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Sample records for defatted peanut meal

  1. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  2. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  3. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  4. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  5. Reproductive performance of rats treated with defatted jojoba meal or simmondsin before or during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Daenens, P; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Kühn, E; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S

    1998-01-01

    The effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance parameters of defatted jojoba meal and pure simmondsin, an extract from jojoba meal, were compared in female Wistar rats. Rats fed 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal (equivalent to 0.15% simmondsin) for 8 weeks before conception showed a similar reduction in food intake (about 20%) and a similar growth retardation compared with controls. Both treatments induced a reduction in the number of corpora lutea on gestation day 16: this effect could be ascribed to the lower food intake before conception because it was also observed in rats pair-fed to the treated ones. Rats given feed containing 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal during days 1-16 of gestation showed a similar reduction in food intake relative to controls. Foetal and placental weights were reduced, relative to controls, to a similar extent in both groups, and the reductions were slightly greater than in the corresponding pair-fed groups. We conclude that the effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance that were seen after feeding rats defatted jojoba meal were due to the simmondsin content of the meal. The simmondsin induced reduction in food intake and probably also a relative protein shortage.

  6. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  8. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  9. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative evaluation of different soybean meal and the replacement using peanut, rapeseed and fish meal for broilers .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding experiments have been conducted to test the different sources of soybean meal (local, India, USA and the partial substitution with peanut meal (10%, rapeseed meal (5% and fish meal (5% in the diet for broiler. The first feeding experiment was carried out on broiler starter for 4 weeks in wire cages . Twelve rations in factorial design (3 x 4 were conducted using 6 birds/cage and replicated 6 times . Birds fed India soybean meal had significantly less body weight (1,000 g than those fed local or USA soybean meals (1,037 and 1,023 g, respectively . Partial substitution with peanut, rapeseed or fish meal did not affect body weight, feed consumption or feed/gain ratio . The average consumption and feed/gain were 1,535 g and 1,569, respectively . In second experiment, one thousand five hundred broiler chicks were allocated in 6 dietary treatments in factorial design (3 x 2 . Factor one was different sources of soybean meal (local, India and USA and factor two was the inclusion of peanut meal at 0 and 10%. Birds were kept on litter system for 6 weeks . Each treatment used 5 replicates and 50 birds/replicate . The results show no effect of the treatment to any parameter measured . Body weight of bird fed local, India and USA soybean meal were 1,662, 1,641 and 1,669 g and feed/gain were 2 .043, 2 .051 and 2.035, respectively . Cost analysis indicates that ration uses local soybean meal gives a higher cost than those of India and USA soybean meals.

  12. Enhancement of Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Meal by Bio-modification with Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinjian; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Guan, Qingfeng; Mao, Ruoyu; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Peanut meal (PM) is limited in practical use (feed or food) from imbalance of amino acid profile and denaturation of protein. Fermentation was used to promote its nutritional and functional properties by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the nutritional properties of fermented peanut meal (crude protein content, dry matter content, ash content, acid soluble oligopeptides content, in vitro digestibility, and content of organic acids) had a significant increase (P implied that the nutritional and antioxidant properties of peanut meal were improved effectively by biological modification, which could be valuable in terms of nutrition and protein resources. It is great of importance to meet requirement of raw materials for husbandry in China when facing a huge lacking of feedstuff, especially for protein feed with an over 80 % import amount depending from other countries yearly.

  13. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization

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    Arij it Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the fi rst step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. Aft er enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purifi ed with cross-fl ow fl at sheet membrane (pore size 100 μm and then with tubular ceramic ultrafi ltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa. Eff ects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafi ltration membrane surface were examined and their positive eff ects were proven. For the fi ltration with ultrafi ltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3•105 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafi ltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purifi ed peptides using ultrafi ltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96 % of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency from the ultrafi ltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane fi ltration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9 %. It was also found that the peptides purifi ed in the ultrafi ltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  15. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  16. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  17. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  18. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  19. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  20. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  1. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

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    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  2. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts) with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, A A; Kuevi, A; Coelho, S B; Lartey, A; Lokko, P; Costa, N; Bressan, J; Mattes, R D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal) were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts) were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume) modify AR and EI.

  3. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  4. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  5. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphaël Kana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1% was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%. Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%, broiler (93.3% and layer feeds (83.0% were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  8. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  9. Effects of a Carbohydrase Mixture, Ultrasound, and Irradiation Treatments on the Physical Properties of Defatted Mustard Meal-based Edible Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.J.; Noh, B.S.; Min, S.C.; Kim, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of depolymerization treatments of a carbohydrase mixture (CM), ultrasound, and irradiation on the physical properties of defatted mustard meal-based edible films (DMM films) were investigated. DMM hydrocolloids were added to CM (0.42% (w/w solution)), treated by ultrasound (500-700 W, 10-30 min) or γ-ray (40-100 kGy) to prepare film-forming solutions. Films were formed by drying. The CM treatment at 0.42% (w/w), pH 5.5, and 40-50℃ with a 0.5 hr incubation time resulted in the highest colloidal stability in the film-forming solution. The depolymerization treatments did not dramatically change the water vapor permeability of the films. The solubility of the film decreased up to 53.1% by the CM treatment. The ultrasound treatment (700 W-30 min) decreased tensile strength and elongation. The ultrasound treatment (600 W-20 min) resulted in more compact and uniform structures of the films. Flavor profiles were differentiated by the power level and the time of the ultrasound treatment

  10. Farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de poedeiras comerciais de 28 a 44 semanas de idade Defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens from 28 to 44 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de galinhas de 28 a 44 semanas de idade. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras Hy-Line W36 distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis níveis de farelo de germen de milho desengordurado (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30%,cada um com cinco repetições de oito aves. No período experimental, que durou quatro ciclos de 28 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho das aves (consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo e conversão alimentar e de qualidade dos ovos (gravidade específica, índice de pigmentação da gema, porcentagem de gema e albúmen, porcentagem e espessura da casca e unidade haugh. Os níveis de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado tiveram efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de ração e o índice de pigmentação da gema e efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar. A inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta não influenciou as outras variáveis estudadas. O farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado pode ser incluído em níveis de até 21,2% em rações para galinhas poedeiras.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of including defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens. It was assigned two hundred and forty laying hens to a randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of eight hens per diet. Experimental diets were formulated by inclusion of defatted corn germ meal at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30% level. The period experiment was carried out for four 28-day cycles and performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion and the egg quality (egg specific gravity, yolk color, yolk and albumen percentages, shell percentages, shell thickness and Haugh unity were the evaluated parameters. Negative linear effect was observed for feed intake and yolk pigmentation by increasingly

  11. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-04-29

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P poultry in Cameroon.

  12. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wei Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30% or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1 of hypercholesterolemic rats (p<0.05, except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  13. Structural characterization of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the phenolic-rich fraction from defatted adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Chao; Su, Anxiang; Zhang, Yiyi; Yuan, Jian; Ju, Xingrong

    2016-04-01

    The current study aims to investigate the antioxidant activities of various extracts from defatted adlay seed meal (DASM) based on the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. Of all the fractions, the n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by crude acetone extract and aqueous fractions. Of the three sub-fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, sub-fraction 3 possessed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. There was a strong positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Based on HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid in sub-fraction 3 of DASM was ferulic acid at 67.28 mg/g, whereas the predominant flavonoid was rutin at 41.11 mg/g. Of the major individual compounds in sub-fraction 3, p-coumaric acid exhibited the highest ORAC values, and quercetin exhibited the highest PSC values and CAA values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:29849908

  15. Effects of Defatting Combined or not to Heating of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal on Feed Intake and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens and Chicks in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesseim, TDT.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family whose cultivation has been largely promoted in recent years for the production of biofuels. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55% lipid in dry matter and the meal obtained could be an exceptional source of proteins for family poultry farming, after treatments to remove toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. The ingestion and the growth performance of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM, obtained after partial physico-chemical de-oiling combined or not with heating was evaluated in broiler chickens and chicks. Sixty unsexed broiler chickens, 30 day-old, divided into three groups as well as twenty broiler chicks, 1 day-old, divided into two groups were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, jatropha kernel was de-oiled and incorporated into a control fattening feed at 40 and 80g/kg (diets 4JKM1 and 8JM1. In experiment 2, jatropha kernel meal obtained in experiment 1 was heat treated and incorporated into a growing diet at 80g/kg (diet 8JKM2. Daily dietary intakes as well as weight gain of the animals were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal in the ration. In experiment 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI1 of 139.2, 55.2 and 23.4g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG1 of 61.9, 18.5 and -7.7g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM1, 4JKM1 and 8JKM1. In experiment 2, Average daily feed intake (ADFI2 of 18.7 and 3.1g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG2 of 7.1 and 1.9g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM2 and 8JKM2. In both experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR was also affected by the dietary treatments and the overall mortality rate showed an increase according to levels of jatropha kernel meal in diet.

  16. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and peanut products. Always read food labels to identify peanut ingredients. If you are allergic to peanuts, you have a 25 to 40 percent higher chance of also being allergic to tree nuts. 1 Also, peanuts and tree nuts often ...

  18. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308 were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet; C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet; M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal; M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively. The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05 serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05 serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05 malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.

  19. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  20. Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Caio E G; Ribeiro, Daniela N; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women.

  1. Hydrolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus section Nigri in presence of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl paraben on peanut meal extract agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Carla L; Landa, María F; Barberis, Mauricio G; Giaj-Merlera, Guillermo; Dalcero, Ana M; Magnoli, Carina E

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, food grade antioxidants are used safely as an alternative to traditional fungicides to control fungal growth in several food and agricultural products. In this work, the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP) on two hydrolytic enzyme activity (β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase) by Aspergillus section Nigri species under different water activity conditions (aW; 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93) and incubation time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96h) was evaluated on peanut-based medium. The activity of two glycosidases, β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase, was assayed using as substrates 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranosido and 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranosido, respectively. The enzyme activity was determined by the increase in optical density at 405nm caused by the liberation of p-nitrophenol by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Enzyme activity was expressed as micromoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute. The major inhibition in β-d-glucosidase activity of A. carbonarius and A. niger was found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.98 and 0.95 aW, respectively, whereas for α-d-galactosidase activity a significant decrease in enzyme activity with respect to control was observed in A. carbonarius among 5 to 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP in all conditions assayed. Regarding A. niger, the highest percentages of enzyme inhibition activity were found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.95 aW and 96h. The results of this work provide information about the capacity of BHA and PP to inhibit in vitro conditions two of the most important hydrolytic enzymes produced by A. carbonarius and A. niger species. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  3. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  4. Utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação: digestibilidade e desempenho Utilization of defatted corn germ meal on growing-finishing pigs feeding: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos (Digestibilidade e Desempenho, objetivando avaliar o valor nutricional e a viabilidade de utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado (FGMD em rações de suínos, na fase de crescimento e terminação. I Ensaio de digestibilidade: foram utilizados 12 suínos com peso vivo médio de 42,0±5,4 kg, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo, em que seis receberam rações compostas de 70% de ração referência e 30% de FGMD e seis receberam ração referência. O FGMD apresentou coeficiente de digestibilidade da energia de 80,98 % e coeficiente de metabolização de 78,04%, o que corresponde a 3.060 kcal de ED/kg e 2.949 kcal de EM/kg. II Ensaio de desempenho: foram utilizados 32 suínos mestiços, sendo metade de fêmeas e metade de machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 31,9±3,6 kg. Os suínos foram alojados em 16 baias, perfazendo, assim, 2 animais por baia. Os animais receberam ração à vontade, contendo níveis crescentes (0, 15, 30 e 45% de farelo de germe de milho desengordurado. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições, com dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de FGMD prejudicou o desempenho dos suínos, reduziu a espessura de toucinho e não influenciou a profundidade do lombo, medidas no animal vivo. A análise econômica, considerando o preço do FGMD, sendo 80% do preço do milho, mostrou que o nível de 15% de inclusão do FGMD é o mais econômico, tanto para a fase de crescimento, quanto para a fase de terminação.Two studies (Digestibility and Performance were carried out to evaluate the nutritional value and the feasibility of using defatted corn germ meal (DCGM fed to growing-finishing pigs. I Digestibility trial: Twelve pigs with initial body weight of 42.0±5.4 kg were hold in metabolism cage. Six pigs were fed a diet with 70% of basal diet plus 30% of DCGM and six received basal diet

  5. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  6. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  7. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  8. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa. *Corresponding author, Department of Home Economics & Food Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria balogun.ma@unilorin.edu.ng (+2348055948515). ABSTRACT. Tapioca is a dried starchy powdery extract made from cassava which is popular in the.

  9. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy .... Values are means of triplicate determinations on fresh weight basis; means ... of the sensory analysis is shown in Table 2 and it is based on the perception of.

  10. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  11. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  12. Defatted corn germ meal and phytase in the diet of pigs: effects on meat quality and a fresh sausageUtilização do farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado, como fonte de fitato, associado à fitase em rações de suínos: efeitos sobre a qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bridi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal (DCGM, and the addition of phytase in pig diets in the finishing phase on the parameters related to the meat and fresh sausage qualities. Were used 32 pigs of commercial line “Pen Ar Lan”, with initial weight of 60.31 ± 5.32 kg, 16 barrows and 16 females, distributed in a 2x2x2 factorial design: diet without adding DCGM and inclusion of 40% of DCGM, diets without phytase inclusion and inclusion of 1000 FTU and the gender, barrows and gilts. The animals received food and water ad libitum during the experimental period of 29 days. Upon reaching 87.19 ± 7.08 of kg body weight, the animals were slaughtered. Samples were collected from the Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis of meat and fresh sausage qualities. Samples of loin were assessed for pH, color, marbling, drip loss, texture, chemical composition and lipid oxidation. In fresh sausage were evaluated color, pH, chemical composition and oxidation. The results showed that diets with phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal, influenced the lipid stability of meat and fresh sausage. The inclusion of phytase didn’t affect the oxidation. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do ácido fítico, veiculado principalmente pelo farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, e da adição de fitase em rações de suínos em fase de terminação sobre os parâmetros relacionados à qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal. Para o experimento foram utilizados 32 suínos da linhagem Pen Ar Lan, com peso médio inicial de 60,31 ± 5,32 kg, sendo 16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualisados num modelo fatorial 2x2x2, com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores: rações sem inclusão de FGMD e com inclusão de 40% de FGMD, rações sem inclusão de fitase e com inclusão de 1000 FTU, e os gêneros machos

  13. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  14. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  15. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  16. Resveratrol in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jocelyn M; Resurreccion, Anna V A

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts are important dietary food source of resveratrol with potent antioxidant properties implicated in reducing risk of cancer, cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease, and delaying aging. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper is a review of trans-resveratrol and related stilbenes from peanuts--their chemical structures, mechanisms for their biosynthesis, and concentrations in comparison with other major food sources. It will also discuss trans-resveratrol's absorption, bioavailability, and major health benefits; processes to enhance their biosynthesis in peanuts by biotic and abiotic stresses; process optimization for enhanced levels in peanuts and their potential food applications; and methods used for its extraction and analysis.

  17. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  18. Consumer-based optimization of a third-generation product made from peanut and rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I-D; Phillips, R D; Resurreccion, A V A

    2007-09-01

    Indirectly puffed snacks were produced by an extrusion process with partially defatted (12% fat) peanut flour (30%, 40%, 50%) at different levels of screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) and feed rate (4, 5, 6 kg/h). Extrudates were dried to obtain half-products (11% to 12% MC) followed by puffing with deep-fat frying. The puffed snack prototypes were subjected to consumer acceptance test. Consumers rated higher than 6.0 (= like slightly) for all products produced within the experimental factor ranges on the attributes of crispness and texture, whereas consumer scores for appearance, color, flavor, and overall liking were lower than 6.0 for the product containing 50% peanut flour regardless of screw speed and feed rate. The product extruded with 50% peanut flour at screw speed of 400 rpm and feed rate of 6 kg/h received the lowest score of 5.5 on overall liking in a 9-point hedonic score. Predicted regression models indicated that feed rate had the largest effect on consumer attributes followed by peanut flour and screw speed. From the superimposed contour plot of individual contour plot of consumer attributes, the optimum region was identified as the area beginning at the 42.0% to 43.0% peanut flour and 4.0 kg/h feed rates, rising to a maximum at 45% peanut flour and 4.6 kg/h feed rates and decreasing to the 33.0% to 34.0% peanut flour and 6.0 kg/h feed rates. Verification confirmed the ability of predictive regression models to identify peanut-based snacks, which would be scored higher than 6.0 by consumer evaluation.

  19. Defatting and Sonication Enhances Protein Extraction from Edible Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung Deug; Wong, Nathan A K; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are attracting growing interest as a sustainable source of protein for addition to processed meat and dairy products. The current study investigated the optimal method for protein extraction from mealworm larvae ( Tenebrio molitor ), cricket adults ( Gryllus bimaculatus ), and silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ), for use in further applications. After defatting with n-hexane for up to 48 h, sonication was applied for 1-20 min and the protein yield was measured. All samples showed a total residual fat percentage below 1.36%, and a 35% to 94% improvement in protein yield (%). In conclusion, defatting with n-hexane combined with sonication improves the protein yield from insect samples.

