WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense 911-bio advanced

  1. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  2. 75 FR 40857 - Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open webinar meeting to discuss Advanced Defense Technologies (ADT) Request for... webinar it is hosting to answer questions from potential Offerors about the Advanced Defense...

  3. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of... Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. Statements, opinions... Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016

  4. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Autonomous Language Exploitation ...................................................................... 33 Figure 35: Bio-inspired "Big Dog" quadruped robot is... Acqusition , Technology and the United States, while creating Logistics Kenneth J. Krieg technological surprise for our • Under Secretaryof Defense for...working to maintain our global lead in this technology (Section 3.7). " Real-Time Accurate Language Translation: real-time machine language

  5. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals.

  6. Recent advances in computational intelligence in defense and security

    CERN Document Server

    Falcon, Rafael; Zincir-Heywood, Nur; Abbass, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    This volume is an initiative undertaken by the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society’s Task Force on Security, Surveillance and Defense to consolidate and disseminate the role of CI techniques in the design, development and deployment of security and defense solutions. Applications range from the detection of buried explosive hazards in a battlefield to the control of unmanned underwater vehicles, the delivery of superior video analytics for protecting critical infrastructures or the development of stronger intrusion detection systems and the design of military surveillance networks. Defense scientists, industry experts, academicians and practitioners alike will all benefit from the wide spectrum of successful applications compiled in this volume. Senior undergraduate or graduate students may also discover uncharted territory for their own research endeavors.

  7. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... channels. AMI is also featuring to communicate control functions from utility to the smart meters. So, both the consumption data and control data needs to be securely transmitted to their ends. Any leak and tempering may produce the dire effects to both utility and consumers. Hence security of AMI...

  8. MLDS: Multi-Layer Defense System for Preventing Advanced Persistent Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the issue of Advanced Persistent Threats (APT, which use malware for the purpose of leaking the data of large corporations and government agencies. APT attacks target systems continuously by utilizing intelligent and complex technologies. To overthrow the elaborate security network of target systems, it conducts an attack after undergoing a pre-reconnaissance phase. An APT attack causes financial loss, information leakage, etc. They can easily bypass the antivirus system of a target system. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Defense System (MLDS that can defend against APT. This system applies a reinforced defense system by collecting and analyzing log information and various information from devices, by installing the agent on the network appliance, server and end-user. It also discusses how to detect an APT attack when one cannot block the initial intrusion while continuing to conduct other activities. Thus, this system is able to minimize the possibility of initial intrusion and damages of the system by promptly responding through rapid detection of an attack when the target system is attacked.

  9. Advanced sensors, telecommunications and data processing: Technological spin-offs from the Strategic Defense Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.L.

    1986-10-01

    While the details of Nitze Criteria-satisfying architectures for defense against strategic attack with ballistic missiles are still being worked out, it is already clear that quite advanced sensors, telecommunications and data processing technologies will be features of all of them. It is concluded that the SDI, due to its institutional youthfulness, its charter for large-scale research and its self-evident need for such technologies, is likely to dominate many aspects of these technology development areas during the next two decades, especially if it continues more-or-less as the current American Administration contemplates. Both the technical and the economic aspects of data-gathering and manipulation seem likely to be substantially enhanced, due to the existence of the SDI.

  10. Linear-drive cryocoolers for the Department of Defense standard advanced dewar assembly (SADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Garin S.

    2005-05-01

    The Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) is the critical module in the Department of Defense (DoD) standardization of scanning second-generation thermal imaging systems. The DoD has established a family of SADAs to fulfill a range of performance requirements for various platforms. The SADA consists of the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), Dewar, Command & Control Electronics (C&CE), and the cryogenic cooler, and is used in platforms such as the Apache helicopter, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the Javelin Command Launch Unit (CLU). In support of the family of SADAs, the DoD defined a complementary family of tactical linear drive cryocoolers. The Stirling cycle linear drive cryocoolers are utilized to cool the Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) in the SADAs. These coolers are required to have low input power, a quick cool-down time, low vibration output, low audible noise, and a higher reliability than currently fielded rotary coolers. These coolers must also operate in a military environment with its inherent high vibration level and temperature extremes. This paper will (1) outline the characteristics of each cryocooler, (2) present the status and results of qualification tests, (3) present the status of production efforts, and (4) present the status of efforts to increase linear drive cooler reliability.

  11. The evolution of advanced mechanical defenses and potential technological applications of diatom shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Christian E

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with silicified cell walls, which exhibit a high degree of symmetry and complexity. Their diversity is extraordinarily high; estimates suggest that about 10(5) marine and limnic species may exist. Recently, it was shown that diatom frustules are mechanically resilient, statically sophisticated structures made of a tough glass-like composite. Consequently, to break the frustules, predators have to generate large forces and invest large amounts of energy. In addition, they need feeding tools (e.g., mandibles or gastric mills) which are hard, tough, and resilient enough to resist high stress and wear, which are bound to occur when they feed on biomineralized objects such as diatoms or other biomineralized protists. Indeed, many copepods feeding on diatoms possess, in analogy to the enamelcoated teeth of mammals, amazingly complex, silica-laced mandibles. The highly developed adaptations both to protect and to break diatoms indicate that selection pressure is high to optimize material properties and the geometry of the shells to achieve mechanical strength of the overall structure. This paper discusses the mechanical challenges which force the development of mechanical defenses, and the structural components of the diatom frustules which indicate that evolutionary optimization has led to mechanically sophisticated structures. Understanding the diatom frustule from the nanometer scale up to the whole shell will provide new insights to advanced combinations of nanostructured composite ceramic materials and lightweight architecture for technological applications.

  12. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of resin biosynthesis and genetic engineering strategies to improve defenses in conifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGWei

    2003-01-01

    Since the first terpenoid synthase cDNA was obtained by the reverse genetic approach from grand fir, great pro-gress in the molecular genetics of terpenoid formation has been made with angiosperms and genes encoding a monoterpene synthase, a sesquiterpene synthase, and a diterpene synthase. Tree killing bark beetles and their vectored fungal pathogens are the most destructive agents of conifer forests worldwide. Conifers defend against attack by the constitutive and inducible production of oleoresin that accumulates at the wound site to kill invaders and both flush and seal the injury. Although toxic to the bark beetle and fungal pathogen, oleoresin also plays a central role in the chemical ecology of these boring insects. Re-cent advances in the molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis provide evidence for the evolutionary origins of oleoresin and permit consideration of genetic engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses as a component of modern forest bio-technology. This review described enzymes of resin biosynthesis, structural feathers of genes genomic intron and exon or-ganization, pathway organization and evolution, resin production and accumulation, interactions between conifer and bark beetle, and engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses.

  13. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Properly Awarded Contracts for Disc-Rotor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    Boeing. Contract Solicitation DARPA personnel properly issued BAA 06-15, “DARPA Tactical Technology Office ( TTO ),” to solicit proposals for advanced R...technology. The BAA 06-15 published on the Federal Business Opportunities website https://www.fedbizopps.gov, stated that DARPA TTO personnel would...submission. DARPA contracting personnel provided letters of “Discouraged” to 122 white papers submissions based on the relevance to the TTO mission

  14. Advancing the defensive explanation for anxiety disorders: lorazepam effects on human defense are systematically modulated by personality and threat-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A M; Ettinger, U; Weaver, K; Schmechtig, A; Schrantee, A; Morrison, P D; Sapara, A; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Corr, P J

    2013-04-16

    Clinically effective drugs against human anxiety and fear systematically alter the innate defensive behavior of rodents, suggesting that in humans these emotions reflect defensive adaptations. Compelling experimental human evidence for this theory is yet to be obtained. We report the clearest test to date by investigating the effects of 1 and 2 mg of the anti-anxiety drug lorazepam on the intensity of threat-avoidance behavior in 40 healthy adult volunteers (20 females). We found lorazepam modulated the intensity of participants' threat-avoidance behavior in a dose-dependent manner. However, the pattern of effects depended upon two factors: type of threat-avoidance behavior and theoretically relevant measures of personality. In the case of flight behavior (one-way active avoidance), lorazepam increased intensity in low scorers on the Fear Survey Schedule tissue-damage fear but reduced it in high scorers. Conversely, in the case of risk-assessment behavior (two-way active avoidance), lorazepam reduced intensity in low scorers on the Spielberger trait anxiety but increased it in high scorers. Anti-anxiety drugs do not systematically affect rodent flight behavior; therefore, we interpret this new finding as suggesting that lorazepam has a broader effect on defense in humans than in rodents, perhaps by modulating general perceptions of threat intensity. The different patterning of lorazepam effects on the two behaviors implies that human perceptions of threat intensity are nevertheless distributed across two different neural streams, which influence effects observed on one-way or two-way active avoidance demanded by the situation.

  15. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  16. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  17. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  18. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  19. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  20. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  1. Serious Games: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: An Interview with Innovation Information Office Program Manager CAPT Russell Shilling, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dr. Shilling received his Doctor of Philosophy in Experimental Psychology (Auditory Psychophysics/Neuroscience) from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 1992 and his Bachelor of Arts in Psychology at Wake Forest University in 1985. In 1993 he graduated with top honors from Aerospace Experimental Psychologist training-Naval Flight Surgeon Class 93002. In 1996, he served as an Assistant/Associate Professor at the U.S. Air Force Academy in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. In 2000, he arrived at the Naval Postgraduate School as an Associate Professor in the Operations Research and Systems Engineering Departments and became Technical Director for Immersive Technologies in the Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation Institute. His military decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal (three awards), the Navy Commendation Medal, and the Navy Achievement Medal. He is also the recipient of the American Hospital Association's 2009 Executive Award for Excellence.

  2. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  3. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  4. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 2: FY2002-2004 Performance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Complete research studies for the development of vaccine candidates for WEE virus. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Program...encephalitic alphaviruses. Continue research for the development of vaccine candidates for EEE virus infection. Test promising vaccine candidates for

  5. Defense Science Board Summer Study on Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Autonomy completed  its information gathering in August 2015. The report was cleared for open  publication by the DoD Office of  Security  Review on June 1...operation  CRASH  Clean‐Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive,  Secure  Hosts  DARPA  Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency  DCA  defensive counter air...DIA  Defense Intelligence Agency  DISA  Defense Information Systems Agency  DLA  Defense Logistics Agency  DNS   domain name service  DoD  Department

  6. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  7. The history of the early years of metamaterials in USA and UK defense agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derov, John S.; Hammond, Richard; Youngs, Ian J.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the historical events that occurred in the early years of metamaterials leading to the current development of metamaterials in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, and Ministry of Defence.

  8. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  9. Defense Exportability Features Initiative: A New Paradigm for International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    exportability process. Consequently DEF should en- hance these traditional benefits in two important ways: • By providing advanced capability to allies and...Defense AT&L: January–February 2015 24 Defense Exportability Features Initiative A New Paradigm for International Cooperation Frank D. Kenlon n...Jay Mandelbaum Kenlon is a professor of international acquisition management (intermittent) in the Defense Systems Management College’s International

  10. Active Cyber Defense Dynamics Exhibiting Rich Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ren; Xu, Shouhuai

    2016-01-01

    The Internet is a man-made complex system under constant attacks (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats and malwares). It is therefore important to understand the phenomena that can be induced by the interaction between cyber attacks and cyber defenses. In this paper, we explore the rich phenomena that can be exhibited when the defender employs active defense to combat cyber attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that {\\em active cyber defense dynamics} (or more generally, {\\em cybersecurity dynamics}) can exhibit the bifurcation and chaos phenomena. This has profound implications for cyber security measurement and prediction: (i) it is infeasible (or even impossible) to accurately measure and predict cyber security under certain circumstances; (ii) the defender must manipulate the dynamics to avoid such {\\em unmanageable situations} in real-life defense operations.

  11. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    ground vehicles, and ships, DARPA’s BioFuels program is working to develop an affordable surrogate for military jet fuel (JP8) derived from oil ...Thermal Exchange Device takes advantage of the special blood vessels in the palm of one’s hand that can readily transfer warmth to or from the bloodstream...rich crops such as rapeseed and other plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Initial efforts in the BioFuels program have already delivered BioFuel

  12. Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    hazard detection in the atmosphere by unmanned air vehicles (UAV). Specifically, the study seeks to discover if and where the placement of sensors on UAV’s can maximize the volume of space that is brought into contact with the sensor. A hybrid gridfree/finite volume numerical flow simulation methodology that is adept at modeling complex flow scenarios provides the basis for the analysis. This study focuses on the use of an unmanned helicopter in collecting particle data. Clear evidence is found that the judicious placement of sensors on the UAV can profoundly affect

  13. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  14. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  15. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  16. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  17. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  18. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  19. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  20. Defense and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the Economy C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A

  1. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  2. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  3. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  4. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  5. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  7. Transport of defense compounds from source to sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a plethora of defense compounds crucial for their survival in a challenging and changing environment. Transport processes are important for shaping the distribution pattern of defense compounds, albeit focus hitherto has been mostly on their biosynthetic pathways. A recent...... identification of two glucosinolate transporters represents a breakthrough in our understanding of glucosinolate transport in Arabidopsis and has advanced knowledge in transport of defense compounds. In this review, we discuss the role of the glucosinolate transporters in establishing dynamic glucosinolate...... distribution patterns and source-sink relations. We focus on lessons learned from glucosinolate transport that may apply to transport of other defense compounds and discuss future avenues in the emerging field of defense compound transport....

  8. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  9. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Please review the report findings and recommendations. I am interested in receiving your feedback for inclusion in programs wherever these...needed culture shift to utilize their existing authorities. Finally, expanded coordination among intermural basic research portfolios across the Labs...research portfolios across the Labs without creating additional administrative burdens is needed. The defense research enterprise should

  10. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Wireless Information Assurance • Steganography • Air Force Enterprise Defense (AFED) 10 Distributed Agents for Information Warfare Operational...information (images, documents, overlays, audio , links, etc.) •multi-level data release to coalition forces; key-based access •covert communication...maximize throughput of communication channels Data Hiding/Embedding Steganography Watermarking Steganalysis 14 Payoffs • Integrates existing

  11. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  12. Robust Preallocated Preferential Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Frye , W.H. and Ullman, L.L., Methodology for Calculating Minuteman Defense Effectiveness, SRD-EGI4, Stanford Research Institute, October 1973. 4. Hogg...Corporation 1500 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22209 ATTN: Dr. Tucker Battle Dr. James Skouras Dr. Iram Weinstein Northrop Corporation 8900 E. Washington

  13. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  15. Research on the Field Distribution and Technical Potential of Information Technology in the United States In the Case of US Defense Advanced Research Proj ects Agency (DARPA)%美国信息技术领域分布与技术潜能研究以美国国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)为例∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾珍珍

    2016-01-01

    以美国国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)为例,从DARPA对信息技术的领域分布、技术潜能与影响方面,对美国信息技术的发展情况进行探讨,并在最后提出信息技术对于我国军事技术发展的有关思考。%The US Defense Advanced Research Proj ects Agency (DARPA)was used as an example. from the fields of information technology distribution,potential technology in DARPA,the development of the US information technology was discussed,and the final related thinking about information technolo-gy for the development of China's military technology was proposed.

  16. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  17. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  18. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  19. Defensive Minefield Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Minefield Planning by Carlos Vallejo Game Lieutenant, Ecuadorian Navy B. S., Escuela Superior Naval, Ecuador 1980 Submitted in partial fulfillment of...was a superior open-ocean naval force to the North Koreans, defensive minewarfare was able to, at least temporarily, defeat U.S. Navy objectives in...Oswaldo Rosero 1 Unit 8 Coastal Route 1 Monterey, California 93940 77 11. Office of the N’aval Attache 4 Direccion de Educacion 2535 15th. st. N. W

  20. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  1. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  2. Defense Modernization Plans Through the 2020s: Addressing the Bow Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. He is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations and was named one of...45 p.m. Chair: Andrew Hunter, Senior Fellow in the International Security Program, Director of Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group, Center for...Strategic International Studies Defense Modernization Plans Through the 2020s: Addressing the Bow Wave Todd Harrison, Director, Defense Budget Analysis

  3. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  4. Hormone defense networking in rice: tales from a different world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Gheysen, Godelieve; Höfte, Monica

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in plant immunity research underpin the pivotal role of small-molecule hormones in regulating the plant defense signaling network. Although most of our understanding comes from studies of dicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, new studies in monocots are providing additional insights into the defense-regulatory role of phytohormones. Here, we review the roles of both classical and more recently identified stress hormones in regulating immunity in the model monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and highlight the importance of hormone crosstalk in shaping the outcome of rice-pathogen interactions. We also propose a defense model for rice that does not support a dichotomy between the pathogen lifestyle and the effectiveness of the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA).

  5. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Fiscal Year 1982 Research & Development Program. Summary Statement by Dr. Robert R. Fossum, Director Before the Research & Development Subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-12

    methodology offers a structured search for technical innovations or concepts within the private sector that alleviates many of the negative psychological ...wmunications and Control Technology 35.3 41.6 44.2 Distributed Information System (l") (T) T r( ) Advanced Comunications i Control & S IComunications

  6. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  7. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  8. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  9. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  10. Defensive engagement and perceptual enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Ihssen, Niklas; Heim, Sabine; Vila, Jaime; Guerra, Pedro; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether visual cortical sensitivity to external cues in the context of an acute defensive reaction is heightened or attenuated. A strong cardiac defense (fear) response was elicited by presenting an abrupt, loud acoustic stimulus following a 10-minute period of quiescence. Electrocortical responses to aversive and neutral pictures following defensive stimulus onset were measured using dense-array EEG. Pictures were flickered at 12.5 Hz to evoke steady-state visual evoked potentials ...

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  12. Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT and E): Appropriations Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Department of Defense Research , Development , Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Appropriations Structure John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in...Congressional Research Service Summary The Department of Defense (DOD) conducts research , development , testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) in support...is for applied research ; 6.3 is for advanced technology development ; 6.4 is for advanced component development and prototypes; 6.5 is for systems

  13. Thinking on using advanced technology to defense the academic misconduct in academic journals%学术期刊利用先进技术防范学术不端行为的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2014-01-01

    学术不端文献检测系统(AMLC)开辟了采用技术手段防范学术不端的新方法。我们编辑部于2010年启用学术不端文献检测系统,用于对学报稿件进行初审和终审辅助工作。本文结合期刊界近些年使用比较普遍的学术不端检测系统--知网检测系统在学报的使用情况,总结系统特点、优势和使用过程中的体会,分析了目前存在的问题,提出改进建议,以期对我们在实际应用中,更好地把握和判断学术不端起到一个很好的提示和促进作用。%Academic misconduct literature detection system provides a new technical method to defense the academic misconduct, our editorial department has used it since 2010 to aid our editorial work for the manuscript’s first examination and final editing. Combining with the usage situation of the widely used China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) AMLC system in recent years, this paper summarizes its characteristics, existing problems, advantages and our using experience to the system, and puts forward suggestions for improvement in order to better promote the understanding and judgment to the academic misconduct in the actual application.

  14. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    most senior level—the only one that matters in Russian decisionmaking cul - ture—is also of significance today and will also be re- ferred to later in... org /missile-defense/us-ballistic-missile-defense/p30607. 9. Email exchange with author, July 2013. 10. “Safeguard,” Washington, DC: Federation of Ameri

  15. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  16. The future of planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, A.

    2017-04-01

    Asteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. While the frequency of impacts is reasonably well understood on geologic timescales, it is difficult to predict the next sizeable impact on human timescales by extrapolation from population statistics alone. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking individual objects, we can make precise predictions of any potential close encounters with Earth. As more advance notice is provided, the range of possible mitigation options expands. While the chance of an impact is very small, the potential consequences can be severe, meaning that sensible risk reduction measures should be undertaken. By implementing surveys, the risk of an unforeseen impact can be greatly reduced: the first step is finding the objects. Fortunately, the worldwide community of professional and amateur astronomers has made significant progress in discovering large near-Earth objects (NEOs). More than 95% of NEOs capable of causing global devastation (objects larger than 1 km in diameter) have been discovered, and none of these pose an impact hazard in the near future. Infrastructure is in place to link observations and compute close approaches in real time. Interagency and international collaborations have been undertaken to strengthen cooperative efforts to plan potential mitigation and civil defense campaigns. Yet much remains to be done. Approximately 70% of NEOs larger than 140 m (large enough to cause severe regional damage) remain undiscovered. With the existing surveys, it will take decades to identify the rest. Progress can be accelerated by undertaking new surveys with improved sensitivity.Plain Language SummaryAsteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking them, we have the ability to predict any potential close encounters with Earth. By observing the sky repeatedly to search for near-Earth objects, the risk of an unforeseen impact can

  17. Defense Strategies Against Modern Botnets

    CERN Document Server

    Stankovic, Srdjan

    2009-01-01

    Botnets are networks of compromised computers with malicious code which are remotely controlled and which are used for starting distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, sending enormous number of e-mails (SPAM) and other sorts of attacks. Defense against modern Botnets is a real challenge. This paper offers several strategies for defense against Botnets with a list and description of measures and activities which should be carried out in order to establish successful defense. The paper also offers parallel preview of the strategies with their advantages and disadvantages considered in accordance with various criteria.

