. It is clinically used in the treatment of severe hypoalbuminemia and as a plasma expander. The use of albumins as a carrier for drugs is currently being developed, and some are now in the preclinical and clinical trial stages. The main technologies for utilizing an albumin as a drug carrier are protein fusion, polymerization and surface modification, and so on. Among these technologies, albumin dimerization has wide clinical applications as a plasma expander as well as a drug carrier. Despite the fact that many reports have appeared on drugs using an albumin dimer as a carrier, our knowledge of the characteristics of the albumin dimer itself is incomplete. In this review, we summarize the structural characteristics of recombinant albumin dimers produced by two methods, namely, chemical linkage with 1,6-bis(maleimido)hexane and genetically linked with an amino acid linker, and the physicochemical characteristics and biological properties of these preparations. Finally, the potential for pharmaceutical applications of albumin dimers in clinical situations is discussed.

  10. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  11. Defensive engagement and perceptual enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Ihssen, Niklas; Heim, Sabine; Vila, Jaime; Guerra, Pedro; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether visual cortical sensitivity to external cues in the context of an acute defensive reaction is heightened or attenuated. A strong cardiac defense (fear) response was elicited by presenting an abrupt, loud acoustic stimulus following a 10-minute period of quiescence. Electrocortical responses to aversive and neutral pictures following defensive stimulus onset were measured using dense-array EEG. Pictures were flickered at 12.5 Hz to evoke steady-state visual evoked potentials ...

  12. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  13. 整合视阈下的医学人文课程改革%Reformation of Medical Humanities Courses in China from an Integrative Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 殷丛丛; 杨丽霞

    2015-01-01

    Medical humanities courses bear the responsibility of shaping the professionalism and the medical moral of the future medical workers .However ,in China the medical humanities courses have the problems such as theory divorcing from practice ,content generalization ,single teaching methods and so on .The reformation of medical humanities courses is imperative .Integration philosophy is a very important guiding ideology of the medical reformation now .From an integrative perspective , medical courses should be integrated with clinical practice ,recognize contents or themes centering on education objective ,improve the conform degree in the humanities .New teaching methods are nee‐ded ,such as PBL ,seminar ,topic debate ,subject research and so on .%医学人文课程承担着塑造未来医学工作者职业精神、医学道德的重任。目前我国医学人文课程存在理论与实践脱节、内容泛化、教学方式单一等问题,改革势在必行。整合理念是当今世界医学教育改革的主要指导思想,整合视阈下,医学人文课程应不断加强与临床实践的整合,围绕教育目标选择相应的内容与主题,提高人文学科间的整合度,引入PBL教学法、小组讨论、主题论辩、课题研究等新兴教学形式。

  14. Implementation of "social and communicative competencies" in medical education. The importance of curriculum, organisational and human resource development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruskil, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With this article we want to support teachers and curriculum planners to be aware of and apply knowledge and recommendations of organisational (OD, curriculums (CD and human resource development (HRD ideas already in the planning phase of a project. Taking these into account can influence the process of change successfully and controlled during the introduction and establishment of curricula in the field of communication and social skills in medical education.Approach and Results: In the context of a multi-stage developmental process, a recommendation on CD for "Communicative and social competencies" was developed. The basis for it was made during two workshops of the GMA-committee "Communicative and social competencies" and supplemented by the available literature and the experience of communication experts. The "Undeloher Recommendation" (see attachment includes a compilation of recommendations and guiding questions, which is geared to the various phases of CD. Additionally, general approaches and recommendations of organisational and human resource development were integrated, which turned out to be particularly relevant in the process of CD. Thus, the "Undeloher recommendation" includes an orientation for each phase of the curriculum development process, the organisation and the staff in order to successfully implement a longitudinal curriculum. In addition to theoretical models the long-term discussion process and the personal experiences of a variety of curriculum planners and teachers have been integrated.Conclusion: The "Undeloher recommendation" can support the implementation processes of curricula in communication and social skills during development and realisation. Its application was reviewed in the context of workshops based on concrete examples. The participating teachers and curriculum planners assessed it to be very helpful. The recommendation goes beyond of what has been described in terms of content models in the CD

  15. Implementation of "social and communicative competencies" in medical education. The importance of curriculum, organisational and human resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruskil, Susanne; Deis, Nicole; Druener, Susanne; Kiessling, Claudia; Philipp, Swetlana; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With this article we want to support teachers and curriculum planners to be aware of and apply knowledge and recommendations of organisational (OD), curriculums (CD) and human resource development (HRD) ideas already in the planning phase of a project. Taking these into account can influence the process of change successfully and controlled during the introduction and establishment of curricula in the field of communication and social skills in medical education. Approach and Results: In the context of a multi-stage developmental process, a recommendation on CD for "Communicative and social competencies" was developed. The basis for it was made during two workshops of the GMA-committee "Communicative and social competencies" and supplemented by the available literature and the experience of communication experts. The "Undeloher Recommendation" (see attachment ) includes a compilation of recommendations and guiding questions, which is geared to the various phases of CD. Additionally, general approaches and recommendations of organisational and human resource development were integrated, which turned out to be particularly relevant in the process of CD. Thus, the "Undeloher recommendation" includes an orientation for each phase of the curriculum development process, the organisation and the staff in order to successfully implement a longitudinal curriculum. In addition to theoretical models the long-term discussion process and the personal experiences of a variety of curriculum planners and teachers have been integrated. Conclusion: The "Undeloher recommendation" can support the implementation processes of curricula in communication and social skills during development and realisation. Its application was reviewed in the context of workshops based on concrete examples. The participating teachers and curriculum planners assessed it to be very helpful. The recommendation goes beyond of what has been described in terms of content models in the CD so fare. In

  16. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section 1901.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.31 Special procedures for medical...

  17. Methodologies for Estimating and Comparing Soviet Defense Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Chnages and New Goods .... ............. 163 Price Indices Deflaters for Defense Products ...... . 166 VII. PRODUCTION-THEORETIC INDICES...Strategic Control and Surveillance Forces 4. Tactical Air Force 5. Mobility Forces 6. Intelligence 7. Centrally Managed Communications 8. Research...Training 13. MSF - Management Headquarters 14. Central Support Forces (CSF) - Base Operating Support 15. CSF - Medical Support 16. CSF - Personnel

  18. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    state public health systems, to expand existing biosurveillance efforts, and to fund research on medical countermeasures against potential bioterror...Detection System (JBSDS) • Joint Portal Shield • Biological Identification System (BIDS) • Dry Filter Units (DFUs) Table 2-3 Biological Defense...Detection System (BIDS) • Joint Portal Shield Network Sensor System • Automated biological remote detection and early warning capabilities

  19. Feuerbach : from criticism of religion to the defense of human dignityFeuerbach: da crítica da religião à defesa da dignidade humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei Espindola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at discussing the current trend of considering Feuerbach a minor author, which would place him as a crossing point between Hegel and Marx. It points out that the German philosopher needs to be read with the intent to comprehend first rather than through a negative and critical perspective. Only then it is possible to identify the humanistic aspects of his thinking and acknowledge that his purpose consists in safeguarding religion in its human essence. O artigo tenta problematizar a tendência (existente ainda hoje de julgar-se Feuerbach um autor menor, que serviria de ponto de passagem entre Hegel e Marx. Salienta que o filósofo alemão precisa ser lido antes com a pretensão compreensiva, e não de forma negativa e crítica. Só assim é possível identificar o caráter humanista de sua reflexão e reconhecer que seu propósito consiste em salvaguardar a religião em sua essencialidade humana.