  20. Testing of gastric contents for peanut proteins in a 13-year old anaphylaxis victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Charles; Stauble, M Elaine; Jortani, Saeed A

    2014-02-15

    We report the case of a 13-y female who went into anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of a meal suspected to be contaminated by peanuts. The teenager had a known sensitivity to peanuts, however, the restaurant claimed that no peanut products were used in the preparation of her meal. The gastric contents of the decedent were retained and tested for peanut proteins due to the possible legal liability of the proprietor. Using antibodies against peanut proteins (roasted and unroasted), we optimized a method to detect total soluble peanut proteins by Western-blot analysis in gastric contents. In addition, we validated two commercially available tests which were originally intended for detection of peanut proteins in food matrices to examine the same gastric sample. One was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that utilized polyclonal antibodies against Ara h 1 (Tepnel Life Sciences). The other was a laminar-flow assay directed against Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 (R-Biopharm). A positive food-based control was created by reducing bread and peanuts (1:1, w/w) with water (1:1, w/v) using a mortar and pestle. A food-based negative food control was created similar to the positive control, except the peanuts were omitted and the amount of bread was doubled. The Western-blot assay was sensitive down to 2.5ng/ml of total peanut protein. The laminar flow was the most rapid and least complex. The ELISA was the most analytically sensitive with a cut-off of 1ng/ml of Ara h 1 protein compared to the laminar flow which had a cut-off of 4ng/ml Ara h 1 equivalent. Both ELISA and laminar flow assays were able to detect peanut proteins in the food matrices and positive controls, and not in negative controls. No peanut related proteins were detected in the decedent's gastric sample. The gastric sample spiked with peanuts was reliably detectable. The anaphylaxis patient had no peanut allergens detected in her gastric contents by any of the three methods employed. Both

  1. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  2. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  3. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  4. Proximate composition and the functional properties of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipid is a clear golden yellow colour with low acid value (0.5%), but high saponification value of 205.1 mg KOH/g and iodine value of 103.9. The elemental analysis carried out on both the undefatted and the defatted seed shows that, the seed is a good source of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium.

  5. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  6. Dietary fibre enrichment from defatted rice bran by dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Suo, Geng; Wit, de Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Defatted rice bran is excellent source of dietary fibre. The mostly used lab-scale method to extract dietary fibre is not very efficient; dry fractionation is a more energy efficient alternative at larger scale. Three separation routes were studied: two-step electrostatic separation, sieving and

  7. Utilization of Rubber Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement in Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding triai was conducted to evaluate the performance of finisher broiler cbicks fed diets containing different levels of partially defatted rubber seed meal as a replacement for groundnut cake. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (A, B, C and D) were formulated using groundnut cake (GNC) as the reference protein ...

  8. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  9. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  10. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  11. Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    UÇKUN, Okşan; VAR, Işıl

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are one of the most important oilseed crops and snack foods in the world Agro-food trade market. The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, China, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. Peanuts are a perishable commodity, easily spoiled by fungi. Aflatoxins are a group of natural compounds mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They have been found to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic to humans and animal...

  12. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  13. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  14. Chemical Characterization and Release Efficiency of Defatted Mustard Meals: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Glucosinolates, compounds that occur in agronomically important crops, may represent a viable source of allelochemic control for various soil-borne plant pests. Toxicity is not attributed to intact glucosinolates, but instead to biologically active products such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), organic cyanides, oxazolidinethiones, and ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) released upon enzymatic degradation by myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1) in the presence of water.

  15. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...

  16. The peanut landraces from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var.vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces “Crema”, “Colorado San Simón”, “Bayo americano”, “Overo”, and “Overo carenado”, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical  variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity  in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which  are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers

  17. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  18. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs.

  19. Intercropping peanut with traditional Chinese medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Many environmental issues affect peanut production in continuous monocropping system. Deterioration .... study were to (i) determine the impact of peanut intercropped ..... in a subtropical environment (Mexico). Plant Soil.

  20. The addition of peanuts to habitual diets is associated with lower consumption of savory non-core snacks by men and sweet non-core snacks by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jayne A; Stojanovski, Emilija; Moran, Lisa J; Howe, Peter R C; Coates, Alison M

    2017-05-01

    Snacking is associated with intakes of non-core foods which may predispose to obesity. Peanuts have potential satiety benefits and may assist with weight management; we hypothesized that peanut consumption would reduce intake of non-core snack foods due to compensation. We investigated the effects of adding peanuts to a habitual diet on snacking habits and energy intake. Sixty-one healthy participants (65±7years, body mass index 31±4kg/m 2 ) consumed their habitual diet with or without peanuts (56g/d for 32 women, 84g/d for 29 men) for 12weeks each in a randomized crossover design. Food diaries were analyzed at baseline and after each 12-week period for meal and snack content and timing. Total energy intake was higher (17% for men [PSnacking occasions increased during the peanut phase (53% for men [P=.001], 14% for women [P=.01]). Servings of other snack foods did not change during the peanut phase (P=.6) compared with control. However, sex-specific analysis revealed that men and women consumed less savory (Psnacks, respectively, during the peanut phase. Despite increased energy intake and snacking frequency, peanuts may improve the diet through sex-specific reductions of non-core foods; for optimal energy balance, peanuts should be substituted rather than added to the diet. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of defatting on acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-11-01

    The effect of defatting on the physiochemical properties and the acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents was evaluated in this study. The increase in the number of pores and the stripping of starch surface layers were observed after defatting by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the peaks attributing to the amylose-lipid complex disappeared. The relative crystallinity increased by 19% for high-amylose maize starch (HMS) on defatting, while the other tested starches virtually unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry study indicated an increase in the thermal stability for the defatted starches. Compared with native waxy maize starch, the acid hydrolysis rate of the defatted one increased by 6% after 10 days. For normal maize starch (NMS) and HMS, the higher rate of hydrolysis was observed during the first 5 days. Thereafter, the hydrolysis rate was lower than that of their native counterpart. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis (in the first 5 days) was mainly attributed to the defective and porous structures formed during defatting process, while the decrease of hydrolysis rate for NMS and HMS samples (after the first 5 days) probably resulted from the increase in the relative crystallinity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yarmush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  3. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  4. Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduces peanut allergy risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Expósito, Iván; Song, Ying; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-11-01

    Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model. Five-week-old offspring of PNA C3H/HeJ mothers (PNA-Ms) were challenged intragastrically with peanut (first exposure), and reactions were determined. In a subset of the experiment, PNA-Ms were fed a low dose of peanut (PNA-M/PN) or not fed peanut (PNA-M/none) during pregnancy and lactation. Their 5-week-old offspring were challenged intragastrically with peanut, and reactions were determined. In another subset of the experiment, offspring of PNA-M/PN or PNA-M/none were sensitized with peanut intragastrically for 6 weeks, and serum peanut-specific antibodies were determined. PNA-M offspring exhibited anaphylactic reactions at first exposure to peanut that were associated with peanut-specific IgG(1) levels and prevented by a platelet activation factor antagonist. In a subset experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed significantly reduced first-exposure peanut reactions, increased IgG(2a), and reduced mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production compared with PNA-M/none offspring. In an additional experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed reduction of peanut-specific IgE to active peanut sensitization. We show for the first time maternal transmission of susceptibility to first-exposure peanut reactions and active peanut sensitization. Low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced this risk.

  5. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  6. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators.

  7. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not been...

  8. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  9. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  10. Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL, on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. Results We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Conclusion Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass

  11. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its

  12. Distribution of peanut allergen in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tamara T; Conover-Walker, Mary Kay; Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wood, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Patients with peanut allergy can have serious reactions to very small quantities of peanut allergen and often go to extreme measures to avoid potential contact with this allergen. The purpose of this study was to detect peanut allergen under various environmental conditions and examine the effectiveness of cleaning agents for allergen removal. A monoclonal-based ELISA for Arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1; range of detection, 30-2000 ng/mL) was used to assess peanut contamination on cafeteria tables and other surfaces in schools, the presence of residual peanut protein after using various cleaning products on hands and tabletops, and airborne peanut allergen during the consumption of several forms of peanut. After hand washing with liquid soap, bar soap, or commercial wipes, Ara h 1 was undetectable. Plain water and antibacterial hand sanitizer left detectable Ara h 1 on 3 of 12 and 6 of 12 hands, respectively. Common household cleaning agents removed peanut allergen from tabletops, except dishwashing liquid, which left Ara h 1 on 4 of 12 tables. Of the 6 area preschools and schools evaluated, Ara h 1 was found on 1 of 13 water fountains, 0 of 22 desks, and 0 of 36 cafeteria tables. Airborne Ara h 1 was undetectable in simulated real-life situations when participants consumed peanut butter, shelled peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, is relatively easily cleaned from hands and tabletops with common cleaning agents and does not appear to be widely distributed in preschools and schools. We were not able to detect airborne allergen in many simulated environments.

  13. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  14. Long-term kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 survival on peanuts and peanut confectionery products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela S Nascimento

    Full Text Available Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29, roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39, unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54, peanut brittle (aw = 0.30, paçoca (aw = 0.40 and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68 were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g. The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p420 days, especially in products with aw around 0.40.

  15. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  16. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  17. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  18. Nutritional chemistry of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and has been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet ha...

  19. Applications of peanut skins as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of the peanut industry, with hundreds of thousands of tons being produced annually. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, peanut skins are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Recent studies have fo...

  20. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  1. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  2. Nutrient recycle from defatted microalgae (Aurantiochytrium) with hydrothermal treatment for microalgae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Taku Michael; Maruta, Ryouma; Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Oshima, Minori; Nonaka, Toshiyuki; Kujiraoka, Hiroki; Kumagai, Yasuaki; Ota, Masaki; Suzuki, Iwane; Watanabe, Makoto M; Inomata, Hiroshi; Smith, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Defatted heterotrophic microalgae (Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21) was treated with high temperature water (175-350°C, 10-90min) to obtain nitrogen and phosphorous nutrients as a water soluble fraction (WS). Yields of nitrogen and phosphorous recovered in WS varied from 38 to 100% and from 57 to 99%, respectively. Maximum yields of nitrogen containing compounds in WS were proteins (43%), amino acids (12%) and ammonia (60%) at treatment temperatures of 175, 250 and 350°C, respectively. Maximum yield of phosphorous in WS was 99% at a treatment temperature of 250°C. Cultivation experiments of microalgae (A. limacinum SR21) using WS obtained at 200 and 250°C showed positive growth. Water soluble fractions from hydrothermal treatment of defatted microalgae are effective nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient sources for microalgae cultivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  4. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  6. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using immunoaffinity column clean-up was a method described for determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in peanuts and peanut based products. The validation of the procedure was performed. Good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins in the range of 0.9993-0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.003-0.005 mg/kg and 0.009-0.023 mg/kg, respectively, which was acceptable. The mean recovery for total aflatoxins was 88.21%. The method also showed acceptable precision values in the range of 0.171-2.626% at proposed concentration levels for all four aflatoxins. RSDR values (within laboratory reproducibility calculated from the results showed good correlation between two analysts for all aflatoxins and they ranged from 4.93-11.87%. The developed method was applied for the determination of aflatoxins in 27 samples of peanuts and peanut based products. The results showed that 21 peanut samples (77.7% were below LOD of the method. Three samples had positive results over the MRL. There was one extreme value recorded for the total aflatoxins in peanut (289.2 mg/kg and two peanut based products, peanut snack and peanut, with total content of aflatoxins being 16.3 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the de­termination of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut based products and it could be implemented for the routine analysis.

  7. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  8. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  9. Association mapping of SSR markers to sweet, bitter and roasted peanut sensory attributes in cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain roasted peanut quality sensory attributes are very important breeding objectives for peanut manufactory and consumers. Currently the only means of measuring these traits is the use of a trained sensory panel. This is a costly and time-consuming process. It is desirable, from a cost, time an...

  10. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  11. Reconstitution baking tests with defatted wheat flour are suitable for determining the functional effects of lipase-treated wheat lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffarczyk, Monika; Østdal, Henrik; Matheis, Olivia; Jekle, Mario; Koehler, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A microscale reconstitution baking test, using wheat flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C, was established to determine the functional effects of lipids isolated from lipase-treated wheat dough. Proper selection of solvent and extraction temperature was of major importance to maintain the functionality of defatted flour. Dough and gluten from flour defatted with water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB; extracted at 20 °C) and 2-propanol (extracted at 75 °C) had inferior extensibility and loaf volume compared to control flour extracted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Quantitation of gluten proteins showed that defatting with WSB (20 °C) or 2-propanol (75 °C) decreased the gliadin and increased the glutenin content. Possible reasons were thiol-disulfide interchange reactions, caused either by heat (2-propanol, 75 °C) or by the solvent WSB, which affected gluten proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that regular, interconnected gluten structures were only present in dough from flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Obtaining bixin from semi-defatted annatto seeds by a mechanical method and solvent extraction: Process integration and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Alay, Sylvia C; Osorio-Tobón, J Felipe; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

    2017-09-01

    This work involves the application of physical separation methods to concentrate the pigment of semi-defatted annatto seeds, a noble vegetal biomass rich in bixin pigments. Semi-defatted annatto seeds are the residue produced after the extraction of the lipid fraction from annatto seeds using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Semi-defatted annatto seeds are use in this work due to three important reasons: i) previous lipid extraction is necessary to recovery the tocotrienol-rich oil present in the annatto seeds, ii) an initial removal of the oil via SFE process favors bixin separation and iii) the cost of raw material is null. Physical methods including i) the mechanical fractionation method and ii) an integrated process of mechanical fractionation method and low-pressure solvent extraction (LPSE) were studied. The integrated process was proposed for processing two different semi-defatted annatto materials denoted Batches 1 and 2. The cost of manufacture (COM) was calculated for two different production scales (5 and 50L) considering the integrated process vs. only the mechanical fractionation method. The integrated process showed a significantly higher COM than mechanical fractionation method. This work suggests that mechanical fractionation method is an adequate and low-cost process to obtain a rich-pigment product from semi-defatted annatto seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    Corresponding authors E-mail: undeogunsanwo@yahoo.co.uk. Peanut butter. The preparation of peanut butter involves dry roasting of peanut seeds in the oven followed by removal of seed testa and grinding of the seeds to obtain butter. Sample ...

  14. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  15. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis. INTRODUCTION. Peanut consists of diploid (2n = 2x = 20), tetraploid ...

  16. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiamwat, Jirawat; Wanlapa, Sorada; Kampruengdet, Sukit

    2016-03-31

    Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO₂ extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alkali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawat Eiamwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  19. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    of samples. We describe the use of rabbit basophils as a tool in biological standardization. Using peanut as a model allergen, it is described how rabbits immunized for production of antiserum may become sensitized and their basophils used for histamine release experiments. It is also possible to use rabbit...... of human basophils using serum from a strongly sensitized peanut-allergic patient. The overall sensitivity of the methods were ELISA > HR-human cells > HR-sensitized rabbit cells > HR-passively sensitized rabbit cells. The use of rabbit basophils for biological standardizations will allow for the use...

  20. 78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) was not available at the time of the Board's review because... least 10,000 tons of peanuts. 0 4. Section 1216.40, paragraph (a) introductory text and (a)(1) are...

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  3. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  4. Impact of school peanut-free policies on epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M; Huffaker, Michelle F; Sheehan, William J; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Petty, Carter R; Leibowitz, Robert; Hauptman, Marissa; Young, Michael C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of peanut-free policies on rates of epinephrine administration for allergic reactions in Massachusetts public schools. In this retrospective study, we analyzed (1) rates of epinephrine administration in all Massachusetts public schools and (2) Massachusetts public school nurse survey reports of school peanut-free policies from 2006 to 2011 and whether schools self-designated as "peanut-free" based on policies. Rates of epinephrine administration were compared for schools with or without peanut-restrictive policies. The percentage of schools with peanut-restrictive policies did not change significantly in the study time frame. There was variability in policies used by schools self-designated as peanut-free. No policy was associated with complete absence of allergic reactions. Both self-designated peanut-free schools and schools banning peanuts from being served in school or brought from home reported allergic reactions to nuts. Policies restricting peanuts from home, served in schools, or having peanut-free classrooms did not affect epinephrine administration rates. Schools with peanut-free tables, compared to without, had lower rates of epinephrine administration (incidence rate per 10,000 students 0.2 and 0.6, respectively, P = .009). These data provide a basis for evidence-based school policies for children with food allergies. Further studies are required before decisions can be made regarding peanut-free policies in schools. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may not be included. (2) Unblanched peanuts, including the skins and germ. (c) The seasoning and... are regarded as suitable, except that artificial flavorings, artificial sweeteners, chemical... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated...

  6. Peanuts as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of the peanut plant have long been prized for their pleasant roasted flavor and well as their significant contents of high quality protein and favorable lipid profiles. They are widely grown in the US from Virginia, across the south and as far west as California. At present, they represe...