  18. Quadrennial Defense Review and Ballistic Missile Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    global defense posture 3 BMDR Highlights • Outlines a strategy and policy framework to – Defend the homeland against limited ballistic missile attack...abroad – Collaborate closely with allies and partners – Pursue a cooperative and tailored global defense posture – Strengthen US civilian capacity...reviews in 2010 – QDR and BMDR released February 1, 2010 – Nuclear Posture Review to be released this spring – Space Posture Review, with Director of

  19. Defense Laboratory Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Effects, Modeling and Simulation • Systems • Mission • Directed Energy Effects Kirtland AFB, New Mexico North Oscura Peak and Salinas...Range Laser and Optics Laboratories (North Oscura Peak (NOP) and Salinas Peak), New Mexico These laboratories are designed to evaluate advanced sensor...capabilities include vacuum: 5 x 10-7 Torr ; Ultraviolet: 1-3 EUVS; Temperature: 80°F - 150°F; Electron: 1012e-/cm/sec @ up to 20 KeVs. It provides space

  20. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  1. Defense Spending and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-07

    the first resolution. Our forecast projects continued growth in the economy and moderate inflation for one or possibly two years, despite federal...than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense would, of course, promote defense-intensive sectors of the economy at the expense of...others, but CBO believes the economy could accommodate such shifts without significant adverse effects on macroeconomic variables such as employment

  2. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  3. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advanced research. 37.1210 Section 37.1210... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous...

  4. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR) 1000.22. SUMMARY: On May 18, 2011, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) published a Notice of...

  5. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR...

  6. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  7. Defense Systems Management Review. Volume I, Number 4. Autumn 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-03

    LEAD SERVICE DETERMINATION AND JSOR GENERATION The Department of Defense has become increasingly involved with reducing prolifera- tion of...development of a joint requirement. • Required the generation of a joint serv- ice operational requirement ( JSOR ) within 60 working days. *Air Munitions...prepara- tion and coordination of the JSOR . • Authorized both service-advanced de- velopment efforts to continue through fiscal year 1974. The

  8. Offset Implementations for Turkey’s International Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Some Examples of “Market Imperfections and Failures” in Defense (From Gansler, 1980, p. 30...AMSL Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASTOVL Advanced Short Takeoff And Vertical Landing BDMA British...company was re-structured under its current name, Airbus Military SL ( Sociedad Limitada) prior to the contract signature in May 2003. Its shareholders

  9. Analyzing Department of Defense's use of other transactions as a method for accessing non-traditional technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliland, John E.

    2001-01-01

    As U.S. Defense budgets and military research and development spending experienced significant decline between 1988 and 1998, the Defense Technology and Industrial Base essentially merged with the national industrial base. DOD reform occurred more slowly than changes in the private sector fueled by advances in technology. U.S. national security relies upon the ability of the military to maintain technological superiority. To attract advanced technology companies that normally do not participa...

  10. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  11. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  12. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-12

    markings are indicated, follow agency authorization procedures, e.g. RD/FRD, PROPIN, ITAR, etc. Include copyright information. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY...Continuous measurements from our lactate sensors were compared to blood lactate measured by gold- standard bench -top analyzers and found to be in the

  13. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    and human tracheas, with visualization around the entire circumference of the airway, and high resolution visualization of subsurface tissue layers...lumen of excised pig and human tracheas, with visualization around the entire circumference of the airway, and high resolution visualization of...Optical Coherence Tomography in the Rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 139, 503-8 (2013). 16. Liu, G., W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi and Z. Chen

  14. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs: DoD Advance Planning Briefing for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    deadly diseases . We’ll increase funding to help states and communities train and equip our heroic police and firefighters. ” President George W...Tech Development - Adv Dev for CB Prep at Univ of Med & Dentistry of NJ - Miniaturization of CB Detectors - Biodefense Statewide Med Response - Bio...call for a decisive victory in one of those conflicts- including the possibility of regime change or occupation ; and Conduct a limited number of

  15. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  16. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated – “Changing the System” HeLLeR , TRiCiA A., Deputy Director of Congressional Support, Technical and Analytical Support, USAF A-Team...Interview Recorder” HeLLieR, RiCHARD, Director of Air Force Programs, United Technologies – “Joint Stars System” HeRMAN , DR. ROBeRT, Member, Defense

  17. Defense Financial and Investment Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    to direct its attention to problems such as profit policy and the management and investment practices of defense contractors. Prorit Study 󈨖 In 1982...I \\-L 10 NO ADJUSTMENT 46- 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Sources: Touche Ross; Prorit 󈨐 V-34

  18. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  19. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  20. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  1. What Happens After the Defense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldtmann, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    who has attempted to attack the master’s vessel and whose distress is the direct result of lawful self-defense by PCASP? This is the question at the heart of this article, which argues that there are certain post incident obligations and that it is crucial to address these obligations at the flag...

  2. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  3. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  4. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  5. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Airframe Total airframe contractor furnished equipment ( CFE ) Total airframe CFE 9 entries (forward fuselage, center fuselage, wing, empennage...etc.) Avionics Total electronics CFE and government- furnished equipment (GFE) Total avionics 16 entries (radar, integrated processor...Relationship CFE Contractor Furnished Equipment CNI Communication, Navigation, Identification DoD Department of Defense FCCM Facilities Capital Cost

  6. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  7. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  8. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  9. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  10. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  11. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  12. Defense Procurement Strategy for a Globalized Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    QDR,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 4. 3 Vago Muradain, “Finalizing Transformation,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 34. 4 Hugo Posey and Ben...Interavia, Summer 2004, 34-36. Munton, Bob, and Brinley Salzmann. “U.K.’s Growing Contols.” DefenseNews, 25 October 2004, 96. Muradain, Vago

  13. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    posturethrough the CCMDs with measurement feedback to the leadership. The DoD CIO should establishmetrics for this assessment. Include Cyber Preparedness in...DoD should evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting defense posturethrough the CCMDs with measurement feedback to the leadership. The DoD CIO...USCYBERCOM Welcome Maj Keffer, USCYBERCOM Chief of Staff Cyber Portfolio Management Decisions Mr. Terry Carter, Deputy Director, Capabilities and Resource

  14. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  15. Homeland Defense: DOD Needs to Address Gaps in Homeland Defense and Civil Support Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    tornado, storm, high water , wind-driven water , tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption , landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or...Secretary of Defense and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy on homeland defense and civil support matters, among other things. The...Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs is the principal advisor to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Secretary

  16. Austere Defense: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    military advice while acquiescing to divestitures, and effectively executing the austere defense cuts required by current law through 2019 and...Could it be that our assessments of risk have, over time, become too conservative? In- deed, even with the effects of full sequestration the United... crunch . Look- ing at overhead, as Douglas Macgregor of Politico magazine reminds us, during World War II, only four four-star generals commanded a

  17. Western Hemisphere Defense Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras , Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay have contributed to or led multi-national security operations and United Nations (UN...impact on regional and global peace and security and reflect the new realities of defense cooperation in the hemisphere. Working with Canada and...Mexico, DoD remains prepared to deter and defeat direct threats to our homeland. We partner with Canada on regional security issues such as an evolving

  18. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  19. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  20. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  1. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Just in time: circadian defense patterns and the optimal defense hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The optimal defense hypothesis (ODH) provides a functional explanation for the inhomogeneous distribution of defensive structures and defense metabolites throughout a plant's body: tissues that are most valuable in terms of fitness and have the highest probability of attack are generally the best defended. In a previous review, we argue that ontogenically-controlled accumulations of defense metabolites are likely regulated through an integration of developmental and defense signaling pathways. In this addendum, we extend the discussion of ODH patterns by including the recent discoveries of circadian clock-controlled defenses in plants.

  3. Fact Sheet: FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) DOD Reform Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    with other nations’ technological advances; and that the Department of Defense lacks the agility and adaptability necessary to support timely...the purposes, values and principles for the operation of OSD, as well as a directive on collaborative behavior. Also ties career progression to

  4. Department of Everything: Department of Defense Spending That Has Little to Do With National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    the Exact Same Research A researcher who plagiarized a grant proposal and progress report received funding from the Defense Advanced Research...either the Air Force or NSF award. DARPA also approved funding for the project. All three proposals contained the same significant plagiarism ”31...individuals or provide military required training that may be available from an academic institution

  5. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Protection), available from www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gg/art_65a. html, accessed on July 30, 2014. 36. Christian Kahl, Nachrichten, Vom Kampf in der...www.bundeswehr-journal.de/2013/vom- kampf -in-der-funften- dimension/, accessed on July 30, 2014; “Digitaler Truppenein- satz: Bundeswehr meldet sich...www.bundeswehr-journal. de/2013/vom- kampf -in-der-funften-dimension/. 46. “Spionage- und Hackerabwehr: Bundeswehr baut geheime Cy- berwar-Truppe auf” (“Defense of

  6. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  7. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  8. Department of Defense Expenditure Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Buxton Rd. 1,879 E 88 Redstone Arsenal AL Replace Water Main Along Paton Rd. from H.U. to Martin Rd. 1,857 E 89 Redstone Arsenal AL Fy 2009 Annual Road... Buxton Road E. from Patton to H.U. 1,312 E 25 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Operation and Maintenance, Defense Health Program, and...Meet AR 190-11 75 O 1100 Billings AFRC MT Mechanical System Improvements 188 E 1101 Billings AFRC MT Install Lighting Controls 45 E 1102 Billings

  9. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  10. Secure and defensive high self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Correll, Joshua

    2003-11-01

    Long-standing theories have suggested high self-esteem (SE) can assume qualitatively different forms that are related to defensiveness. The authors explored whether some high-SE individuals are particularly defensive because they harbor negative self-feelings at less conscious levels, indicated by low implicit SE. In Study 1, participants high in explicit SE but low in implicit SE showed the highest levels of narcissism--an indicator of defensiveness. In Studies 2 and 3, the correspondence between implicit and explicit SE predicted defensive behavior (in-group bias in Study 2 and dissonance reduction in Study 3), such that for high explicit-SE participants, those with relatively low implicit SE behaved more defensively. These results are consistent with the idea that high SE can be relatively secure or defensive.

  11. Korean Defense Industry: Threat or Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-22

    framework for defense industrial cooperation with Korea . While Senator Dixon eventually dropped his opposition and the Korean Fighter Program is now...US defense firms to transfer technology to Korean firms, the US Government must recognize two realities: first, Korea will develop indigenous...serious Korean competition in the foreseeable future. 8 It does not appear that the Korea defense industry is poised to take away significant market

  12. Implementing an Integrated Network Defense Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    to create an easily defendable avenue for ingress and egress. In medieval times, castles leveraged this principle. If an attacker was brazen enough...defense mirrors that of the physical world, its application has some significant drawbacks. Whereas the medieval castle defenders had the high ground...defenses. Logically an INDS can and should follow the same premise. 3. Integrated Air Defense To model an INDS after an IADS, it is necessary

  13. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  14. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense...Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development Objective/Threshold Current Estimate MS B DEC 2009 DEC 2009 JUN...2010 DEC 2009 CDR AUG 2011 MAY 2012 MAY 2013 MAY 2012 MS C DEC 2014 JUN 2015 JUN 2016 AUG 2016 1 (Ch-1) IOT &E Start JAN 2016 MAR 2016 MAR 2017 OCT 2017

  15. Offset implementations for Turkey's International Defense Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report "Offsets" is the umbrella term for a broad range of industrial and commercial "compensatory" practices. Specifically, offset agreements in the defense environment are increasing globally as a percentage of exports. Developed countries with established defense industries use offsets to channel work or technology to their domestic defense companies. Countries with newly industrialized economies are utilizing both military and commercial related offsets that involv...

  16. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  17. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  18. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  19. The insanity defense: Related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested. McNaughton's rules stressed on “understandability of right and wrong” and “intellectual” rather than a moral or affective definition dominated in its formulation. Lack of control and irresistible drives or impulses were neglected Going by the current understanding of neurological evidences of compulsion and lack of impulse control, rationality tests without the inclusion of lack of control, seem to be outdated. Separate “Control determination” than the “Rationality determination” by the jurors may improve the accuracy of Juror's categorizations. There is a suggestion that Relevance ratio is ideal for ‘Evidentiary relevance” and there should be a quality control on expert testimonies. With progress in neuroscience, the law may need to abandon or alter some of its current assumptions about the nature of voluntary conduct, which underlies various defenses PMID:28216769

  20. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  1. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Improvements Needed in the Defense Logistics Agencys Evaluation of Fair and Reasonable Prices for C130 Aircraft Spare Parts (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability , integrity, and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and...years. The legacy C-130H was replaced with the C-130J model, which has significant advances in avionics and performance. According to the DLA...indefinite-quantity, indefinite-delivery contract is firm-fixed price with an estimated base-period value of $60.2 million. The contract’s total

  4. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  5. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to as the ``Council''). FOR... military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and assess the effectiveness...

  6. 75 FR 3210 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... sector corporations or entities and a wealth of top-level, global business experience in the areas of... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board... gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Business Board (hereafter referred to...

  7. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  8. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  9. Hybrid planar lightwave circuits for defense and aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Bidnyk, Serge; Yang, Shiquan; Balakrishnan, Ashok; Pearson, Matt; O'Keefe, Sean

    2010-04-01

    We present innovations in Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) that make them ideally suited for use in advanced defense and aerospace applications. We discuss PLCs that contain no micro-optic components, no moving parts, pose no spark or fire hazard, are extremely small and lightweight, and are capable of transporting and processing a range of optical signals with exceptionally high performance. This PLC platform is designed for on-chip integration of active components such as lasers and detectors, along with transimpedance amplifiers and other electronics. These active components are hybridly integrated with our silica-on-silicon PLCs using fully-automated robotics and image recognition technology. This PLC approach has been successfully applied to the design and fabrication of multi-channel transceivers for aerospace applications. The chips contain hybrid DFB lasers and high-efficiency detectors, each capable of running over 10 Gb/s, with mixed digital and analog traffic multiplexed to a single optical fiber. This highlyintegrated functionality is combined onto a silicon chip smaller than 4 x 10 mm, weighing 125 degC, and more than 2,000 hours operating at 95 degC ambient air temperature. We believe that these recent advancements in planar lightwave circuits are poised to revolutionize optical communications and interconnects in the aerospace and defense industries.

  10. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  11. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  12. U.S. Cybersecurity Defense Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Computer Network Defense ( CND ) actions to include “protecting, monitoring, analyzing, detecting, and responding to unauthorized activity within...such as computer network defense ( CND ), computer network exploitation (CNE), and computer network attack (CNA).38 In this capacity, the institution

  13. Takedown Defenses of Russian Systema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Secours

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing popularity of mixed martial arts (MMA events has motivated many martial artists to cross train in grappling disciplines. While largely beneficial for the arts as a whole, many practitioners have nevertheless integrated grappling strategies without considering whether or not their applications are simply sportive or appropriate for self-defense tactics. In this article, I will examine some historical perspectives on the role of grappling on the battlefield from published literature and consider the evidence left to us through historical texts and artwork. Based on over 20 years experience in the grappling arts, I will attempt to show that ground fighting and grappling are necessary components of a complete tactical arsenal, while carefully illustrating the difference in street tactics. I will place specific emphasis on the role of defending the takedown in a modern survival scenario, giving particular attention to the approach employed by the Russian art of Systema.

  14. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  15. Application of passive defense in urban housing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, with advances in the technology of weapons and military equipment, urban areas are most at risk of invasion. Among the most important factors in enhancing human casualties in military attacks on urban areas, one can point to the unrealistic architecture of houses which does not conform to principles such as optimal site selection and layout of the structure of human settlements, proper distribution, principles of concealment, camouflage and deception, the high degree of vulnerability of buildings and interior architecture of buildings with regard to passive defense. Structural arrangement of spaces and their connection with surrounding areas has created great opportunities for saving lives And improves system performance and reduces its vulnerability. This study with a descriptive-qualitative approach, investigates the role of passive defense in urban housing planning and the conclusions are used to create safe city, strong city and deterrent city. Results show that determining the geometric design of house, pop location, availability and predictability of secure spaces are regarded as multi-functional space for each building in times of peace and war are among the optimal components of building architecture and vernacular architecture from the perspective of a passive defense.Crises, threats and disasters are classified into two main categories: natural, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, droughts and human category such as war, accidents and diseases which are more than 50 types. The main objective of this study is investigating crisis caused by war in residential areas. In the full-scale military conflicts, one of the ultimate goals of the parties involved is making an effort to bring the breadth and scope of the battlefield to civilian centers especially to urban centers, which is usually accompanied by heavy air strikes. This act is one of the most effective strategies in the fate of wars

  16. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix II research laboratories and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This document contains summaries of the research facilities that support the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for FY 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: (1) Advanced materials sciences and technologies; chemistry and materials, explosives, special nuclear materials (SNM), and tritium. (2) Design sciences and advanced computation; physics, conceptual design and assessment, and computation and modeling. (3) Advanced manufacturing technologies and capabilities; system engineering science and technology, and electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components. Section I gives a brief summary of 23 major defense program (DP) research and technology facilities and shows how these major facilities are organized by program elements. Section II gives a more detailed breakdown of the over 200 research and technology facilities being used at the Laboratories to support the Defense Programs mission.

  17. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  18. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  19. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...... for this pattern would be co-adaptation between host colonies and their vertically transmitted mutualist. These results illustrate the complexity of the selection pressures that affect the expression of multilevel immune defenses....

  20. Optimal defense strategy: storage vs. new production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Emi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2002-12-07

    If hosts produce defense proteins after they are infected by pathogens, it may take hours to days before defense becomes fully active. By producing defense proteins beforehand, and storing them until infection, the host can cope with pathogens with a short time delay. However, producing and storing defense proteins require energy, and the activated defense proteins often cause harm to the host's body as well as to pathogens. Here, we study the optimal strategy for a host who chooses the amount of stored defense proteins, the activation of the stored proteins upon infection, and the new production of the proteins. The optimal strategy is the one that minimizes the sum of the harm by pathogens and the cost of defense. The host chooses the storage size of defense proteins based on the probability distribution of the magnitude of pathogen infection. When the infection size is predictable, all the stored proteins are to be activated upon infection. The optimal strategy is to have no storage and to rely entirely on new production if the expected infection size n(0) is small, but to have a big storage without new production if n(0) is large. The transition from the "new production" phase to "storage" phase occurs at a smaller n(0) when storage cost is small, activation cost is large, pathogen toxicity is large, pathogen growth is fast, the defense is effective, the delay is long, and the infection is more likely. On the other hand, the storage size to produce for a large n(0) decreases with three cost parameters and the defense effectiveness, increases with the likelihood of infection, the toxicity and the growth rate of pathogens, and it is independent of the time delay. When infection size is much smaller than the expected size, some of the stored proteins may stay unused.

  1. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  2. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  3. Preparing South Africa for Cyber Crime and Cyber Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie Grobler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international scope of the Internet, the fast technological advances, the wide reach of technological usage and the increase in cyber-attacks require the South African administrative and legislative system to both intersect largely with the application and implementation of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any lagging administrative and legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive and enforceable treaties facilitating international cooperation with regard to cyber defense. The result is that many developing countries in particular, are either not properly aware, not well prepared, or adequately protected by both knowledge and legislation, in the event of a cyber-attack on a national level. Even if these countries realize the threats, the time to react is of such a long nature due to consultation and legislative processes, that the legal systems provide little support to ensure timeous and necessary counter-measures. This article will address this problem by looking at the impact of technological revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa at present does not have a coordinated approach in dealing with Cybercrime and does not have a comprehensive Cyber defense strategy in place. The structures that have been established to deal with Cyber security issues are inadequate to holistically deal with these issues. The development of interventions to address cybercrime requires a partnership between business, government and civil society. This article will provide an approach to

  4. Defense Innovation and Industrialization in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Chung-in; Paek, Jae-Ok

    2010-01-01

    South Korea’s defense industrial transformation has been impressive by any standard. It was able to satisfy most of its basic weapons needs within a decade after launching its defense industry. Since the late 1990s, South Korea has been elevated from a third-tier arms producer to the second tier by moving from the stage of imitation and assembly to that of creative imitation and indigenization. It now competes with major arms-supplying countries. In addition, the South Korean defense...

  5. Strategies for Dealing with the Defense Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-17

    UNCLASSIFIED ItCUWIfV CUAWICATIOH O^ T>"» *»C« C.»lt— Omm gnt REPORT D0ajM6NTATI0N PAGE READ rNSTRUCTIO.NS OSFOPC COMWLETTNG FORM DSSW BOA ...documentation. \\ STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH THE DEFENSE BUDGET for Defense Systems Management College DSSW BOA No. MDA 903-82-G-0047 BOOZ ALLEN...Frisch, Franz A. and Acker, David D., "Financing Defense System Programs," Concepts (J. Def. Sys. Acq. Mgmt.), Vol. 4, No. 4, Autumn 1981, pp. 7

  6. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rupali D. Kombade; Meshram, B B

    2012-01-01

    Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF). CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is diffic...

  7. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  8. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  9. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  11. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  12. Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Public Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FUDS Public GIS dataset contains point location information for the 2,709 Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties where the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is...

  13. The Impact of Declining Defense Budgets on Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    structural reform, the GOJ is trying to reduce all expenditures , including defense expenditures . Conversely, Japan and countries in its vicinity face the...reform, the GOJ is trying to reduce all expenditures , including defense expenditures . Conversely, Japan and countries in its vicinity face the threat...reduce expenditures . The alternative was serious financial trouble for Japan in the near future. The impact of these reforms is that defense is no

  14. Defense Downsizing and Blacks in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    8217IIa NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A272 415 THESIS DEFENSE DOWNSIZING AND BLACKS IN THE MILITARY by Roy L. Nixon June 1993 Thesis...include security classification) DEFENSE DOWNSIZING AND BLACKS IN TIE MILITARY 12 Plersonal Author(s) Roy L. Nixon 1 3a Type of Report I13b Time Covered...end of the draft. However. the armed forces are now engaged in the process of downsizing , and there is some speculation that blacks may be

  15. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Gates Views Growth Under Way in Guam,” American Forces Press Service, May 30, 2008. 2 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, speech at Shangri-La Hotel ...crises; and sea lines of communication (SLOCs), particularly through the Straits of Malacca . Combat aircraft on Guam can reach Taiwan, Japan, Philippines...Remarks by retired Lieutenant General, USMC, George Trautman III, at Heritage Foundation, May 3, 2012. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments Congressional

  16. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  17. Surfing China’s National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People’s Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits, from many countries and regions including China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website’s Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  18. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to neutralize toxins a...