  20. Building and exploring an integrated human kinase network: global organization and medical entry points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinge, Jacques; César-Razquin, Adrián; Huber, Kilian; Breitwieser, Florian P; Májek, Peter; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2014-07-31

    Biological matter is organized in functional networks of different natures among which kinase-substrate and protein-protein interactions play an important role. Large public data collections allowed us to compile an important corpus of interaction data around human protein kinases. One of the most interesting observations analyzing this network is that coherence in kinase functional activity relies on kinase substrate interactions primarily and not on which protein complexes are formed around them. Further dissecting the two types of interactions at the level of kinase groups (CMGCs, Tyrosine kinases, etc.) we show a prevalence of intra-group interconnectivity, which we can naturally relate to current scenarios of evolution of biological networks. Tracking publication dates we observe high correlation of kinase interaction research focus with general kinase research. We find a similar bias in the targets of kinase inhibitors that feature high redundancy. Finally, intersecting kinase inhibitor specificity with sets of kinases located at specific positions in the kinase network, we propose alternative options for future therapeutic strategies using these compounds. Despite its importance for cellular regulation and the fact that protein kinases feature prominent targets of modern therapeutic approaches, the structure and logic of the global, integrated protein phosphorylation network have not been investigated intensively. To focus on the regulatory skeleton of the phosphorylation network, we contemplated a network consisting of kinases, their substrates, and publicly available physical protein interactions. Analysis of this network at multiple levels allowed establishing a series of interesting properties such as prevalence of kinase substrate interactions as opposed to general protein-protein interactions for establishing a holistic control over kinases activities. Kinases controlling many or a few only other kinases, in addition to non-kinases, were distributed in

  1. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    H 4 , 2 0 1 5 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight Report No. DODIG-2015...04 MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval...of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability , integrity, and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and

  2. CD103+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Are Critical for TLR7/9-Dependent Host Defense against Histoplasma capsulatum, an Endemic Fungal Pathogen of Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Van Prooyen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells shape the host response to microbial pathogens. Here we elucidate critical differences in the molecular response of macrophages vs. dendritic cells (DCs to Histoplasma capsulatum, an intracellular fungal pathogen of humans. It has long been known that macrophages are permissive for Histoplasma growth and succumb to infection, whereas DCs restrict fungal growth and survive infection. We used murine macrophages and DCs to identify host pathways that influence fungal proliferation and host-cell viability. Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that DCs produced a strong Type I interferon (IFN-I response to infection with Histoplasma yeasts. Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 (TLR7/9, which recognize nucleic acids, were required for IFN-I production and restriction of fungal growth in DCs, but mutation of TLR7/9 had no effect on the outcome of macrophage infection. Moreover, TLR7/9 were essential for the ability of infected DCs to elicit production of the critical cytokine IFNγ from primed CD4+ T cells in vitro, indicating the role of this pathway in T cell activation. In a mouse model of infection, TLR7/9 were required for optimal production of IFN-I and IFNγ, host survival, and restriction of cerebral fungal burden. These data demonstrate the critical role of this pathway in eliciting an appropriate adaptive immune response in the host. Finally, although other fungal pathogens have been shown to elicit IFN-I in mouse models, the specific host cell responsible for producing IFN-I has not been elucidated. We found that CD103+ conventional DCs were the major producer of IFN-I in the lungs of wild-type mice infected with Histoplasma. Mice deficient in this DC subtype displayed reduced IFN-I production in vivo. These data reveal a previously unknown role for CD103+ conventional DCs and uncover the pivotal function of these cells in modulating the host immune response to endemic fungi.

  3. 32 CFR 732.22 - Recovery of medical care payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of medical care payments. 732.22... NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.22 Recovery of medical... possible under workers compensation, no-fault insurance, or under medical payments insurance...

  4. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    most senior level—the only one that matters in Russian decisionmaking cul - ture—is also of significance today and will also be re- ferred to later in... org /missile-defense/us-ballistic-missile-defense/p30607. 9. Email exchange with author, July 2013. 10. “Safeguard,” Washington, DC: Federation of Ameri

  5. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  6. 医学人文教育的缺失与回归%The absence of humanities and its return in medical education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新庆

    2012-01-01

    Humanistic knowledge and humanistic spirit are embodied in biomedical research and clinical practice. However , most medical school curricula in China consist of few courses on medical humanities and social science. The medical humanistic research and teaching need to be improved. Many medical students are lack of critical thinking. The author suggests that medical schools should create a humanistic climate with qualified teachers for dissemination of a broad range of humanistic knowledge by using a problem-based teaching style. Medical students arm the instilled humanistic knowledge into both humanistic and scientific spirit and strengthen the ideal of medical profession.%医学研究和医疗实践渗透着大量的人文知识和人文精神.不过,长期以来我国医学人文研究力量有待加强,教学内容及方法需要更新,医学生人文素养有待提高.作者建议:加强师资队伍建设,借助“以问题为导向”的教学方法,培养医学生的批判思维能力,弘扬科学精神,重塑医学职业理想.

  7. Effects of Gain/Loss Framing in Cyber Defense Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Nathan; Paul, Celeste; Gersh, John; Greenberg, Ariel; Piatko, Christine; Sperling, Scott; Spitaletta, Jason; Arendt, Dustin L.; Burtner, Edwin R.

    2016-10-24

    Cyber defense requires decision making under uncertainty. Yet this critical area has not been a strong focus of research in judgment and decision-making. Future defense systems, which will rely on software-defined networks and may employ ‘moving target’ defenses, will increasingly automate lower level detection and analysis, but will still require humans in the loop for higher level judgment. We studied the decision making process and outcomes of 17 experienced network defense professionals who worked through a set of realistic network defense scenarios. We manipulated gain versus loss framing in a cyber defense scenario, and found significant effects in one of two focal problems. Defenders that began with a network already in quarantine (gain framing) used a quarantine system more than those that did not (loss framing). We also found some difference in perceived workload and efficacy. Alternate explanations of these findings and implications for network defense are discussed.