  7. Characterisation of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) seed oil and defatted cake from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenontin, Sebastien Tindo; Wotto, Valentin D; Lozano, Paul; Pioch, Daniel; Sohounhloue, Dominique K C

    2009-01-01

    A sample of Blighia sapida seeds collected in Benin has been analysed and the results are compared to the scarcely available literature data. The chemical analysis of seed oil shows a saponification value of 145 and an iodine value of 66, consistent with the high mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) content (63.8 wt%). The most interesting feature is the prominent concentration of eicosenoic acid (48.4 wt%). Arachidic acid being the main component within the saturated group, the C20 FAs fraction accounts for 68.4 wt%, thus making the peculiar composition of this oil. Among the unsaponifiable fraction (2.4 wt%), the major sterol is stigmasterol (54.6 wt%), surprisingly over passing beta-sitosterol. Tocols (338 ppm) contains mainly alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Regarding the defatted cake, results show the prominent position of starch and a noticeable amount of proteins and fibers (44.2, 22.4, 15.6 wt%, respectively). Seventeen amino acids were identified together with valuable minerals (total ashes 3.5 wt%). Possible uses of oil and defatted cake are discussed.

  8. Development of Defatted Soy Flour-Based Adhesives by Acid Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peitao Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based adhesives are attracting increasing attention in recent years because they are a renewable and environmentally friendly raw material. Defatted soy flour (DSF, comprised of 50% protein and 40% carbohydrate, is the most widely used raw material for the preparation of soy-based adhesives that are unfortunately hampered by poor gluability and water resistance. In the present study, we developed a self-crosslinking approach to prepare a formaldehyde-free defatted soy flour-based adhesive (SBA. Carbohydrates in the DSF were hydrolyzed with 0% (controls, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% hydrochloric acid, and cross-linked with proteins to prepare the SBA. The effect of hydrolyzed carbohydrates on the performance of the SBA was investigated, and hydrolyzed carbohydrates significantly increased the amount of reducing sugars, but decreased insoluble substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses revealed an enhanced cross-linking structure with fewer hydrophilic groups in cured SBAs. Maillard reactions between hydrolyzed carbohydrates and proteins resulted in SBAs with better gluability, rheological properties and thermal stability than controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that plywood bonded with SBA had a higher wood failure rate than controls. This approach has potential for preparing bio-adhesives with enhanced properties from other natural resources with a similar polysaccharides and protein composition.

  9. Effects of full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Gloria A; Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Stein, Hans H

    2018-06-04

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase. Daily feed allotments and pig BW at the start of the experiment and at the conclusion of each phase were recorded. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested and carcass characteristics, LM quality, and fat quality were determined. For the overall experimental period, no effects of dietary treatments were observed for average daily gain. However, average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased (linear, P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of FFRB. In contrast, ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.05) and G:F decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DFRB was included in the diets. There were no effects of dietary treatments on LM quality. The length of the bellies decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of crude fat in the adipose tissue of pigs increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the concentration of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of saturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue of pigs fed diets containing FFRB decreased (linear, P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (linear, P < 0.05). In contrast, addition of DFRB did not affect the concentration of

  10. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  11. Evaluation of spaghetti prepared from irradiated and non-irradiated semolina flour, defatted soybean and wheat germ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.; Assem, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to produce spaghetti from semolina flour supplemented with 5, 7.5 and 10% wheat germ and 5, 7.5 and 10% defatted soybean flours and gamma irradiated at 5 and 10 KGy to improve its nutritive value. Part of the blend was left without irradiation to serve as control. All samples of spaghetti were analyzed for chemical composition, color, cooking properties, sensory evaluation and amino acids contents. The results of chemical composition showed high protein and fat contents by increasing the percentage of addition for wheat germ and defatted soybean, which irradiated and non-irradiated, in spaghetti. Sensory evaluation and cooking properties for spaghetti supplemented with 5 and 7.5% non-irradiated or irradiated (5 KGy) defatted soybean gave the best values comparing with supplementation by 10% non-irradiated and irradiated with 10 KGy. The best treatments, based on sensory evaluation results, were analyzed for amino acids. Essential and non-essential amino acid levels were found to be higher in samples supplemented with wheat germ and defatted soybean when compared with control, which was prepared from semolina only

  12. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  13. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  14. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  15. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  16. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  17. Chitinase Activity in Healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG PUDJIHARTATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to analyze the endo- or exo-chitinase activities of healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii infected peanuts. The experiment analyzed 24 different peanut genotypes. Results of the experiment showed chromogenic dimer was the most suitable substrate for analysing chitinase activities. Both endo- and exo-chitinases activities were detected in leaf, stem, and crown tissues. Increased in chitinase activities were detected in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissues than in healthy plant. Regression analysis showed negative slope between disease intensity and chitinase activity in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissue (R2= 0.45.

  18. Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlkvist, L; Vikman, J; Pacini, G; Ahrén, B

    2012-10-10

    Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Serratia marcescens RZ-21 significantly enhances peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Qi-Yin; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-15

    Continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ-21), an equivalent sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) and distilled water (CK). S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1 and reduced their populations in rhizosphere soil. The RZ-21 treatment significantly increased peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3, 33, 72 and 61.4% respectively, followed by the M treatment. The P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ-21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at various stages. In addition, RZ-21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except for M in the case of the fungal population at flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. This is the first report of S. marcescens being applied to continuously cropped peanut soil. The results suggest that S. marcescens RZ-21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products and thus allow the development of sustainable management practices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  1. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  3. Elevated [CO2] modified the drought acclimation response in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut agroecosystems play a key role in food production and are a major source of protein in many arid and semi-arid regions where extreme weather events are expected to increase in frequency. We are taking a systems-level approach to investigate the response of peanut to elevated [CO2], water defi...

  4. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  5. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign-produced peanut lot at a port-of-entry, the importer, or customs broker acting on behalf of the... warehouse. Such peanuts should be stored in clean, dry warehouses and under cold storage conditions... inspected at the port-of-entry, or at other locations, shall meet the quality standards of this part in...

  6. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield had significant major gene effect and the results implied that not only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis.

  7. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products | Ogunsanwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanuts seeds roasted at 140°C for 40 min for either 25 or 35 min were rated to be of comparable quality with locally available commercial samples. Peanut butter prepared from seeds roasted at160°C for 30 min was also rated to be comparable with commercial samples, while Kwulinkwulis from seeds dry roasted at 150°C ...

  8. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  9. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  10. Evaluation of aflatoxins and Aspergillus sp. contamination in raw peanuts and peanut-based products along the supply chain in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, Mahror; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Selamat, Jinap; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Radu, Son; Chin, Cheow Keat

    2018-06-18

    The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in raw peanuts and peanut-based products from the retailers. However, there was no significant different (P≥0.05) in fungal contamination for both types of peanuts except for the total fungal count in raw peanuts from the retailers. Furthermore, raw peanut kernels from the retailers were the most contaminated ones ranged from contamination (0.3 - 3.6 log CFU/g) was relatively higher in raw peanuts compared to that of peanut-based products (0.6 - 2.7 log CFU/g). In conclusion, the manufacturers and retailers were the critical points for aflatoxins contamination in peanuts. However, fungal contamination was more critical in the raw peanuts compared to peanut-based products. The study was limited by a minimal number of samples from the importer. Therefore, further investigations on a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the findings in this present study.

  11. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  12. Nutritional Quality and Physicochemical Characteristics of Defatted Bovine Liver Treated by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Organic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hye-Min; Rahman, M. Shafiur; Kim, Ah-Na; Yang, Han-Sul

    2017-01-01

    Defatted bovine liver (DBL) is a potential source of protein and minerals. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and a traditional organic solvent method were used to remove lipid from bovine liver, and the quality characteristics of a control bovine liver (CBL), bovine liver defatted by SC-CO2 (DBLSC-CO2) at different pressures, and bovine liver defatted by organic solvent (DBL-OS) were compared. The DBLSC-CO2 samples had significantly higher (pSC-CO2 than the organic solvent method. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the CBL and DBLSC-CO2 had protein bands of a similar intensity and area, whereas DBL-OS appeared extremely poor bands or no bands due to the degradation of proteins, particularly in the 50 to 75 kDa and 20 to 25 kDa molecular weight ranges. In addition, DBLSC-CO2 was shown to have superior functional properties in terms of total soluble content, water and oil absorption, and foaming and emulsification properties. Therefore, SC-CO2 treatment offers a nutritionally and environmentally friendly approach for the removal of lipid from high protein food sources. In addition, SC-CO2 may be a better substitute of traditional organic solvent extraction for producing more stable and high quality foods with high-protein, fat-free, and low calorie contents. PMID:28316468

  13. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  14. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  15. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  16. Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

  17. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  18. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  19. Omalizumab facilitates rapid oral desensitization for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Rachid, Rima; Gragg, Hana; Little, Sara V; Lakin, Paul; Cianferoni, Antonella; Heimall, Jennifer; Makhija, Melanie; Robison, Rachel; Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Lee, John; Lebovidge, Jennifer; Dominguez, Tina; Rooney, Courtney; Lewis, Megan Ott; Koss, Jennifer; Burke-Roberts, Elizabeth; Chin, Kimberly; Logvinenko, Tanya; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Umetsu, Dale T; Spergel, Jonathan; Nadeau, Kari C; Schneider, Lynda C

    2017-03-01

    Peanut oral immunotherapy is a promising approach to peanut allergy, but reactions are frequent, and some patients cannot be desensitized. The anti-IgE medication omalizumab (Xolair; Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif) might allow more rapid peanut updosing and decrease reactions. We sought to evaluate whether omalizumab facilitated rapid peanut desensitization in highly allergic patients. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo (n = 8). After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a rapid 1-day desensitization of up to 250 mg of peanut protein, followed by weekly increases up to 2000 mg. Omalizumab was then discontinued, and subjects continued on 2000 mg of peanut protein. Subjects underwent an open challenge to 4000 mg of peanut protein 12 weeks after stopping study drug. If tolerated, subjects continued on 4000 mg of peanut protein daily. The median peanut dose tolerated on the initial desensitization day was 250 mg for omalizumab-treated subjects versus 22.5 mg for placebo-treated subject. Subsequently, 23 (79%) of 29 subjects randomized to omalizumab tolerated 2000 mg of peanut protein 6 weeks after stopping omalizumab versus 1 (12%) of 8 receiving placebo (P omalizumab versus 1 subject receiving placebo passed the 4000-mg food challenge. Overall reaction rates were not significantly lower in omalizumab-treated versus placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 0.57; P = .15), although omalizumab-treated subjects were exposed to much higher peanut doses. Omalizumab allows subjects with peanut allergy to be rapidly desensitized over as little as 8 weeks of peanut oral immunotherapy. In the majority of subjects, this desensitization is sustained after omalizumab is discontinued. Additional studies will help clarify which patients would benefit most from this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipase from liver of seabass (Lates calcarifer): Characteristics and the use for defatting of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Leaw, Thanasak; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2018-02-01

    Lipase from liver of seabass (Lates calcarifer), with a molecular weight of 60kDa, was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and a series of chromatographies, including diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE) and Sephadex G-75 size exclusion columns. The optimal pH and temperature were 8.0 and 50°C, respectively. Purified lipase had Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) and catalytic constant (k cat ) of 0.30mM and 2.16s -1 , respectively, when p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) was used as the substrate. When seabass skin was treated with crude lipase from seabass liver at various levels (0.15 and 0.30units/g dry skin) for 1-3h at 30°C, the skin treated with lipase at 0.30 units/g dry skin for 3h had the highest lipid removal (84.57%) with lower lipid distribution in skin. Efficacy in defatting was higher than when isopropanol was used. Thus, lipase from liver of seabass could be used to remove fat in fish skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract containing pentagalloylglucose and procyanidins potentiates the cytotoxicity of vincristine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszewska, E; Kosmider, A; Kiss, A K; Naruszewicz, M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparison of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract (EPE) effect with the activity of individual constituents of the extract: pentagalloylglucose (PGG), gallic acid, (+)-catechin and the procyanidin fraction, as well as an assessment of the combined effect of EPE and vincristine (VCR) in the absence or presence of MRP1 (indomethacin) and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) inhibitors, on two human cancer cell lines, metastatic melanoma (HTB-140) and hepatoma (HepG2). The presence of EPE, PGG and procyanidins caused a marked reduction in viability (MTT assay) and rise in mortality (LDH release assay) of HTB-140 cells. The combined use of EPE (25 μg/mL) and VCR (1 μM) in HTB-140 and HepG2 cells produced an increased cytotoxicity as compared to vincristine alone - by more than 4 and 1.5 times, respectively. In HTB-140 cells, the level of intracellular ATP (measured by bioluminescence) was lowered over 7-fold as a result of exposure to the combination of EPE and VCR, while the addition of MRP-1 inhibitor did not cause an increased cytotoxicity or further lowering of the ATP level. Our results demonstrate that EPE, containing PGG and procyanidins, significantly increased the sensitivity of cancer cells, particularly the melanoma cells, to the action of vincristine.

  2. Novel biological properties of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seed extracts: effects on metallopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anna K; Derwińska, Małgorzata; Dawidowska, Anna; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2008-09-10

    In this study, for the first time, we used the in vitro metallopeptidase model for the identification of a potential novel activity of defatted evening primrose seed extracts. Prepared extracts of different polarity (aqueous, 60% ethanolic, isopropanolic, and 30% isopropanolic) at concentrations of 1.5-100 microg/mL exhibited a significant and dose dependent inhibition of three tested enzymes. The 50% inhibition of enzymes activity showed that aminopeptidase N (APN) was the enzyme affected to the greatest extent with IC50 at the level of 2.8 microg/mL and 2.9 microg/mL for aqueous and 30% isopropanolic extracts, respectively. The activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was quite strongly inhibited by the extracts as well. The HPLC-DAD analysis and bioguided fractionation led to the identification of four active compounds: (-)-epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidin B3, oenothein B, and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG). Oenothein B has been shown previously to inhibit metallopeptidases. The three other compounds are known to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but they have not been previously reported to inhibit the NEP and APN activity. PGG and procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization, as the dominating compounds in O. paradoxa seeds, seemed to play a role in the crude extract activity.

  3. Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

  4. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  5. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  6. Reported symptoms to peanut between 4 and 8 years among children sensitized to peanut and birch pollen - results from the BAMSE birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnoj, A; Ostblom, E; Ahlstedt, S; Hedlin, G; Lilja, G; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2010-02-01

    Specific IgE tests are sometimes difficult to interpret due to structural similarities between certain food and pollen allergens. This may be the reason why concomitant sensitization to peanut and birch pollen is frequently seen. The aim of this study was to investigate reported symptoms to peanut- and birch pollen in relation to sensitization. The data originate from 1928 children in the BAMSE birth cohort. Background factors and clinical parameters were obtained and the levels of IgE antibodies to peanut and birch pollen measured at 4 and 8 years. IgE antibodies to peanut were found in 5.5% and 7.4% of the children at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The IgE antibody levels to peanut were higher in children sensitized to peanut but not birch than in children sensitized to peanut and birch among both 4- and 8-year-olds (P = 0.093 and P = 0.003, respectively). Eight-year-olds sensitized to peanut but not birch, more often reported symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen (76%vs 46%, P = 0.002). The probability of reported symptoms to peanut increased significantly with increasing IgE levels to peanut, especially in 8-year-olds not sensitized to birch. Children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen are less likely to report symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to peanut but not to birch pollen at 8 years. This is likely due to cross reactions between birch pollen and peanut and can explain the high sensitization rate to peanut in areas where birch trees are common.

  7. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function.

  8. Effects of packaging materials on storage quality of peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoji; Xing, Shengping; Xiong, Huiwei; Min, Hua; Zhu, Xuejing; He, Jialin; Mu, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum packaging materials for peanut kernels, the effects of four types of packaging materials on peanut storage quality (coat color, acid value, germination rate, relative damage, and prevention of aflatoxin contamination) were examined. The results showed that packaging materials had a major influence on peanut storage quality indexes. The color of the peanut seed coat packaged in the polyester/aluminum/polyamide/polyethylene (PET/AL/PA/PE) composite film bag did not change significantly during the storage period. Color deterioration was slower with polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) packaging materials than with polyethylene (PE) film bags and was slower in PE bags than in the woven bags. The use of PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags maintained peanut quality and freshness for more than one year and both package types resulted in better germination rates. There were significant differences between the four types of packaging materials in terms of controlling insect pests. The peanuts packaged in the highly permeable woven bags suffered serious invasion from insect pests, while both PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags effectively prevented insect infection. Peanuts stored in PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags were also better at preventing and controlling aflatoxin contamination. PMID:29518085

  9. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  10. Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandström, J; Vetander, M; Lilja, G; Johansson, S G O; Sundqvist, A-C; Kalm, F; Nilsson, C; Nopp, A

    2017-04-01

    Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose. Clinical trials numbers: EudraCT; 2012-005625-78, ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02402231. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genotoxicity testing of extracts from aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following chemical decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Polman, Th.H.G.; Neal, G.E.; Verma, A.; Guyomard, C.; Tulliez, J.; Gautier, J.P.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Heidenreich, E.; Delort-Laval, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important concerns in the decontamination of aflatoxin-containing feed commodities is the safety of the products for food-producing animals and for human consumption of products derived from these animals. A new method, based on the use of florisil and C18 solid phase extraction

  12. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  13. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  14. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yuanmei; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2004-01-01

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14 C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 μm nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  15. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  16. Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; Kara, Ayhan [Suleyman Demirel University Isparta (Turkey); Amasya University Amasya (Turkey); Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Osmaniye (Turkey)

    2012-09-06

    The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of {sup 40}K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for {sup 226}Ra activity peak from {sup 214}Bi at 1760 keV and {sup 232}Th activity, peak from {sup 208}Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

  17. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...