  19. The Future of Theater Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    withERINT) 1,500 IVf 74C 1998 3.0 Navy Lower-Tier Defense 1,820 SO4 50* 1999° 3* THAAD(withTMD-GBR) 1,313 80 14 2001e 9.1 AdvaaoedCapabflitylMD Systems...Administration cannot, by itself, provide a sufficient buffer between theater and strategic missile defenses. Other limits must be included. Finally, the

  20. Department of Defense Recovering Warrior Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    233 Baldor , L.C. (April 26, 2010). Top Wounded Warrior official: I was forced out. Retrieved May 26, 2014, from http://www.armytimes.com/article...Coordination briefing to the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services. 244 Baldor , L.C. (April 26, 2010). Top Wounded Warrior official: I was...2014, from http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=121796.  Baldor , L.C. (April 26, 2010). Top Wounded Warrior official: I was forced out

  1. Plant defense using toxic inorganic ions: conceptual models of the defensive enhancement and joint effects hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    The concept of plant defense using toxic mineral elements originated as an explanation for extremely elevated concentrations of some elements (termed hyperaccumulation) in some plant tissues. The Defensive Enhancement Hypothesis suggests that hyperaccumulation evolved because, after an initial defensive benefit accrued from a relatively low initial concentration, increased concentration of an element provided increased plant fitness and drove evolution of higher element concentrations until hyperaccumulation was achieved. The Joint Effects Hypothesis postulates that additive or synergistic effects between element-based defenses, or between toxic element and organic chemical defenses, may have contributed to the evolution of hyperaccumulation. By lessening the concentration of an element necessary to provide an initial defensive benefit to a plant, joint effects could decrease the level of an element that provides an initial defensive benefit, allowing additive or synergistic defensive enhancement to take effect. Recent experimental tests have demonstrated defense at relatively low element concentrations, and tests of metal/metal and metal/organic compound combinations have shown joint effects. These hypotheses suggest how hyperaccumulator plants may have evolved in response to plant-herbivore interactions, and suggest that toxic element levels below those used to define hyperaccumulation may be ecologically effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quadrennial Defense Review 2014: trends in US defense policy and consequences for NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Overhaus, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Every four years the Pentagon publishes a report on the central developments and trends in US defense policy. The Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) released in early March 2014 is the first to include in more detail the consequences of the defense budget cuts passed since 2011. Otherwise, the so-called US rebalance to the Asia-Pacific region and the war-weariness of the American people are the principal factors shaping US defense policy. While not representing a watershed for transatlantic def...

  3. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  4. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  5. Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM) Defense...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...DSN Fax: Date Assigned: November 16, 2015 Program Information Program Name Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization

  6. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating its Address Directory which is.... Jody Sinkler, 703-767-5045. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: DLA Address Directory: Defense Logistics...

  7. 78 FR 25853 - Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 323 RIN 0790-AI86 Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is revising... Defense Logistics Agency's implementation of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. In addition, DLA...

  8. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...-insurer; to submit a timely, written report to the Department of Labor (DOL) in the event of an employee's... (Defense Base Act), merely clarify the existing requirements set forth in the Defense Base Act of 1941...

  9. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  10. 22 CFR 124.15 - Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special Export Controls for Defense Articles...-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.15 Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV: Space Systems and Space Launches. (a) The export of...

  11. A Laboratory for Characterizing the Efficacy of Moving Target Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Under ARO funded BAA project entitled “Modeling and Analysis of Moving Target Defense Mechanisms in MANET ”, we at College...Efficacy of Moving Target Defense Report Title Under ARO funded BAA project entitled “Modeling and Analysis of Moving Target Defense Mechanisms in MANET ...Defense 1 Statement of the Problem Under ARO funded BAA project entitled “Modeling and Analysis of Moving Target Defense Mechanisms in MANET ”, we

  12. Unfolding network communities by combining defensive and offensive label propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Label propagation has proven to be a fast method for detecting communities in complex networks. Recent work has also improved the accuracy and stability of the basic algorithm, however, a general approach is still an open issue. We propose different label propagation algorithms that convey two unique strategies of community formation, namely, defensive preservation and offensive expansion of communities. Furthermore, the strategies are combined in an advanced label propagation algorithm that retains the advantages of both approaches; and are enhanced with hierarchical community extraction, prominent for the use on larger networks. The proposed algorithms were empirically evaluated on different benchmarks networks with planted partition and on over 30 real-world networks of various types and sizes. The results confirm the adequacy of the propositions and give promising grounds for future analysis of (large) complex networks. Nevertheless, the main contribution of this work is in showing that different types of...

  13. Recent advances in plant-herbivore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkepile, Deron E.; Parker, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions shape community dynamics across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. From amphipods to elephants and from algae to trees, plant-herbivore relationships are the crucial link generating animal biomass (and human societies) from mere sunlight. These interactions are, thus, pivotal to understanding the ecology and evolution of virtually any ecosystem. Here, we briefly highlight recent advances in four areas of plant-herbivore interactions: (1) plant defense theory, (2) herbivore diversity and ecosystem function, (3) predation risk aversion and herbivory, and (4) how a changing climate impacts plant-herbivore interactions. Recent advances in plant defense theory, for example, highlight how plant life history and defense traits affect and are affected by multiple drivers, including enemy pressure, resource availability, and the local plant neighborhood, resulting in trait-mediated feedback loops linking trophic interactions with ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Similarly, although the positive effect of consumer diversity on ecosystem function has long been recognized, recent advances using DNA barcoding to elucidate diet, and Global Positioning System/remote sensing to determine habitat selection and impact, have shown that herbivore communities are probably even more functionally diverse than currently realized. Moreover, although most diversity-function studies continue to emphasize plant diversity, herbivore diversity may have even stronger impacts on ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent studies also highlight the role of risk in plant-herbivore interactions, and risk-driven trophic cascades have emerged as landscape-scale patterns in a variety of ecosystems. Perhaps not surprisingly, many plant-herbivore interactions are currently being altered by climate change, which affects plant growth rates and resource allocation, expression of chemical defenses, plant phenology, and herbivore metabolism and behavior. Finally, we conclude by

  14. Defense Science Board Summer Study on Transformation: A Progress Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    JCS/J7 MULTI-AGENCY INTEGRATION Mr. Michael Bayer, Co-Chairman Private Consultant Ms. Michelle Flournoy CSIS Mr. Alan Schwartz Private Consultant...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BUSINESS PRACTICES Mr. Paul Brinkley Deputy Under Secretary for DoD Business Management Business Transformation Modernization...Discussion JWFC Joint Warfighting Center Demonstration Mr. Alan Shaffer DDR&E Disruptive Technologies Study Dr. Martin Stickley DARPA Advanced

  15. Defense Biometric and Forensic Office Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    for the DBFO investment strategy and ensures that projects the office funds trace back to the DoD’s science and technology (S&T) principles and...Power 3. 0, the DoD Research and Engineering Enterprise and the Reliance 21 operating principles . It also ensures that the DBFO’s approach links...view of biometric and forensic RDT &E investments across the Department of Defense. I look forward to advancing our common efforts to achieve the

  16. Defense Language Institute Russian Basic Course. Volumes XXVIII, Lessons 131-140. Volume XXX, Lessons 151-159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The 19 lessons in these two volumes are intended for the advanced phase of a 159-lesson intensive audiolingual basic Russian course developed recently by the Defense Language Institute to train native speakers of English to a Level 3 second language proficiency. These third and fifth volumes contain such features as (1) texts on the Russian Civil…

  17. In Defense of the Defense: The Continuing Political Value of Denial of Enemy Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Space Power Journal | 84 Kraig In Defense of the Defense Feature leaving all of their logistics, population, industrial, energy, food , com- munications...expenditure of effort consists in the wastage of his forces—our destruction of them” (emphases in original).61 He then refers to this de- fensive form of

  18. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  19. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  20. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralepois, M.; Larrue, C.; Wiering, M.A.; Crabbé, A.; Tapsell, S.; Mees, H.; Ek, K.; Szwed, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated

  1. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralepois, M.; Larrue, C.; Wiering, M.A.; Crabbé, A.; Tapsell, S.; Mees, H.; Ek, K.; Szwed, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated a

  2. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  3. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  4. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  5. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail.

  6. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  7. Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 500 ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery · Vol 17, No 3 (2012) ... Post-surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs with retinoic ... arising in a mature cystic ovarian Teratoma with bladder invasion: A Case Report, Abstract PDF ... of Bicalutamide in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer, Abstract.

  8. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  9. Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 557 ... ... Journal of Africa, Animal Production Research Advances, Animal ..... Frederick Haraka, Ali Mohamed, Gadi Kilonzo, Humphrey Shao ... No 3 (2010), Culture and Belief Systems: A Christian Experience in the 21st Century, Abstract .... on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living ...

  10. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  11. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sangcheol [KEIT, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation.

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  13. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  14. Strategic defense and the Western alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakoff, S.; Willoughby, R. (Univ. of California, CA (US))

    1987-01-01

    Strategic defense has again become a major item on the agenda of the Western Alliance. Revived by President Ronald Reagan in his Star Wars speech of March 1983, and implemented in his Strategic Defense Initiative, it has achieved renewed emphasis in military spending, in alliance research efforts, and in arms control negotiations. SDI is packaged in a way that makes it the largest single item in the Department of Defense's annual budget. It engages researchers in industrial and military laboratories on both sides of the Atlantic as well as in Japan and Israel. In the arms control negotiations now under way between the United States and the USSR, the conduct of this research and its implications for the strategic balance and the reduction of offensive weapons are critical considerations. The implications of this largely unexpected development are the subject of this book.

  15. Advanced Sensors for Safety and Security

    CERN Document Server

    Khudaverdyan, Surik

    2013-01-01

    This book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Technological Innovations in CBRNE Sensing and Detection for Safety, Security, and Sustainability” held in Yerevan, Armenia in 2012. The objective was to discuss and exchange views as to how fusion of advanced technologies can lead to improved sensors/detectors in support of defense, security, and situational awareness. The chapters range from policy and implementation, advanced sensor platforms using stand-off (THz and optical) and point-contact methods for detection of chemical, nuclear, biological, nuclear and explosive agents and contaminants in water, to synthesis methods for several materials used for sensors.  In view of asymmetric, kinetic, and distributed nature of threat vectors, an emphasis is placed to examine new generation of sensors/detectors that utilize an ecosystems of innovation and advanced sciences convergence in support of effective counter-measures against  CBRNE threats. The book will be of considerable interest and...

  16. Directed Energy Missions for Planetary Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, P.; Hughes, GB; Eskenazi, M; Kosmo, K.; Johansson, IE; Griswold, J., Ian,;Zhou, Hongjun,;Matison, Mikenzie,;Swanson, V., Ronald,;McIntosh, P., Lawrence,;Simon, I., Melvin,;Dahlquist, W., Frederick,; Pryor, M; O'Neill, H.; Meinhold, P.; Suen, J; J; Riley; Zhang, Q.; Walsh, K.; Melis, C.; Kangas, M

    2016-01-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation, is an orbiting stand-of...

  17. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments.

  18. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  19. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  20. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  1. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  2. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  3. The Full Costs of Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Krepinovich, “Defense Transformation,” and Paul Wolfowitz , “Transformation,” Prepared testimony, Senate Armed Services Committee, April 9, 2002...Massive Cash Infusion,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, April 22, 2002.9 Matthew L. Wald , “White House Cuts 93% of Funds Sought to Guard Atomic Arms

  4. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Radios, Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netter Sensor System, C-130 Avionics Modernization Program, or National Polar-orbiting...investigation of hypoxia-like physiological symptoms experienced by some F- 22A pilots, an issue identified as being significant starting in 2008 and

  5. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  6. Techniques for Combined Arms for Air Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    defense systems. Planning must focus on current threat intelligence capitalizing on suspected and reported enemy information that may shape near term...over short distances as attack and transport platforms because they have exceptional low altitude flight capabilities. These aircraft are easily masked...BALLISTIC MISSILES (TBM) What are the capabilities of threat TBM systems regarding:  Performance ( flight time, speed, trajectory and launch

  7. Enhancing Air Base Defense Through Joint Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Warfare, 258. 40 Tse-Tung, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare, 27. 41 Maj David P. Briar , USAF, Sharpening the Eagle’s Talons: Assessing Air Base Defense...and Contingency Operations Doctrine 1942-1976, Washington, D.C.: Center ofMilitary History U.S. Army, 2006 (143) Briar , Maj David P., USAF, Sharpening

  8. Student Papers on Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    force". The Army’s recent emphasis on maneuver and mobil - ity, and the employment of smaller units, demonstrates the utility of this doctrine...to forgo the use of defensive space systems, since some of the techonology now investigated could at least pro- tect missile sites, and make the

  9. 75 FR 32416 - Defense Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapons Effects will meet in closed... discuss presentations on: findings and recommendations of the Congressional EMP Commission, the Defense...; implementation to date of DoD Instruction 3150.09; the SECDEF 2009 Report to Congress on EMP Survivability;...

  10. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Defense Agency, Huntsville, AL; Chief, Materiel Fielding Team ( Automotive ), Materiel Fielding and Training Directorate, TACOM Life Cycle Management...Executive Office Ground Combat Systems, Detroit Arsenal, Michigan; Training With Industry Officer, EADS North America, Huntsville, Alabama; and Product...identify the ways and means to counter this imbalance or risk future erosion of our military effectiveness, diminished allied confidence, and unnecessarily

  11. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense syste

  12. Defense Science and Technology Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    program. POC: Mr. Paul Koskey, MDA/ DVI , 703-882-6154 Year: FY 2006/2007 Fiber Grating Sensor for Damage Assessment MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY (MDA) 43...sulfur, these microorganisms remove a potentially fouling precipitate from the anode. Collective activity of the biofilm and continuous flux of fuel by

  13. Rigorous Cyberspace Defense Expert Training Moves Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    planners to integrate computer network opera- tions into the commander’s opera- tions down to the tactical edge. Aspects of CND by themselves are...also a graduate of the first 255S class October 2010. ACRONYM QuickScan CND - Computer network defense CNO - Computer network operations CTF

  14. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  15. Host Defense against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    02ELEMENT NO. NO.3S162 jNO. ACESSION NO. Frdeic, arlnd210150262772A 772A874 AA280 11. TITLF (Include Securrty Classification) (U) Host Defense Against...copy Dean School of Medicine Uniformed Services University of the Hlealth Sciences 4301 Jones Bridge Road’ Bethesda, MD 20814-4799 1 copy Commandant

  16. Defense Acquisition Transformation: Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-25

    acquisition and financial databases . The emphasis is on data integrity in a net-centric, authoritative environment and comprehensive, transparent...resources R&E planning documents, financial databases , and other R&E resources Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR): Leverages

  17. Non-Traditional Commercial Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    have access to shared virtual workspaces and overnight shipping. Virtual tools improve communication among researchers both across the campus and...reports. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ smart /ppcp97c1.htm Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). (2002, April 5). Mandatory

  18. The DDN (Defense Data Network) Course,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Endtc Proceso H~~~% - ot-opue 5 - 4a 5) Technical Overview of the Defense Data Network a) Design Criteria -= . -%** Low risk, cost effective system that...SOFTWARE: VMS/Ultnx/TOPS-20 Operating System BACKGROUND: Until this past year Digital promoted the use of "DECnet" exclusively , its proprietary networking

  19. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  20. Molecular mechanisms of insect adaptation to plant defense:Lessons Iearned from a Bruchid beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keyan Zhu-Salzman; Ren Sen Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Plants can accumulate,constitutively and/or after induction,a wide variety of defense compounds in their tissues that confer resistance to herbivorous insects.The naturally occurring plant resistance gene pool can serve as an arsenal in pest management via transgenic approaches.As insect-plant interaction research rapidly advances,it has gradually become clear that the effects of plant defense compounds ale determined not only by their toxicity toward target sites,but also by how insects respond to the challenge.Insect digestive tracts age not passive targets of plant defense,but often can adapt to dietary challenge and successfully deal with various plant toxins and anti-metabolites.This adaptive response has posed an obstacle to biotechnology-based pest control approaches,which underscores the importance of understanding insect adaptive mechanisms.Molecular studies on the impact of protease inhibitors on insect digestion have contributed significantly to our understanding of insect adaptation to plant defense.This review will focus on exposing how the insect responds to protease inhibitors by both qualitative and quantitative remod-eling of their digestive proteases using the cowpea bruchid-soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N system.

  1. THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

  2. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gralepois, Mathilde; Larrue, Corinne; Wiering, Mark; Crabbé, Ann; Tapsell, Sue; Mees, Hannelore; Ek, Kristina; Szwed, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    ... (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden). The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories...

  3. Reinventing the Arsenal: Defense-Industrial Adaptation in Small States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marc R Devore

    2016-01-01

    .... forced governments to reevaluate their defense-industrial policies. In each case, governments abandoned the pursuit of defense-industrial self-sufficiency and adopted export-dependent defenseindustrial policies...

  4. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up Search: Defense Centers of Excellence For Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. Department of Defense ... Reports Program Evaluation DoD/VA PH & TBI Registry Psychological Health About Psychological Health Psychological Health Resources About ...

  5. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology and Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    occlusion , multipath etc.) through the use of inertial measurement systems (Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyro, Dynamically Tuned Gyro) and will...management systems provide mobile and semi- mobile assets (e.g., Abrams, Theater Missile Defense - TMD ) with low cost, low burden survivability...technology for development of an operational high energy Airborne Laser (ABL) for Theater Missile Defense ( TMD ). Address risk reduction issues for develop

  6. Defense Acquisitions: Assessment of Institute for Defense Analyses C-130 Avionics Modernization Program Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Page 1 GAO-14-547R C-130 Avionics Modernization Program 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 May 29, 2014...Congressional Committees Defense Acquisitions: Assessment of Institute for Defense Analyses’ C-130 Avionics Modernization Program Analysis The Air...Force’s C-130 Avionics Modernization Program (AMP), which entered development in 2001, was to standardize and upgrade the cockpit and avionics for

  7. The US-Japan Alliance: Sharing the Burden of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    expenditures to GNP. Japan Is also far down the list in defense spending per capita, behind nations such as Sweden, Australia, and Canada. Table 1.2 compares...TABLES Figures 1.1 Trends in Japanese Defense Spending ................. 14 Tables 1.1 Defense Expenditures of Major Countries ............... 12 1.2...Percentage Breakdown of Japanese Defense Expenditures by Category, FY 1977-1981 ............ 40 3.3 Disposition of US Forces in Japan

  8. Flotation advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes recent advances in flotation cell and mechanism design. OutoKumpu have designed larger cells, suitable for the flotation of smaller particles, with differing mechanisms for particles of different types. Froth handling is also closely controlled. Flotation cells from BQR are also described. Flotation columns are also increasingly being adopted, complementing the use of conventional flotation cells. Designs by Wemco, Multotec, VERTI-MIX, Jameson, Suedala, Quinn and Cytec are detailed, giving improvements in fine coal separation coarse particle separation, and other innovations. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Widder, David V

    2012-01-01

    This classic text by a distinguished mathematician and former Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University, leads students familiar with elementary calculus into confronting and solving more theoretical problems of advanced calculus. In his preface to the first edition, Professor Widder also recommends various ways the book may be used as a text in both applied mathematics and engineering.Believing that clarity of exposition depends largely on precision of statement, the author has taken pains to state exactly what is to be proved in every case. Each section consists of definitions, theorem

  10. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  11. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V

    2003-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  12. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Calculus is intended as a text for courses that furnish the backbone of the student's undergraduate education in mathematical analysis. The goal is to rigorously present the fundamental concepts within the context of illuminating examples and stimulating exercises. This book is self-contained and starts with the creation of basic tools using the completeness axiom. The continuity, differentiability, integrability, and power series representation properties of functions of a single variable are established. The next few chapters describe the topological and metric properties of Euclide

  13. 75 FR 9588 - Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of subsection... hereby given that the Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, will meet on March 22 and 23, 2010....

  14. 76 FR 20336 - Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC) AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... (5 U.S.C., Appendix, as amended), the Government in the Sunshine Act of 1976 (5 U.S.C. 552b, as...

  15. Trusted Defense Microelectronics: Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    TRUSTED DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain Statement of Marie A. Mak...1. REPORT DATE OCT 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trusted Defense Microelectronics ...House of Representatives October 2015 TRUSTED DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain Why GAO Did This Study DOD’s

  16. Urban Youth, Fear of Crime, and Resulting Defensive Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. Sherwood; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from 1,775 urban youth collected in 1986 to examine fear of crime and defensive actions taken by youth. Results revealed that only 11% reported having taken no defensive actions as result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took precaution of having escort at night. Learning self-defense techniques was reported by 19%; 10% indicated…

  17. Department of Defense DOD Freedom of Information Act Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    processor in previous example. WHITE, Sally 400 .2 Processed FOIA’s part-time while working as paralegal in General Counsel’s Office. PETERS, 1,000 .5 Part...Under Secretary of Defense (Industrial Affairs & Installations) Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs

  18. 76 FR 5729 - Department of Defense Personnel Security Program (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 156 Department of Defense Personnel Security Program (PSP) AGENCY... for the Department of Defense (DoD) Personnel Security Program (PSP) in accordance with the provisions... Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 5200.2, Personnel Security Program (PSP), codified at 32 CFR 156,...

  19. 77 FR 46653 - Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 323 RIN 0790-AI86 Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is proposing to amend the DLA Privacy Program Regulation. The DLA Privacy...

  20. Children's Use of Defenses and Self-Esteem Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Deborah

    Children's use of defenses to maintain or enhance self-esteem was investigated. Attention was given to four questions: Do children with different levels of self-esteem differ in (1) the frequency with which they employ defenses? (2) kinds of emotions they defend against? (3) the kinds of social situations which elicit their defensive responses?…

  1. 32 CFR 644.333 - Screening for defense needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Screening for defense needs. 644.333 Section 644... Screening for defense needs. Real property which becomes excess to the needs of any element of the Army or... the property is excess to the needs of the using command, without screening for other requirements....