  8. Today´s medical self and the other: Challenges and evolving solutions for enhanced humanization and quality of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Vargas, Silvia; Ruddick, William; Castro-Santana, Anaclara; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent scientific developments, along with growing awareness of cultural and social diversity, have led to a continuously growing range of available treatment options; however, such developments occasionally lead to an undesirable imbalance between science, technology and humanism in clinical practice. This study explores the understanding and practice of values and value clusters in real-life clinical settings, as well as their role in the humanization of medicine and its institutions. The research focuses on the values of clinical practice as a means of finding ways to enhance the pairing of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) with Values-based Medicine (VBM) in daily practice. Methods and findings The views and representations of clinical practice in 15 pre-CME and 15 post-CME interviews were obtained from a random sampling of active healthcare professionals. These views were then identified and qualitatively analyzed using a three-step hermeneutical approach. A clinical values space was identified in which ethical and epistemic values emerge, grow and develop within the biomedical, ethical, and socio-economic dimensions of everyday health care. Three main values—as well as the dynamic clusters and networks that they tend to form—were recognized: healthcare personnel-patient relationships, empathy, and respect. An examination of the interviews suggested that an adequate conceptualization of values leads to the formation of a wider axiological system. The role of clinician-as-consociate emerged as an ideal for achieving medical excellence. Conclusions By showing the intricate clusters and networks into which values are interwoven, our analysis suggests methods for fine-tuning educational interventions so they can lead to demonstrable changes in attitudes and practices. PMID:28759585

  9. Coronal leakage of provisional restorative materials used in endodontics with and without intracanal medication after exposure to human saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Udayakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the coronal leakage of various provisional restorations with and without intracanal medication over time after being exposed to human saliva. Materials and Methods: This study investigated Coltosol F, Cavit, Ketac Molar, and IRM as provisional restorative material. Calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine were used as an intracanal medicament. Ninety-eight single rooted teeth were randomly selected and then mounted in an apparatus that isolated the crown portion of the tooth. Provisional restorative materials were placed in the access cavity following manufacturer guidelines after placement of intracanal medicament. Human saliva and brain heart infusion broth in 3:1 ratio were applied to the samples, incubated at 37°C, and results were tabulated over the course of 4 weeks by the appearance of turbidity in the lower part of the apparatus. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using proportional Z-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Coltosol F and Cavit could significantly prevent the bacterial leakage up to a period of 7 days with a P value of 0.01 and 0.005, respectively. Bacterial recontamination was relatively less in the samples treated with intracanal medicaments up to 14 days. After 14 days, however, all materials leaked in over half of the samples. Conclusion: No provisional restorative material can be considered superior in providing a reliable seal after 14 days. Inter-appointments schedule should not extend beyond 2 weeks and after endodontic therapy final restoration should be completed within 1 week.

  10. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  11. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  12. Oxygen in human health from life to death – An approach to teaching redox biology and signaling to graduate and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Briehl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of oxygen human life is measured in minutes. In the presence of oxygen, normal metabolism generates reactive species (ROS that have the potential to cause cell injury contributing to human aging and disease. Between these extremes, organisms have developed means for sensing oxygen and ROS and regulating their cellular processes in response. Redox signaling contributes to the control of cell proliferation and death. Aberrant redox signaling underlies many human diseases. The attributes acquired by altered redox homeostasis in cancer cells illustrate this particularly well. This teaching review and the accompanying illustrations provide an introduction to redox biology and signaling aimed at instructors of graduate and medical students.

  13. Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adam M; Cooper, Andrew; Abdelall, Maura; Smillie, Luke D; Corr, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) maintains that trait individual differences in the operation of defensive systems relate to facets of human personality, most notably anxiety and fear. We investigated this theory in 2 separate studies (total N=270) using a threat scenario research strategy (Blanchard, Hynd, Minke, Minemoto, & Blanchard, 2001). Consistent with rRST, results showed that individuals with high fear questionnaire scores tended to select defensive responses entailing orientation away from threat (e.g., run away) and that fear-prone individuals also tended to perceive threats as magnified. The extent of this threat magnification mediated the positive association observed between fear and orientation away from threat. Overall, results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions.

  14. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Proprietary Names (PDF - 146KB) Draft Guidance for Industry: Best Practices in Developing Proprietary Names for Drugs (PDF - 279KB) ... or (301) 796-3400 druginfo@fda.hhs.gov Human Drug ... in Medication Errors Resources for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: ...

  15. Procurement of Human Tissues for Research Banking in the Surgical Pathology Laboratory: Prioritization Practices at Washington University Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernock, Rebecca D.; Leach, Tracey A.; Kahn, Ajaz A.; Yip, James H.; Rossi, Joan; Pfeifer, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Academic hospitals and medical schools with research tissue repositories often derive many of their internal human specimen acquisitions from their site's surgical pathology service. Typically, such acquisitions come from appropriately consented tissue discards sampled from surgical resections. Because the practice of surgical pathology has patient care as its primary mission, competing needs for tissue inevitably arise, with the requirement to preserve adequate tissue for clinical diagnosis being paramount. A set of best-practice gross pathology guidelines are summarized here, focused on the decision for tissue banking at the time specimens are macroscopically evaluated. These reflect our collective experience at Washington University School of Medicine, and are written from the point of view of our site biorepository. The involvement of trained pathology personnel in such procurements is very important. These guidelines reflect both good surgical pathology practice (including the pathologic features characteristic of various anatomic sites) and the typical objectives of research biorepositories. The guidelines should be helpful to tissue bank directors, and others charged with the procurement of tissues for general research purposes. We believe that appreciation of these principles will facilitate the partnership between surgical pathologists and biorepository directors, and promote both good patient care and strategic, value-added banking procurements. PMID:23386925

  16. The validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human services survey for emergency medical technicians in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. P. Naudé

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to validate the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS for emergency medical technicians in the Gauteng Province of South Africa and to determine its construct equivalence and bias for different race groups. A cross-sectional survey design with an accidental sample (N = 318 was used. The MBIHSS and a biographical questionnaire were administered. Evidence of uniform bias was found for one item of the MBIHSS. Exploratory factor analyses resulted in a 3-factor model of burnout, consisting of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation and Personal Accomplishment. The scales showed acceptable internal consistencies. Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations confirmed construct equivalence of scales for the White and Black groups. Opsomming Die doelstellings van hierdie studie was om die Maslach Uitbrandingsvraelys – Menslike Dienste-Opname (MBI-HSS te valideer vir die Nood Mediese Tegnici in die Gauteng Provinsie van Suid-Afrika en om die konstrukekwivalensie en sydigheid daarvan vir die verskillende rassegroepe te bepaal. ’n Dwarssnee opname-ontwerp met ’n beskikbaarheidsteekproef (N = 318 is gebruik. Die MBI-HSS en ’n biografiese vraelys is afgeneem. Uniforme sydigheid is gevind vir een item van die MBI-HSS. Verkennende faktorontleding met teikenrotasies het geresulteer in ’n 3-faktormodel van uitbranding bestaande uit Emosionele Uitputting, Depersonalisasie en Persoonlike Bereiking. Die skale het aanvaarbare interne konsekwentheid getoon. Verkennende faktorontleding met teikenrotasies het die konstrukekwivalensie vir die drie faktore bevestig vir die Wit en Swart groepe.

  17. [The concept of the organ, as a hierarchal unit of human body, and its place in teaching histology at the medical university and medical college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miadelets, O D; Miadelets, N Ia; Miadelets, V O

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the methodological aspects of teaching histology at the medical university and medical college. The authors raise the issue of the necessity of teaching of the topic "Introduction to Special Histology" and the inclusion of the appropriate chapter into the textbooks. This is important for the students, as the formation of the general concepts of organ structure and function, components, and classification will aid in the further study of specific organs during the course of Special Histology. The authors describe their own experience in teaching of the section, dedicated to the general regularities of organ structure, present some definitions and classifications that are used by them for a number of years.