  18. Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... the genomic DNA, the frozen samples were ground and DNA was extracted .... RFLP analysis, no evidence of segregation was found in ... Figure 1. RFLP locus R2430E linked to resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in peanut.

  19. Molecular marker screening of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm for Meloidogyne arenaria resistance. V Carpentieri-Pipolo, M Gallo-Meagher, DW Dickson, DW Gorbet, M de Lurdes Mendes, SG Hulse de Souza ...

  20. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  1. Aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Rahmianna, A. A.; Yusnawan, E.

    2018-01-01

    Peanut is succeptable to aflatoxin contamination and the sources of peanut as well as processing methods considerably affect aflatoxin content of the products. Therefore, the study on aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods were performed. Good kernels of peanut were prepared into fried peanut, pressed-fried peanut, peanut sauce, peanut press cake, fermented peanut press cake (tempe) and fried tempe, while blended kernels (good and poor kernels) were processed into peanut sauce and tempe and poor kernels were only processed into tempe. The results showed that good and blended kernels which had high number of sound/intact kernels (82,46% and 62,09%), contained 9.8-9.9 ppb of aflatoxin B1, while slightly higher level was seen in poor kernels (12.1 ppb). However, the moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents of the kernels were similar as well as the products. Peanut tempe and fried tempe showed the highest increase in protein content, while decreased fat contents were seen in all products. The increase in aflatoxin B1 of peanut tempe prepared from poor kernels > blended kernels > good kernels. However, it averagely decreased by 61.2% after deep-fried. Excluding peanut tempe and fried tempe, aflatoxin B1 levels in all products derived from good kernels were below the permitted level (15 ppb). This suggests that sorting peanut kernels as ingredients and followed by heat processing would decrease the aflatoxin content in the products.

  2. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2018-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  3. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  5. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C

    2009-09-01

    The high cost of commercial supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock fed poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin lambs (27.5 +/- 5 kg) were fed for ad libitum intake of bahiagrass haylage (67.8% NDF, 9.6% CP) alone (control) or supplemented with soybean meal (18.8% NDF, 51.4% CP) or haylages of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 39.6% NDF, 18.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 44.1% NDF, 16.0% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 40.0% NDF, 15.8% CP), or pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 65.0% NDF, 13.7% CP]. Haylages were harvested at the optimal maturity for maximizing yield and nutritive value, wilted to 45% DM, baled, wrapped in polyethylene plastic, and ensiled for 180 d. Legumes were fed at 50% of the dietary DM, and soybean meal was fed at 8% of the dietary DM to match the average CP concentration (12.8%) of legume haylage-supplemented diets. Lambs were fed each diet for a 14-d adaptation period and a 7-d data collection period. Each diet was fed to 7 lambs in period 1 and 4 lambs in period 2. Pigeonpea haylage supplementation decreased (P haylages increased (P haylage, all supplements increased (P haylage supplementation, but unaffected (P = 0.05) by other supplements. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was unaffected (P = 0.05) by diet. Ruminal ammonia concentration was increased (P = 0.01) by all supplements, but only soybean meal and annual peanut haylage increased (P haylages are promising protein supplements for growing lambs.

  6. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  7. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  8. LEAPing through the looking glass: secondary analysis of the effect of skin test size and age of introduction on peanut tolerance after early peanut introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, M; Fleischer, D M; Chan, E S; Venter, C; Stukus, D; Gupta, R; Spergel, J M

    2017-08-01

    In the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study, early peanut introduction in high-risk 4- to 11-month-olds was associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing peanut allergy. However, the influences of key baseline high-risk factors on peanut tolerance are poorly understood. Secondary analysis was conducted on the publically available LEAP dataset, exploring relationships between peanut tolerance, baseline peanut/egg sensitization, eczema severity/duration, age of introduction, gender, and race. A multiple logistic regression model predicting odds of successful oral food challenge (OFC) at 60 months noted higher odds with early introduction (OR 9.2, P introduction group was 83% vs 43% in the avoidance group with SPT wheal of introduction between 6 and 11 months than at 4-6 months. Increasing eczema severity had limited impact on the probability of peanut tolerance in the early introduction arm. Increasing peanut wheal size predicted peanut tolerance only in the avoidance arm. Peanut introduction between 6 and 11 months of age was associated with the highest rates of peanut tolerance, questioning the 'urgency' of introduction before 6 months. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Venderbosch, Iris; Devereux, Graham; Simons, F Estelle R; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-09-12

    Peanut allergy is one of the most common forms of food allergy encountered in clinical practice.  In most cases, it does not spontaneously resolve; furthermore, it is frequently implicated in acute life-threatening reactions. The current management of peanut allergy centres on meticulous avoidance of peanuts and peanut-containing foods. Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy (OIT) for peanut allergy aims to induce desensitisation and then tolerance to peanut, and has the potential to revolutionise the management of peanut allergy. However, at present there is still considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness and safety of this approach. To establish the effectiveness and safety of OIT in people with IgE-mediated peanut allergy who develop symptoms after peanut ingestion. We searched in the following databases: AMED, BIOSIS, CAB, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, IndMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, MEDLINE, PakMediNet and TRIP. We also searched registers of on-going and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs or controlled clinical trials involving children or adults with clinical features indicative of IgE-mediated peanut allergy treated with allergen-specific OIT, compared with control group receiving either placebo or no treatment, were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently checked and reviewed titles and abstracts of identified studies and assessed risk of bias. The full text of potentially relevant trials was assessed. Data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. We found one small RCT, judged to be at low risk of bias, that enrolled 28 children aged 1 to 16 years with evidence of sensitisation to peanut and a clinical history of reaction to peanut within 60 minutes of exposure. The study did not include children who had moderate to severe asthma or who had a

  10. Characterization of peanut phytochromes and their possible regulating roles in early peanut pod development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    Full Text Available Arachis hypogaea L. geocarpy is a unique feature different from other legume plants. Flowering and fertilization occur above ground, while the following processes of pod formation and development proceed in the soil. The zygote divides only few times to develop into pre-embryo and then further embryo developmental process stops when the gynoecium is exposed to light condition or normal day/night period. In this study, eight phytochrome genes were identified in two wild peanuts (four in Arachis duranensis and four in Arachis ipaensis. Using RACE and homologous cloning, the full CDS of AhphyA, AhphyA-like, AhphyB and AhphyE were acquired in cultivated peanut. Protein structure analysis showed that the conservative coding domains of phytochromes from a number of other plant species were found in these proteins. The C-terminal of AhphyA, AhphyA-like and AhphyB could interact with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 in vitro. The expression patterns of these genes in various tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and significant differences were observed. Interestingly, the expression levels of AhphyA-like changed significantly during gynophore growth and early pod development. Furthermore, protein accumulation patterns of AhphyA and AhphyB in gynophore were different during early pod development stages in that AhphyA and AhphyB proteins were not detected in S1 and S2 gynophores, while significant accumulation of AhphyA and AhphyB were detected in S3 gynophore. These results provided evidence that phytochromes mediated light signal transduction may play key roles in peanut geocarpy development.

  11. Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Vitamin Composition of Full-Fat and Defatted Seed Flour of Telfairia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetunde Alozie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of full-fat and defatted seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin using standard procedures. The defatted seed flour (DSF indicated higher protein content (46.55% while the full-fat seed flour (FSF presented a value of 10.20%. The lipid (35.78%, carbohydrate (42.27%, and caloric values (531.90 Kcal/100 g obtained for FSF were respectively higher than values of similar determinations for DSF. The anti-nutritional analyses of the FSF showed slightly higher oxalate content (44.00 mg/100 g while cyanide, phytate and tannin levels were higher in DSF. The vitamin A composition of FSF (9.18 mg/100 g was higher than that of DSF (0.84 mg/100 g while DSF indicated higher vitamin C (74.44 mg/100g content. These results revealed that the seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis contains an appreciable amount of nutrients and vitamins. The levels of toxicants in both FSF and DSF samples were low and below toxic levels. The seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis can be exploited as a cheap and valuable source of vegetable protein in fortified food products formulation.

  12. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  13. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  14. Cost-effective Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from a Discarded Bioresource – Defatted Seeds of Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Camellia oleifera oil industry is the economic mainstay in many high-poverty mountain regions of China, but the defatted seeds are currently discarded, leading to a waste of bioresources. In this work, a cost-effective technique was designed to isolate the flavonoid, saponins, and polysaccharides by ultrasonic-assisted acid-base alternative extraction. The activities of these compounds were evaluated by their DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities in vitro and inflammatory inhibition in mice, and the economic efficiency was assessed. The optimal extraction conditions by response surface design were 1.6% HCl, water/seed ratio 16, extraction time 89 min, and ultrasonic power 310 W. The yields of the flavonoid, saponin, and polysaccharide were, respectively, 1.4 ± 0.2%, 6.7 ± 0.8%, and 22.5 ± 1.7%. The extracts could eliminate DPPH and ABTS radicals and alleviate inflammation with concentration dependence, and showed excellent capacity in the order of flavonoid ≥ saponin > polysaccharides. The residue after extraction was cellulose, with a yield of 63.0 ± 2.4%. The defatted seeds could produce a value of $11.35 per kilogram after production of the four valuable extracts, which would greatly increase the income in these high-poverty areas. This integrated extraction technique provides valuable recycling utilization of a typically discarded bioresource.

  15. UVA-induced ROS generation inhibition by Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and subsequent cell death in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Soin, Magdalena; Filipek, Agnieszka; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-09-05

    UVA radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react with lipids, proteins and other intracellular molecules leading to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ultimately cell death. There is, therefore, a growing need for substances exhibiting antioxidant activity, which may support repair mechanisms of the skin. This study evaluates the protective effect of the aqueous Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, against UVA (25 and 50J/cm(2))-induced changes in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The tested extract (0.1-10μg/ml) has decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the UVA-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium, the ROS production (with the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and lipid peroxidation (utilizing redox reactions with ferrous ions) as compared to the control cells (incubated without the extract). Moreover, the extract increased the number of viable (calcein positive) cells decreasing the number of cells in late apoptosis (annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide positive). Thus our results show that O. paradoxa defatted seeds extract may be beneficial for the prevention of UVA skin damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Population structure of Cylindrocladium parasiticum infecting peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Georgia, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, L.P.; Davis, A.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Crous, P.W.; Brenneman, T.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrocladium parasiticum is an important pathogen of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) causing the disease Cylindrocladium black rot. The genetic structure of this haploid pathogen was determined for populations associated with peanut in Georgia, USA. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to

  17. The effect of peanut pod on performance, small intestine pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... insoluble fibre on the growth performance of broilers in this study were probably a result of ... The nitrogen-corrected true metabolisable energy of the peanut pod sample was ... peanut pod sample used in the experiment.

  18. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  19. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  20. Physicochemical effects of gamma radiation in peanuts and the utilization of their peanut skins as natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de

    2012-01-01

    Peanuts are among the most popular oilseed in the world, their lipid content is about 50%, on average. Their fatty acid composition is characterized by high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. Peanuts are a source of dietary tocopherol and polyphenols, antioxidants that play benefits to human health. However, the presence of potential mycotoxic fungi is a concern of this oilseed production chain. Gamma radiation, in addition to good agricultural practices, has been identified as an effective treatment for disinfecting peanuts of fungi and has been identified as a potential tool for reducing their allergenicity. However, the physicochemical quality of the peanuts deserves attention due to its high lipid percentage. The irradiation process can promote the formation of free radicals, increase lipid oxidation and induce molecular changes that may reflect changes in the antioxidant properties. In the present study samples of peanut from IAC Runner 886 cultivar, peeled, in shell and blanched as well as their peanut skins were subjected to gamma radiation in doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy with dose rate of 7.5 kGy.h -1 using a cobalt-60 source. The samples were stored for six months at room temperature and analysis were performed at the beginning of the study and after each three month storage on peanuts and just at the beginning of the study on peanut skins. Few changes noticed in the physical parameters of color seem to be more related to storage than the irradiation process Chemical parameters related to the antioxidant properties showed moderate change due to the irradiation process, while storage was determinant on the reduction of bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant activity in the samples. No correlation was found between gamma radiation and fatty acid changes of peanuts. Tocopherol content and the induction period of the crude peanut oil were negatively correlated with gamma radiation doses. Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching

  1. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  2. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  3. Peanut sensitization pattern in Norwegian children and adults with specific IgE to peanut show age related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namork, Ellen; Stensby, Berit A

    2015-01-01

    Peanuts contain potent food allergens and the prevalence of allergy is reported to increase, especially in children. Since peanut sensitization may differ between different geographical regions, we wanted to investigate the sensitization pattern to the individual peanut allergens in a Norwegian population. Cases reported to the Norwegian Food Allergy Register with sera positive to peanut extract were analyzed for specific IgE (sIgE) to the recombinant peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8 and Ara h 9 and to birch pollen extract. Serum samples negative to the above allergens were analyzed for sIgE to Ara h 6, and sIgE to Pru p 3 in peach were analyzed in sera positive to the cross-reactive allergen Ara h 9. Highest frequency of sIgE to Ara h 2, often co-sensitized to Ara h 1 and 3, were found in the small children up to 6 years of age. From the age of 6 years, sensitization to Ara h 8 was predominant. The sIgE levels to the storage proteins Ara h 1, 2 and 3 were strongly correlated, as was the sIgE levels to Ara h 8 and birch pollen extract. A low sensitization rate of sIgE to Ara h 9 in young adults was observed, which sIgE levels were very strongly correlated to Pru p 3. The sensitization to peanut allergens in a Norwegian population shows a clear age dependent pattern. The results add to the previously published research on the sensitization patterns of peanut sensitized patients in different geographical areas.

  4. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  5. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were

  6. Genome-wide SNP genotyping resolves signatures of selection and tetrasomic recombination in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea; 2n=4x=40) is a nutritious food and a good source of vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats. Expansion of genetic and genomic resources for genetic enhancement of cultivated peanut has gained momentum from the sequenced genomes of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. ...

  7. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  8. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Irradiation controlpathogens in mixture of blanched peanut and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological, nutrient and sensory qualities of blanched peanut and celery mixture stored at commercial condition and D 10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis were investigated. Results showed that D 10 values of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua inoculated mixture of blanched celery and peanut were 0.284 and 0.296 kGy, respectively. Irradiation at dose lower than 2.0kGy have no significant effects on sensory qualities, content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05), and decrease 2-3 log of microbial in the mixture blanched peanut and celery and above 6 log of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis inoculated. 2.0 kGy might be the optimum dose to ensure the hygienic quality of products. (authors)

  10. PENGARUH DEFATTING, FREKUENSI PENCUCIAN DAN JENIS DRYOPROTECTANT TERHADAP MUTU TEPUNG SURIMI IKAN LELE KERING BEKU [Effect of Defatting, Washing Cycle and Dryoprotectant Type on the Quality of Freeze Dried Catfish Surimi Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Ramadhan*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Freeze dried surimi powder is a surimi type processed by freeze drying. To utilize oversized catfish and to reduce surimi handling cost, oversized catfish has been used as raw material of surimi powder. The study aimed to determine the effect of defatting (NaHCO3 concentration and soaking duration, washingcycle,and dryoprotectant type on catfish surimi, as well as quality differences between surimi powder and wet surimi. With regard to defatting step, soaking in NaHCO3 0.75% for 10 minutes was found as the best treatment and resulting in a fat content of 1.52%. Moreover, one time of washing cycle was found as the most appropriate procedure to obtain a superior quality of surimi with whiteness value 57.21%, water holding capacity 73.28%, salts soluble protein 7.17%, pH 6.69, and gel strength 482.3 g/cm2, folding value of 4.84, and teeth cutting value of 8.26. Trehalose 6% was the most suitable dryoprotectant resulting in surimi powder with water holding capacity of 8.01 mL/g, gel strength 826.3 g/cm2, salt soluble protein 18.98%, density 4.06 mL/10 g, rehydration capacity 3.81, emulsion capacity 69.3%, emulsion stability 59.3%, foaming capacity 25.33% and foaming stability 9.40%. The microstructure profile of surimi powder added with trehalose had more compact tissues, without any damage and clots, than that treated with other dryoprotectants. However, surimi powder still had lower protein content than wet surimi, and lower physical and chemical properties, particularly in its teeth cutting and folding characteristics.

  11. Fatty acid profiling of four different peanut Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD) 2 genotypes at five seed development stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is one of the most important edible oilseed crops. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds can significantly affect the oil quality. Consuming peanut product from high oleic acid seeds may positively contribute to improving human health. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds is mainly contr...