  2. Defense Institution Reform Initiative Program Elements Need to Be Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    DSCA Defense Security Cooperation Agency DASD PSO Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for MoDA Ministry of Defense Advisors Partnership Strategy...to the USD(P) Chief of Staff. 2 According to the DASD PSO, his office provided program management for the MoDA Program. However, according to a DASD

  3. Takeover defenses and IPO firm value in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenboom, P.; van der Goot, L.R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The central question of this study involves the relation between the use of takeover defenses and IPO firm value. We report that management frequently uses takeover defenses before taking the firm public. The use of takeover defenses is primarily motivated by managerial entrenchment. IPO investors

  4. Takeover defenses and IPO firm value in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter); T. van der Goot

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe central question of this study involves the relation between the use of takeover defenses and IPO firm value. We report that management frequently uses takeover defenses before taking the firm public. The use of takeover defenses is primarily motivated by managerial entrenchment. IPO

  5. Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Budget Estimates. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defense-Wide. Volume 1 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    algorithms based on wavelets and superparamagnetic resonance for sorting neuronal spike data; develop a Bayesian network framework for analysis of cellular...nuclear spin sensitivity. − Investigate fundamental issues of nanowire communication with electrically active biological systems ( neurons ) including high...initiative encompasses high-resolution multispectral, multipolarization , radio frequency, electro-optical (EO) and active optical sensors. The program

  6. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  7. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  8. The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Study Task Force On 21ST Century Defense Technology Strategies Volume 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...3. Defense Technology Strategy and Management PART 4. Strategic Agility PART 5. Analysis and Quantitative Results iii PREFACE The Defense Science...Board (DSB) 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies continues a series of studies that have examined key challenges

  9. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  10. Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  11. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  12. Validity of Self-Report Measures of Defense Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman; Slane

    1994-06-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies.

  13. Effective adjunctive therapy by an innate defense regulatory peptide in a preclinical model of severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtman, Ariel H; Pilat, Sandra; Law, Charity W; Lynn, David J; Janot, Laure; Mayer, Matt L; Ma, Shuhua; Kindrachuk, Jason; Finlay, B Brett; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Smyth, Gordon K; Hancock, Robert E W; Schofield, Louis

    2012-05-23

    Case fatality rates for severe malaria remain high even in the best clinical settings because antimalarial drugs act against the parasite without alleviating life-threatening inflammation. We assessed the potential for host-directed therapy of severe malaria of a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, the innate defense regulator (IDR) peptides, based on host defense peptides. The Plasmodium berghei ANKA model of experimental cerebral malaria was adapted to use as a preclinical screen by combining late-stage intervention in established infections with advanced bioinformatic analysis of early transcriptional changes in co-regulated gene sets. Coadministration of IDR-1018 with standard first-line antimalarials increased survival of infected mice while down-regulating key inflammatory networks associated with fatality. Thus, IDR peptides provided host-directed adjunctive therapy for severe disease in combination with antimalarial treatment.

  14. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Military Construction, Navy Reserve 21,708 26,299 26,299 26,299 Military Construction, Air Force Reserve 25,986 33,620 33,620 33,620 Chemical Demil ...Air Force Reserve 7,634 Chemical Demil Construction, Defense 75,312 13,071,701 Appropriation 13,071,701 Budget Authority 13,071,701 TOA...7.00 3.00 Defense Prod Act 59.00 25.00 16.00 Chemical Demil 53.00 30.00 15.00 2.00 RDT&E Army 34.28 48.72 11.33 3.17 1.70 0.80 Navy 36.87 50.51 9.82

  15. Prosthetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Zach T; Potter, Benjamin K; Vandersea, James; Wolf, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current prosthetic technology is based on developments that have taken place during or directly following times of war. These developments have evolved and improved over the years, and now there are many more available options to provide a comfortable, cosmetic, and highly functional prosthesis. Even so, problems with fit and function persist. Recent developments have addressed some of the limitations faced by some military amputees. On-board microprocessor-controlled joints are making prosthetic arms and legs more responsive to environmental barriers and easier to control by the user. Advances in surgical techniques will allow more intuitive control and secure attachment to the prosthesis. As surgical techniques progress and permeate into standard practice, more sophisticated powered prosthetic devices will become commonplace, helping to restore neuromuscular loss of function. Prognoses following amputation will certainly rise, factoring into the surgeon's decision to attempt to save a limb versus perform an amputation.

  16. Is European Defense a Bridge too Far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-08

    complex security protocol was developed to share classified information. 6 After 9/11 The world changed dramatically the morning of 11 September 2001...European defense. This question, basic to defining a strategy of European security, is still pending and underlies all other debates and decisions...Internet; accessed 15 December 2005. 18 Grupo de Estudios Estrategicos GEES, “The Spanish Identity in the European Defence Industry,” Analisis 12, 8

  17. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  18. Information on Japanese Defensive Installations and Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    caves* These’ caves were extremely well camouflaged . and, in a few isolated places,, were protected by sliding steel doors against which flame... camouflage were present. In addition, artil- lery "Data- Sheets" were discovered which: indicated that the guns were to bo employed as a- battery . This...34 Octopus -pot11 defensive positions. . Blue troops usually refer to them as "pimples" because of the relatively small hills on which they have been

  19. Research on Nonlinear Dynamics with Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    numerical verifications, we have experimentally realized the scheme by using a Duffing -type of nonlinear electronic oscillator (originally developed by C...circuits In defense applications it may be desirable to induce chaos in nonlinear oscillators operating in a stable regime. Examples of such oscillators ...evolutions of the target Duffing circuit and deliver resonant perturbations to generate robust chaotic attractors. A brief account of the work has been

  20. Defense Trade Data: Sources and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    detailed trade information on such products may be difficult. Recent U.S. concerns have ranged from dependency on rare earths and first level products...BHUTAN BR INDIAN OCEAN TERR EGYPT INDIA IRAN IRAQ ISRAEL JORDAN KOWAIT LEBANON LIBYA MALDIVES MOROCCO NEPAL OMAN PAKISTAN QATAR SAODI...specifically designed or developed for military application and any computer specifically modified for use with any defense article in any category of

  1. The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eMetraux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses.

  2. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    2012/06/08/russia_installs_new_radars_as_a_ deterrent_15834.html. 130. “Direct Line with Vladimir Putin ,” President of Russia , April 17, 2014...and increases the danger of war. In his 2012 pre-election treatise on defense policy and national security, Rus- sian President Vladimir Putin ...Kontsern PVO Almaz-Antey) was established by President Vladimir Putin in 2002 uniting no fewer than 46 enterprises, including factories, research and

  3. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Merrath, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  4. The Defense of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    of US airpower an4 know disruption ofsuch power is critical to achieving their goals. Most US airpower operates from airbases, which can be...Vandegrift remained in his defensive positions because he did not know the size, strength, location, or intentions of the Japanese main body.67 Ichiki...Parachute/Raider Battalion. 75 Edson deployed his 830 men South of Henderson Field in a series of mut ~ally supporting strongnolds. He was flanked to

  5. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  6. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    price , this is actually an inverse supply curve. In competitive markets, the inverse supply curve is the firm’s marginal cost curve. When firms have a...support features and functions. The vertical axis represents the unit sale price , inclusive of all life-cycle or total ownership costs as appropriate...Three Defense Programs 3 We can easily extend the example to incorporate cost - plus payment schemes

  7. Defense Horizons. Number 78, March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    databases , National Defense University researchers have identified 124 examples of effective P4s across a wide spectrum of industries and...environment. notes 1 A review of multiple databases , case studies, and concept papers has identified over 4,000 examples of public-public and public...Partnering,” SONRI, Inc., 2010. 8 Farming First, “Innovation and Incentives for Farmers Needed to Protect World’s Biodiversity ,” press release, May 21

  8. United States Civil Military Relations: Defense Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    358–421. 154 Lederman, Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 74. 155 Thomas L. McNaugher and Roger L. Sperry , “Improving Military Coordination...edited by Thomas C. Bruneau and Florina Cristiana Matei, 26–38. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis, 2015. McNaugher, Thomas L. and Roger L... Sperry . “Improving Military Coordination: The Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization of the Department of Defense.” In Who Makes Public Policy: The

  9. Department of Defense Energy Management Plan, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Energy Usage in Existing Buildings . .......... .111-29 111-11 Timetable for Developing Utility Efficiency Standards ................. .......... 111-30...in the Defense Energy Emergency Planning System (DEEMS) document (Appendix A). The purpose of the DEEMS is to assure the availabilty of fuels to the...unleaded gasoline usage , y 1985. It is anticipated that sufficient supplies of ’alcohol and non-petroleum derived fuel will be available. DoD’s

  10. Defense Primer: A Guide for New Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    3 Research, Development , Test, and Evaluation .......................................................................... 3 Defense...Navy,” “to make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces,” and “to provide for organizing , arming, and disciplining the...Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States.... ” CRS has developed a series of short

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  12. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  13. Landscape Variation in Plant Defense Syndromes across a Tropical Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores shape tropical rainforest biodiversity, yet community- and landscape-scale patterns of plant defense and the phylogenetic and environmental factors that may shape them are poorly known. We measured foliar defense, growth, and longevity traits for 345 canopy trees across 84 species in a tropical rainforest and examined whether patterns of trait co-variation indicated the existence of plant defense syndromes. Using a DNA-barcode phylogeny and remote sensing and land-use data, we investigated how phylogeny and topo-edaphic properties influenced the distribution of syndromes. We found evidence for three distinct defense syndromes, characterized by rapid growth, growth compensated by defense, or limited palatability/low nutrition. Phylogenetic signal was generally lower for defense traits than traits related to growth or longevity. Individual defense syndromes were organized at different taxonomic levels and responded to different spatial-environmental gradients. The results suggest that a diverse set of tropical canopy trees converge on a limited number of strategies to secure resources and mitigate fitness losses due to herbivory, with patterns of distribution mediated by evolutionary histories and local habitat associations. Plant defense syndromes are multidimensional plant strategies, and thus are a useful means of discerning ecologically-relevant variation in highly diverse tropical rainforest communities. Scaling this approach to the landscape level, if plant defense syndromes can be distinguished in remotely-sensed data, they may yield new insights into the role of plant defense in structuring diverse tropical rainforest communities.

  14. Defensive mobilization in specific phobia: fear specificity, negative affectivity, and diagnostic prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M; Lang, Peter J; Wangelin, Bethany C; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Bradley, Margaret M

    2012-07-01

    Understanding of exaggerated responsivity in specific phobia-its physiology and neural mediators-has advanced considerably. However, despite strong phenotypic evidence that prominence of specific phobia relative to co-occurring conditions (i.e., principal versus nonprincipal disorder) is associated with dramatic differences in subjective distress, there is yet no consideration of such comorbidity issues on objective defensive reactivity. A community sample of specific phobia (n = 74 principal; n = 86 nonprincipal) and control (n = 76) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and eyeblinks (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also measured. Principal specific phobia patients far exceeded control participants in startle reflex and autonomic reactivity during idiographic fear imagery. Distinguishing between single and multiple phobias within principal phobia and comparing these with nonprincipal phobia revealed a continuum of decreasing defensive mobilization: single patients were strongly reactive, multiple patients were intermediate, and nonprincipal patients were attenuated-the inverse of measures of pervasive anxiety and dysphoria (i.e., negative affectivity). Further, as more disorders supplanted specific phobia from principal disorder, overall defensive mobilization was systematically more impaired. The exaggerated responsivity characteristic of specific phobia is limited to those patients for whom circumscribed fear is the most impairing condition and coincident with little additional affective psychopathology. As specific phobia is superseded in severity by broad and chronic negative affectivity, defensive reactivity progressively diminishes. Focal fears may still be clinically significant but not reflected in objective defensive mobilization. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Inducible defenses in prey intensify predator cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Osamu; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Nishimura, Kinya; Ohgushi, Takayuki

    2009-11-01

    Trophic cascades are often a potent force in ecological communities, but abiotic and biotic heterogeneity can diffuse their influence. For example, inducible defenses in many species create variation in prey edibility, and size-structured interactions, such as cannibalism, can shift predator diets away from heterospecific prey. Although both factors diffuse cascade strength by adding heterogeneity to trophic interactions, the consequences of their interactioh remain poorly understood. We show that inducible defenses in tadpole prey greatly intensify cannibalism in predatory larval salamanders. The likelihood of cannibalism was also strongly influenced by asymmetries in salamander size that appear to be most important in the presence of defended prey. Hence, variation in prey edibility and the size structure of the predator may synergistically affect predator-prey population dynamics by reducing prey mortality and increasing predator mortality via cannibalism. We also suggest that the indirect effects of prey defenses may shape the evolution of predator traits that determine diet breadth and how trophic dynamics unfold in natural systems.

  16. Tsunami Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Tsunamis mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can propagate a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive tsunamis during last several decades. The Tsunami killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected tsunami events. These tsunamis were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected tsunami strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of tsunami defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A tsunami hazard map is also made by employing both propagation and inundation models. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a tsunami hazard map. Keywords: tsunami, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan

  17. Defensive measures against hostile takeovers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the corporate takeover regime and defensive measures against hostile takeover bids in Slovenia. Although takeover legislation does not differentiate between hostile and friendly takeover, it prescribes the limitation of powers for the management of the target company, with the intention of preventing the use of defensive measures against the hostile takeover. In light of an expected rise in hostile takeover bids in Slovenia, the Corporate Act and the Takeover Act are analysed and accordingly the array of possible preventive measures as well as ad-hoc measures against hostile bids identified and evaluated for their anti-takeover effectiveness. A hostile takeover in Slovenia usually involves a hostile public tender offer at a substantial premium over the prevailing market price for a substantial percentage of the target company’s stock. Managers of target companies use in takeover battles a variety of defensive tactics, which could be controversial because they pose a conflict of interest for management. Duty of neutrality of the management of the target company during takeover process is therefore discussed in connection with the limitation of use of applicable ad hoc defence mechanisms in that period.

  18. Antiviral Defenses in Plants through Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Bragard, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Plant–virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease. GES are engineered to target and introduce mutations, which can be deleterious, via double-strand breaks at specific DNA sequences by the error-prone non-homologous recombination end-joining pathway. Although GES have been engineered to target DNA, recent discoveries of GES targeting ssRNA molecules, including virus genomes, pave the way for further studies programming plant defense against RNA viruses. Most of plant virus species have an RNA genome and at least 784 species have positive ssRNA. Here, we provide a summary of the latest progress in plant antiviral defenses mediated by GES. In addition, we also discuss briefly the GES perspectives in light of the rebooted debate on genetic modified organisms (GMOs) and the current regulatory frame for agricultural products involving the use of such engineering technologies. PMID:28167937

  19. Extracellular DNA: the tip of root defenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha C; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Wen, Fushi; White, Gerard J; Vanetten, Hans D; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2011-06-01

    This review discusses how extracellular DNA (exDNA) might function in plant defense, and at what level(s) of innate immunity this process might operate. A new role for extracellular factors in mammalian defense has been described in a series of studies. These studies reveal that cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells produce 'extracellular traps' (ETs) consisting of histone-linked exDNA. When pathogens are attracted to such ETs, they are trapped and killed. When the exDNA component of ETs is degraded, trapping is impaired and resistance against invasion is reduced. Conversely, mutation of microbial genes encoding exDNases that degrade exDNA results in loss of virulence. This discovery that exDNases are virulence factors opens new avenues for disease control. In plants, exDNA is required for defense of the root tip. Innate immunity-related proteins are among a group of >100 proteins secreted from the root cap and root border cell populations. Direct tests revealed that exDNA also is rapidly synthesized and exported from the root tip. When this exDNA is degraded by the endonuclease DNase 1, root tip resistance to fungal infection is lost; when the polymeric structure is degraded more slowly, by the exonuclease BAL31, loss of resistance to fungal infection is delayed accordingly. The results suggest that root border cells may function in a manner analogous to that which occurs in mammalian cells.

  20. Electroconvulsive Therapy Malpractice: Verdict for the Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Theodore; McCall, W Vaughn

    2015-09-01

    Malpractice cases involving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are rare. Even rarer are those malpractice cases alleging ECT-related brain damage. The few cases of ECT malpractice lawsuits are not described in the medical literature in detail. We provide a detailed account of a case of a patient and subsequent alleged ECT-related malpractice. The details of the case were collated using the handwritten notes of one of the authors who was present at the trial and the pretrial documents of discovery that were entered into evidence. The plaintiff alleged complete autobiographical amnesia after ECT, supposedly as a result of ECT-related brain damage. The defense was aided by the presence of extensive neurological examination and brain imaging both before and after ECT. The defense team also offered to the jury the concept of "dissociative amnesia" as an alternative explanation for the plaintiff's memory complaints. The case went to trial and was successfully defended. Electroconvulsive therapy malpractice cases alleging brain damage can be successfully defended, and the successful defense is aided by adequate documentation before, during, and after ECT. Malpractice cases, especially if they are baseless, can occur unpredictably, but they can be defended if the medical documentation is thorough.

  1. DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT USING GAME THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian NEDELCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Game theory provides a number of analytical tools designed to assist in developing a more comprehensive understanding of phenomena emerging when decision makers interact. A game describes the strategic interactions between players who act guided by their interests and with the consciousness that their actions affect each other. The basic entity in all game theory models is the player. A player may be understood as an individual, group of individuals or any kind of organization, even countries or alliances facing decisions-making challenges and opportunities. In this respect, the concept providing the dimensions and variables informing on the planning “game” elements required for an optimal defense resource allocation is that of ‘capabilities’. The model developed in this paper is focused on allocations of the available defense resources over the assumed capabilities in order to achieve the best response to national security. I consider as a game the competition between strategic decision-makers involved in defense resource management and the threats to the national security.

  2. PTSD as a criminal defense: a review of case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Omri; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been offered as a basis for criminal defenses, including insanity, unconsciousness, self-defense, diminished capacity, and sentencing mitigation. Examination of case law (e.g., appellate decisions) involving PTSD reveals that when offered as a criminal defense, PTSD has received mixed treatment in the judicial system. Courts have often recognized testimony about PTSD as scientifically reliable. In addition, PTSD has been recognized by appellate courts in U.S. jurisdictions as a valid basis for insanity, unconsciousness, and self-defense. However, the courts have not always found the presentation of PTSD testimony to be relevant, admissible, or compelling in such cases, particularly when expert testimony failed to show how PTSD met the standard for the given defense. In cases that did not meet the standard for one of the complete defenses, PTSD has been presented as a partial defense or mitigating circumstance, again with mixed success.

  3. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-06-05

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms.

  4. Advanced capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  5. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  6. Proactive and defensive self-regulation in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lončarić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although self-regulation research is fragmented over several interdisciplinary areas and theories, the concept of self-regulation could represent a cohesive force for integrating different areas of psychology, such as clinical, educational, or organisational psychology. This paper focuses on self-regulation within the educational framework and elaborates the concept of self-regulated learning. Current advances in self-regulated learning research indicated that concepts, such as cognition and motivation, need to be integrated into a coherent self-regulation model. Two models that integrate cognitive and motivational constructs are described in this paper, namely the motivational and cognitive self-regulation components described by Pintrich and colleagues (e.g., Garcia & Pintrich 1994, and a six component model of self-regulated learning provided by Boekaerts (1997. These models were used to formulate new and parsimonious organisational constructs that classify self-regulation components into proactive and defensive self-regulation patterns. At the end, the applicative value of the models and the need for further research, regarding the question of specific self-regulation failures (the depressive self-regulation pattern, are being discussed.

  7. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  8. Pro PHP Security From Application Security Principles to the Implementation of XSS Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Chris; Southwell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    PHP security, just like PHP itself, has advanced. Updated for PHP 5.3, the second edition of this authoritative PHP security book covers foundational PHP security topics like SQL injection, XSS, user authentication, and secure PHP development. Chris Snyder and Tom Myer also dive into recent developments like mobile security, the impact of Javascript, and the advantages of recent PHP hardening efforts. Pro PHP Security, Second Edition will serve as your complete guide for taking defensive and proactive security measures within your PHP applications. Beginners in secure programming will find a l

  9. Report of the Defense Science Board Subcommittee on Department of Defense Research Policy. Part 1. Policy on Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-12-31

    f. .. AD-A955 482 Report of the Defen e Science Board Subcomtnittee on Depart•eat of Defense RESEARCH POLICY OTIC SELECTED NOV 2 91J88 0(/H...ACCESSION NO NA 11 TITLE (inc/ud* Stcunty Oassificat/on) Report of the Defense Science Board Subcomittee on Department of Defense Research Policy , Part...Defense Research Policy Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering Washington, D. C. 31 December 1963 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE

  10. Toward a defense-dominated world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining the large-scale peace in a defense-dominated world necessarily will require not only passive but also active defenses against large-scale aggression that are technically feasible, practical and easy to employ -- and robust against perversion into support of aggression. Such peace maintenance tool-sets will feature means for effectively rebuking aggression as well as providing timely and very widely available seaming of aggression underway anywhere. This report discusses the technology base which currently exists to provide world-wide, high-quality imagery at moderate (5--10 meter) spatial resolution or imagery of 1% of the Earth`s land surface at high ({le} 1 meter) resolution no less frequently than daily, at a total cost of the order of $1 B, with operational capability in the later `90s. Such systems could provide timely warning of aggressive actions anywhere. Similarly, space-based means of defeating aggression conducted with even quite short-range ballistic missiles anywhere in the world could be brought into existence by the end of the `90s for a total cost of about $10 B, and small high-altitude, long flight-duration robotic aircraft carrying high-performance sensors and interceptor missilery could provide both seaming and active defenses against attacks conducted with very short range ballistic missiles, as well as attacks launched with air-breathing threats such as bombers and cruise missiles, for a cost per defended area of the order of $10/km{sup 2}. It appears that all of the associated sensors can find apt dual-use as high-performance systems for monitoring physical aspects of the human environment.