  18. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  19. Discussion on Human Resource Management of Medical Group%集团型医疗机构人力资源管理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平平

    2016-01-01

    在现行医疗制度改革形势下,为使医疗资源被最大化利用,各医疗机构进行集团化的整合已成为新型的组织模式,随之医疗集团的人力资源管理也必须进行相应的改革创新。本文以台州恩泽医疗中心(集团)为例,介绍了医疗集团人力资源统一管理的实践探索,并由此带来的作用以及存在的一些难点问题。%Under the environment of current medical system reform, in order to maximize the use of medical resources, group integration of medical institutions has become a new organization model. Therefore, human resource management of the medical group should also have corresponding reform and innovation. This paper takes Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) as an example and introduces the exploration and practice of unified human resources management, the effect of management and some existing difficult problems.

  20. Review of "Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design", edited by Matthew B. Weinger, Michael E. Wiklund and Daryle J. Gardner-Bonneau, Assistant Editor Loir M. Kelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaev Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human factors is the study of the relationship between people and devices or systems. The goal of considering human factors in the design of medical devices is to create devices that take into consideration the way people use technology and process information to create a man-machine interface that leads to the best possible performance. This text describes the significant aspects of human factors issues related to medical device design. It is well written and is useful for medical device designers and for others who use or evaluate medical equipment.

  1. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  2. 加强继续医学教育实现专科医师医学人文素质的优化%Strengthen Continuing Medical Education and Realize the Optimization of Medical Humanities Quality among Diplomates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊美凤; 林新宏; 谭剑; 郭煜

    2011-01-01

    "Humanistic medicine" is the development trend of modem medicine. The improvement of humanistic quality is an important measure of forming and developing humanistic medicine. Diplomates as a group of young and vigorous medical talents, will grow into the backbone of the medical professionals. As diplomates team continues to expand, how to effectively train and optimize their medical humanities quality and develop a favorable environment of health care has become the current research focus. A continuing medical education based, gradual realization of the optimization of diplomates'medical humanities quality is not only the demand of the all - round development of diplomates, but also the key to the future development of hospitals.%"人文医学"是现代医学发展的趋势,重视医师人文素质的提高是形成人文医学的重要举措.在医疗队伍中,专科医师作为年轻、富有朝气的医学人才群体,必将成长为医疗行业的中坚力量.随着专科医师队伍的不断扩大,有效地培养、优化这个群体的医学人文素质,形成良好的医疗环境,是研究者日益关注的问题.以继续医学教育为基础,逐步实现专科医师医学人文素质的优化不仅是实现专科医师全面发展的需要,同时也是医院未来快速发展的关键举措之一.

  3. Human anatomy teaching to the minority medical students in higher medical vocational education%高职高专少数民族医学生人体解剖学教学方法的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞; 朱平; 张卫光

    2007-01-01

    人体解剖学是高职高专医学教育中的一门重要基础课程,人体解剖学教学方法的研究对于提高该学科的教学质量具有重要意义.本文针对少数民族地区医学生的特点,在几年的高职高专人体解剖学教学中总结出几种行之有效的教学方法,提出在高职高专少数民族医学生人体邋解剖学教学过程中,要注重少数民族医学生学习兴趣及主观能动性的培养,因材施教,采用启发讨论式教学,注重实验,增加实践机会,以期提高少数民族医学生人体解剖学教学质量,增强人体解剖学教学效果.%Human anatomy is an important elementary course in higher medical vocational education.To study its teaching method is a necessity to increase its quality.According to the character of minority medical students,we summarized several effective teaching methods,including paying attention to cultivate the studying interest and positive motivation of minority medical students in the process of anatomy teaching,teaching students in accordance with their aptitude,using heuristic and discussion method,emphasizing experiment to have more opportunity for students'practice et al.In a word,our goal is to improve the teaching quality and effect of minority medical students in human anatomy teaching in higher medical vocational education.

  4. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  5. Medical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, J.A. (Plymouth College (UK))

    1989-01-01

    A book on 'Medical Physics' is written in three parts. Part I discusses the physics of the human body including the expenditure of energy, human mechanics and the human response to light and sound. Part II describes the monitoring of various physiological parameters, such as temperatures and pressure using specialized transducers and systems employing radiotelemetric, ultrasonic and fibre-optic techniques. Part III on ionizing radiations discusses the production, properties and detection of the different radiations and the elements of dosimetry. The different types of radiation detectors are also described. Finally the diagnostic applications of radioactive tracer studies are discussed. The material selected for inclusion in this book reflects the requirements of the Joint Matriculation Board's A-level option on Medical Physics and at the end of each of the 15 chapters, there are questions on the content. Part III of the book has been selected and indexed separately. (UK).

  6. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Account for the Defense Personnel Support Center, the Defense Clothing Factory, and the Naval Aviation Depot Pensacola

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-25

    outplacement center. Additionally, adjusting accounting entries must be reviewed for accuracy once Defense Contract Management District North Central is...that the Office of Executive Director, Human Resources, issue guidance for outplacement services to future BRAC activities scheduled for closure...Management concurred and stated that the DLA Civilian Personnel Support Office is developing an agency outplacement guide. 15 Appendix C. Background of

  7. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-09-02

    To facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and to make connections between patients' diseases and their social/cultural contexts, the study examined whether the use of heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing. A 15-week quasi-experimental design was conducted to investigate the learning outcomes. After conducting cluster algorithms, heterogeneous learning clusters (experimental group; n = 43) and non-heterogeneous learning clusters (control group; n = 43) were derived for a medical humanities literature study. Before and after the intervention, an Empathy Scale in Patient Care (ES-PC), a critical thinking disposition assessment (CTDA-R), and a reflective writing test were administered to both groups. The findings showed that on the empathy scale, significant differences in the "behavioral empathy," "affective empathy," and overall sections existed between the post-test mean scores of the experimental group and those of the control group, but such differences did not exist in "intelligent empathy." Regarding critical thinking, there were significant differences in "systematicity and analyticity," "skepticism and well-informed," "maturity and skepticism," and overall sections. As for reflective writing, significant differences existed in "ideas," "voice and point of view," "critical thinking and representation," "depth of reflection on personal growth," and overall sections, but not in "focus and context structure" and "language and conventions." This study outlined an alternative for using heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing about medical humanities literature to facilitate interdisciplinary cooperation to provide more humanizing medical care.

  8. Tsunami Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Tsunamis mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can propagate a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive tsunamis during last several decades. The Tsunami killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected tsunami events. These tsunamis were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected tsunami strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of tsunami defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A tsunami hazard map is also made by employing both propagation and inundation models. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a tsunami hazard map. Keywords: tsunami, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan

  9. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and for Evaluating Functional Limitations in Immune System Disorders. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). We also are revising the introductory text of the listings that we use to evaluate functional limitations resulting from immune system disorders. The revisions reflect our program experience, advances in medical knowledge, our adjudicative experience, recommendations from a commissioned report, and comments from medical experts and the public.