  12. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  13. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  14. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages......The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life....... By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  15. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  16. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  17. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  18. Introduction of peanuts in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy: a prospective, double-blinded assessment of risk, of diagnostic tests, and an analysis of patient preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, P; Graham, F; Killer, K; Paradis, J; Paradis, L; Des Roches, A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy has been reported between 7% and 8.5%, but the anaphylactic risk at the time of introduction is currently unknown, which limits our ability to best counsel parents on this issue. To determine the risk of anaphylaxis and working parameters of allergy testing in this context. One hundred and fifty-four peanut-naïve younger siblings of peanut-allergic children underwent double-blinded skin testing, followed by parent-led peanut introduction. Questionnaires were dispensed to parents to investigate preferences with regard to peanut introduction in this subgroup. Eight participants (5.2%) presented unequivocal IgE-mediated reactions to peanut upon introduction, including five anaphylaxes. These participants were significantly older compared to the rest of the cohort (median 4.0 vs 1.9 years, P = 0.04). The negative predictive value of skin prick test with peanut extract and peanut butter and of specific IgE was 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Six peanut-tolerant participants had positive peanut allergy tests. The option of introducing at home without prior skin testing was associated with high levels of anxiety (median 8.4 on 10-point Likert scale) when compared to supervised introduction (median 3.8, P siblings of children with peanut allergy, and parents are reluctant to introduce at home without testing. Allergy testing prior to introduction is negative in over 90% of cases and carries a high negative predictive value. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  20. Suppression of Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus Species by Selected Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor; Arias, Renee; Goodman, Kerestin; Walk, Travis; Orner, Valerie; Faustinelli, Paola; Massa, Alicia

    2018-01-10

    Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such an invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effects on the viability of and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species. Significant reduction or virtually complete suppression of aflatoxin production was revealed in feeding experiments in A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius. Changes in morphology, spore germination, and growth rate were observed in A. flavus exposed to the selected peanut stilbenoids. Elucidation of the mechanism of aflatoxin suppression by peanut stilbenoids could provide strategies for preventing plant invasion by the fungi that produce aflatoxins.

  1. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  2. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salad sandwich on GF bread Turkey or beef meatballs (substitute crushed GF crackers or dehydrated potato flakes ... sautéed zucchini and roasted potatoes (reserve a few meatballs for Friday’s lunch) Friday Pancakes topped with peanut ...

  3. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    tissue culture response and plant regeneration has driven researchers to develop alternate transformation systems that target axillary meristem in the cotyledonary nodes (Somers et al 2003). We report here for the first time the mode of genetic transformation using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant in peanut mediated ...

  4. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Origin and botanical descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first description of the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. by Linneaus in 1753, to the recent monograph on the taxonomy of genus Arachis (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994 and 2007), our knowledge of the genetic structure of the genus including its origin, variability, and geographical dis...

  5. The impact of application of biocar on peanuts growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the impact of application biocar on peanuts growing. It was based on a long-term fertilization experiment which researched the effect of applying different amounts of biochar and BBF when continuously cropping peanuts for 5 years. There were five treatments: no fertilizer, low level of biochar (C15), high level of biochar (C50), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer and biochar-based fertilization (BBF).We determined peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll at every growth stages in 2016. The results showed that all fertilization can increase these indexes and in application of NPK improve them the most which close to BBF. The peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll was higher than the same level carbon treatment (C15) 62.85%, 6.67%, 18.73% and 25.58%, respectively. Expect stem and leaf weight, plant height, root weight and chlorophyll were higher when high level biochar (C50) applied than the low one (C15).

  6. Particle Shape Anisotropy in Pickering Emulsions: Cubes and Peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; Hutter, E.M.; Castillo, S.I.R.; Klop, K.E.; Philipse, A.P.; Kegel, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform

  7. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and

  8. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. ... (7.6 g/l) and resveratrol production (1.5 mg/g) in hairy root of peanut. Our results demonstrate that the .... and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular ...

  9. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that includes proteins accumulated at late stages of seed development or in vegetative tissues in response to drought, salinity, cold stress and exogenous application of abscisic acid. In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed ...

  10. Effect of Pyrasulfotole Carryover to Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, growers often double-crop soft red winter wheat with peanut. In some areas, tobacco is also grown as a rotational crop. Pyrasulfotole is a residual post-emergence applied herbicide used in winter wheat, but information about its effects on rotational crops is limi...

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  12. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes differed in their ability to induce peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. A. rhizogenes R1601 is the most effective strain for the induction (75.8%), growth (7.6 g/l) and ...

  13. SSR Markers Assessed for Peanut Smut Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut smut disease, caused by Thecaphora frezii (Carranza & Lindquist), can result in yield losses higher than 50%. Several strategies have been developed for disease management but they are still insufficient. The smut genetic resistance found in wild species and Bolivian landraces is currently th...

  14. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  15. TOLERANCE OF PEANUT GENOTYPES TO ACIDIC SOIL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanto Kasno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranging from 3.1 to 5.0. However, it could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1 were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI according to Fernandez (1992. Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, and peanut yield on acidic soil. Lines of GH3 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-1 and GH 4 (G/92088/ 92088-02-B-2-8-2 genotypes had high STI with average yield of 2.47 tha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively as well as check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1. It is concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic, and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms.

  16. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  17. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  18. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, C. G.; Mestrallet, M. G.; Nepote, V.; Grosso, N. R.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P), in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P), of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91%) than T-P (48.95%). GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49%) than GO-P (26.68%). GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively) than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively). In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute. (Author) 32 refs.

  19. Heat processing of peanut seed enhances the sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Blanche; Bernard, Hervé; Drumare, Marie-Françoise; Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2016-12-01

    Processing of food has been shown to impact IgE binding and functionality of food allergens. In the present study, we investigated the impact of heat processing on the sensitization capacity of Ara h 6, a major peanut allergen and one of the most potent elicitors of the allergic reaction. Peanut extracts obtained from raw or heat-processed peanut and some fractions thereof were biochemically and immunochemically characterized. These extracts/fractions, purified Ara h 6, or recombinant Ara h 6 including Ara h 6 mutants lacking disulfide bridges were used in in vitro digestion tests and mouse models of experimental sensitization. Peanut roasting led to the formation of complexes of high molecular weight, notably between Ara h 6 and Ara h 1, which supported the induction of IgE specific to native Ara h 6. On the contrary, a fraction containing free monomeric 2S albumins or purified native Ara h 6 displayed no intrinsic allergenicity. In addition to complex formation, heat denaturation and/or partial destabilization enhanced Ara h 6 immunogenicity and increased its sensitivity to digestion. These results suggest that sensitization potency and IgE binding capacity can be supported by different structures, modified and/or produced during food processing in interaction with other food constituents. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Peanut allergy: is maternal transmission of antigens during pregnancy and breastfeeding a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A; Infante-Rivard, C; Paradis, L; Paradis, J; Haddad, E

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an important public health problem in western countries. However, the risk factors associated with this allergy remain uncertain. To determine whether the consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a risk factor for peanut allergy in infants. We enrolled 403 infants in a case-control study. The cases were infants aged 18 months or less with a diagnosis of peanut allergy based on a history of clinical reaction after exposure to peanuts and the presence of peanut-specific immunoglobulin E. Controls were age-matched infants with no known clinical history or signs of atopic disease. The mothers of the children filled out a detailed questionnaire about maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the infant's diet, the presence of peanut products in the infant's environment, and family history of atopy. The mean (SD) age of cases was 1.23 (0.03) years. The groups were comparable in terms of the rate and duration of breastfeeding. However, the reported consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding was higher in the case group and associated with an increased risk of peanut allergy in offspring (odds ratio [OR], 4.22 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-11.30 and OR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.31-3.97] for pregnancy and breastfeeding, respectively). Overall, the infants with peanut allergy did not seem to be more exposed to peanut products in their environment than the controls. Early exposure to peanut allergens, whether in utero or through human breast milk, seems to increase the risk of developing peanut allergy.

  1. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were

  2. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish...... adolescents. The point prevalence of peanut allergy confirmed by oral challenge was estimated to 0.5%. The number of adolescents sensitized to peanut by specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (CAP FEIA) and skin prick test (SPT) were higher (5.8% resp. 3.4%). In adolescents without clinically relevant peanut...... sensitization most cases were sensitized to grass pollen and the IgE class for grass was higher than for peanut. A correlation between peanut and pollen (grass) sensitization is therefore plausible. Before a positive SPT or specific IgE measurement to peanut is considered clinically relevant in a patient...

  3. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  4. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera defatted cake versus seed in the treatment of unsafe drinking water : case study of surface and well waters in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, Alfred S.; Dianou, Dayéri

    2013-01-01

    Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable develop-ment, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to investigate the purifying capacity of Moringa oleifera defatted cake as compared to Moringa oleifera seed in the treatment of surface and well waters used for populations alimentation. A total of 90 water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from 3 dams’ water reservoirs, a river, an...

  5. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  6. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  7. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  8. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  9. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  10. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.; Shyu, S.L.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Peanut kernels were gamma irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 KGy, and stored 1 yr at ambient and frozen (-14 degrees C) conditions. Irradiated peanuts lost germination capabilities during storage. Molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 KGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peanut oil in kernels stored at -14 degrees C was comparatively more stable than that in peanuts stored at ambient temperature. Oxidation of oil was not significantly changed by irradiation. Changes in fatty acid content varied slightly with exception of linoleic and linolenic acids which decreased with increased radiation depending on storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein patterns of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage

  11. Effect of processing on the detectability of peanut protein by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Ateeq, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Chicken IgY was used for the detection and quantification of peanut proteins by indirect competitive ELISA. The method was optimized by using a checker board approach to determine the optimal concentration of coating antigen, primary antibody and secondary antibody. Peanut protein could be detected in foods down to levels of 10 ppm. The effect of physical (heat treatment at 80 °C and 100 °C) and chemical (acid, alkali and reducing sugar) treatments on the IgY binding of peanut proteins was investigated. The optimized assay was relatively sensitive for the roasted peanut proteins. However, the binding ability of chicken IgYs to peanut proteins was found to be significantly altered by denaturation and hydrolysis of proteins. It was also observed that the effect of Millard chemistry on the detectability of peanut protein was less pronounced at high temperatures than at low temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted

  13. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...

  14. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    OpenAIRE

    Soumanou Mohamed M.; Edorh Aleodjrodo P.; Bornscheuer Uwe T.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) and Candida rugosa (CRL) was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricapryli...

  15. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  16. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Niedja Marrize C.; Almeida, Francisco de Assis C.; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Pessoa, Elvira B.; Leal, Artur S. Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  17. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from hours...

  18. Determination of Carbaryl residues in soybean and peanut plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Soejono; Sisworo, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Carbaryl is one of the insecticides used in large quantities in Indonesia. It is effective against soybean and peanut plant insects. The residues in the plants are determined by Colorimetry at the residues level up to 5 ppm and by thin layer chromatography at level up to 0,1 ppm. Both methods use coupling reaction between hydrolysis product of Carbaryl and diazo reagent to produce colour. (author)

  19. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (Pcooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  1. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Mingli; An Li [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Yi Mingha, E-mail: wangyilwm@163.co [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Feng Wang [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Yan Lizhang [Division of Metrology in Ionizing Radiation and Medicine, National Institute of Metrology, 100013 Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  2. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingshu; Li Zhengchao; Hu Wenguang; Wu Lanrong

    1999-12-01

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  3. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  4. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  5. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  6. Bioavailability of zinc from defatted soy flour, soy hulls and whole eggs as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N R; Stuart, M A; Weaver, C M

    1983-06-01

    Bioavailability of zinc from diets prepared from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled autoclaved, defatted soy flour and scrambled, freeze-dried egg was investigated in male rats marginally depleted in zinc. In one study, retention of zinc from intrinsically labeled soybean flour (73%) was significantly less than from 65ZnCl2 extrinsically added to a soy flour-based diet (80%). Zinc from intrinsically labeled soybean hulls and from soy flour diets containing 10% soybean hulls extrinsically labeled with 65ZnCl2 was as available as the zinc from the extrinsically labeled soy flour diet. In a second study, extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of bioavailability of zinc from egg- and soy flour-based diets when extrinsic labeling was accomplished by thoroughly mixing 65ZnCl2 with the protein source prior to incorporation into the diet. Absorption of 65Zn was greater from egg diets than from soy flour diets and of intermediate value from mixed soy flour and egg (50:50, wt/wt) diets regardless of which protein source was labeled, indicating that the zinc entered a common pool.

  7. Pro-oxidative and pro-apoptotic action of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa on human skin melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Kośmider, Anita; Kiss, Anna K; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2009-09-23

    Three extracts of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok, aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract, differing by their total content of phenolic compounds and by their contents of individual polyphenols, were investigated in this study. The extracts exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 human skin melanoma cells. After 24 h of incubation, IC(50) values of 169.7 +/- 5.9 micog/mL, 72.4 +/- 3.8 microg/mL, and 155.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL were obtained for HTB-140 cells with the aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract at the tested concentrations (5-200 microg/mL), respectively, while IC(50) for normal fibroblast cells NHDFs was not attained. Moreover, for HTB-140 cells, LD(50) (concentration at which 50% of cells were dead) of 89.2 +/- 4.3 microg/mL and 181.4 +/- 6.5 microg/mL were obtained with 60% ethanolic extract and 30% isopropanolic extract, respectively. In melanoma cells, all three extracts caused a concentration-dependent increase of ROS production, GSH, and ATP lowering, and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC; furthermore, apoptosis without activation of caspase-3 took place. The most effective was 60% ethanolic extract, which had the greatest total content of phenolic compounds and the greatest content of pentagalloyloglucose (PGG).

  8. Electro-activation of sweet defatted whey: Impact on the induced Maillard reaction products and bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareb, Ourdia; Gomaa, Ahmed; Champagne, Claude P; Jean, Julie; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Electro-activation was used to add value to sweet defatted whey. This study aimed to investigate and to characterize the bioactive compounds formed under different electro-activation conditions by molecular and proteomic approaches. The effects of electric current intensity (400, 500 or 600mA) and whey concentration (7, 14 or 21% (w/v)) as a function of the electro-activation time (0, 15, 30 or 45min) were evaluated. The targeted dependent variables were the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), protein hydrolysates and glycated compounds. It was shown that the MRPs derived from electro-activated whey at a concentration of 14% had the highest potential of biological activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated the formation of hydrolysates and glycated compounds with different molecular weight distributions. FTIR indicated the predominance of intermediate MRPs, such as the Schiff base compounds. LC-MS/MS and proteomics analysis showed the production of multi-functional bioactive peptides due to the hydrolysis of whey proteins. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection and Antigenic Profiling of Undeclared Peanut in Imported Garlic Using an xMAP Multiplex Immunoassay for Food Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Peters, Tim; Panda, Rakhi; Wehling, Paul; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-07-01

    A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut. Specifically, the relative intensities of two different peanut-specific antibodies coupled to beads (peanut-37 and -38) and the antigen profiles were identical to garlic controls spiked with peanut. In addition, the xMAP data did not indicate the presence of other allergens. Quantitative analyses indicated an approximately fivefold variation in peanut concentration among different subs. In contrast, within a sub, the apparent peanut concentration appeared constant. Particle size analyses of the garlic powder subs indicated a single distribution profile, with a peak at 380 μm. ELISA analysis of sieve-fractionated garlic powder from one of the subs indicated that slightly less than half of the detectable peanut was smaller than 212 μm, with the remainder almost evenly split between 212 and 300 μm and >300 μm. Modeling to predict possible oral exposure levels of peanut other than those directly measured requires additional research on the physicochemical properties of peanut and garlic, along with information on the production of the garlic powder.

  10. Effect of Flaxseed Meals and Extracts on Lipid Stability in a Stored Meat Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseeds have been recently in focus due to the antioxidant capacity of some of their compounds. However, there is a lack of easily accessible information concerning their activity against lipid oxidation in food systems. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of defatted meals (DFM) and the aqueous extracts (AFE) obtained from brown and golden flaxseeds on lipid oxidation in pork meatballs. Fatty acid composition, peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cholesterol content were monitored during 6 months of freezer storage. Cholesterol oxidation products were identified and quantified. Both DFM and AFE limited fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation during meatball storage. Their antioxidant effect depended on flax variety (brown or golden) and preparation type (DFM or AFE). Lower level of PV and TBARS, compared with the ones with AFE, were noted in meatballs with DFM. Both DFM and AFE, from the brown seed variety, protect the lipids against oxidation to a higher extent. During the storage, a cholesterol degradation was observed. AFE (particularly from the brown variety) limited changes in cholesterol content. Moreover, they stabilized fatty acid composition of stored meatballs. However, DFM efficiently inhibited cholesterol oxidation.