  11. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  12. Stop or move: Defensive strategies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline F; Vieira, Andre S; Oliveira, Jose M; Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G; Figueira, Ivan; Erthal, Fatima S; Volchan, Eliane

    2016-04-01

    Threatening cues and surrounding contexts trigger specific defensive response patterns. Potential threat evokes attentive immobility; attack evokes flight when escape is available and immobility when escape is blocked. Tonic immobility installs when threat is overwhelming and life-risky. In humans, reduced body sway characterizes attentive and tonic immobility, the former with bradycardia, and the later with expressive tachycardia. Here, we investigate human defensive strategies in the presence or absence of an escape route. We employed pictures depicting a man carrying a gun and worked with participants exposed to urban violence. In pictures simulating more possibility of escape, the gun was directed away from the observer; in those simulating higher risk and less chance of escape, the gun was directed toward the observer. Matched control pictures depicted similar layouts, but a non-lethal object substituted the gun. Posturographic and electrocardiographic recordings were collected. Amplitude of sway and heart rate were higher for gun directed-away and lower for gun direct-toward. Compared to their respective matched controls, there was a general increase in the amplitude of sway for the gun directed-away pictures; and a reduction in back-and-forth sway and in heart rate for gun directed-toward pictures. Taken together, those measures suggest that, when exposed to threat invading their margin of safety in a context indicating possible escape route, humans, as non-human species, engage in active escape, resembling the flight stage of the defensive cascade. When facing threat indicating less possibility of escape, humans present an immobile response with bradycardia.

  13. Directed energy missions for planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploration, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional propellant for launch to LEO and then ion engines to propel the spacecraft from LEO to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA). During laser ablation, the asteroid itself provides the propellant source material; thus a very modest spacecraft can deflect an asteroid much larger than would be possible with a system of similar mission mass using ion beam deflection (IBD) or a gravity tractor. DE-STARLITE is capable of deflecting an Apophis-class (325 m diameter) asteroid with a 1- to 15-year targeting time (laser on time) depending on the system design. The mission fits within the rough mission parameters of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) program in terms of mass and size. DE-STARLITE also has much greater capability for planetary defense than current proposals and is readily scalable to match the threat. It can deflect all known threats with sufficient warning.

  14. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E; Giske, Jarl; Thingstad, T Frede

    2014-01-01

    Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating) and top-down (biomass regulating) factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP) and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW), predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  15. Far Eastern Mission: One Fiercely Committed Choir Director at a Defense Department School in Japan Wants to Make a Global Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    Tim Black, choral director at the Department of Defense's Kadena High School in Okinawa, Japan, might just be the closest thing to a new-millennium embodiment of that early '70s idealism. Not only does Black lead three choirs and teach advanced placement music theory to children of those serving in the U.S. armed forces, but he also is…

  16. Far Eastern Mission: One Fiercely Committed Choir Director at a Defense Department School in Japan Wants to Make a Global Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    Tim Black, choral director at the Department of Defense's Kadena High School in Okinawa, Japan, might just be the closest thing to a new-millennium embodiment of that early '70s idealism. Not only does Black lead three choirs and teach advanced placement music theory to children of those serving in the U.S. armed forces, but he also is…

  17. The Effects of Transition from DoD (Department of Defense) to ISO (international Standards Organization) OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Alpert , Director 1 copy Center for Advanced Study University of Illinois 912 W. Illinois Street Dr. Barry W. Boehm 1 copy TRW Defense Systems Group MS...Dr. Larry E. Druffel 1 copy Software Engineering Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Dr. C.E. Hutchinson, Dean 1 copy

  18. The Reagan Defense Budget: Prospects and Pressures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    policy and to stimulate U.S. economic growth; and ( ii ) the urgent requirement to build up America’s defense capabilities. The former theme is a traditional...Paris in the Fall of 1981: a ver- sion of it will appear in the Ramses conference proceedings. -2- Unfortunately, it now seems as though these two...Proposed OMB Cut Alternatives (August) Level I 221.9 183.6 247.3 219.2 278.4 246.9 Level II 221.4 183.4 238.5 217.4 276.9 243.5 Level III 216.0 182.0

  19. The Relationship between Inflation and Defense Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    resources they would be bid up in the expanding sector. See Robert Solow , "Evaluation," in After the Phillips Curve: Persistence of High Inflation and...can be explained by the respective rates of growth of money supply per unit of national product. ’𔃼 IF’risch, op. cit., p. 1311. Robert J. Gordon...Statistical Approach for Forecasting Defense Expenditures in the Short-run," in William F. Butler, Robert A. Kavesh, and Robert B. Platt, eds., "Methods and

  20. Bacterial gasotransmitters: an innate defense against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhachack, Lyly; Nudler, Evgeny

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, there has been growing interest in the field of gasotransmitters, endogenous gaseous signaling molecules (NO, H2S, and CO), as regulators of a multitude of biochemical pathways and physiological processes. Most of the concerted effort has been on eukaryotic gasotransmitters until the subsequent discovery of bacterial counterparts. While the fundamental aspects of bacterial gasotransmitters remain undefined and necessitate further research, we will discuss a known specific role they play in defense against antibiotics. Considering the current dilemma of multidrug-resistant bacteria we consider it particularly prudent to exploring novel targets and approaches, of which the bacterial gasotransmitters, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide represent.

  1. Advanced uncooled infrared system electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Henry W.

    1998-07-01

    Over the past two decades, Raytheon Systems Company (RSC), formerly Texas Instruments Defense Systems & Electronics Group, developed a robust family of products based on a low- cost, hybrid ferroelectric (FE) uncooled focal-plane array (FPA) aimed at meeting the needs for thermal imaging products across both military and commercial markets. Over the years, RSC supplied uncooled infrared (IR) sensors for applications such as in combat vehicles, man-portable weaponry, personnel helmets, and installation security. Also, various commercial IR systems for use in automobiles, boats, law enforcement, hand-held applications, building/site security, and fire fighting have been developed. These products resulted in a high degree of success where cooled IR platforms are too bulky and costly, and other uncooled implementations are less reliable or lack significant cost advantage. Proof of this great success is found in the large price reductions, the unprecedented monthly production rates, and the wide diversity of products and customers realized in recent years. The ever- changing needs of these existing and potential customers continue to fuel the advancement of both the primary technologies and the production capabilities of uncooled IR systems at RSC. This paper will describe a development project intended to further advance the system electronics capabilities of future uncooled IR products.

  2. Who Pays for National Defense? Financing Defense Programs in the United States, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Uk; Bohte, John

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on military expenditures in the United States have primarily focused on the extent to which guns versus butter trade-offs are prevalent without examining this relationship in the context of how other fiscal policy tools are used to pay for defense. Using annual data from 1947-2007, this study examines the relative importance of…

  3. Defense Intelligence Agency: 50 Years Committed to Excellence in Defense of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to the September 11th terrorist attacks on the Pentagon. Rosa Chapa , Sandra Foster, Robert Hymel, Shelley Marshall, Patricia Mickley, Charles...the Nation MASTER SERGEANT WILLIAM W. BULTMEIER, USA, (RET) Defense Attaché Offi ce, Niamey 23 December 2000 ROSA M. CHAPA Offi ce of the Comptroller

  4. The silent defense: Micro-RNA directed defense against HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajit

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs play critical role in regulating gene expression. MicroRNA profile of particular cell type bears the signature of cell type specific gene expression. Given that viral pathogens replicate by evading host defenses, research is now focused on the miRNA-regulated genes that critically regulate HIV-1 propagation in human host cells.

  5. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.; Marak, H.B.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be generalized defense

  6. Transitioning Defense Organizational Initiatives: An Assessment of Key 2001-2008 Defense Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Pierre Chao Dr. Daniel Y. Chiu Mr. Raymond F. DuBois Ms. Michèle A. Flournoy Gen Ronald R. Fogleman, USAF (Ret.) Dr. Jacques S. Gansler Mr. Paul R.S...transformation was the Defense Business Board. First chaired by General Gus Pagonis (U. S. Army, Ret.), the chair since 2007 has been Michael Bayer . This

  7. Making Department of Defense Basic Research Purple (Joint), but NOT the Department of Defense Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    outside of government, where they report to the chief executive officer (CEO) or to the CEO through a chief technology officer ( CTO ). The panel...Technology ASDR&E Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering CEO chief executive officer COE Center of Excellence CTO chief

  8. 76 FR 44293 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... presented by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics in a memorandum dated... offered price. These provisions must also be used in acquisitions of commercial items conducted using part...--ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS 4. Add new section 212.205 to read as follows: 212.205 Offers. (c) When...

  9. Defense Planning in the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine: Decade of Attempts and Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    should be done by using the IAS for a modeling situation (for instance, JWARS—Joint Warfare System) or IAS which can carry out a SWOT analysis (IAS...43  C.  MISTAKE ANALYSIS OF CONDUCTED DEFENSE REVIEW IN MDU...PROGRAMS ...................................................64  B.  ANALYSIS OF PLANNING AND EXECUTING FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF MDU

  10. STUDY OF THE DEFENSIVE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN PEAK PERFORMANCE BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro \\u00C1lvarez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the different defensive performance indicators in basketball, analyzing the difference in relation to success (efficacious or non-efficacious defenses and the game result (win or loss. All halfcourt offenses (n=1045 from the quarterfinal, semifinal, consolation game, and final of the 2008 Olympics Games were analyzed. In each defense phase, the following variables were analyzed with regard to the team on defense: (1 Type of defense used, (2 Pressure in offense transition, (3 Defensive switches, (4 Helping on defense, (5 Inside passes, (6 Degree of opposition when shooting, (7 Points allowed, (8 Final result of the game, and (9 Defensive efficacy. The most significant results show that: : a the type of defense that was most used was quarter-court an-on-man (man-on-man at 6.25m, but the one that was most efficacious was the half-court zone defense; b transition pressure was used in 23.83% of the game phases; c defensive switches were done in 7.85% of the game phases; d helping on defense was used in 60% of the game phases; e inside passes were taken in 30.9% of the game phases; f 38.9% of the shots were done with high opposition; and g points were scored in 42.28% of the game phases, such that winning teams allowed the opponent to score in 38.81% of the game phases, and losing teams in 45.77%.

  11. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-de...

  12. Deming's Management Philosophy and the defense industrial base.

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, David Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to analyze why firms are leaving the defense industrial base and to determine if Dr. Edwards Deming's Management Philosophy can offer a more constructive way of doing business in the Defense Acquisition System. A comparative analysis was conducted between industry's reasons for wanting to leave the defense sector and Deming's Management Philosophy. This analysis determined if adoption of Deming's Managemen...

  13. Assessing Future Trends in the Defense Burdens of Western Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Summary Table 1). A weighted average for the four allies that spend most heavily on defense -- Japan , France, Germany, and the United Kingdom--is projected...military was dismantled. Among the largest allies, Japan represents the other extreme. Japanese defense spending as a percentage of GDP is projected to...January 1993. d. Weighted average for Japan , France, Germany, and the United Kingdom--countries that spend the greatest amounts on defense . e The 1990

  14. Analysis of Defense Products Contract Trends, 1990-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Analysis of Defense Products Contract Trends , 1990–2014 Andrew Hunter—is a senior fellow in the International Security Program and director of the Defense...a decade, the Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has analyzed and reported on trends ...countervailing trend of divestments, including Northrop Grumman’s divestment of its shipbuilding business into Huntington Ingalls Industries. As

  15. Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    Senate versions of the bill would have done). The ships for which most of the total cost is authorized in FY2012 include two Virginia -class submarines, a...New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions, by Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations...Missile Defense and Offensive Arms Reductions: A Review of the Historical Record, by Steven A. Hildreth and Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget

  16. Department of Defense Laboratories: Finding a Future in Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    investment. There is no mention of DoD even trying. This, then, presents a problem for Defense technology transfer management. The President expects both...effort, but nonetheless felt unable to express their effort quantitatively. The potential size and demand for Defense technology transfer calls for some... Defense technology transfer is taking place, it is doing so on the enthusiasm and drive of a few key individuals. Political demand and legislation

  17. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choupina, Altino Branco; Estevinho, Letícia; Martins, Ivone M

    2014-05-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species secrete large amounts of elicitins, a group of unique highly conserved proteins that are able to induce hypersensitive response (HR) and enhances plant defense responses in a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) manner against infection by different pathogens. Some other proteins involved in mechanisms of infection by P. cinnamomi were identified by our group: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (complete cds); exo-glucanase (partial cds) responsible by adhesion, penetration, and colonization of host tissues; glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP) (complete cds) responsible by the suppression of host defense responses; necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) (partial cds); and transglutaminase (partial cds) which inducts defense responses and disease-like symptoms. In this mini-review, we present some scientifically advanced solutions that can contribute to the resolution of ink disease.

  18. Connecting growth and defense: the emerging roles of brassinosteroids and gibberellins in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Höfte, Monica; De Vleesschauwer, David

    2014-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs) are two groups of phytohormones that regulate many common developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle. Fueled by large-scale 'omics' technologies and the burgeoning field of plant computational biology, the past few years have witnessed paradigm-shifting advances in our understanding of how BRs and GA are perceived and their signals transduced. Accumulating evidence also implicates BR and GA in the coordination and integration of plant immune responses. Similarly to other growth regulators, BR and GA play ambiguous roles in molding pathological outcomes, the effects of which may depend not only on the pathogen's lifestyle and infection strategy, but also on specialized features of each interaction. Analysis of the underpinning molecular mechanisms points to a crucial role of GA-inhibiting DELLA proteins and the BR-regulated transcription factor BZR1. Acting at the interface of developmental and defense signaling, these proteins likely serve as central hubs for pathway crosstalk and signal integration, allowing appropriate modulation of plant growth and defense in response to various stimuli. In this review, we outline the latest discoveries dealing with BR and GA modulation of plant innate immunity and highlight interactions between BR and GA signaling, plant defense, and microbial virulence.

  19. Strategic culture and ballistic missile defense: Russia and the United States. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.D.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis examines U.S. and Russian history and current policy debates to advance understanding of: (1) the strategic cultures of these nations, particularly with respect to BMD policies in the recent past; and (2) whether and how their strategic cultures and approaches to BMD are changing and how that may affect future strategic BMD developments and the status of the ABM Treaty. The development of BMD strategies, including policies concerning the ABM Treaty, within the framework of the established American and Russian strategic cultures is studied, with due attention to the Soviet experience and legacy in the Russian case. U.S. strategic culture does not seem to have changed significantly with the end of the Cold War, but U.S. BMD priorities have been redefined to reflect a higher priority attached to regional and theater-level defenses. It is apparent that the Soviet experience did have a significant impact on Russian strategic culture. Faced with major changes in its international status, domestic political-military arrangements, and scope of national security concerns, Russian strategic culture is nonetheless moving beyond the old Soviet culture. Future Russian policies regarding the transfer of BMD technology, sharing early warning data, and participating in a global protective system are heavily dependent on domestic political developments. United States, Russia, USSR, Strategic culture, Ballistic missile defense, National strategy, Nuclear strategy, Strategic defense, ABM Treaty, Arms control, Strategic stability.

  20. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  1. Total Quality Management in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    DTI ELECT SDu TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS BRUCE E. SPRINGS, B.S. CAPTAIN, USAF AFIT/GLN/LSR/ 89S -57 I1- DEPARTMENT...13 0 3 AFIT/GLM/LSR/89S-57 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS BRUCE E. SPRINGS, B.S. CAPTAIN, USAF AFIT/GLH/LSR/89S-57...Defense. # AFIT/GLM/LSR/89S-57 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  2. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests.

  3. Law & psychiatry: Does the constitution require an insanity defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2013-10-01

    Idaho is one of four states that have abolished the insanity defense. Hence, John Delling, on trial for two murders in Idaho, was unable to plead insanity or to argue that he lacked intent to kill, the only available option under Idaho law. After being sentenced to life in prison without parole, Delling challenged the constitutionality of Idaho's law. The state's supreme court rejected his appeal, holding that--despite the long history of the insanity defense and its widespread acceptance--there was no constitutional right to an insanity defense. Delling's petition to the U.S. Supreme Court was turned away, leaving the constitutional status of the insanity defense uncertain.

  4. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defensedefense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species, leaves (67%, and reproductive organs (56%. The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  5. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Defense Health Board Subcommittees will present updates to the Board: National Capital Region Base... Forces, Military/ Occupational Health and Medical Surveillance, and the Psychological Health...

  6. Does self-defense training prevent sexual violence against women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jocelyn A

    2014-03-01

    Self-defense classes are offered across the nation as a strategy for reducing women's vulnerability to sexual assault. Yet there has been little systematic research assessing the effectiveness of these classes. In this article, I use data from a mixed methods study of a 10-week, university-based, feminist self-defense class to examine the effectiveness of self-defense training over a 1-year follow-up period. My analyses indicate that women who participate in self-defense training are less likely to experience sexual assault and are more confident in their ability to effectively resist assault than similar women who have not taken such a class.

  7. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  8. Antioxidative defense mechanisms in the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an extremely complex, multifactorial process that is characterized by a gradual and continuous loss of physiological functions and responses, particularly marked in the brain. A common hallmark in aging and age-related diseases is an increase in oxidative stress and the failure of antioxidant defense systems. Current knowledge indicates that the level of glutathione progressively declines during aging. Because nerve cells are the longest-living cells that exhibit a high consumption rate of oxygen throughout an individual’s lifetime, the brain may be especially vulnerable to oxidative damage and this vulnerability increases during aging. In addition, the brain contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and transition metals and low antioxidative defense mechanisms. Although aging is an inevitable event, a growing volume of data confirms that antioxidant supplementation in combination with symptomatic drug treatments reduces oxidative stress and improves cognitive function in aging and age-related diseases. The present review discusses the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the aging brain.

  9. Directed Energy Missions for Planetary Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathon; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional prop...

  10. Beryllium--important for national defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

  11. Servant leadership behaviors of aerospace and defense project managers and their relation to project success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Michael T.

    The success of a project is dependent in part on the skills, knowledge, and behavior of its leader, the project manager. Despite advances in project manager certifications and professional development, the aerospace and defense industry has continued to see highly visible and expensive project failures partially attributable to failures in leadership. Servant leadership is an emerging leadership theory whose practitioners embrace empowerment, authenticity, humility, accountability, forgiveness, courage, standing back, and stewardship, but has not yet been fully examined in the context of the project manager as leader. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between servant leadership behaviors demonstrated by aerospace and defense project managers and the resulting success of their projects. Study participants were drawn from aerospace and defense oriented affinity groups from the LinkedInRTM social media web system. The participants rated their project managers using a 30-item servant leadership scale, and rated the success of their project using a 12-item project success scale. One hundred and fifteen valid responses were analyzed from 231 collected samples from persons who had worked for a project manager on an aerospace and defense project within the past year. The results of the study demonstrated statistically significant levels of positive correlation to project success for all eight servant leadership factors independently evaluated. Using multiple linear regression methods, the servant leadership factors of empowerment and authenticity were determined to be substantial and statistically significant predictors of project success. The study results established the potential application of servant leadership as a valid approach for improving outcomes of projects.

  12. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  13. Defense Headquarters: Improved Data Needed to Better Identify Streamlining and Cost Savings Opportunities by Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    approaches from the commercial sector to the department’s six core business processes— management of human resources , healthcare, financial flow... human resource programs for nonappropriated funds, and centrally managed information technology functions. Most of the personnel involved in these...Defense Contract Management Agency • Defense Finance and Accounting Service • Defense Health Agency • Defense Human Resource Activity • Defense

  14. 32 CFR 37.1030 - What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.1030 Section 37.1030 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing...

  15. 77 FR 29443 - 60-Day Notice of Two Proposed Directorate of Defense Trade Controls Information Collections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... collection: The export, temporary import, temporary export and brokering of defense articles, defense... Export Control Act. Those of the public who manufacture or export defense articles, defense services, and... personal delivery. Dated: May 14, 2012. Robert S. Kovac, Managing Director of Defense Trade...

  16. Survey of Laboratories and Implementation of the Federal Defense Laboratory Diversification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Defense Technology Transfer Working Group AGENCY...Director, Defense Research and Engineering. ACTION: solicitation in inputs for defense technology transfer . The Defense Technology Transfer Working...DAILY, 2.3 July 1993 Detense Nuclear Agency, 6801 Telegraph Road, Alexandria,, VA 22310D-3398 A - SOURCES SOUGHT FOR INPUTS FOR DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 3, Issue 78, July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    for National Security and Resource Strategy Dr. J. Ronald Fox Harvard Business School Mr. David Gallop Defense Acquisition University Dr. Jacques...Predator: The Secret Origins of the Drone Revolution Written by Richard Whittle Reviewed by Julien Demotes-Mainard Mr. Patrick Fitzgerald Defense...Defense Acquisition Research Journal, formerly the Defense Acquisition Review Journal, is published quarterly by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU

  18. Symposium by NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII on Computer-Based Instruction in Military Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Weddle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...