  10. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  11. Defense Strategies Against Modern Botnets

    CERN Document Server

    Stankovic, Srdjan

    2009-01-01

    Botnets are networks of compromised computers with malicious code which are remotely controlled and which are used for starting distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, sending enormous number of e-mails (SPAM) and other sorts of attacks. Defense against modern Botnets is a real challenge. This paper offers several strategies for defense against Botnets with a list and description of measures and activities which should be carried out in order to establish successful defense. The paper also offers parallel preview of the strategies with their advantages and disadvantages considered in accordance with various criteria.

  12. Medical Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.

  13. Quadrennial Defense Review and Ballistic Missile Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    global defense posture 3 BMDR Highlights • Outlines a strategy and policy framework to – Defend the homeland against limited ballistic missile attack...abroad – Collaborate closely with allies and partners – Pursue a cooperative and tailored global defense posture – Strengthen US civilian capacity...reviews in 2010 – QDR and BMDR released February 1, 2010 – Nuclear Posture Review to be released this spring – Space Posture Review, with Director of

  14. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  15. Can poetry make better doctors? Teaching the humanities and arts to medical students and residents at the University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Rucker, Lloyd

    2003-10-01

    The Program in Medical Humanities & Arts at the University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine has been in existence for five years. The program was implemented to enhance aspects of professionalism including empathy, altruism, compassion, and caring toward patients, as well as to hone clinical communication and observational skills. It contains elective or required curriculum across all four years of medical school and required curriculum in two residency programs, organized according to structural principles of horizontal coherence, vertical complexity, and patient care applications. The program emphasizes small-group, interdisciplinary teaching and faculty development, and is notable for learners' use of creative projects to reflect on patients and themselves. Evaluation of the program indicates a positive response among learners. More systematic studies point to increases in empathy and positive attitudes toward the humanities as tools for professional development as a result of exposure to the program curriculum. Future directions include closer collaboration with the University of California, Irvine, Schools of the Arts and Humanities, involvement of local artists and writers, and development of a graduation with distinction in humanities for medical students.

  16. "Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Piccoli Giorgina

    2013-03-15

    Jean Hamburger (1909-1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz.Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a "golden" book, "Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service" ("Advice to the Medical Students in my Service"), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice.

  17. “Advice to the medical students in my service”: the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Jean Hamburger (1909–1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz. Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a “golden” book, “Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service” (“Advice to the Medical Students in my Service”), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice. PMID:23497662

  18. Research about Medical Experiments Investigation Ethics on Human beings in China%我国医学人体试验伦理审查问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建莹; 何强

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese medicine these years, a growing number of research projects involving human subjects. Human trial is an irreplaceable means and the double impacts it brings also attracted attention of the whole society. Ethical review of human subjects in medical research for the development of the whole has a vital role. At present, China has been on a preliminary human trials of medical ethics review of the concept, but understanding of the nature and functions of the ethics review is not enough, and regulatory aspects of the formation of the ethics committee is also prob-lematic. Our country does not have a special law to regulate human trials of medical ethics review, and the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect. Here’s some main problems we still need to work on, how to improve our medical experi-ments investigation on human beings, human subjects under protected, guaranteeing medical experiments way to right.%随着我国近年来医学事业的迅猛发展,人体试验的科研项目越来越多。人体试验是我国医学科研发展中不可替代的必要手段之一,它带给人类的双重影响也引起了全社会的高度重视。对我国医学人体试验进行伦理审查至关重要,它不仅保护受试者的合法权益,对我国医学科研的健康发展也起到了积极作用。尽管我国对医学人体试验伦理审查已有了初步的概念,但是对伦理审查的职能、性质不够规范;伦理委员会组建和监管方面存在问题;医学人体试验伦理审查的相关法律并不完善等。如何改善我国医学人体试验伦理审查,保护受试者合法权益不受侵犯,保障医学科研健康发展都是本文将要探讨研究的主要问题。

  19. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  20. Defense Spending and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-07

    the first resolution. Our forecast projects continued growth in the economy and moderate inflation for one or possibly two years, despite federal...than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense would, of course, promote defense-intensive sectors of the economy at the expense of...others, but CBO believes the economy could accommodate such shifts without significant adverse effects on macroeconomic variables such as employment

  1. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  2. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative researc

  3. Reflection on Bioethics from the Perspective of Medical Humanism%医学人道主义视阈下生命伦理学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振良; 李肖峰; 席建军

    2014-01-01

    The origin and development of bioethics marked the transform of medical humanism from tradition to modern . The modern bioethics was born of the development of modern medical science and technology .It constitutes from four dimensions :ethical foundations ,principles ,puzzles and technology .The purpose of bioethics starts from particular ethical basis to structure ethical principle and response the technology via the puzzle .The medical ethics committee is the main practical form of bioethics .As the modern form of medical humanism ,bioethics from the view of technological angle mainly pays attention to abnormal state of medicine ,minorities and relatively ignores the virtue ,that made it unable to replace the traditional medical humanism .%以生命伦理学的产生与发展为标志,医学人道主义思想完成了由传统到现代的转变。当代生命伦理学是现代医学科技发展的产物,其体系由伦理基础、原则、问题和技术四个维度构成,主旨是从一定的伦理基础出发构建伦理原则,通过对问题的探讨做出对技术的回应。医学伦理委员会的构建是生命伦理学主要的实践形式。作为医学人道主义的现代形式,生命伦理学由于从技术出发重点关注非常态的医学、关注少数人群和对美德的相对忽略,使其不能完成代替传统医学人道主义的任务。

  4. Integrating and Choosing Research Approaches of Medical Social Science and Medical Humanities%医学社会科学及人文学科研究方法的整合与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽永

    2012-01-01

    Applications of research approaches of medical social science and medical humanities are different for the difference in their research objects and participation extent. It is necessary for the two subjects to study the whole social phenomenon, social facts and its law, but also study the human who comprise society and organization and their subjective intention and actual experience. So the empirical and non-empirical approaches have to be integrated. "Science" and "humanity" must be viewed correctly through the integration.%医学社会科学及人文学科研究对象和参与程度的差异带来研究方法适用的差异.两类学科既要研究整体的社会现象、社会事实及其规律,又要研究组成社会和组织的人及其主观意向和真实体验,所以必须整合实证与非实证方法.整合中必须正确看待学科的“科学性”与“人文性”.

  5. 妇产科临床实践中的人文精神%Humanities in Medical Practice of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代鸣; 邹志梅; 杨耀防

    2012-01-01

    Obstetrics and gynecology is a high —risk specialty, humanities and medical techniques are equally important in the medical practice of obstelrics and gynecology. In this article, it are recounted from the patient assessment and communication, physician—patient relationship of mutual trust, doctor's career aspirations, medical workers on stress management, to improve the medical environment, and several other aspects that obstetrics and gynecology clinical practice humanities spirit is important.%妇产科是医疗行业中的南风险专科,在妇产科医疗工作中,人文精神与医疗技术手段同样重要.本文从对患者的评估与交流;相互信任的医患关系;医生的职业理想;医务工作者的压力管理;改善就医环境等几个方面阐述妇产科临床实践中人文精神的重要.