  11. UAV remote sensing for phenotyping drought tolerance in peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Farmers can benefit from growing drought tolerant peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars with improved yield when rainfall is sporadic. In the Virginia-Carolina (VC) region, drought is magnified by hot summers and usually occurs in July and Aug when pod and seed growth are intense. At these growth stages, weekly supply of 50 to 75 mm of water is needed to ensure profitability. Irrigation can supplement crop water needs, but only 10% of the peanut farms are irrigated. In this frame, drought tolerant varieties can be profitable, but breeding for cultivars with improved drought tolerance requires fast yet accurate phenotyping. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of UAV remote sensing technologies for drought tolerance selection in peanut. In this study, we examined the effect of drought on leaf wilting, pod yield, grading characteristics, and crop value of 23 peanut cultivars (Virginia, Runner, and Valencia type). These varieties were arranged in a factorial design, with four replications drought stressed and two replications well-watered. Drought was imposed by covering the drought stressed plots with rainout shelters on July 19; they remained covered until August 29 and only received 38 mm irrigation in mid Aug. The well-watered plots continued to receive rain and supplemental irrigation as needed. During this time, Canopy Temperature Depression (CT) and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) were collected from the ground on all plots at weekly intervals. After the shelters were removed, these measurements were collected daily for approximately 2 weeks. At the same time, Red-Green-Blue (RGB), near-infrared (NIR), and infrared (IR) images taken from an UAV platform were also collected. Vegetation indices derived from the ground and aerial data were compared with leaf wilting, pod yield and crop value. Wilting, which is a common water stress symptom, was best estimated by NDVI and RGB, and least by CT; but CT was best in estimating yield, SMK and

  12. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  13. Polyphasic approach to the identification and characterization of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from peanuts and peanut-based products marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, M; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Son, R; Chin, C K; Sardjono

    2018-05-31

    Peanuts are widely consumed as the main ingredient in many local dishes in Malaysia. However, the tropical climate in Malaysia (high temperature and humidity) favours the growth of fungi from Aspergillus section Flavi, especially during storage. Most of the species from this section, such as A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, are natural producers of aflatoxins. Precise identification of local isolates and information regarding their ability to produce aflatoxins are very important to evaluate the safety of food marketed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and characterize the aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi in peanuts and peanut-based products. A polyphasic approach, consisting of morphological and chemical characterizations was applied to 128 isolates originating from raw peanuts and peanut-based products. On the basis of morphological characters, 127 positively identified as Aspergillus flavus, and the other as A. nomius. Chemical characterization revealed six chemotype profiles which indicates diversity of toxigenic potential. About 58.6%, 68.5%, and 100% of the isolates are positive for aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and aspergillic acid productions respectively. The majority of the isolates originating from raw peanut samples (64.8%) were aflatoxigenic, while those from peanut-based products were less toxigenic (39.1%). The precise identification of these species may help in developing control strategies for aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts, especially during storage. These findings also highlight the possibility of the co-occurrence of other toxins, which could increase the potential toxic effects of peanuts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  15. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F

    2014-01-01

    and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via...... the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...

  16. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  17. Mixed antibody and T cell responses to peanut and the peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 in an oral sensitization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, F. van; Hartgring, S.; Koppelman, S.J.; Pieters, R.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is known for its severity and persistence through life. Several peanut proteins have been identified as allergenic and are indicated as Ara h 1-7. Very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie sensitization to peanut proteins. Objective: The purpose of the

  18. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid detection of allergic peanut in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Tsou, Po-Chuan; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2018-08-15

    Peanut is a widely and common used in many cuisines around the world. However, peanut is also one of the most important food allergen for causing anaphylactic reaction. To prevent allergic reaction, the best way is to avoid the food allergen or food containing allergic ingredient such as peanut before food consuming. Thus, to efficient and precisely detect the allergic ingredient, peanut or related product, is essential and required for maintain consumer's health or their interest. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of allergic peanut using specifically designed primer sets. Two sets of the specific LAMP primers respectively targeted the internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions and the ara h1 gene sequence of Arachia hypogeae (peanut) were used to address the application of LAMP for detecting peanut in processed food or diet. The results demonstrated that the identification of peanut using the newly designed primers for ITS 1 sequence is more sensitive rather than primers for sequence of Ara h1 gene when performing LAMP assay. Besides, the sensitivity of LAMP for detecting peanut is also higher than the traditional PCR method. These LAMP primers sets showed high specificity for the identification of the peanut and had no cross-reaction to other species of nut including walnut, hazelnut, almonds, cashew and macadamia nut. Moreover, when minimal 0.1% peanuts were mixed with other nuts ingredients at different ratios, no any cross-reactivity was evident during performing LAMP. Finally, genomic DNAs extracted from boiled and steamed peanut were used as templates; the detection of peanut by LAMP was not affected and reproducible. As to this established LAMP herein, not only can peanut ingredients be detected but commercial foods containing peanut can also be identified. This assay will be useful and potential for the rapid detection of peanut in practical food

  19. The relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish between severe and mild peanut-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homšak, Matjaž; Silar, Mira; Berce, Vojko; Tomazin, Maja; Skerbinjek-Kavalar, Maja; Celesnik, Nina; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peanut sensitization is common in children. However, it is difficult to assess which children will react mildly and which severely. This study evaluated the relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish the severity of peanut allergy in children. Twenty-seven peanut-sensitized children with symptoms varying from mild symptoms to severe anaphylaxis underwent peanut CD63 dose-response curve analysis with the inclusion of basophil allergen sensitivity calculation (CD-sens) and peanut component immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. Eleven children who had experienced anaphylaxis to peanuts showed a markedly higher peanut CD63 response at submaximal allergen concentrations and CD-sens (median 1,667 vs. 0.5; p < 0.0001) than 16 children who experienced a milder reaction. Furthermore, a negative or low CD-sens to peanuts unambiguously excluded anaphylactic peanut allergy. Children with anaphylaxis have higher levels of Ara h 1, 2, 3 and 9 IgE, but comparable levels of IgE to Ara h 8 and whole-peanut extract. The diagnostic specificity calculated with a receiver operating characteristic analysis reached 100% for CD-sens and 73% for Ara h 2. We demonstrated that severe peanut allergy is significantly associated with higher basophil allergen sensitivity. This cellular test should facilitate a more accurate diagnosis of peanut allergy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts from Argentina. Sensorial and chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical and sensory aspects of Honey Roasted (HRP and Roasted Peanuts (RP. These products were evaluated for sensory analysis: overall acceptance using a consumer test and a descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Percentages of protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash was analyzed in HRP and RP. The contents of carbohydrate, oil and protein in HRP were 28.22%, 45.56% and 21.06%, respectively. RP showed higher percentages of lipids and protein and lower percentages of carbohydrate content than HRP. The total energetic value was lower in HRP. Values of 8 (like very much were chosen by a higher number of consumer panelist for HRP while values of 6 (like slightly were found in a higher proportion for RP. The trained panel described 11 attributes: brown color, roughness, roasted peanutty, oxidized, cardboard, sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hardness and crunchiness. The roasted peanutty intensity in RP was higher than in HRP. The intensities of roughness, sweet and salty in HRP were higher than in RP.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente al Maní Tostado con Miel (MTM y Maní Tostado (MT. Estos dos productos fueron evaluados sensorialmente analizando su aceptabilidad por parte de consumidores (test de aceptabilidad y sus atributos sensoriales por el uso de un panel de jueces entrenados (prueba descriptiva. Por otra parte se describió la composición química porcentual: porcentajes de proteínas, aceites, hidratos de carbonos y cenizas. Los contenidos de hidratos de carbonos, aceites y proteínas en MTM fueron de 28,22%, 45.56% y 21,06%. MT presentó mayores porcentajes de lípidos y proteínas y menor contenido de hidratos de carbono que MTM. El valor energético total de MTM es levemente menor que en MT. La aceptabilidad de los productos mostró mayor número de consumidores que le asignaron un valor de 8 ( me gusta mucho dentro de una escala hedónica de 9 puntos a MTM y

  1. Consumer attitudes and risks associated with packaged foods having advisory labeling regarding the presence of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefle, Susan L; Furlong, Terence J; Niemann, Lynn; Lemon-Mule, Heather; Sicherer, Scott; Taylor, Steve L

    2007-07-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (eg, "may contain") are increasingly prevalent. Consumers with food allergies might ignore advisory labeling advice. We sought to determine whether consumers with food allergy heeded advisory labels and whether products with advisory labels contained detectable peanut allergen. Surveys (n = 625 in 2003 and n = 645 in 2006) were conducted at Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network patient conferences. Food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanuts were analyzed for the presence of peanut. Consumers were less likely to heed advisory labeling in 2006 (75%) compared with in 2003 (85%, P 1 mg of peanut or >0.25 mg of peanut protein) were detected in only 13 of 200 such products. Consumers with food allergy are increasingly ignoring advisory labeling. Because food products with advisory labeling do contain detectable levels of peanuts, a risk exists to consumers choosing to eat such foods. The format of the labeling statement did not influence the likelihood of finding detectable peanut, except for products listing peanuts as a minor ingredient, but did influence the choices of consumers with food allergy. Allergic patients are taking risks by increasingly disregarding advisory labeling.

  2. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  3. Contributions of plant introductions to the ancestry of current U.S. peanut cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant introductions (PIs) have been used in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improvement in the U.S.A. since the inception of peanut breeding there in the 1930s. One might think that the era of screening collections of PIs for pest resistances or other economically important traits then crossing selecte...

  4. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  5. Drivers of Preference and Perception of Freshness in Roasted Peanuts (Arachis spp.) for European Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were

  6. Novel strategy to create a hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of infants and children and 0.6% of adults in the U.S., and is responsible for the majority of fatal allergic reactions. Generally, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binds to epitopes on peanut proteins, triggering the cascades responsible for the allergic response. Poly...

  7. Hypoallergenic Edible Peanut Protein Matrix to Enable Novel Functional Food & Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergies can present life-threatening consequences; therefore, there is an intense interest in developing therapeutic strategies that could reduce the danger and severity of the allergic reaction in peanut sensitive patients. We have developed a unique technology to modify or mask allergenic...

  8. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  9. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Science.gov (United States)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  10. Safety Assessment of Donkwa – An Indigenous Maize-Peanut Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donkwa is a maize-peanut based street-vended snack commonly consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries. Donkwa is produced from the mixture of roasted-ground peanut and maize with or without addition of pepper, which is then moulded into small shapes. The safety of the street-vended donkwa, which ...

  11. Minimising the effects of drought stress on growth of two peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major cash crop in the semi-arid tropics, where it is mainly grown under rainfed conditions. Inadequate soil fertility (especially N and P), drought and diseases are important factors causing low yields. Peanut forms two types of symbiotic associations with micro-organisms, one with ...

  12. Development of diagnostic markers from disease resistance QTLs for marker-assisted breeding in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for disease resistance in peanut cultivars has been constrained due to both a narrow genetic base and a low degree of polymorphism. Earlier attempts have resulted in the development of a few hundreds of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut that could define broad QTL on the physic...

  13. Parsing the peanut panic: the social life of a contested food allergy epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Miranda R

    2013-08-01

    As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising "epidemic," and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield response to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling and maturity stages can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. The goal of this study was to investigate the responses to terminal drought of peanut genotypes for root dry weight and root length density. A field experiment was ...

  15. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotyp...

  16. The Art and the Science of Cultivation for Weed Control in Organic Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultural weed control is the basis on which an integrated system of weed management in organic peanut is based. The cultural practices evaluated for weed control were row patterns and seeding rates, integrated with cultivation intensity. Results showed that peanut seeded in wide rows (two rows, 91...

  17. Yield Potential of Ten Peanut Introgression Lines derived from Crosses between Arachis cardenassii and A. hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD RIDUAN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diploid species of peanut (Arachis cardenasii showed no symptoms of PStV infection when mechanically inoculated with PStV. Some introgression lines derived from A. cardenasii and A. hypogaea hybridization have been introduced to Indonesia. Evaluation of their adaptability and yield potential were necessary before pursuing further utilization of these introgression lines. The objectives of this research were to determine yield potential of the introgression lines of peanut in green house and field conditions and to evaluate incidence of PStV infection in the field. Peanut plants were grown in the green house and in the field according to standard procedures for raising peanut. Results of the experiments showed that growth and developmental characters of the tested lines were similar between field and green house grown plants. The introgression lines generally exhibited higher secondary branches and longer to flower and harvest as compared to peanut cv. Gajah and Kelinci. The NC-CS30 line was identfied as having higher yield and bigger seed size as compared to standard peanut cultivars (Gajah and Kelinci. Therefore, NC-CS30 germplasm may be further developed as commercial peanut cultivar or be used as donor for peanut breeding in Indonesia.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides...

  19. Weed Control Strategies for Organic Peanut Production and Transition: A Lesson in Basic Agronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic peanut production is difficult and costly. The only production inputs that consistently improved weed management in organic peanut production were modified production practices and intense cultivation with a tine weeder. Research trials evaluated row patterns, seeding rates...

  20. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  1. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between prepara...

  2. Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the peanut supply chain: From farm to table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M S; Carminati, J A; Silva, I C R N; Silva, D L; Bernardi, A O; Copetti, M V

    2018-03-01

    Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples. At the end of the secondary processing, 16% of the samples remained contaminated by this group of microorganisms. Six peanut samples from primary production and one sample of peanut butter were tested positive for E. coli while Salmonella was detected in nine samples (2.2%): six from post-harvest, two from the initial stage of the secondary processing and one from retail. The Salmonella counts ranged between 0.004 and 0.092MPN/g and five serotypes were identified (Muenster, Miami, Javiana, Oranienburg, Glostrup). The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and low prevalence of E. coli throughout the peanut supply chain. Furthermore, it was verified that peanuts may become contaminated by Salmonella during different stages of the supply chain, especially at post-harvest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.T.; Khan, N.A.; Bezabih, M.; Qureshi, M.S.; Rahman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent

  4. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  5. Caregiver and expecting caregiver support for early peanut introduction guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Hicks, Allison; Wilson, Rachel; Shaker, Marcus; Venter, Carina; Stukus, David

    2018-03-07

    Recent guidelines recommend early peanut introduction (EPI) beginning around 4 to 6 months of age in infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy and around 6 months for all other infants. Caregiver preferences for such practices are unknown. We explored preferences for EPI and in-office allergy risk assessment (IRA) through a nationally representative survey of expecting (n = 1,000) and new caregivers of infants younger than 1 year (n = 1,000). Among a primarily female (99.7%), married (80.3%), and white (74.4%) sample, 29% had no or vague awareness of the new guidelines, 61% had no or minimal concern for their child developing food allergy, but 54% felt timing of food introduction has moderate to strong importance for developing food allergy. Only 31% expressed willingness for EPI before or around 6 months of age, with 40% reporting willingness to introduce peanut after 11 months of age, similar to tree nuts and seafood. However, 60% reported willingness to introduce egg before 8 months of age. A total of 51% and 56.8% were unwilling to allow IRA methods, such as skin testing and oral challenge, before 11 months of age, respectively. Odds of willingness to delay peanut introduction (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96) and undergo challenge (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82) after 6 months of age were lower among expecting caregivers. Among new and expecting caregivers, there is poor current willingness and questionable support for early allergenic solid food recommendations, including IRA before introduction. Willingness was better among expecting vs current caregivers. These trends underscore a need for broader formal implementation planning to facilitate early allergen introduction and maximize its preventive benefits. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edwin H; Bird, J Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. We sought to investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness, and immunologic changes with SLIT in children with peanut allergy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Eighteen children aged 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median, 1,710 vs 85 mg; P = .011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in skin prick test wheal size (P = .020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10(-2) μg/mL (P = .009) and 10(-3) μg/mL (P = .009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE levels increased over the initial 4 months (P = .002) and then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (P = .003), whereas peanut-specific IgG4 levels increased during the 12 months (P = .014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (P = .015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percentage of regulatory T cells, or IL-10 and IFN-γ production. Peanut SLIT is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in children with peanut allergy, with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine whether continued peanut SLIT is able to induce long-term immune tolerance. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21377034

  8. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  9. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T

    2013-12-01

    Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. To examine the safety and efficacy of oral desensitization in peanut-allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE mAb (omalizumab [Xolair]). We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut-allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered before and during oral peanut desensitization. We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE level of 229 kU(A)/L and a median total serum IgE level of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge at peanut flour doses of 100 mg or less. After pretreatment with omalizumab, all 13 subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. Twelve subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4000 mg peanut flour per day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4000 mg peanut flour per day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions, and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization and qualitatively improve the desensitization process. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  11. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  12. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  13. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  15. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  16. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1% followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.. All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  17. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  18. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  19. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G.; Vital, Helio C.; Souza, Mauro C.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  20. Mycological and toxicological analysis of peanuts and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius produce toxins, which are secondary metabolites called aflatoxins. These toxin-producing species grow rapidly on peanuts and cereals in favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Their toxins can either cause acute effects, and even be lethal or accumulate in the organism, resulting in liver cancer in the long term. Based on the health risks of aflatoxins in food, a research was conducted on peanuts and derivatives sold in Alfenas, MG, Brazil, to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus sp. and aflatoxins. The samples were randomly collected at “popular stores”, from November 2008 to May 2009, to assess the occurrence of aflatoxins B1 , B2, G1 and G2by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 50% of the samples: Penicillium sp. (53.85%, A. flavus (19.23%, A. niger (15.38% and A. fumigatus (11.54%, and 63.64% of these showed the presence of aflatoxins : B1 (43.14%, B2 (25.49%, G1 (23.53% and G2 (7.84%. Itis concluded that the results reported here are a cause for concern, given the harmfulness of these cumulative and carcinogenic toxins.

  1. Peanut Seed Vigor Evaluation Using a Thermal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Grey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted from 2007 to 2009 evaluated germination of 11 peanut runner-type cultivars. Germination was evaluated in Petridishes incubated over a thermal gradient ranging from 14 to 30°C at 1.0 C increments. Beginning 24 hr after seeding, peanut was counted as germinated when radicles were greater than 5 mm long, with removal each day. Germination was counted daily for seven days after seeding. Growing-degree day (GDD accumulation for each temperature increment was calculated based on daily mean temperature for that Petri dish. Two indices were obtained from a logistic growth curve used to elucidate seed germination by cultivar: (1 maximum indices of germination and (2 GDD value at 80% germination (Germ80, an indication of seed vigor the lower the Germ80 value, the greater the seed lot vigor. Based on the two indices, seed lots “AT 3081R”, “AP-3”, “GA-06G”, and “Carver” had the strongest seed vigor (Germ80 26 to 47 GDD and a high maximum incidence of germination rate (80 to 94%. Seed lots of “C99-R”, “Georgia-01R”, “Georgia-02C”, and “Georgia-03L” had inconsistent seed performance, failing to achieve 80% germination in at least two of three years.