  19. Defense of breast cancer malpractice claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, S; D'Orsi, C J; Ricci, B A; Halloran, E E; Resseguie, L J; Greenwald, L; Mondor, M C

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether factors associated with the successful defense and cost of malpractice cases involving the failure to diagnose breast cancer could be identified in medical and legal records. Secondary goals were to develop a multidisciplinary clinical algorithm utilizing National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) practice guidelines with practitioner risk management strategies. Physician deviations from these guidelines were tracked to identify high-risk areas in the diagnosis of breast cancer. A multidisciplinary clinical algorithm was introduced and practitioner risk management issues were addressed. In this study specific medical, legal, and cost factors were retrospectively abstracted and analyzed to identify associations between medical and legal factors and medicolegal outcome. ProMutual handled 156 malpractice cases involving breast cancer between January 22, 1986, and November 20, 1997. Of the total, 124 cases involving 212 defendants were closed. The closed cases were analyzed, using multivariable stepwise logistic and linear regression, to identify associations between clinical factors and case outcome. Women's health practitioners (WHPs), including obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs), family medicine, and internal medicine clinicians, were the largest group of defendants (97). Others included radiologists (43), surgeons (33), and pathologists (3). OB-GYNs accounted for 31% of these defendants, with a cost of more than $16 million. The greatest number of specialists represented in the open cases were radiologists, with 38% of the total. The defense model predicts that the probability of successful defense is lessened with inadequate record keeping, a patient that has metastasis and is alive, and a delay in diagnosis of 12 months or more. The overall indemnity model predicts a higher indemnity with the spread of disease at the time of evaluation, a patient who has metastasis and is alive, and a date of occurrence closer

  20. 29 CFR 790.13 - General nature of defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General nature of defense. 790.13 Section 790.13 Labor... Administrative Regulations, Etc. § 790.13 General nature of defense. (a) Under the provisions of sections 9 and... recognition by Congress of the remedial nature of the Fair Labor Standards Act and of the need...

  1. Applications of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to defense and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Hopkins, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for sub-surface and through barrier detection and has applications in drug analysis, cancer detection, forensic science, as well as defense and security. This paper reviews previous efforts in SORS and other through barrier Raman techniques and presents a discussion on current research in defense and security applications.

  2. Common loon nest defense against an American mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kyle P.; Destefano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We describe a successful nest defense strategy of an adult Gavia immer (Common Loon) during an attempted predation event by a Nevison vison (American Mink) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge, NH. It is suspected that mink occasionally depredate loon nests, but defense strategies have not been described previously.

  3. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  4. 76 FR 2246 - Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... made the existing guidance outdated and inconsistent with current law and the current organizational structure of the Department of Defense. This final rule will facilitate civil authorities' access to the... Activities, and all other organizational entities within the Department of Defense (hereafter referred to...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial host defense in the airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joost Bastiaan

    2007-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are indispensable for the host defense system in the lungs. Various strategies by which epithelial cells protect the lungs against inhaled pathogens have been described. In spite of that, the molecular mechanisms by which epithelial cells initiate and control the host defense

  6. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Issue 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    exclusivity and the egos of A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil 477 Defense ARJ, January 2014, Vol. 21 No. 1: 466–484...the decreasing strength of their fleet relative to Japan’s. As Professor John Kuehn emphasizes, this multidimensional threat drasti- cally altered

  7. 75 FR 9399 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C., Appendix as... Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, a subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (DHB), will..., Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, One Skyline...

  8. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  9. Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    ANL/EVS-17/9 Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations Environmental Science Division About...LLC. June 16, 2017 ANL/EVS-17/9 Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense Installations prepared by Rao Kotamarthi...7 3.2 Use of Weather Data and Views on Climate Change among the DoD Site Contacts

  10. Molecular sabotage of host plant defenses by spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarroel Figueroa, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants constitute an ample source of nutrients for a diversity of organisms that include viruses, microbes, nematodes, insects, and mites. To protect their resources, plants possess a robust immune system that establishes structural and biochemical defenses to fight invaders. Some of these defenses

  11. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... piracy operations conducted pursuant to title 10, U.S.C. Sec. 182.3 Definitions. The...

  12. Defense Spending and the Economy - An Econometric View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    spend the peace dividend. Most people expect that dividend to be generated by improvements in the economy fueled by reductions in defense expenditure...There have been a myriad of articles written regarding the effects defense spending has on the economy . Many of the authors of these articles disagree

  13. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Detection of Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Mary Louise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The use of scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to detect defensiveness in criminal and nonclinical samples was evaluated with 45 male inmates and 38 male undergraduates under standard conditions or under instructions to feign a positive role. Results indicate that the PAI is susceptible to defensive dissimulation. (SLD)

  14. Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment Christopher L. Vowels W. Anthony Scroggins U.S. Army Research Institute Captain Kyle T...7260 Alabama Avenue Fort Polk, LA 71459 ii Research Report 2003 Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment...the entirety of the project and his guidance ensured the research was successful. iv DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS IN A DECISIVE ACTION TRAINING

  15. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE Actions Needed to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning Report to the Committee on Armed...to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning What GAO Found Based on GAO’s survey of Department of Defense (DOD) owned utility systems, there were...Evaluation 40 Appendix I Scope and Methodology 42 Appendix II Survey on DOD-Owned Utility Resilience 48 Appendix III Comments from the

  16. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuest, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources o...

  17. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  18. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  19. Department of Defense Homeland Security Joint Operating Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could include computer network attack.”19 In 2015...electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access while...security, counter-deception, counter- psychological operations, counter-intelligence, electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive

  20. Department of Defense Management of Unobligated Funds for Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    CGFM, MBA, Senior Staff Accountant, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), Financial Improvement and Audit Readiness (FIAR), 703...This research analyzes financial obligation rates for acquisition programs and acquisition program contract awards made in the last quarter of the...Postgraduate School since September 2010. Prior to that, he taught acquisition and business, cost estimating, and financial management courses at the Defense

  1. Defense Reform: An Out of the Box Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    O’Hanlon, Michael, Defense Planning for the Late 1990s, Beyond the Desert Storm Framework, Brookings, 1995, page 34 Ibid., page 31 Muradian, Vago ...Closure Rounds", GAO/NSIAD-97-151. May 1997 Muradian, Vago , "Bumpers Questions Navy of F/A-18E/F, Overall Shipbuilding Plan", Defense Daily. 12

  2. Silicon-inducible defenses of Zinnia elegans against Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several examples exist of silicon (Si) amendment inducing plant chemical defenses against plant pathogens, but few studies have focused on Si-induced defenses against phloem-feeding herbivores. The current study examined Si treatment of Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv. Oklahoma White (Compositae) on the pe...

  3. Globalization and Its Implications for the Defense Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    pursued three strategies: buying relatively small defense units from diversified U.S. conglomerates (like General Motors and TRW); acquiring defense...13.9 percent).121 European companies have been very successful in China: Volkswagen makes the country’s most popular brand of cars, and Siemens is the

  4. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-300.22 Section 60-300.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  5. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-250.22 Section 60-250.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  6. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  7. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    distribution and deployment. f. level VI - personnel: detail expressed by name, Service , military occupational specialty and unique identification...of one or more weapons with all related equipment, materials, services , personnel, and means of delivery and deployment (if applicable) required for...2016 A-46 JP 1-02 DCRF defense chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear response force DCS Defense Courier Service ; deputy chief

  8. 77 FR 46425 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.150, and in accordance with section 10(a)(2) of Public Law, a meeting of...

  9. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  10. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  11. Animal defense strategies and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Shuhama

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The second is manifested by oriented escape or by behavioral inhibition, being related to normal fear and to Specific Phobias, as disorders. The third consists of disorganized flight or complete immobility, associated to dread and Panic Disorder. Among conspecific interactions lies a forth defense strategy, submission, that has been related to normal social anxiety (shyness and to Social Anxiety Disorder. In turn, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder do not seem to be directly related to innate defense reactions. Such evolutionary approach offers a reliable theoretical framework for the study of the biological determinants of anxiety disorders, and a sound basis for psychiatric classification.Os transtornos de ansiedade são classificados conforme a sintomatologia, decurso temporal e resposta terapêutica. Paralelamente, a análise experimental dos comportamentos de defesa identificou três estratégias comuns a diferentes espécies de animais, desencadeadas por situações de perigo predatório potencial, distal ou proximal, respectivamente. A primeira consiste na investigação cautelosa do ambiente, avaliando o risco. Supõe-se que a emoção que a acompanha seja a ansiedade e sua patologia, o Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada. A segunda é expressa pela fuga orientada ou pela inibição comportamental, sendo a emoção correlata o medo, e a patologia representada pelas Fobias Específicas. Finalmente, a

  12. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  13. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  14. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  15. Climate Change Impacts at Department of Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, Rao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jiali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zoebel, Zach [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Wuebbles, Don [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hayhoe, Katharine [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Stein, Michael [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Changnon, David [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2017-06-16

    This project is aimed at providing the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) with a comprehensive analysis of the uncertainty associated with generating climate projections at the regional scale that can be used by stakeholders and decision makers to quantify and plan for the impacts of future climate change at specific locations. The merits and limitations of commonly used downscaling models, ranging from simple to complex, are compared, and their appropriateness for application at installation scales is evaluated. Downscaled climate projections are generated at selected DoD installations using dynamic and statistical methods with an emphasis on generating probability distributions of climate variables and their associated uncertainties. The sites selection and selection of variables and parameters for downscaling was based on a comprehensive understanding of the current and projected roles that weather and climate play in operating, maintaining, and planning DoD facilities and installations.

  16. Defensive Diterpene from the Aeolidoidean Phyllodesmium longicirrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Hertzer, Cora; Kehraus, Stefan; Nietzer, Samuel; Rohde, Sven; Schupp, Peter J; Wägele, Heike; König, Gabriele M

    2016-03-25

    Phyllodesmium is a tropical marine slug genus with about 30 described species. None of them have a protective shell, and all of them feed on octocorals that are generally known to provide defensive compounds and thus help to defend the naked slugs against sympatric predators, such as fish, crabs, cephalopods, and echinoderms. Phyllodesmium longicirrum is the species that grows the biggest and that is least protected by camouflage on its respective food, usually a soft coral of the genus Sarcophyton. Investigation of the lipophilic extract of a single specimen of P. longicirrum from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) led to the isolation of four new polycyclic diterpenes. Compound 1 showed significant deterrent activity in a fish feeding assay.

  17. Second Line of Defense Spares Program Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is part of the Department of Energy‘s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The SLD Program accomplishes its critical global security mission by forming cooperative relationships with partner countries to install passive radiation detection systems that augment traditional inspection and law enforcement measures by alerting border officials to the presence of special nuclear or other radiological materials in cross-border traffic. An important tenet of the program is to work collaboratively with these countries to establish the necessary processes, procedures, infrastructure and conditions that will enable them to fully assume the financial and technical responsibilities for operating the equipment. As the number of operational deployments grows, the SLD Program faces an increasingly complex logistics process to promote the timely and efficient supply of spare parts.

  18. The Role of Advanced Manufacturing in Our Journey to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute was launched in August 2012 as a result of President Obama's proposed need for a whole-of-government advanced manufacturing effort. Mission: To accelerate the adoption of additive manufacturing technologies to increase domestic manufacturing competitiveness. Funding: Five federal agencies - the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Commerce, the National Science Foundation, and NASA - jointly committed to invest $45 million.

  19. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  20. Contaminants at Arctic formerly used defense sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DO Carpenter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine if the source of contaminants at formerly used defense sites (FUDS in Alaska were deposited as a result of military occupancy or from long-­-distance transport. This determination largely influences whether remediation will occur, and, if so, to what extent. For this reason, plant samples (rinsed and unrinsed and sediment cores were collected at military and remote sites on St. Lawrence Island (SLI and Norton Sound, Alaska during the summers of 2002, 2006, and 2007 and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants. On St. Lawrence Island sediment core samples were collected at the Northeast Cape FUDS, also a traditional fishing/hunting camp, and were sectioned and analyzed for concentrations of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners, Mirex, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB, Mercury and Cesium-­-137 (137Cs. Differences in the total concentrations and distributions of PCB congeners, Mirex, DDE and Mercury in sediment cores and in plants collected from the two SLI and three Norton Sound mainland formerly used defense sites indicate the majority of the contaminants found can be temporally related to releases during military occupancy and subsequent redistribution of contaminants. Contaminants in plant samples at the SLI sites are elevated relative to the two remote sites located on St. Lawrence Island and the three mainland Norton Sound FUDS at Elim, Unalakleet, and Wales. The concentrations, lateral and vertical distribution of the total PCBs, and congener-­-specific differences in sediments and plants readily differentiate locally derived from globally transported contaminants. The relative contaminant concentrations in sediment cores and between rinsed and unrinsed plants collected from the NEC FUDS indicate contaminants were remobilized and redistributed during recent site remediation activities.

  1. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Schultz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness.

  2. Evaluating Moving Target Defense with PLADD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hobbs, Jacob Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tauritz, Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulder, Samuel A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of moving target defense (MTD) techniques using a new game we have designed, called PLADD, inspired by the game FlipIt [28]. PLADD extends FlipIt by incorporating what we believe are key MTD concepts. We have analyzed PLADD and proven the existence of a defender strategy that pushes a rational attacker out of the game, demonstrated how limited the strategies available to an attacker are in PLADD, and derived analytic expressions for the expected utility of the game’s players in multiple game variants. We have created an algorithm for finding a defender’s optimal PLADD strategy. We show that in the special case of achieving deterrence in PLADD, MTD is not always cost effective and that its optimal deployment may shift abruptly from not using MTD at all to using it as aggressively as possible. We believe our effort provides basic, fundamental insights into the use of MTD, but conclude that a truly practical analysis requires model selection and calibration based on real scenarios and empirical data. We propose several avenues for further inquiry, including (1) agents with adaptive capabilities more reflective of real world adversaries, (2) the presence of multiple, heterogeneous adversaries, (3) computational game theory-based approaches such as coevolution to allow scaling to the real world beyond the limitations of analytical analysis and classical game theory, (4) mapping the game to real-world scenarios, (5) taking player risk into account when designing a strategy (in addition to expected payoff), (6) improving our understanding of the dynamic nature of MTD-inspired games by using a martingale representation, defensive forecasting, and techniques from signal processing, and (7) using adversarial games to develop inherently resilient cyber systems.

  3. Promoter-Based Integration in Plant Defense Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Gaudinier, Allison; Tang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A key unanswered question in plant biology is how a plant regulates metabolism to maximize performance across an array of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. In this study, we addressed the potential breadth of transcriptional regulation that can alter accumulation of the defensive...... validation, we showed that >75% of tested transcription factor (TF) mutants significantly altered the accumulation of the defensive glucosinolates. These glucosinolate phenotypes were conditional upon the environment and tissue type, suggesting that these TFs may allow the plant to tune its defenses...... to the local environment. Furthermore, the pattern of TF/promoter interactions could partially explain mutant phenotypes. This work shows that defense chemistry within Arabidopsis has a highly intricate transcriptional regulatory system that may allow for the optimization of defense metabolite accumulation...

  4. Defenses and morality: Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, and contemporary psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrinetti, Paul A; Özler, Sule

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system.

  5. 5th International Conference OTEH 2012 - defense technology (Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Petar Đurković

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of all papers and events at the Fifth International ScientificConference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012 held in Belgrade, in the Military Technical Institute (VTI, from 18th to 19th September 2012.The paper review presents the Conference Sections by subjects and guest-lectureres as well as the institutions of all authors who actively participated at the Conference.About the ConferenceThe Fifth International Scientific Conference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012  was held in Belgrade in the Military Technical Institute in Žarkovo, from 18th to 19thSeptember 2012..The Conference program was organized in two plenary sessions and a working part which took place in four halls.In the plenary session, two key lectures were held by eminent experts from abroad. The first lecture entitled „An adaptive remeshing technique for 3D crack growth simulations”, was given by Dr Vincent Chiaruttini (ONERA Institute, Paris, France. The second one, „New Technologies for Advanced Defence Systems”, was held by Dr Filippo Neri (Virtualabs Company, Rome, Italy.Fifteen sessions were organised at the Conference. The authors presented their works in open discussions answering questions from the audience. The average number of attendees at each session was about 40.The papers were sorted by topic areas:Aerodynamics and flight dynamics: 12 papersAircraft: 23 papersWeapon systems, ammunition, energy materials, combat vehicles: 29 papersIntegrated sensor systems and robotic systems: 16 papersTelecommunication and information systems: 18 papersMaterials and technologies: 34 papersQuality, standardization, metrology, maintenance and exploitation: 11 papersOut of 163 submitted papers for this Conference, 145 papers were accepted and distributed in an electronic form on CDs to the present authors, co-authors, guests and invitees to the Conference. The number of participants with authors and co-authors was impressive - 243. The

  6. Reappraising Defense Organization: An Analysis Based on the Defense Organization Study of 1977-1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    or all of the current structure and there- by presents the opportunity for some external entity to begin, like Moses, with a tabula rasa , the...fundamental role of the Department of Defense (DOD) has been to "provide for the common defence," as described in the US Constitution. This...be strengthened. Chapter 5 focuses on the military depart- ments, with particular emphasis on the role of the service secretar- ies. It recommends

  7. FY 1972-1976 Defense Program and the 1972 Defense Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-01

    Thai Government. This assessment was given me by Thai officials during my recent visit there. Insurgents along the Thai/ Malaysian border are under the...Development and Initial Procurement of Maverick Air-to-Ground Missile 31 87 Air Superiority and Air Defense Continued Procurement of F-4 Air Force Fighter... MAVERICK . The MAVERICK is another program that is of importance in providing increased capabilities for support of troops on the battlefield. MAVERICK is

  8. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs. Annual Report to Congress 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    challenges. (see Figure 1.) The program depends on support in three priority areas: (1) Stable funding for the Transformational Medical Technolgies ...defense, speed of mass (life and mobility ) and information, fiscal barriers, values, and attitudes. The principles of jointness and developing an...Battlefield anti-intrusion Detection System (BaiS) an/PrS9 (Fue 2QFY06) 13. mobile Detection assessment response System (mDarS) (1QFY07) 14. Joint

  9. Plants versus fungi and oomycetes: pathogenesis, defense and counter-defense in the proteomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Yao, Zhen; Adam, Lorne R; El Hadrami, Ismailx; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungi and plant-oomycete interactions have been studied at the proteomic level for many decades. However, it is only in the last few years, with the development of new approaches, combined with bioinformatics data mining tools, gel staining, and analytical instruments, such as 2D-PAGE/nanoflow-LC-MS/MS, that proteomic approaches thrived. They allow screening and analysis, at the sub-cellular level, of peptides and proteins resulting from plants, pathogens, and their interactions. They also highlight post-translational modifications to proteins, e.g., glycosylation, phosphorylation or cleavage. However, many challenges are encountered during in planta studies aimed at stressing details of host defenses and fungal and oomycete pathogenicity determinants during interactions. Dissecting the mechanisms of such host-pathogen systems, including pathogen counter-defenses, will ensure a step ahead towards understanding current outcomes of interactions from a co-evolutionary point of view, and eventually move a step forward in building more durable strategies for management of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. Unraveling intricacies of more complex proteomic interactions that involve additional microbes, i.e., PGPRs and symbiotic fungi, which strengthen plant defenses will generate valuable information on how pathosystems actually function in nature, and thereby provide clues to solving disease problems that engender major losses in crops every year.

  10. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  11. 76 FR 50461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of Contracts AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... information collection requirement. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the...

  12. 75 FR 20578 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB); Department of Defense Task Force on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...., Appendix as amended), the Sunshine in the Government Act of 1976 (5 U.S.C. 552b, as amended), and 41 CFR... Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces will meet on May...

  13. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  14. Demo III: Department of Defense testbed for unmanned ground mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Chuck M.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.; Myers, Scott D.; Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Robotics has been identified by numerous recent Department of Defense (DOD) studies as a key enabling technology for future military operational concepts. The Demo III Program is a multiyear effort encompassing technology development and demonstration on testbed platforms, together with modeling simulation and experimentation directed toward optimization of operational concepts to employ this technology. Primary program focus is the advancement of capabilities for autonomous mobility through unstructured environments, concentrating on both perception and intelligent control technology. The scout mission will provide the military operational context for demonstration of this technology, although a significant emphasis is being placed upon both hardware and software modularity to permit rapid extension to other military missions. The Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV) is a small (approximately 1150 kg, V-22 transportable) technology testbed vehicle designed for experimentation with multiple military operational concepts. Currently under development, the XUV is scheduled for roll-out in Summer 1999, with an initial troop experimentation to be conducted in September 1999. Though small, and relatively lightweight, modeling has shown the chassis capable of automotive mobility comparable to the current Army lightweight high-mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The XUV design couples multisensor perception with intelligent control to permit autonomous cross-country navigation at speeds of up to 32 kph during daylight and 16 kph during hours of darkness. A small, lightweight, highly capable user interface will permit intuitive control of the XUV by troops from current-generation tactical vehicles. When it concludes in 2002, Demo III will provide the military with both the technology and the initial experience required to develop and field the first generation of semi-autonomous tactical ground vehicles for combat, combat support, and logistics applications.

  15. PACS: implementation in the U.S. Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anna K.; Wider, Ronald; Romlein, John R.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.; Lollar, H. William; Cook, Jay F.; Timboe, Harold L.; Johnson, Thomas G.; Fellows, Douglas W.

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Defense has been a leader in Radiology re- engineering for the past decade. Efforts have included the development of two landmark PACS specifications (MDIS and DIN- PACS), respective vendor selection and implementation programs. A Tri-Service (Army, Navy and Air Force) Radiology re-engineering program was initiated which identified transitioning to digital imaging, PACS and teleradiology as key enabling technologies in a changing business scenario. Subsequently, the systematic adjustment of procurement process for radiological imaging equipment included a focus on specifying PACS-capable-digital imaging modalities and mini- PACS as stepping stones to make the hospitals and health clinics PACS-ready. The success of the PACS and teleradiology program in the DOD is evidenced by the near filmless operation of most Army and Air Force Medical Centers, several community hospitals and several operational teleradiology constellations. Additionally, the MDIS PACSystem has become the commercial PACS product for General Electric Medical Systems. The DOD continues to forge ahead in the PACS arena by implementing advanced configurations and operational concepts such as the VRE (Virtual Radiology Environment), the negotiation of Regional Archiving and Regional PACS Maintenance Programs. Newer regulations (HIPAA, the FDA approval of digital mammography) have been promulgated impacting the culture and conduct of our business. Incorporating their requirements at the very outset will enable us to streamline the delivery of radiology. The DOD community has embraced the information age at multiple levels. The Healthcare portion of this community with these initiatives is integrating itself into DOD's future. The future holds great possibilities, promises and challenges for the DOD PACS programs.