  6. A Case of Bordetella brochiseptica at a Military Medical Facility in Hawai‘i: Phenotypic and Molecular Testing of an Uncommon Human Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Willie A; Kajiura, Lauren; Hawley-Molloy, Joshua S; Staege, Catherine M; Barnhill, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) is rarely implicated in human disease. Human infections typically occur in the context of immunosuppression and while human infection has been sporadically reported in the literature, the majority of these reports are largely descriptive and do not explore the molecular and phenotypic properties of the isolates in question. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a B. bronchiseptica isolate derived from an HIV positive patient at Tripler Army Medical Center on O‘ahu. This case represents the first published report of human infection of B. bronchiseptica in the state of Hawai‘i and the most detailed description of the biochemical and molecular features of a Hawaiian isolate to date. PMID:26225268

  7. A Case of Bordetella brochiseptica at a Military Medical Facility in Hawai'i: Phenotypic and Molecular Testing of an Uncommon Human Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael A; Agee, Willie A; Kajiura, Lauren; Hawley-Molloy, Joshua S; Staege, Catherine M; Barnhill, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) is rarely implicated in human disease. Human infections typically occur in the context of immunosuppression and while human infection has been sporadically reported in the literature, the majority of these reports are largely descriptive and do not explore the molecular and phenotypic properties of the isolates in question. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a B. bronchiseptica isolate derived from an HIV positive patient at Tripler Army Medical Center on O'ahu. This case represents the first published report of human infection of B. bronchiseptica in the state of Hawai'i and the most detailed description of the biochemical and molecular features of a Hawaiian isolate to date.

  8. Measurement and Geometric Modelling of Human Spine Posture for Medical Rehabilitation Purposes Using a Wearable Monitoring System Based on Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Gheorghe-Daniel; Butnariu, Silviu; Mogan, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model that can be used to virtually reconstruct the posture of the human spine. By using orientation angles from a wearable monitoring system based on inertial sensors, the model calculates and represents the curvature of the spine. Several hypotheses are taken into consideration to increase the model precision. An estimation of the postures that can be calculated is also presented. A non-invasive solution to identify the human back shape can help reducing the time needed for medical rehabilitation sessions. Moreover, it prevents future problems caused by poor posture. PMID:28025480

  9. Measurement and Geometric Modelling of Human Spine Posture for Medical Rehabilitation Purposes Using a Wearable Monitoring System Based on Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Daniel Voinea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model that can be used to virtually reconstruct the posture of the human spine. By using orientation angles from a wearable monitoring system based on inertial sensors, the model calculates and represents the curvature of the spine. Several hypotheses are taken into consideration to increase the model precision. An estimation of the postures that can be calculated is also presented. A non-invasive solution to identify the human back shape can help reducing the time needed for medical rehabilitation sessions. Moreover, it prevents future problems caused by poor posture.

  10. Defense of breast cancer malpractice claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, S; D'Orsi, C J; Ricci, B A; Halloran, E E; Resseguie, L J; Greenwald, L; Mondor, M C

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether factors associated with the successful defense and cost of malpractice cases involving the failure to diagnose breast cancer could be identified in medical and legal records. Secondary goals were to develop a multidisciplinary clinical algorithm utilizing National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) practice guidelines with practitioner risk management strategies. Physician deviations from these guidelines were tracked to identify high-risk areas in the diagnosis of breast cancer. A multidisciplinary clinical algorithm was introduced and practitioner risk management issues were addressed. In this study specific medical, legal, and cost factors were retrospectively abstracted and analyzed to identify associations between medical and legal factors and medicolegal outcome. ProMutual handled 156 malpractice cases involving breast cancer between January 22, 1986, and November 20, 1997. Of the total, 124 cases involving 212 defendants were closed. The closed cases were analyzed, using multivariable stepwise logistic and linear regression, to identify associations between clinical factors and case outcome. Women's health practitioners (WHPs), including obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs), family medicine, and internal medicine clinicians, were the largest group of defendants (97). Others included radiologists (43), surgeons (33), and pathologists (3). OB-GYNs accounted for 31% of these defendants, with a cost of more than $16 million. The greatest number of specialists represented in the open cases were radiologists, with 38% of the total. The defense model predicts that the probability of successful defense is lessened with inadequate record keeping, a patient that has metastasis and is alive, and a delay in diagnosis of 12 months or more. The overall indemnity model predicts a higher indemnity with the spread of disease at the time of evaluation, a patient who has metastasis and is alive, and a date of occurrence closer

  11. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi McEvoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. Methods/Analysis: A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS; eight groups (64 students by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment and session satisfaction (survey in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. Results: We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students’ reflective scores (p=0.0003 and satisfaction (p=0.0001. T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033; there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students’ reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Discussion/Conclusions: Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students’ reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic

  12. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Mimi; Pollack, Staci; Dyche, Lawrence; Burton, William

    2016-01-01

    Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students) were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS); eight groups (64 students) by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students) were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment) and session satisfaction (survey) in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students' reflective scores (p=0.0003) and satisfaction (p=0.0001). T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033); there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students' reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students' reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic development. Overall, students preferred facilitated to non-facilitated peer feedback

  13. Differences and Similarities of Soybean Defense-Related Genes Suppressed by Pathogenic and Symbiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial effector proteins secreted through type III secretion systems (T3SS) play a crucial role in establishing plant and human diseases. Type III effectors have been shown to trigger defense responses when recognized by resistant plants, and to suppress defense responses in susceptible host plan...

  14. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  15. Defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sandra C; Hulsbergen, Alexander F C; Muskens, Ivo S; van Dam, Marjel; Gormley, William B; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-09-20

    In defensive medicine, practice is motivated by legal rather than medical reasons. Previous studies have analyzed the correlation between perceived medico-legal risk and defensive behavior among neurosurgeons in the United States, Canada, and South Africa, but not yet in Europe. The aim of this study is to explore perceived liability burdens and self-reported defensive behaviors among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands and compare their practices with their non-European counterparts. A survey was sent to 136 neurosurgeons. The survey included questions from several domains: surgeon characteristics, patient demographics, type of practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive practices, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized. Forty-five neurosurgeons filled out the questionnaire (response rate of 33.1%). Almost half (n = 20) reported paying less than 5% of their income to annual malpractice premiums. Nearly all respondents view their insurance premiums as a minor or no burden (n = 42) and are confident that in their coverage is sufficient (n = 41). Most neurosurgeons (n = 38) do not see patients as "potential lawsuits". Relative to their American peers, Dutch neurosurgeons view their insurance premiums as less burdensome, their patients as a smaller legal threat, and their practice as less risky in general. They are sued less often and engage in fewer defensive behaviors than their non-European counterparts. The medico-legal climate in the Netherlands may contribute to this difference.