  2. Concordance between botanical groups and genetic diversity in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Pinheiro Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to characterize peanut accessions of germplasm collection of the CCA/UFC and check consistency between the pre-existing botanical groups to estimates of genetic diversity. For this were conducted a trial with 43 accessions of peanut in a randomized block design with three replications. To characterization were used 21 morphological descriptors, where revealed large genetic variation. The mass hundred grains trait showed the main discriminating factors, with relative percentage of 22.1%. The cluster obtained with the linkage complete method, it was possible to view the dendrogram the formation of seven groups based on the Mahalanobis distance. By principal components analysis was identified phenotypic diversity among genotypes. The first three components explained 81% of the total variation. Subsequently, built a three-dimensional scatter chart for access of visualization, eight groups being formed. There was medium magnitude of agreement between the botanical groups and genetic diversity, both by the dendrogram and graphic dispersion proving the dissimilarity between genotypes of different botanic groups. Therefore, crossings between group access botanical Spanish or Valencia with those belonging to the Virginia group should generate segregating populations with high genetic potential.

  3. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of WRKY gene family in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eSong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement.

  6. Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F.; Acebal, Maria L.; Assa’ad, Amal; Baker, James R.; Beck, Lisa A.; Block, Julie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Chan, Edmond S.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Fleischer, David M.; Fuchs, George J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Greenhawt, Matthew J.; Gupta, Ruchi S.; Habich, Michele; Jones, Stacie M.; Keaton, Kari; Muraro, Antonella; Plaut, Marshall; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Rotrosen, Daniel; Sampson, Hugh A.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sidbury, Robert; Spergel, Jonathan; Stukus, David R.; Venter, Carina; Boyce, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, it may be severe and even life-threatening, and it may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy. Objectives Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, NIAID facilitated development of Addendum Guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy. Results The Addendum provides three separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE, skin prick testing, and oral food challenge) and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider’s office or at home. The Addendum Guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation. Conclusions Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy. PMID:28065278

  7. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  8. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  9. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, A; Barker, K R; Beute, M K

    1995-06-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduction, and root-damage potentials on susceptible tobacco were similar for Ma1 and Ma2. In the mixed (1:1) population, Ma1 was dominant on peanut and Ma2 was dominant on both tobacco cultivars. Crop rotation affected the population dynamics of different nematode races. For years 2 and 3, the low numbers of Ma1 and Ma2 from a previous-year poor host increased rapidly on suitable hosts. Ma1 had greater reproduction factors ([RF] = population density at harvest/population density at preplandng) than did Ma2 and Ma1 + Ma2 in second-year peanut plots following first-year resistant tobacco, and in third-year peanut plots following second-year tobacco. In mixed infestations, Ma1 predominated over Ma2 in previous-year peanut plots, whereas Ma2 predominated over Ma1 in previous-year tobacco plots. Moderate damage on resistant tobacco was induced by Ma1 in the second year. In the third year, moderate damage on peanut was associated with 'Ma2' from previous-year peanut plots. The resistant tobacco supported sufficient reproduction of Ma1 over 2 years to effect moderate damage and yield suppression to peanut in year 3.

  11. Peanut allergy as a family project: social relations and transitions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-11-01

    To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke M. JanssenDuijghuijsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4 and women (n = 6 (23 ± 4 years ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006, with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009 and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04 were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6. Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins.

  13. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  14. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.

    2007-01-01

    lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some...... of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results: A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L...

  15. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  16. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  17. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  18. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The assessment of gallbladder with various fatty meal in oral cholecystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Jeong Hum; Kwon, Lee Seon; Kim, Myung Sook; Cheung, Kyung Mo; Kim, Hea Sung; Cheung, Hwan

    1993-01-01

    However, technical advances in ultrasono imaging have had a remarkable impact on the study of biliary system oral cholecystography is a contrast of the gallbladder which is very frequently performed even with the application of Extra Shock Wave Lithotripsy(ESWL) in clinical use. Oral GB requires a stringent preparation if it is to be fully successful and a considerable amount of time to complete all its procedures and its objects of the radiographs. 1) to obtain a firm diagnosis of the presence of gallstones. 2) to ease function of the gallbladder that is, its ability to concentrate and store bile After a times sequence of X - ray exposures taken in various positions to show the gallbladder to be satisfactorily filled, the patient is given a fatty meal, for instances two eggs or a cup of milk. The gallbladder which is drained by the cystic duct stores and concentrates the bile and is stimulated to contrast and excrete the bile by hormone 'cholecystokinin' secreted in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the effect of the fatty meal which caused the gallbladder to constrict and empty, and by so doing the contrast medium passes through the cystic and bile ducts which are shown in radiographs exposed from 15-30 minutes after the variety practice of fatty meal, such as soft-boiled 2 eggs, raw 2 eggs, 100g of peanuts, and 200ml of milk. If the concentration of the opaque medium in the gallbladder is adequate, then not only the size, shape and position of the gallbladder will be shown from firms taken at intervals, the rate of concentration of the opaque medium and of the emptying of gallbladder has been measured and analyzed

  20. The assessment of gallbladder with various fatty meal in oral cholecystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Jeong Hum; Kwon, Lee Seon; Kim, Myung Sook; Cheung, Kyung Mo; Kim, Hea Sung; Cheung, Hwan [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    However, technical advances in ultrasono imaging have had a remarkable impact on the study of biliary system oral cholecystography is a contrast of the gallbladder which is very frequently performed even with the application of Extra Shock Wave Lithotripsy(ESWL) in clinical use. Oral GB requires a stringent preparation if it is to be fully successful and a considerable amount of time to complete all its procedures and its objects of the radiographs. 1) to obtain a firm diagnosis of the presence of gallstones. 2) to ease function of the gallbladder that is, its ability to concentrate and store bile After a times sequence of X - ray exposures taken in various positions to show the gallbladder to be satisfactorily filled, the patient is given a fatty meal, for instances two eggs or a cup of milk. The gallbladder which is drained by the cystic duct stores and concentrates the bile and is stimulated to contrast and excrete the bile by hormone 'cholecystokinin' secreted in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the effect of the fatty meal which caused the gallbladder to constrict and empty, and by so doing the contrast medium passes through the cystic and bile ducts which are shown in radiographs exposed from 15-30 minutes after the variety practice of fatty meal, such as soft-boiled 2 eggs, raw 2 eggs, 100g of peanuts, and 200ml of milk. If the concentration of the opaque medium in the gallbladder is adequate, then not only the size, shape and position of the gallbladder will be shown from firms taken at intervals, the rate of concentration of the opaque medium and of the emptying of gallbladder has been measured and analyzed.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering.

  2. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  3. Biofiltration of methanol in an organic biofilter using peanut shells as medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, E M; Corona-Hernandez, J; Avelar-Gonzalez, F J; Omil, F; Thalasso, F

    2010-01-01

    Biofiltration consists of a filter-bed of organic matter serving both as carrier for the active biomass and as nutrient supply, through which the polluted gas passes. The selection of a suitable medium material is of major importance to ensure optimum biofilter efficiency. Peanut shells are an agricultural byproduct locally available in large quantities at a low price in most tropical and sub-tropical countries. A previous study showed that peanut shells are physically and chemically suitable for biofiltration. This paper presents the results obtained during a six month biofiltration experiment using peanut shells as medium and methanol as air pollutant. It is shown that peanut shells are potentially suitable as biofiltration medium, since degradation rates of up to 30 kg MeOH/m(3)d with an empty bed residence time of 19s was obtained. The biofilter showed a good resistance to shock load and no operational problems were observed.

  4. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  5. Circadian Clocks for All Meal-Times: Anticipation of 2 Daily Meals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Kent, Brianne A.; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F.; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one ‘continuously consulted’ clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14∶10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing. PMID:22355393

  6. Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinant Contributes to the False Positive IgE Antibody to Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Social education about the features of peanut allergy is needed in Japan. Anti-CCD IgE antibody was suggested to be one of the mechanisms contributing to the false positive detection of peanut IgE. Detection of anti-HRP or anti-bromelain IgE can be a useful tool to recognize the presence of anti-CCD antibodies.

  7. Dynamics of Consumer Response to Food Contamination: The 2007 Peanut Butter Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtavoryan, Rafael; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Salin, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the foodborne illness outbreak affecting a national brand of peanut butter to determine how demand for the product category was affected. The illness outbreak coincided with growth in the quantity demanded for the peanut butter category. The negative impact on the category associated with the initiation of the product recall was significant and dissipated over time. The recovery of the product category after the recall indicates that the information was correctly targeted and a...

  8. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including

  9. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  10. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Antiviral Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Skin Extract Against Human Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, Juliann Nzembi; Watanabe, Ken; Mohammed, Magdy M D; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2018-05-30

    The high propensity of influenza viruses to develop resistance to antiviral drugs necessitates the continuing search for new therapeutics. Peanut skins, which are low-value byproducts of the peanut industry, are known to contain high levels of polyphenols. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of ethanol extracts of peanut skins against various influenza viruses using cell-based assays. Extracts with a higher polyphenol content exhibited higher antiviral activities, suggesting that the active components are the polyphenols. An extract prepared from roasted peanut skins effectively inhibited the replication of influenza virus A/WSN/33 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.3 μg/mL. Plaque assay results suggested that the extract inhibits the early replication stages of the influenza virus. It demonstrated activity against both influenza type A and type B viruses. Notably, the extract exhibited a potent activity against a clinical isolate of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, which had reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. Moreover, a combination of peanut skin extract with the anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir and amantadine, synergistically increased their antiviral activity. These data demonstrate the potential application of peanut skin extract in the development of new therapeutic options for influenza management.

  12. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  13. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepote, V.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P, in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P, of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91% than T-P (48.95%. GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49% than GO-P (26.68%. GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively. In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad de pastas de cacahuete elaboradas a partir del cultivar alto oleico, Granoleico (GO-P, en comparación con el cultivar convencional, Tegua (T-P, de cacahuetes desarrollados en Argentina. GOP presentó mayor contenido de aceite (50.91% que T-P (48.95%. GO-P y T-P no mostraron diferencias en los contenidos de cenizas y carbohidratos. T-P presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (27.49% que GO-P (26.68%. GO-P mostró contenidos significativamente mayores de ácido oleico y menores de ácido linoleico (78.50% y 4.60%, respectivamente que T-P (45.80% y 33.30%, respectivamente. Además, GO-P mostró mayor porcentaje de ácido eicosenoico y

  14. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families...... were measured using ImmunoCap. RESULTS: Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut allergic children to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components were...

  15. Physicochemical characterization and quality of cold-pressed peanut oil obtained from organically produced peanuts from Macedonian Virginia” variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinovic Velickovska, S.; Mitrev, S.; Mihajlov, L.

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical characterization and quality of cold pressed peanut edible oil from the “Virginia” variety, organically produced from the region of Macedonia, were examined in this work for the first time. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed almost equal levels of oleic and linoleic acids with an abundance of 34.19±0.01 and 36.13±0.01%, respectively. The most dominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid with a level of 10.06±0.00%. The level of tocopherols and other vitamin-E-related compounds was in strong agreement with the antioxidant activity of the oils measured by the DPPH assay. Almost equal amounts of α and γ tocopherols indicated an antioxidant potential of 288.63±59.78 mg·L−1 α-tocopherol. Phytosterols, as minor compounds present in the oils, can be additional antioxidants responsible for the health benefits of this oil in human nutrition. The four major pytosterols were β-sitosterol (1812.21±22.17 mg·kg−1 oil), champesterol (320.55±17.07 mg·kg−1 oil), Δ5-avenasterol (236.16±14.18 mg·kg−1) and stigmasterol (133.12±12.51 mg·kg−1 oil). Induction time, Peroxide number, FFA and specific extinction (K232 and K270, values 1.82 and 0.22) gave us an indication of the oxidative stability of cold pressed peanut oil. (Author)

  16. Isoforms of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2: IgE binding in children with peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Belinda J; Bosco, Anthony; Mills, Kristina L; Hazell, Lee A; Loh, Richard; Holt, Patrick G; Thomas, Wayne R

    2004-10-01

    The major peanut allergen Ara h 2 consists of two isoforms, namely Ara h 2.0101 and Ara h 2.0201. The recently identified Ara h 2.0201 isoform contains an extra 12 amino acids including an extra copy of the reported immunodominant epitope DPYSPS. This study aimed to evaluate the IgE binding of the two Ara h 2 isoforms. Ten clones of Ara h 2 were sequenced to assess the relative frequency of the Ara h 2 isoforms and to identify whether there was further variation in the Ara h 2 sequence. IgE binding to Ara h 2.0101 and Ara h 2.0201 was measured for 70 peanut-allergic children using an IgE DELFIA assay to quantitate specific IgE binding. A competition assay was used to measure whether Ara h 2.0201 contained IgE epitopes other than those found for Ara h 2.0101. The original Ara h 2.0101 sequence was found for 6/10 clones and Ara h 2.0201 was found for 2/10 clones. Ara h 2.0201 had the expected insertion of 12 amino acids as well as substitutions at positions 40 (40G) and 142 (142E). Two new isoforms were identified as different polymorphisms of position 142. One Ara h 2.01 clone (Ara h 2.0102) contained 142E and one Ara h 2.02 clone (Ara h 2.0202) contained 142D. A polymorphism that was previously identified by other investigators at position 77 (77Q or 77R) was not found for any of the 10 sequences. Although the level of IgE binding to Ara h 2.0201 of individual patients was frequently higher than the binding to Ara h 2.0101 (p originally sequenced Ara h 2.0101 isoform and contains other IgE specificities.

  17. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  18. "To Screen or not to Screen": Comparing the Health and Economic Benefits of Early Peanut Introduction Strategies in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Stukus, David; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2018-03-30

    Early peanut introduction (EPI) in the first year of life is associated with reduced risk of developing peanut allergy in children with either severe eczema and/or egg allergy. However, EPI recommendations differ among countries with formal guidelines. Using simulation and Markov modeling over a 20-year horizon to attempt to explore optimal EPI strategies applied to the US population, we compared high-risk infant specific IgE peanut screening (US/Canadian) with the Australiasian Society for Clinical Immunology and Allergy (Australia/New Zealand) (ASCIA) and the United Kingdom Department of Health (UKDOH) published EPI approaches. Screening peanut skin testing of all children with early onset eczema and/or egg allergy before in-office peanut introduction was dominated by a no-screen approach, in terms of number of cases of peanut allergy prevented, QALY's, and healthcare costs, though screening resulted in a slightly lower rate of allergic reactions to peanut per-patient in high-risk children. Considering costs of peanut allergy in high-risk children, the per-patient cost of early introduction without screening over the model horizon was $6,556.69 (95%CI, $6,512.76-$6,600.62), compared with a cost of $7,576.32 (95%CI, $7,531.38-$7,621.26) for skin test screening prior to introduction. From a US societal perspective, screening prior to introduction cost $654,115,322 and resulted in 3,208 additional peanut allergy diagnoses. Both screening and non-screening approaches dominated deliberately delayed peanut introduction. A no-screening approach for EPI has superior health and economic benefits in terms of number of peanut allergy cases prevented, QALY's, and total health care costs compared to screening and in-office peanut introduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  20. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  1. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  2. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  5. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  6. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  7. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed-storage Mycoflora of Peanut Cultivars Grown in Nigerian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankiti, AO.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of peanut is increasingly becoming important both among growers and users of the crop in Nigerian savanna. The aim is to sell the produce and maximize benefits accruing from the crops during scarcity. Very often, these envisaged advantages fail due to unfavourable market forces, thus compelling them to sell at a loss or store them across seasons for periods ranging from one to two years. However, information on fungi associated with storage of such peanuts in Nigerian savanna and its attendant problems are yet to be investigated. Thus, the seed mycoflora and viability seven common peanut cultivars stored under conditions similar to traditional settings were investigated using different isolating techniques. The peanut cultivars were RMP 12, RMP 91, RRB, 48-115B, M554-76, 55-437 Ex-Dakar and a local cultivar. None of these cultivars possessed resistance to in vitro colonization by fungi. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer were consistently isolated from all the cultivars from almost all isolating techniques. Other fungi were Fusarium chlamydosporium, F. roseum, F. oxysporium, Penicillium spp., Curvularia spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotium rolfsii. Relative percentages, however, varied with individual fungi and peanut cultivars. The test with seven different types of growth media gave the highest fungi recovery rate than the blotter paper technique. Seed viability was lower with peanut seeds stored for two years. Also, the relative percentage occurrence of individual fungi was significantly higher with seeds stored for two years. While we recommend the use of growth media for recovery and study of seed mycoflora, peanut seeds should not be stored for more than one year.

  10. Refining a major QTL controlling spotted wilt disease resistance in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)and evaluating its contribution to the resistance variations in peanut germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has been one of major diseases in cultivated peanut grown in the southeastern United States (US) since 1990. Previously a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling spotted wilt disease resistance was mapped to an interval of 2.55 cent...