  16. DTIC: Your Key to Defense Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    DTIC TR Collection (Only one click away) Public Technical Reports (TRs) (Simple, Quick, Guided Advanced Searches) Search Results: Citations and Links...Registration ( one click away) http://www.dtic.mil Review Eligibility; Click on Web-based Application If eligible, proceed with DTIC’s online

  17. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  18. Herbivores can select for mixed defensive strategies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Diego; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are the most important defense mechanisms against herbivores. Initial theoretical studies considered both mechanisms functionally redundant, but more recent empirical studies suggest that these mechanisms may complement each other, favoring the presence of mixed defense patterns. However, the expectation of redundancy between tolerance and resistance remains unsupported. In this study, we tested this assumption following an ecological genetics field experiment in which the presence/absence of two herbivores (Lema daturaphila and Epitrix parvula) of Datura stramonium were manipulated. In each of three treatments, genotypic selection analyses were performed and selection patterns compared. Our results indicated that selection on resistance and tolerance was significantly different between the two folivores. Tolerance and resistance are not redundant defense strategies in D. stramonium but instead functioned as complementary defenses against both beetle species, favoring the evolution of a mixed defense strategy. Although each herbivore was selected for different defense strategies, the observed average tolerance and resistance were closer to the adaptive peak predicted against E. parvula and both beetles together. In our experimental population, natural selection imposed by herbivores can favor the evolution of mixed defense strategies in plants, accounting for the presence of intermediate levels of tolerance and resistance.

  19. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  20. Inducible direct plant defense against insect herbivores: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Shun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Plants respond to insect herbivory with responses broadly known as direct defenses, indirect defenses, and tolerance. Direct defenses include all plant traits that affect susceptibility of host plants by themselves. Overall categories of direct plant defenses against insect herbivores include limiting food supply, reducing nutrient value, reducing preference, disrupting physical structures, and inhibiting chemical pathways of the attacking insect. Major known defense chemicals include plant secondary metabolites, protein inhibitors of insect digestive enzymes, proteases, lectins, amino acid deaminases and oxidases. Multiple factors with additive or even synergistic impact are usually involved in defense against a specific insect species, and factors of major importance to one insect species may only be of secondary importance or not effective at all against another insect species. Extensive qualitative and quantitative high throughput analyses of temporal and spatial variations in gene expression, protein level and activity, and metabolite concentration will accelerate not only the understanding of the overall mechanisms of direct defense, but also accelerate the identification of specific targets for enhancement of plant resistance for agriculture.

  1. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Natural Language Understanding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    resolution of anaphoric references, and an analysis of temporal relations. The resulting data structure is known as the Integrated Discourse Representation... binding procedures * semantics.pl - the Semantic Interpreter * world.pl - general knowledge base procedures - Pragmatics * discourse-rules.pl - manage

  2. Technology Transfer at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: A Diagnostic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    to build * collaborative "M machine intelligence systems to P~s~sst humian operators and to create autonomous systems able to function without human...close collaboration with contractors to establish a schedule for the accomplishment of various subtasks, integrating these different subtasks, and...to represent the many inter-disciplinary and interinstitutional transfers that must take place to bring a program to fruition in the form of a

  3. The P3 Power Generation System for Advanced Missile Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Kansal, J. Hsu, J. Friedman, and M. B. Srivastava, "Design Considerations for Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Embedded Systems", IEEE...Generator", Proceedings of the Materials Research Society, Perovskite Materials, vol. 718, pp. D10.25.l-7 (2002) A.L. Olson, L.M. Eakins, B.W. Olson, D.F...system in which the P3 system is a bottoming cycle for a mid to high temperature fuel cell will be developed. This option will require a total of two

  4. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Advance Planning Briefing for Industry, Updated Agenda, Attendance Roster, Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Registration) Updated Agenda 2 Attendance Roster 3 Program Overview 21 Biographies of the Principal Speakers 28 SLIDES: "The Worldwide Missile Threat...229-5800 x Mr. C. Lee Newton Sverdrup Technology Inc PO Box 1935, Bldg 260 Eglin A F B FL 32542-0935 (904) 678-2001 x Dv. David A. Nichols...922-7350 x Dr. Gary H. Weissman LNK Corporation» Inc. Suite 306 6811 Kenilworth Avenue Riverdale MD 20737-1333 (301) 927-3223 x Mr. Isaac

  5. DARPA-NRL Laser Program Annual Technical Report to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    dNi/dt by these processes are of the form, Sext Rext sextNin R n S (u i) where Rext is the reaction rate of process n which, is given (e.g.) forn the...Penning ionization reaction, Ne* + Xe - Xe+ +e + lie (rate constant = k p), 51 by RextS=LNe~l [Xefl and Sext (ui) is normalized by the code such that Z... Sext (u i ) = 1. For Penning and associative ionization, Se x t i approximates a delta function which peaks at an energy equal to the exoergicity of

  6. DARPA-NRL Laser Program Annual Technical Report to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-11

    Dickson, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1949 (1968). 6. M. Allan and S. F. Wong, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1687 (1981). 7. R. W. Waynant and J. G. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36...Sceatcdmpm or the experimental apparatus The gas cell 0 .2 ad as to 1.4 contaed Ne/Xe./14C gs mixtures typical of those used in e-beam HOc POES &UNI ITa... Allan and Wong in the enhancement of dis- sociative attachment cross section. The large vibrational spacing of HCI molecule also makes it possible for

  7. Improvements Needed at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency When Evaluating Broad Agency Announcement Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    research. The program manager recommends the proposal(s) for funding to the Scientific Review Official ( SRO ) within a Program Manager Summary Sheet. (See...matter expert worksheets, and the Program Manager Summary Sheet and forwards this package to the SRO for his or her concurrence. The SRO reviews...award. The SRO signs the Program Manager Summary Sheet to indicate concurrence with the program manager’s selection. Then the SRO signs the ARPA

  8. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Agent Markup Language Computer Aided Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    rdfs:label> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#ItalianTank"/> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="CentauroB1"> <rdfs:comment> Centauro B-1</rdfs:comment...rdfs:label> Centauro B-1</rdfs:label> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#LightTankRecon"/> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="M1985Lighttank

  9. Defense of a fragment: The theological pertinence of the advanced symphony of Christian Duquoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Carrara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is situated in the area of inter-religious dialogue, one of the great paradigms of actual theology. After Vatican Council II, which treated about the salvation of non Christians and of the members of other religions, theology deepened this theme and appeared several proposals for an inter-religious dialogue. For theologians it imposed the challenge of joining the constructive necessity of Jesus Christ for the salvation of all and the place of other religious traditions in God’s salvation plan. The proposal of the French Catholic theologian, Christian Duquoc, which he called postponed symphony, arouses attention to its singularity in affirming the positive side of the divisions and fragments. His approach is situated within the Catholic Theology that emerged after Vatican II, in which there are several prospects for interreligious dialogue. His theology emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit in building the possible unity in diversity of fragments. The present article evaluates the theological importance of the French theologian’s proposal in favor of inter-religious dialogue. 

  10. POM 2000 - 2005, Descriptive Summaries, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    grH U 5 O <D riö-n ZrC 0 "UM o <D CH Z EH rH W td CN U O...oo CTi >1 (0 s < x w H m w K CO O < U E r—I H CO D >—» w H H W Ü Q D CQ W *S Q i -EH >IEH w O) «OU grH U < O...10 ftTj grH 3T3JJX) 0 H ß IJ [) -H -H Q,)4 ’ SJ u C O (0 0 JJ Dl to 0 > * g O g O E to u 3 U 44 E TJ

  11. 75 FR 79379 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and Food and Drug Administration Expanding In Vivo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Requests for Presentations: Registration logistics will be managed by DARPA according to instructions... invasiveness: Device delivery methods and device size reduction, to include issues related to on-board versus...

  12. On the Defense Mechanisms in Mrs.Dalloway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞芳

    2008-01-01

    This article explores respecfivdy Mrs.Dalloway's and Septimus Smith's defense mechanisms in Mrs.Dalloway.Either Mrs.Dalloway or Septimus Smith mainly resortss unconsciously to defenses like repression and isolation discharged by fantasies or images they create and memories.Their causes of repression and isolation are analyzed in this article as the traumatic female development in Clarissa's cage and the scathing war experience in Smith's case.Besides this article especinlly elaborates on Septimus'death and Clarissa's life,which can be seen as defenses owing to the contamination of drives and ddenses in Freudian theory.

  13. O&M Cost Modeling for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    IDA Document D-5279 January 2015 O &M Cost Modeling for the Department of Defense Brian G. Gladstone, Project Leader Brandon R. Gould Karen L...Johnson Log: H 14-000973 INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N...Analyses (IDA) under contract DASW01-04-C-0003, Task AO-7-3688, “ O &M Cost Modeling for the Department of Defense,” for the Director, Acquisition

  14. Soviet Strategic Air Defense: The Struggle for Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    interview of Colonel General of Aviation I.M. Maltsev , then (and still) the Chief of Main Staff of the Air Defense Forces, "Sentries of the Air Borders...force). Nevertheless, the general tone is dedication to the mission of the Air Defense Forces. Maltsev points out that "quantitative changes...August 1988, pp. 19-23. 6Ibid., p. 19. 71nterview with Colonel General of Aviation I.M. Maltsev , Chief of the Main Staff of the Air Defense Forces

  15. ROMANIAN DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNDER CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian N. BUJOREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense resources management is a harder field to deal with in economic and social crisis conditions. It is not under war but peace conditions and one has to understand it as if it were under war conditions. The paper introduces the reader to the possible type of approach and factors to be considered when developing strategies and implementing directives in time of peace with a consideration of resources as if it war in time of war. Risk analysis is of outmost importance in dealing with resource allocation in time of crisis, and directions to it are proposed here. Also, a different view of the chain of command in the hierarchy and its role in crisis time, responsibilities and attributes one should fulfill in the decision-making process for the reason of efficiency and effectiveness in the military field. Finally, a round-up conclusion brings us to the question if anything can be done without the political factor involved and which type of involvement it should be.

  16. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc., and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure. Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corresponding changes in HF/E: (1 information becomes a tool, goal, mean and environment of a human activity, (2 it becomes a part of the human nature and this makes him/her unprotected, (3 human psycho-physiological status becomes not only a basis of effective performance, but an object of control and support, and means of a human security and safety should be a part of information habitat, (4 networking environment becomes an independent actor in a human activity. Accompanying cyber-security challenges and tasks are discussed, as well as types of networking threats and Human View regarding the cyber security challenges.

  17. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  18. Second Line of Defense Spares Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.; Thorsen, Darlene E.

    2012-11-20

    During Fiscal Year 2012, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an assessment and analysis of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Sustainability spare parts program. Spare parts management touches many aspects of the SLD Sustainability Program including contracting and integration of Local Maintenance Providers (LMP), equipment vendors, analyses and metrics on program performance, system state of health, and maintenance practices. Standardized spares management will provide better data for decisions during site transition phase and will facilitate transition to host country sustainability ownership. The effort was coordinated with related SLD Sustainability Program initiatives, including a configuration items baselining initiative, a metrics initiative, and a maintenance initiative. The spares study has also led to pilot programs for sourcing alternatives that include regional intermediate inventories and partnering agreements that leverage existing supply chains. Many partners from the SLD Sustainability program contributed to and were consulted in the course of the study. This document provides a description of the findings, recommendations, and implemented solutions that have resulted from the study.

  19. Defense Threat Reduction Agency Radiochemical Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael A. R.; Velazquez, Daniel L.

    2009-08-01

    The United States Government (USG) first developed nuclear forensics-related capabilities to analyze radiological and nuclear materials, including underground nuclear test debris and interdicted materials. Nuclear forensics is not a new mission for Department of Defense (DoD). The department's existing nuclear forensics capability is the result of programs that span six (6) decades and includes activities to assess foreign nuclear weapons testing activities, monitor and verify nuclear arms control treaties, and to support intelligence and law enforcement activities. Today, nuclear forensics must support not only weapons programs and nuclear smuggling incidents, but also the scientific analysis and subsequent attribution of terrorists' use of radiological or nuclear materials/devices. Nuclear forensics can help divulge the source of origin of nuclear materials, the type of design for an interdicted or detonated device, as well as the pathway of the materials or device to the incident. To accomplish this mission, the USG will need trained radiochemists and nuclear scientists to fill new positions and replace the retiring staff.

  20. Education and Outreach for Volunteer Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    When a large meteor exploded over Chelyabinsk in 2013, people saw the bright flash and rushed to windows. Then the blast wave hit and many were injured by flying glass fragments. Education about airbursts might have reduced the casualties. Education and Public Outreach (EPO) can also be important in broadening public involvement in preparations for dealing with cosmic hazards. Amateur astronomers have an important role in discovering potentially hazardous asteroids and comets, and also in making follow-up observations after discovery. This is especially important for Southern Hemisphere observing sites where professional observers are relatively few. The Planetary Society makes small Shoemaker grants to aid amateur astronomers in this work. Much more could be done if educators, students and the general public were aware of the opportunity and the need. Beyond this, public engagement is essential to raise and maintain support for active agencies, including the UN-sponsored International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG). This paper will describe and advocate EPO efforts in support of these and other Volunteer Planetary Defense activities.

  1. Visualization techniques for computer network defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Steed, Chad A.; Patton, Robert M.; Cui, Xiaohui; Schultz, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Effective visual analysis of computer network defense (CND) information is challenging due to the volume and complexity of both the raw and analyzed network data. A typical CND is comprised of multiple niche intrusion detection tools, each of which performs network data analysis and produces a unique alerting output. The state-of-the-practice in the situational awareness of CND data is the prevalent use of custom-developed scripts by Information Technology (IT) professionals to retrieve, organize, and understand potential threat events. We propose a new visual analytics framework, called the Oak Ridge Cyber Analytics (ORCA) system, for CND data that allows an operator to interact with all detection tool outputs simultaneously. Aggregated alert events are presented in multiple coordinated views with timeline, cluster, and swarm model analysis displays. These displays are complemented with both supervised and semi-supervised machine learning classifiers. The intent of the visual analytics framework is to improve CND situational awareness, to enable an analyst to quickly navigate and analyze thousands of detected events, and to combine sophisticated data analysis techniques with interactive visualization such that patterns of anomalous activities may be more easily identified and investigated.

  2. Visualization Techniques for Computer Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Schultz, Matthew A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Effective visual analysis of computer network defense (CND) information is challenging due to the volume and complexity of both the raw and analyzed network data. A typical CND is comprised of multiple niche intrusion detection tools, each of which performs network data analysis and produces a unique alerting output. The state-of-the-practice in the situational awareness of CND data is the prevalent use of custom-developed scripts by Information Technology (IT) professionals to retrieve, organize, and understand potential threat events. We propose a new visual analytics framework, called the Oak Ridge Cyber Analytics (ORCA) system, for CND data that allows an operator to interact with all detection tool outputs simultaneously. Aggregated alert events are presented in multiple coordinated views with timeline, cluster, and swarm model analysis displays. These displays are complemented with both supervised and semi-supervised machine learning classifiers. The intent of the visual analytics framework is to improve CND situational awareness, to enable an analyst to quickly navigate and analyze thousands of detected events, and to combine sophisticated data analysis techniques with interactive visualization such that patterns of anomalous activities may be more easily identified and investigated.

  3. Roadmap for an EArth Defense Initiative (READI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.; Hussain, A.; Soni, A.; Johnson-Freese, J.; Faull, J.; Schmidt, N.; Wilson, T.; Thangavelu, M.

    2015-12-01

    During the 2015 Space Studies Program of the International Space University, a team of thirty-four participants from seventeen countries carried out a team project on the subject of planetary defense against near-Earth object impacts. The READI Project presents the components of a complete architecture representing practical future strategies and methods for protecting our planet and life as we know it. The findings and recommendations of the project are as follows: for detection and tracking, add infrared instruments in space and radar in Earth's southern hemisphere, as well as dedicated ground telescopes and a program for spectroscopic and other characterization of asteroids and comets; for deflection, develop and space-qualify kinetic and nuclear interceptors, as well as long-range laser ablators; for education and outreach, develop programs aimed at the cohort of children aged 6-15 and their parents; and for evacuation and recovery, provide distributed shelters and increased emergency planning. The project recognizes that the enactment of any deflection strategy would require significant international collaboration; thus, we recommend the formation of a Mitigation Action Group (MAG) in addition to the existing organizations IAWN and SMPAG. The MAG should be chartered to recommend deflection strategies to the UN Security Council in the event of an imminent NEO impact and, upon approval, to lead international deflection action.

  4. Prediction and perception: Defensive startle modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sege, Christopher T; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research indicates that predictive cues can dampen subsequent defensive reactions. The present study investigated whether effects of cuing are specific to aversive stimuli, using modulation of the blink startle reflex as a measure of emotional reactivity. Participants viewed pictures depicting violence, romance/erotica, or mundane content. On half of all trials, a cue (color) predicted the content of the upcoming picture; on the remaining trials, scenes were presented without a cue. Acoustic startle probes were presented during picture viewing on trials with predictive cues and trials without a cue. Replicating previous studies, blink reflexes elicited when viewing violent pictures that had not been preceded by a cue were potentiated compared to uncued mundane scenes, and reflexes were attenuated when viewing scenes of erotica/romance that had not been cued. On the other hand, reflex potentiation when viewing scenes of violence (relative to mundane scenes) was eliminated when these pictures were preceded by a predictive cue, whereas scenes of romance prompted reliable reflex attenuation regardless of whether pictures were cued or not. Taken together, the data suggest that cuing elicits an anticipatory coping process that is specific to aversive stimuli.

  5. Regional Employment Growth and Defense Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    important part of regional growth. UI ACCA 9o1n For ’NDis i - Dljt s i-: . TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .... ..... .... .... .... ..... .. 7...proved. Bigger and better weapons requiring ever more advanced technology also mandated that a sector of our economy be dedicated toward the production...Mideast and Great Lakes, all show spending to taxation ratios of less than one on a per capita basis, yet the Southwest and Rocky Mountain states have

  6. Guide to Defense and Aerospace Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    105 workstation. A technical library is available by calling Douglas Chubb at 703-347-6445. 28 2.12 AT&T AT&T Puts Artificial Intelligence Engine...K. Geisel said. Carnegie Group has previously concentrated on industrial applications of artificial intelligence. Computer Sciences Corp. won an 18...artificial intelligence and other advanced technologies. STAR-LAB will soon include an Ada software development laboratory. Carnegie Group’s Geisel said

  7. Department of Defense Space Technology Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    out integrated circuits (ROICs), quantum well IR photodetectors (QWIPs) • Advanced small, high-capacity, space-qualified cryocoolers – More efficient...passive) • Space-based laser, lidar or relay mirrors for remote optical sensing – Large-aperture, lightweight, modular, deployable membrane mirrors...change materials • Space-based laser/ lidar remote optical sensing • Sensors to monitor the space environment and alert host spacecraft of natural

  8. Cross-sectional survey on defensive practices and defensive behaviours among Israeli psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, I; Pelov, I; Reuveni, H; Bonne, O; Canetti, L

    2017-03-20

    Psychiatry is a low-risk specialisation; however, there is a steady increase in malpractice claims against psychiatrists. Defensive psychiatry (DP) refers to any action undertaken by a psychiatrist to avoid malpractice liability that is not for the sole benefit of the patient's mental health and well-being. The objectives of this study were to assess the scope of DP practised by psychiatrists and to understand whether awareness of DP correlated with defensive behaviours. A questionnaire was administered to 213 Israeli psychiatry residents and certified psychiatrists during May and June 2015 regarding demographic data and experience with malpractice claims, medicolegal literature and litigation. Four clinical scenarios represented defensive behaviours and reactions (feelings and actions) to malpractice claims. Forty-four (20.6%) certified psychiatrists and four (1.9%) residents were directly involved in malpractice claims, while 132 (62.1%) participants admitted to practising DP. Residents acknowledged the practice of DP more than did senior psychiatrists (p=0.038).Awareness of DP correlated with unnecessary hospitalisation of suicidal patients, increased unnecessary follow-up visits and prescribing smaller drug dosages than required for pregnant women and elderly patients. This study provides evidence that DP is well established in the routine clinical daily practice of psychiatrists. Further studies are needed to reveal whether DP effectively protects psychiatrists from malpractice suits or, rather, if it impedes providing quality psychiatric care and represents an economic burden that leads to more harm for the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing in the Defense Finance Accounting Service: A Useful, but Limited, Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    nization at least partially dependent on payments from other govern- 1 The nomenclature fixed cost does not mean that a cost cannot be cut. Rather, the...term refers to cost levels that are unrelated, at least in the short run, to the firm’s level of produc- tion or sales . For example, a firm’s...expenditures on corporate management are unlikely to be changed based on a short-run change in sales levels. 2 Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing in the

  10. Degree-based attacks and defense strategies in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Aviv; Cohen, Reuven

    2012-12-01

    We study the stability of random scale-free networks to degree-dependent attacks. We present analytical and numerical results to compute the critical fraction pc of nodes that need to be removed for destroying the network under this attack for different attack parameters. We study the effect of different defense strategies, based on the addition of a constant number of links on network robustness. We test defense strategies based on adding links to either low degree, middegree or high degree nodes. We find using analytical results and simulations that the middegree nodes defense strategy leads to the largest improvement to the network robustness against degree-based attacks. We also test these defense strategies on an internet autonomous systems map and obtain similar results.

  11. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W; Williamson, Valerie M; Schroeder, Frank C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    .... Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated...