  16. Discussion on a Bio-Psycho-Environmental-Humanities Medical Model%生物-心理-环境-人文医学模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2011-01-01

    分析生物-心理-社会医学模式的优越性和局限性,提出生物-心理-环境-人文医学模式,旨在更加重视环境因素的作用.指出人与环境和谐发展、充分体现人文精神是医学模式发展的核心思想,并阐述了生物-心理-环境-人文医学模式产生的理论依据、现实背景及意义.%By analyzing the advantages and limitations of the present bio-psycho-social medical model , a new bio-psycho-environmental- humanities model was put forward, in order to put emphasis on environmental factors.It was indicated that of human and environment should develop harmoniously, and showed humanism was the core idea for the development of medical model.The theoretical basis, practical background and significance of the new medical model were also described.

  17. Expression of Human Beta Defensing-2 and Interferon-gamma in Lesions of Condyloma Acuminatum%β防御素-2和γ干扰素在尖锐湿疣皮损中表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈丽; 甄莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the expressions of human beta defensing-2(HBD-2)and interferon-gamma(IFN-γ)in the lesions of condyloma acuminatum,and to speculate the pathogenesis and prognosis of condyloma acuminatum.Method:Tissue specimens were collected from the lesions of 25 patients with condyloma acuminatum and 20 patients with psoriasis,as well as from the normal skin of 25 healthy controls.The specimen subjected to an immunohistochemical analysis for the detection of HBD-2 and IFN-γ.Statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 16.0 software package,and Wilcoxon rank sum test was carried out to compare the expressions of HBD-2 and IFN-γbetween these groups,and make correlation analysis.Result:HBD-2 and IFN-γwere observed mainly in the stratum basale of the epidermis in condyloma acuminatum.The expression levels of HBD-2 and IFN-γwere significantly lower in condyloma acuminatum than psoriasis(Z=-7.174,-7.230;P0.01).Conclusion:We speculate that HBD-2,IFN-γmay participate in condyloma acuminatum immune response process and plays a certain role.%  目的:研究和探讨β防御素-2(HBD-2)和γ干扰素(IFN-γ)在尖锐湿疣发病和预后中的作用.方法:用免疫组化法检测HBD-2和IFN-γ在25例尖锐湿疣(CA)(初发患者)皮损、20例寻常性银屑病皮损以及25例健康人皮肤石蜡切片中的表达.SPSS 16.0统计软件进行数据分析,组间行Wilcoxon秩和检验,并进行相关性分析.结果:HBD-2、IFN-γ在尖锐湿疣皮损的表达主要见于基底层, HBD-2、IFN-γ水平明显低于银屑病阳性对照组(Z=-7.174,-7.230;P0.01).结论:推测HBD-2、IFN-γ可能通过不同的途径共同参与了尖锐湿疣的免疫反应过程并发挥了一定的作用.

  18. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR) 1000.22. SUMMARY: On May 18, 2011, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) published a Notice of...

  19. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR...

  20. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  1. International medical leadership, collaboration and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arbel, Yael; Zadik, Yehuda; Nakdimon, Idan; Ran, Yuval; Mendelovich, Jacob; Bader, Tarif; Frenkel, Hagay

    2016-01-01

    Background International social networking is eminent in medical practice, mainly in sharing knowledge and mutual inspiring and in social and professional bonding. Since 2006, the International Medical Course is taking place in Commander Branch at the Military Medicine Academy of the Medical Corps, Israeli Defense Forces; in which medical officers from other military forces are participating along with Israeli officers. One of the course?s objectives is international networking. The purpose o...

  2. Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ryan S; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Acosta, Michael A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-02-01

    Observational cross-sectional survey. To compare defensive practices of U.S. spine and nonspine neurosurgeons in the context of state medical liability risk. Defensive medicine is a commonly reported and costly phenomenon in neurosurgery. Although state liability risk is thought to contribute greatly to defensive practice, variation within neurosurgical specialties has not been well explored. A validated, online survey was sent via email to 3344 members of the American Board of Neurological Surgeons. The instrument contained eight question domains: surgeon characteristics, patient characteristics, practice type, insurance type, surgeon liability profile, basic surgeon reimbursement, surgeon perceptions of medical legal environment, and the practice of defensive medicine. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 1026), including 499 neurosurgeons performing mainly spine procedures (48.6%). Spine neurosurgeons had a similar average practice duration as nonspine neurosurgeons (16.6 vs 16.9 years, P = 0.64) and comparable lifetime case volume (4767 vs 4,703, P = 0.71). The average annual malpractice premium for spine neurosurgeons was similar to nonspine neurosurgeons ($104,480.52 vs $101,721.76, P = 0.60). On average, spine neurosurgeons had a significantly higher rate of ordering labs, medications, referrals, procedures, and imaging solely for liability concerns compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (89.2% vs 84.6%, P = 0.031). Multivariate analysis revealed that spine neurosurgeons were roughly 3 times more likely to practice defensively compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (odds ratio, OR = 2.9, P = 0.001) when controlling for high-risk procedures (OR = 7.8, P < 0.001), annual malpractice premium (OR = 3.3, P = 0.01), percentage of patients publicly insured (OR = 1.1, P = 0.80), malpractice claims in the last 3 years (OR = 1.13, P = 0.71), and state medical-legal environment (OR = 1.3, P = 0

  3. Effects of benzalkonium chloride- or polyquad-preserved fixed combination glaucoma medications on human trabecular meshwork cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the potential short and long-term effects in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells of various topical glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives. Methods We tested the fixed combination medications 0.004% travoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK; DuoTrav®), or with 0.001% polyquad (PQ; DuoTrav® BAK-free); and 0.005% latanoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (Xalacom®). Also tested was a range of BAK concentrations (0.001%–0.020%) in balanced salt solution (BSS). Cells were treated for 25 min at 37 °C with solutions diluted 1:10 and 1:100 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. The percentage of live cells was determined immediately after treatment through the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM. To determine any long-term effects, we assayed release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and apoptosis 24 h after treatments. Results BAK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in TM cell viability, ranging from 71±5% live cells at 0.001% BAK (diluted 1:10) to 33±3% live cells at 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:10). Travoprost (0.004%) plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.015% BAK had statistically fewer live TM cells (79±7%) than the same preparation preserved with 0.001% polyquad® (PQ; 93±1%; p<0.001). Latanoprost plus timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (29±9% live cells) was similar to the 0.020% BAK (33±3%) treatment. However, travoprost plus timolol preserved in 0.015% BAK had significantly more live cells (83±12%) than the 1:10 dilution of 0.015% BAK (49±10%). We also found 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:100) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular MMP-9 at 24 h. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the substitution of the preservative BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater in vitro viability of TM cells. Travoprost with timolol, but not latanoprost with timolol, countered some of the toxic

  4. Department of Defense Enterprise Architecture Transition Strategy, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    organization, training, materials , leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) implications for making information available on a...processes such as the Systems Development Lifecycle (http://akss.dau.mil/dag/) and Information Resources Management (DoD IRM Plan) have also occurred...Enterprise Information Decision Support (EIDS) investment: risks to medical and dental readiness and medical surveillance  Defense Message

  5. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality ...