  12. 76 FR 3536 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... 252.212-7001. Corrects a clause number in (b)(11)(iii) and reverses the order of two clauses in... Defense Logistics Agency--the Office of Counsel; (5) For the National Security Agency--the General...

  13. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may... individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat.)...

  14. Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adam M; Cooper, Andrew; Abdelall, Maura; Smillie, Luke D; Corr, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) maintains that trait individual differences in the operation of defensive systems relate to facets of human personality, most notably anxiety and fear. We investigated this theory in 2 separate studies (total N=270) using a threat scenario research strategy (Blanchard, Hynd, Minke, Minemoto, & Blanchard, 2001). Consistent with rRST, results showed that individuals with high fear questionnaire scores tended to select defensive responses entailing orientation away from threat (e.g., run away) and that fear-prone individuals also tended to perceive threats as magnified. The extent of this threat magnification mediated the positive association observed between fear and orientation away from threat. Overall, results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions.

  15. 77 FR 51970 - Renewal of Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... configurations for the Ballistic Missile Defense System. The Committee shall be composed of not more than eleven... shall be comprised of no more than seven members. The primary focus of the Subcommittee is to conduct...

  16. NPS Defense Management Expert Elected to ASPA National Council

    OpenAIRE

    Honegger, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) George F. A. Wagner Professor of Public Management Lawrence R. "Larry" Jnoes, a world renowned expert on defense budgeting and financial management, has been elected to National Council of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA),

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  18. Department of Defense (DOD) Military Casualty/Wounded Warrior

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA initiated this agreement with the Department of Defense (DOD) to transmit to SSA information that will identify military personnel injured or taken ill while in...

  19. A NEW DYNAMIC DEFENSE MODEL BASED ON ACTIVE DECEPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jing; Sun Zhixin; Gu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the traditional passive deception models, this paper constructs a Decoy Platform based on Intelligent Agent (DPIA) to realize dynamic defense. The paper explores a new dynamic defense model based on active deception, introduces its architecture, and expatiates on communication methods and security guarantee in information transference. Simulation results show that the DPIA can attract hacker agility and activity, lead abnormal traffic into it, distribute a large number of attack data, and ensure real network security.

  20. Defense mechanisms and self-reported violence toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong; Cogan, Rosemary; Carter, Stacy; Porcerelli, John H

    2005-01-01

    College men who reported committing violence toward strangers (N = 30) and nonviolent college men (N = 30) completed Thematic Apperception Test cards (TAT) and responded to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Defense mechanisms were coded from the TAT responses with the Defense Mechanism Manual (DMM). The men who reported violence toward strangers had higher DMM Denial scores and higher MMPI-2 Antisocial Practices scores than the nonviolent men. Student violence toward strangers seems to reflect immaturity rather than psychopathy.

  1. Mathematics learning opportunities when playing a Tower Defense Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Hernàndez-Sabaté

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research study is presented herein with the purpose of identifying mathematics learning opportunities in a commercial version of a Tower Defense game. These learning opportunities are understood as mathematicisable moments of the game and involve the establishment of relationships between the game and mathematical problem solving. Based on the analysis of the nature of these mathematicisable moments, we present several design options that are being implemented in a didactic version of a Tower Defense game.

  2. Hollow Force, Hollow Metaphor: Assessing the Current Defense Drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    defined by Robert K. Yin in Case Study Research Design and Methods, 3rd ed. (California: SAGE Publications, 2003), 13. 7 current defense...global-commons/2012-11-01/strategy-time-austerity (accessed September 8, 2015). Yin , Robert K. Case Study Research Design and Methods. 3rd...use the post-Vietnam era (1970s) and post-Desert Storm era (1990s) as case studies in mismanaged, risk-inducing defense drawdowns conducted after

  3. Urban youth, fear of crime, and resulting defensive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J S; Singh, B K; Singh, B B

    1994-01-01

    One of the most neglected populations studied in victimology has been juveniles. The present study examines the impact of fear of crime among a sample of urban youth on their defensive actions. Studies of urban adult populations have found that a significant number of people fear to venture outside their homes at night. When they do go out, they often take defensive measures to insure their safety. Carrying "mace," whistles, guns, knives, and clubs, for example, is not uncommon. Some have indicated that they have undertaken training in a variety of self-defensive arts and/or keep dogs to protect themselves from the possibility of being victimized. Using data collected from a sample of 1,775 urban youth in 1986 it was found that this population has taken many of the same defensive actions. Only 11% of the sample indicated that they had not taken any defensive actions as a result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took the precaution of having an escort when they went out at night. Learning a technique of self-defense was reported by 19% of the sample; 10% indicated that they carried "mace" or some other type of repellant. Only 4% reported that they carried a whistle because of crime concerns. Significant predictors of personal defensive actions include gender, crime-witnessing status, victimization status and type of victimization (theft vs. witnessing Other defensive actions taken by members of the respondents' households included installing a burglar alarm (22%), keeping a "trained dog" (17%), keeping lights on a night (39%), and installing security locks (38%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Missile Defense: Opportunity to Refocus on Strengthening Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    defense operations, see the battle develop, and manage networked sensors and weapon systems. Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) A ground-based...However, this retest also failed in December 2010 due to the effects of vibration on the kill vehicle’s guidance system. As a result of these...the life cycle— research and development, procurement, military construction, GAO-13-432. 15Pub. L. No. 110-181, § 223(g), repealed by Pub. L. No

  5. Defense Budget Priorities and Choices, Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    defense systems, and investing in research and development for an SM-3/ground-based midcourse interceptor common kill vehicle, resulting in net...sustaining the quality and care of the all-volunteer force — all while implementing and deepening our alignment to the Defense Strategic Guidance signed by... guidance . Replacing these aging systems with new platforms will require considerable resources. Whereas during the 1990s drawdown America’s primary geo

  6. Anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M J; Murray, A B

    1979-03-01

    The role of anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense was studied by force-feeding infected mice to a normal energy intake. Their mortality and survival times were then compared with those of infected mice feeding ad libitum. Mortality was increased and survival time shortened in force fed animals. Our observations suggest that anorexia, by reducing energy intake, has a significant role in the early defense of the host.

  7. Joint Countermobility Capabilities in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    protect their flanks, they possibly could have delayed if not prevented the enemy infiltration on 22 January. The use of today’s FASCAM systems in...obstacles along main avenues of approach. The second defense was trench systems supported by heavy machine guns. The Viet Cong’s last line of defense was...sharp wooden punji stakes, five foot deep trenches with firing ports, bunkers, and occasionally barbed wire.”87 The Viet Cong were more effective

  8. Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce, Defense Personnel Support Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    AD-A274 243 Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center DTIC %!" . FLECTE .: UEC3 0 199 3 -I CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 93 12...220 3 &tiuini nm Best Available Copy Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center NTIS C? ~- j CUSTOMER Avao OrK...Concept of Operations and Projects ........... 6-4 Benefits and Costs of Electronic Commerce in the Medical Directorate

  9. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Industry Mergers. 15 April 1997. Suhan, Kensinger, Keown , and Martin , “Do Strategic Alliances Create Value,” Journal of Financial Economics, 46 2 (1997...aerospace and defense contractors (Lockheed- Martin , Northrop-Grumman, Boeing, Raytheon, and General Dynamics) (See the figures in the Appendix...overhead costs. Also in 1993, Norman R. Augustine, then CEO of Lockheed Martin , headed an effort involving other major defense industry executives

  10. Survey of Small Business Barriers to Department of Defense Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    2010). The demise of the federal government Small Business Program. Defense Acquisition Research Journal , 17(1), 77–92. Blakey, M. (Ed.). (2011...investigate challenges currently affecting the defense industry base. Factors Affecting Small Business Participation in DoD Contracts We conducted a...accounting standards, export control regulations ( International Traffic in Arms), and a past performance rating on previous government contracts (HASC

  11. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government polici...

  12. Defense Security Cooperation Agency Vision 2020. Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, cash sale, or lease , in furtherance of national policies and objectives...Presidential Policy Directive 23 on Security Sector Assistance. D S C A V i s i o n 2 0 2 0 Solutions for America’s Global Partners 7 DSCA...less labor-intensive for USG implementing agencies. Oct 2014 – Dec 2016 d. Explore and develop options for using LOAs to support leases of defense

  13. Electronics Industry Study Report: Semiconductors and Defense Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Lucent Technologies, Madrid, Spain Ministry of Defense, Madrid, Spain Ministry Of Defense, Prague, Czech Republic Tesla Blatna, Blatna, Czech... Nicolas Mokhoff , “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi Cycles,” Electronic Engineering Times, November 25, 2002, p. 20 61 Rob Fixmer, “Moore’s Law...2001). Moad, Jeff and Vaas, Lisa, IT Job Outlook, eWeek, 10/7/02, Vol. 19, Issue 40, p. 37 Mokhoff, Nicolas . “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi

  14. 5th International Conference OTEH 2012 - defense technology (Proceedings review)

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Petar Đurković

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of all papers and events at the Fifth International ScientificConference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012 held in Belgrade, in the Military Technical Institute (VTI), from 18th to 19th September 2012.The paper review presents the Conference Sections by subjects and guest-lectureres as well as the institutions of all authors who actively participated at the Conference.About the ConferenceThe Fifth International Scientific Conference on Defense Technologies OTEH ...

  15. Establishing a Department of Defense Program Management Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Initiation, Implementation, and Termination (19:10-11). Another definition can be gained from Dr David Cleland, in his text Project Management Strategies...The Defense Systems Management College (DSMC) was established in 1971 under the direction of Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard (5:5).. The...intelligence activities, cryptological activities, omand and control, equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapon system, equipment critical

  16. The Cyber Defense Review. Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Harvard Business Review online. Shakarian, Paulo, Jana Shakarian, and Andrew Ruef. 2013. “The Dragon and the Computer: Why Intellectual Property Theft...THE CYBER DEFENSE REVIEW For example, its meteoric economic rise may have been funded in good part by its cyber business knowledge and data extractions...DEFENSE REVIEW erected in cyberspace, its three collective cognitive failures: vision, business model, and hubris have also encouraged the conditions for

  17. Advances in forefoot trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J Randolph; Schopf, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Forefoot traumas, particularly involving the metatarsals, are commonly occurring injuries. There have been several advances in management of these injuries. These advances include updates in operative technique, internal fixation options, plating constructs, and external fixation. In addition, the advances of soft tissue management have improved outcomes. This article outlines these injuries and provides an update on techniques, principles, and understanding of managing forefoot trauma.

  18. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a choice between sheltered and exposed regions [11]. Exposure avoidance in anxiety-related defense behaviors was confirmed to be a correlate of rodent anxiety by treatment with known anxiety-altering agents [12, 13, 14] and is now used to characterize anxiety systems. Modeling anxiety with a small neurogenetic animal would further aid the elucidation of its neuronal and molecular bases. Drosophila neurogenetics research has elucidated the mechanisms of fundamental behaviors and implicated genes that are often orthologous across species. In an enclosed arena, flies stay close to the walls during spontaneous locomotion [15, 16], a behavior proposed to be related to anxiety [17]. We tested this hypothesis with manipulations of the GABA receptor, serotonin signaling, and stress. The effects of these interventions were strikingly concordant with rodent anxiety, verifying that these behaviors report on an anxiety-like state. Application of this method was able to identify several new fly anxiety genes. The presence of conserved neurogenetic pathways in the insect brain identifies Drosophila as an attractive genetic model for the study of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, complementing existing rodent systems. PMID:27020741

  19. Relationships between coping strategies and defense mechanisms in sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Jebrane, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    In an exploratory study, the relationships between two major concepts in psychological adjustment, coping strategies, and defense mechanisms were investigated. Sport competition is an example of a real-world context in which people's responses to stressful situations can be investigated. The extent to which participants reported different uses of coping strategies and defense mechanisms was assessed in terms of performance. 26 elite kayakers were classified into one of two groups, depending on the discrepancy between their standard performance and their performance in competition. Correlations were found among the coping strategies of seeking social support, positive reappraisal/planful problem solving, and mature defenses and between the coping strategy of distancing/avoidance and immature defenses. The results of multivariate and univariate analyses confirmed a significantly different use of coping strategies and defense mechanisms between the two performance groups. In light of these findings, certain recommendations in terms of methodology and application are warranted. Coping strategies and defense mechanisms should be studied to improve adjustment to sport performance.

  20. Riboflavin-induced Priming for Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujian Zhang; Xue Yang; Maowu Sun; Feng Sun; Sheng Deng; Hansong Dong

    2009-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H2O2 burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H2O2 burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.

  1. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  2. Defense mechanisms in patients with fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormod Landmark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM and depression has been suggested to share a common underlying etiology. Few studies have investigated the role of emotional regulation processes in FM compared to depressive disorders.The purpose of the current study was to explore the use of defense mechanisms in FM patients with and without comorbid lifetime depressive disorder (LDD, and to compare their use of defenses to healthy control subjects and patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Methods: A total of 91 participants were included (17 with FM and LDD, 25 with FM but not LDD, 24 with MDD, and 25 healthy controls. Depressive disorders were identified by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I disorders (SCID-I. All diagnosis of FM were confirmed to meet the American College of Rheumatology's criteria for FM. The Life Style Index (LSI was used to measure defense mechanisms. Results and Conclusions: Group comparisons indicated that MDD patients and FM patients with LDD made significantly more use of defenses than healthy controls, whereas FM patients without LDD made significantly less use of defenses than both MDD patients and FM patients with LDD, but did not differ from healthy controls. Follow up analyses indicated significant main effects for the defense mechanisms of regression, compensation and displacement. This study suggests that FM and depression do not share common risk factors in terms of restricted affects or avoidance of conflicted feelings.

  3. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G; Ye, Lumeng; Stijlemans, Benoit; Brys, Lea; Kok, Philippe; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Cornelis, Pierre; Bossuyt, Franky

    2013-01-01

    The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs) acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization), completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  4. Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

    2008-07-22

    As the basal resource in most food webs, plants have evolved myriad strategies to battle consumption by herbivores. Over the past 50 years, plant defense theories have been formulated to explain the remarkable variation in abundance, distribution, and diversity of secondary chemistry and other defensive traits. For example, classic theories of enemy-driven evolutionary dynamics have hypothesized that defensive traits escalate through the diversification process. Despite the fact that macroevolutionary patterns are an explicit part of defense theories, phylogenetic analyses have not been previously attempted to disentangle specific predictions concerning (i) investment in resistance traits, (ii) recovery after damage, and (iii) plant growth rate. We constructed a molecular phylogeny of 38 species of milkweed and tested four major predictions of defense theory using maximum-likelihood methods. We did not find support for the growth-rate hypothesis. Our key finding was a pattern of phyletic decline in the three most potent resistance traits (cardenolides, latex, and trichomes) and an escalation of regrowth ability. Our neontological approach complements more common paleontological approaches to discover directional trends in the evolution of life and points to the importance of natural enemies in the macroevolution of species. The finding of macroevolutionary escalating regowth ability and declining resistance provides a window into the ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between plants and herbivores and suggests a revision of classic plant defense theory. Where plants are primarily consumed by specialist herbivores, regrowth (or tolerance) may be favored over resistance traits during the diversification process.

  5. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Roelants

    Full Text Available The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization, completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  6. Molecular and structural antioxidant defenses against oxidative stress in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Costantini, David

    2011-10-01

    In this review, it is our aim 1) to describe the high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses against oxidative stress in animals, 2) to extend the traditional concept of antioxidant to other structural and functional factors affecting the "whole" organism, 3) to incorporate, when supportable by evidence, mechanisms into models of life-history trade-offs and maternal/epigenetic inheritance, 4) to highlight the importance of studying the biochemical integration of redox systems, and 5) to discuss the link between maximum life span and antioxidant defenses. The traditional concept of antioxidant defenses emphasizes the importance of the chemical nature of molecules with antioxidant properties. Research in the past 20 years shows that animals have also evolved a high diversity in structural defenses that should be incorporated in research on antioxidant responses to reactive species. Although there is a high diversity in antioxidant defenses, many of them are evolutionary conserved across animal taxa. In particular, enzymatic defenses and heat shock response mediated by proteins show a low degree of variation. Importantly, activation of an antioxidant response may be also energetically and nutrient demanding. So knowledge of antioxidant mechanisms could allow us to identify and to quantify any underlying costs, which can help explain life-history trade-offs. Moreover, the study of inheritance mechanisms of antioxidant mechanisms has clear potential to evaluate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to stress response phenotype variation.

  7. Indicators of the development of defense logistics as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice, there are several approaches in discussing the achieved level of development of a scientific discipline. One group of them concentrates on external indicators of the development of a scientific discipline, i.e. its research network, while the other group analyzes the science structure, i.e. its elements. The achieved level of the development of the defense system and its (external and internal environment, general knowledge on the development and the systematic treatment of science as well as the present situation in the society require an insight into the internal and external indicators of the development of defense logistics as a scientific discipline (Defense Science. General knowledge on the creation, development and interdependence of sciences as well as internal and external indicators of the achieved development level of Defense Logistics show that it should be developed in the network environment as a multidisciplinary science, in close cooperation with other special disciplines of logistics, within defense science. It could thus contribute to the improvement of the defense as an important public function as well as to closer contacts of the scientific disciplines dealing with technical systems and technologies with the so-called. orthodox military disciplines.

  8. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes.

  9. LPS inmobilization on porous and non-porous supports as an approach for the isolation of anti-LPS host-defense peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eLopez-Abarrategui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides (LPS are the major molecular component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. This molecule is recognized as a sign of bacterial infection, responsible for the development of local inflammatory response and, in extreme cases, septic shock. Unfortunately, despite substantial advances in the pathophysiology of sepsis, there is no efficacious therapy against this syndrome yet. As a consequence, septic shock syndrome continues to increase, reaching mortality rates over 50% in some cases. Even though many preclinical studies and clinical trials have been conducted, there is no FDA-approved drug yet that interacts directly against LPS. Cationic host defense peptides could be an alternative solution since they possess both antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. Host defense peptides are small, positively charged peptides which are evolutionarily conserved components of the innate immune response. In fact, binding to diverse chemotypes of LPS and inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages have been demonstrated for different host defense peptides (HDPs. Curiously, none of them have been isolated by their affinity to LPS. A diversity of supports could be useful for such biological interaction and suitable for isolating host defense peptides that recognize LPS. This approach could expand the rational search for anti-LPS host defense peptides.

  10. Immune multi-agent model using vaccine for cooperative air-defense system of systems for surface warship formation based on danger theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Xiaozhe Zhao; Beiping Xu; Wei Wang; Zhiyong Niu

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem on cooperative air-defense of surface warship formation, this paper maps the cooperative air-defense system of systems (SoS) for surface warship formation (CASoSSWF) to the biological immune system (BIS) according to the similarity of the defense mechanism and characteristics be-tween the CASoSSWF and the BIS, and then designs the mo-dels of components and the architecture for a monitoring agent, a regulating agent, a kil er agent, a pre-warning agent and a com-municating agent by making use of the theories and methods of the artificial immune system, the multi-agent system (MAS), the vaccine and the danger theory (DT). Moreover a new immune multi-agent model using vaccine based on DT (IMMUVBDT) for the cooperative air-defense SoS is advanced. The immune response and immune mechanism of the CASoSSWF are analyzed. The model has a capability of memory, evolution, commendable dy-namic environment adaptability and self-learning, and embodies adequately the cooperative air-defense mechanism for the CA-SoSSWF. Therefore it shows a novel idea for the CASoSSWF which can provide conception models for a surface warship forma-tion operation simulation system.

  11. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J., E-mail: jon.carmack@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, L.A.; Wigeland, R.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Definition of nuclear fuels system technology readiness level. • Identification of evaluation criteria for nuclear fuel system TRLs. • Application of TRLs to fuel systems. - Abstract: The Technology Readiness process quantitatively assesses the maturity of a given technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) pioneered the process in the 1980s to inform the development and deployment of new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications. It was also adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is needed to improve the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately close the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the assessment process to advanced fuel development is useful as a management, communication, and tracking tool. This article provides definition of technology readiness levels (TRLs) for nuclear fuel technology as well as selected examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  12. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits.

  13. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expended, with the balance provided by the $50,000 milestone payment of Federal funds). For this example... administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? 37.1105 Section 37.1105 National Defense... administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? Your additional post-award...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 555 - Director of Defense Research and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Director of Defense Research and Engineering A... Engineering June 14, 1974. Memorandum for Assistant Secretaries of the Military Departments (R&D) Subject: Non... Engineering Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller). Subject: Non-Defense Work in DOD Laboratories and R...

  15. The Role of Denial and Defensiveness in Drug Use Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed drug use and defensiveness among 28 adolescents, grades 9-12, using a six-month tracking study of alternative school adolescents. Defensiveness correlated with school credit deficiency and a high rate of legal trouble and discipline problems in defensive males. Suggests that denial and defensiveness are risk factors for drug use and…

  16. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  17. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Board of Actuaries; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Board of Actuaries; Charter... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Board of Actuaries... members appointed by the Secretary of Defense from among qualified professional actuaries who are...

  18. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Chapter 2 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing a final rule to update the Rules...

  19. Defense Acquisition Workforce: DOD Has Opportunities to Further Enhance Use and Management of Development Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    and Responsibilities of Key Department of Defense (DOD) Organizations Involved in Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund (DAWDF) Management 7...DEFENSE ACQUISITION WORKFORCE DOD Has Opportunities to Further Enhance Use and Management of Development Fund...House of Representatives March 2017 DEFENSE ACQUISITION WORKFORCE DOD Has Opportunities to Further Enhance Use and Management of Development Fund

  20. Assessment to enhance Air Force and Department of Defense prototyping for the new defense strategy: a workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haller, Norm

    2013-01-01

    ...) prototyping for the new defense strategy. This workshop examined of a wide range of prototyping issues, including individual recommendations for a renewed prototype program, application of prototyping as a tool for technology/system...