  6. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aitken

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Methods: Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. Results: The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118. Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59 felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59 felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59. The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6–12 hours for 29% (17/59 followed by 12–24 hours for 24% (14/59. The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14–21 days (46%, 27/59 followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59 and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59. The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59 and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59. Almost half (49%, 29/59 stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59 and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59, it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59 or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59. Deployment was felt to

  7. Differential activity of innate defense antimicrobial peptides against Nocardia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Dirk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the genus Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes capable to cause human pulmonary, disseminated and cutaneous nocardiosis or bovine mastitis. Innate immunity appears to play an important role in early defense against Nocardia species. To elucidate the contribution of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in innate defense against Nocardia, the activity of human α-defensins human neutrophil peptides (HNPs 1-3, human β-defensin (hBD-3 and cathelicidin LL-37 as well as bovine β-defensins lingual and tracheal antimicrobial peptides (LAP, TAP and bovine neutrophil-derived indolicidin against four important Nocardia species was investigated. Results Whereas N. farcinica ATCC 3318 and N. nova ATCC 33726 were found to be susceptible to all investigated human and bovine AMPs, N. asteroides ATCC 19247 was killed exclusively by neutrophil-derived human α-defensins HNP 1-3 and bovine indolicidin. N. brasiliensis ATCC 19296 was found to exhibit complete resistance to investigated human AMPs and to be susceptible only to bovine indolicidin. Conclusion Selected AMPs are capable to contribute to the first line of defense against Nocardia, yet, susceptibility appears to vary across different Nocardia species. Obtained results of neutrophil-derived AMPs to possess the broadest antinocardial spectrum are remarkable, since nocardiosis is characterized by a neutrophil-rich infiltrate in vivo.

  8. Medical Vanguard Diabetes Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    to lack of space for patients and lack of medical staff represents infrastructure collapse, with the supervisor of the Civil Defense calling to place...encephalitis epidemic under control]. El Carabobeño. 21 July 1995. p C-2. 32. Denuncian presidentes de Asociaciones Ganaderas: No hay control para

  9. Defense Spending and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    world, attributes the success of Koch Industries to Market Based Management ( MBM ). Koch describes MBM as the “application of the Science of Human...Action in an organization.”38 There are both financial and non-financial incentives that motivate individuals; the key of MBM is to apply the... MBM is a holistic system that must be understood in order to be implemented correctly, but one of its main tenets is motivating an individual within

  10. Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Reznikov, Leah; Alaiwa, Mahmoud Abou; Ernst, Sarah E.; Karp, Philip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Allen, Patrick D.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Stoltz, David A.; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H+ secretion by the nongastric H+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H+; consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF. PMID:26823428

  11. 76 FR 59664 - Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Service (SES) performance appraisals and make recommendations to the Director, DCAA, regarding final... this notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra L. Burrell, Chief, Human Resources Management... of the Secretary Membership of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Senior Executive Service...

  12. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  13. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1801.31 Special procedures...

  14. Toward a defense-dominated world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining the large-scale peace in a defense-dominated world necessarily will require not only passive but also active defenses against large-scale aggression that are technically feasible, practical and easy to employ -- and robust against perversion into support of aggression. Such peace maintenance tool-sets will feature means for effectively rebuking aggression as well as providing timely and very widely available seaming of aggression underway anywhere. This report discusses the technology base which currently exists to provide world-wide, high-quality imagery at moderate (5--10 meter) spatial resolution or imagery of 1% of the Earth`s land surface at high ({le} 1 meter) resolution no less frequently than daily, at a total cost of the order of $1 B, with operational capability in the later `90s. Such systems could provide timely warning of aggressive actions anywhere. Similarly, space-based means of defeating aggression conducted with even quite short-range ballistic missiles anywhere in the world could be brought into existence by the end of the `90s for a total cost of about $10 B, and small high-altitude, long flight-duration robotic aircraft carrying high-performance sensors and interceptor missilery could provide both seaming and active defenses against attacks conducted with very short range ballistic missiles, as well as attacks launched with air-breathing threats such as bombers and cruise missiles, for a cost per defended area of the order of $10/km{sup 2}. It appears that all of the associated sensors can find apt dual-use as high-performance systems for monitoring physical aspects of the human environment.

  15. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  16. The future of planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, A.

    2017-04-01

    Asteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. While the frequency of impacts is reasonably well understood on geologic timescales, it is difficult to predict the next sizeable impact on human timescales by extrapolation from population statistics alone. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking individual objects, we can make precise predictions of any potential close encounters with Earth. As more advance notice is provided, the range of possible mitigation options expands. While the chance of an impact is very small, the potential consequences can be severe, meaning that sensible risk reduction measures should be undertaken. By implementing surveys, the risk of an unforeseen impact can be greatly reduced: the first step is finding the objects. Fortunately, the worldwide community of professional and amateur astronomers has made significant progress in discovering large near-Earth objects (NEOs). More than 95% of NEOs capable of causing global devastation (objects larger than 1 km in diameter) have been discovered, and none of these pose an impact hazard in the near future. Infrastructure is in place to link observations and compute close approaches in real time. Interagency and international collaborations have been undertaken to strengthen cooperative efforts to plan potential mitigation and civil defense campaigns. Yet much remains to be done. Approximately 70% of NEOs larger than 140 m (large enough to cause severe regional damage) remain undiscovered. With the existing surveys, it will take decades to identify the rest. Progress can be accelerated by undertaking new surveys with improved sensitivity.Plain Language SummaryAsteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking them, we have the ability to predict any potential close encounters with Earth. By observing the sky repeatedly to search for near-Earth objects, the risk of an unforeseen impact can

  17. 医学人体发育学课程建设初探%To Explore the Course Construction in Medical Human Lifespan Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺; 刘超; 刘乙蒙; 肖建英

    2016-01-01

    人体发育学是本科康复治疗专业重要的一门基础必修课程,通过以辽宁医学院康复医疗专业人体发育学课程建设为例,初步探讨人体发育学课程性质和简介、教材、教师、教学方法和考核评价体系,为培养高素质的康复医疗专业人才奠定基础。%Human lifespan development is a basic course of the specialty of rehabilitation therapy. In this study, we take human lifespan development of the specialty of rehabilitation therapy in Liaoning Medical University as an example, to preliminarily investigate the character and introduction, textbooks, teachers, teaching methods and examination pattern of human lifespan development course, and to lay the foundation for training high quality medical rehabilitation professionals.

  18. Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Tripathy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Lack of knowledge among medical students can be detrimental to the health of the society. So there is a need to create awareness among the future health educators against various aspects of HPV, cervical cancers and its prevention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1771-1774

  19. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  20. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated – “Changing the System” HeLLeR , TRiCiA A., Deputy Director of Congressional Support, Technical and Analytical Support, USAF A-Team...Interview Recorder” HeLLieR, RiCHARD, Director of Air Force Programs, United Technologies – “Joint Stars System” HeRMAN , DR. ROBeRT, Member, Defense