  11. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  12. Induced Biosynthesis of resveratrol and the prenylated stilbenoids arachidan-1 and arachidan-3 in hairy root cultures of peanut: effects of culture medium and growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peanut plant has evolved specialized biosynthetic mechanisms that allowed resisting infection by producing diverse secondary metabolites. Among these unique compounds are the stilbenoids, which include resveratrol analogues. Our previous research demonstrated that peanut hairy root cultures prov...

  13. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  14. Teachers' interaction with children in the school meal situation: the example of pedagogic meals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Göranzon, Helen; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    School meals are also a teaching occasion in which children learn about food and meals, which is referred to as "pedagogic meals" in Sweden. The aim of the present article was to study how the pedagogic meal is practiced in preschool and school settings, with focus on how teachers acted when interacting with the children. Observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. School canteens. Three schools. Teaching in the school meal situation. Social constructionism, new social studies of childhood. The teachers took on 3 different roles. The sociable teacher role entailed turning the school lunch into a social occasion, the educating teacher role involved educating the children, and the evasive teacher role was not associated with the definition of a pedagogic meal. The teacher roles, which ranged from adult-oriented to child-oriented, and which varied in the level of interaction with the children, were summarized in a framework named the Adult- to Child-oriented Teacher Role Framework for School Meals (ACTS). To realize the potential of pedagogic meals, teachers must be educated and become aware of the effects of their behaviors. In this situation, the ACTS framework can constitute a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  17. Observational constraints to boxy/peanut bulge formation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Florido, E.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; van de Ven, G.; Zurita, A.

    2017-09-01

    Boxy/peanut bulges are considered to be part of the same stellar structure as bars and both could be linked through the buckling instability. The Milky Way is our closest example. The goal of this Letter is to determine if the mass assembly of the different components leaves an imprint in their stellar populations allowing the estimation the time of bar formation and its evolution. To this aim, we use integral field spectroscopy to derive the stellar age distributions, SADs, along the bar and disc of NGC 6032. The analysis clearly shows different SADs for the different bar areas. There is an underlying old (≥12 Gyr) stellar population for the whole galaxy. The bulge shows star formation happening at all times. The inner bar structure shows stars of ages older than 6 Gyr with a deficit of younger populations. The outer bar region presents an SAD similar to that of the disc. To interpret our results, we use a generic numerical simulation of a barred galaxy. Thus, we constrain, for the first time, the epoch of bar formation, the buckling instability period and the posterior growth from disc material. We establish that the bar of NGC 6032 is old, formed around 10 Gyr ago while the buckling phase possibly happened around 8 Gyr ago. All these results point towards bars being long-lasting even in the presence of gas.

  18. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  1. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.I.; Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of [ 14 C]galactose- or [ 14 C]mannose- and [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification

  2. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method. Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS in future breeding programs.

  4. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  6. Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Mupunga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety.

  7. Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

    2012-12-15

    Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of potassium application on the accumulated nitrogen source and yield of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuefu; Kang Yujie; Wang Minglun; Zhao Changxing

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments and were carried out respectively to study the effects of different potassium application on soil nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen uptake, nodule nitrogen fixation and their proportion and yield of peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) by "1"5N tracer technique, and explore the reasons, which may provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for peanut production in the scientific fertilizer application. Results showed that nitrogen in peanut all mainly accumulated in the kernel for different treatments of potassium fertilizer application. However, with increasing of potassium application, the increasing extent of nitrogen content of stems was the biggest during all the peanut organs, with nut shells the smallest. Properly increasing the amount of potassium can improve nitrogen content, "1"5N abundance, nitrogen and "1"5N accumulation of every organ, and promote absorption and utilization three nitrogen-source especially with the most effect for the kernel biomass (economic output). The ratio of fertilizer nitrogen, soil nitrogen and atmospheric nitrogen absorbed by peanut was respectively between 12.37%-13.10%, 38.29%-45.10%, and 42.53%-48.31% respectively. Properly increasing potassium fertilizer application improved the absorption ratio of fertilizer nitrogen and nodule nitrogen fixation, reduced the proportion of soil uptake and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. However, the influences of excessive application of potassium fertilizer decreased. (authors)

  9. [Ecological adaptability evaluation of peanut cultivars based on biomass and nutrient accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Cui, Shao-xiong; Sun, Zhi-mei; Mu, Guo-jun; Cui, Shun-li; Wang, Peng-chao; Liu, Li-feng

    2015-07-01

    To identify the good peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability, 19 selected peanut cultivars were planted in the low champaign area and piedmont plain area of Hebei Province. By using principal component analysis, the adaptability of these 19 cultivars was evaluated for different ecological regions through comparing their 16 main traits including biomass and nutrient parameters. According to the critical value of principal component (>1.0), the 16 biomass and nutrient characteristics were integrated into 4 principal components which accounted for 85% of the original information. The results indicated that there were obvious differences in yield and nutrient use efficiency for the peanut cultivars in different ecological regions. The 19 peanut cultivars were classified into 2 groups according to their ecological adaptability, and the cultivars from the group with wide adaptability could further be divided into 3 categories according to their yield and nutrient use efficiency. Among these cultivars, Yuhua 9719, Jihua 0212-4, Weihua 10, Yuhua 15, Puhua 28 and Jihua 10 were selected as the better peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability.

  10. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  11. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  13. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  14. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (Ptogether, and more rule expectations at mealtime (PGirls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (Ptogetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  15. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  16. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  17. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Mark A; Otten, Henry G.; Suer, Waltraud; Weimann, Alf; Knol, Edward F; Knulst, André C

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. METHODS: Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage

  18. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Nan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  19. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  20. The importance of dietary control in the development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Knippels, L.M.J.; Ezendam, J.; Odink, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the further development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway (BN) rats and in particular the importance of allergen-free breeding of the laboratory animals for the allergen to be used. For this purpose BN rats were bred for 3 generations on soy- and peanut-free feed since

  1. Reduction and alkylation of peanut allergen isoforms Ara h 2 and Ara h 6; Characterization of intermediate- and end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolovic, D.; Luykx, D.; Warmenhoven, H.; Verbart, D.; Stanic-Vucinic, D.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Velickovic, T.C.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conglutins, the major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are highly structured proteins stabilized by multiple disulfide bridges and are stable towards heat-denaturation and digestion. We sought a way to reduce their potent allergenicity in view of the development of immunotherapy for peanut

  2. Investigations into the agronomic and economic aspects of using peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an on-farm biodiesel feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although farmers have benefited from the creation of transportation fuels from grain and oilseeds, little research has addressed single farm or community self-reliance on home-grown fuels. The Peanut Biodiesel Project is designed to determine if peanut is suitable for just such a concept through fi...

  3. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  4. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  5. Effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell on its dye adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayang; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Hongyan; Hu, Changwei; Raymer, Paul; Huang, Qingguo

    2018-02-01

    The effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell to produce beneficial laccase and on its dye adsorption performance was evaluated. The resulting residues from solid fermentation were tested as sorbents (designated as SFs) in comparison to the raw peanut shell (RPS) for their ability to remove crystal violet from water. The fermentation process reduced the adsorption capacity (q m ) of SF by about 50%, and changed the sorptive behavior when compared to the RPS. The Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting adsorption by SFs. q m was positively correlated with the surface area of peanut shell, but negatively correlated with acid detergent lignin content. For all the sorbents tested, the process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the adsorption followed both the pseudo 1st and 2nd order kinetic model and the film diffusion model. Dye adsorption efficiency was greater when SFs dispersed solution than when placed in filter packets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical value of component-resolved diagnostics in peanut-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2013-01-01

    As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported to be of v......As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported...... to be of value, but data on correlation with clinical data are sparse. Our aim was to correlate IgE values with the outcome of peanut challenges....

  7. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  8. Characterization of genotypic variability associated to the phosphorus bioavailability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kraimat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess genotypic variability in some peanut genotypes depending on phosphorus availability, both effects of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP and inoculation by Bradyrhizobium strain (BR on morphological and physiological parameters were studied in five peanut genotypes (Arachis hypogaea L., originated from two Algerian areas (Northern and Southern. The results obtained during the flowering stage of crop development, confirmed the positive effect of the contribution of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP with Bradyrhizobium strains on the morphological characters (shoot biomass, root biomass, nodular biomass and leaf and the physiological (nitrogenase activity, phosphorus absorption efficiency by roots (RPAE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE for the peanut genotypes cultivated in this experiment. Among five genotypes tested, it was noted that the Southern genotypes were more efficient to use TCP in the presence of Bradyrhizobium strain after a screening of these local genotypes, in particular, with phosphorus use efficiency (PUE and shoot biomass production.

  9. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  10. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  11. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  12. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histomorphometric and radioimmunoassay studies of the rat endometrium following peanut oil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venant Tchokonte-Nana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pregnancy rate during in-vitro fertilization (IVF following progesterone supplement still remains very low at around 20%.Objective: To investigate the effects of peanut oil itself on the endometrial receptivity, the pregnancy success rate and fertility during the peri-implantation time in hyper stimulated and normal rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley rats with at least four regular oestrus cycles were randomly divided into 4 groups: two groups were hyper stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and treated with progesterone or with peanut oil; the two other groups were not hyper stimulated and treated with saline solution or peanut oil. On day 5.5 of pregnancy, the uterine horns were removed and blood was collected for histomorphometric and serum progesterone evaluation. 12 rats were allowed to continue the presumed pregnancy to term. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and student t-test were used to compare the means of morphometric and radioimmunoassay data between groups. p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: The mean values of morphometric parameters and serum progesterone varied significantly between the groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001. The lowest values of progesterone parameters were observed in the hyperstimulated groups that did not deliver pups; both hyperstimulated groups had deleterious luminal epithelium with varying degrees of mucosal projections. There were isolated decidualised zones observed in hyper stimulated peanut oil group, whereas peanut oil group had the highest number of implantation sites and deliveries.Conclusion: The results show that hype stimulation reduces the endometrial receptivity, while peanut oil increases endometrial receptivity, pregnancy rates and fertility by triggering decidualisation

  14. Effect of heating and glycation on the allergenicity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M Vissers

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.Native Ara h 2/6 was purified from raw peanuts and heated in solution (15 min, 110°C in the presence or absence of glucose. Ara h 2 and 6 were also purified from roasted peanut. Using PBMC and sera from peanut-allergic patients, the cellular proliferative potency and IgE reactivity (reverse EAST inhibition and functionality (basophil degranulation capacity of allergens were assessed. Heating Ara h 2/6 at 110°C resulted in extensive denaturation, hydrolysis and aggregation of the protein, whilst Ara h 2 and 6 isolated from roasted peanut retained its native conformation. Allergen stimulation of PBMC induced proliferation and Th2 cytokine secretion which was unaffected by thermal processing. Conversely, IgE reactivity and functionality of Ara h 2/6 was decreased by heating. Whilst heating-glycation further reduced the IgE binding capacity of the proteins, it moderated their loss of histamine releasing capacity. Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut demonstrated the same IgE reactivity as unheated, native Ara h 2/6.Although no effect of processing on T-cell reactivity was observed, heat induced denaturation reduced the IgE reactivity and subsequent functionality of Ara h 2/6. Conversely, Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut retained the structure and IgE reactivity/functionality of the native protein which may explain the allergenic potency of this protein. Through detailed molecular study and allergenicity assessment approaches, this work then gives new insights into the effect of thermal processing on structure/allergenicity of peanut proteins.

  15. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of quality of life in children with peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Natalie J; King, Rosemary M; Knight, Susan; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2003-10-01

    Children with a peanut allergy (PA) are faced with food and social restrictions due to the potentially life-threatening nature of their disease, for which there is no cure or treatment. This inevitably impacts upon their quality of life (QoL). QoL of 20 children with PA and 20 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was measured using two disease-specific QoL questionnaires (higher scores correspond to a poorer QoL). One questionnaire was designed by us and the other was adapted from the Vespid Allergy QoL questionnaire. We gave subjects cameras to record how their QoL is affected over a 24-h period. Response rates for both questionnaires were 100%. Mean ages were 9.0 and 10.4 years for PA and IDDM subjects, respectively. Children with a PA reported a poorer quality of life than children with IDDM: mean scores were 54.85 for PA subjects and 46.40 for diabetics (p = 0.004) in questionnaire 1 and 54.30 and 34.50 (pmanagement, environment, away from home, physical activities, restaurant and people. Most photographs related to food and management issues and revealed difficulties for both groups regarding food restrictions. PA subjects felt more threatened by potential hazards within their environment, felt more restricted by their PA regarding physical activities, and worried more about being away from home. However, they felt safe when carrying epinephrine kits and were positive about eating at familiar restaurants. The QoL in children with PA is more impaired than in children with IDDM. Their anxiety may be considered useful in some situations, promoting better adherence to allergen avoidance advice and rescue plans.

  17. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  18. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  19. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  20. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  1. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduc...

  2. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  3. Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on performance response of west African ... and TD( consisted spear grass and parboiled mango seed kernel meal with concentrate diet in a ratio of 35:30:35). ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  5. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  6. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  7. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  8. Outsourcing childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Antonides, G.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the outsourcing of childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation is analysed by means of a socio-economic model that incorporates household-economic, lifecycle, lifestyle and health variables. The data (n= 700) was collected during a telephone survey in the Netherlands. About 10 per

  9. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  10. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  11. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals.

  12. Meal Plans and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of carbs and other nutrients, both for diabetes management and to make meals satisfying. Here are some things to keep in mind: About 10% to 20% of the calories your child eats should come from protein . Try to select lean meats like chicken or beef. Roughly 25% to ...

  13. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  14. Making a meal out of wood wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-23

    Researchers at Waterloo University, Canada, have developed a fungal based process for making animal feedstuffs from cellulose wastes. It could solve the severe pollution problems of the pulp and paper mills and save on imported soya meal at the same time.

  15. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is required to be at his machine is working while eating. (Culkin v. Glenn L. Martin, Nebraska Co., 97 F. Supp... enough for a bona fide meal period. A shorter period may be long enough under special conditions. The...

  16. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus . In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E , respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance.

  17. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  18. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  19. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  20. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  1. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  2. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  3. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., respectively) for the meal pattern requirements contained in this section. (p) Family-style meal service. Meals may be served in a family-style setting. (q) Offer versus serve. (1) Each adult day care center shall..., 1983] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 226.20, see the List of CFR Sections...

  4. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  5. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...

  6. Organoleptic properties and perception of maize, African yam bean, and defatted coconut flour-based breakfast cereals served in conventional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Grace Ojali; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi

    2016-09-01

    Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (t = 280°C) - a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semidextrinize the starch - in order to generate dry ready-to-eat products from blends of African yam bean (AYB), maize (M), and defatted coconut (DC) flour. Six samples were generated by mixing AYB and maize composite flour with graded levels of DC flour (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) to obtain the following ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50 that were added equal quantities of sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract, and water. The obtained products were served dry (without added fluid), with water, milk, and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix Original (commercial control) to evaluate color, consistency, flavor, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 9 = like extremely). The results revealed that the samples were acceptable to the panelists. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences, between the control (Weetabix) and the formulated samples in terms of overall acceptability, when served with water, whereas significant differences (P fiber-rich sources that could be consumed dry, with water, milk, or warm milk.

  7. The camelliagenin from defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera as antibiotic substitute to treat chicken against infection of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Yang, Qian; Fang, Fei; Li, Yue

    2015-08-18

    Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the main pathogens infectious to poultry, and their resistances against antibiotics have become troublesome currently. Biofilm formation is an important reason for drug resistance. Our previous research has found that the extract of Camellia oleifera seeds has lots of pharmacological effects. In order to find the substitute for antibiotics, the saponin was isolated from the defatted C. oleifera seeds with structural identification. Its efficacy was evaluated by the inhibition on amoxicillin-resistant E. coli and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus and therapeutic effect on chicks infected by the two bacteria. The bacterial growth inhibition rate increased and the bacterial count in vivo decreased significantly in dose dependence after administration of the saponin and its combination with amoxicillin or erythromycin, suggesting its antibacterial effect. The saponin identified as camelliagenin shows significant inhibition on the biofilm of E. coli and S. aureus, and it is related to the decrease of mannitol dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and extracellular DNA (eDNA) content. Molecular simulation reveals the strong interaction existing between the saponin and MDH or eDNA. The mechanism of camelliagenin's improvement on antibiotic effects is its interaction with MDH and eDNA in biofilm. The saponin is a prospective substitute of antibiotics, and molecular simulation is a convenient alternative method to find out hopeful candidates of antibiotics substitute.

  8. Optimization of Phenolics Extracted from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue and Its Antioxidant and Depigmenting Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of phenolics from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue was optimized by the maximization of the yield in total phenolics, using the response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were 50% ethanol, 5 h extraction time, 1 : 40 liquid to solid ratio, and 80°C extraction temperature. The experimental average total phenolics yield was 54.49±4.26 mg/g. These antioxidant properties of phenolics were comprehensively analyzed for the first time. All the extracts not only demonstrated the significant free radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity but also inhibited lipid, lipoprotein peroxidation and revealed reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate extraction (EAE also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value of the skin of C57BL/6 mice, indicating its potential use for skin hyperpigmentation in humans. The results of cell experiments showed EAE could strongly inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity, which had led to the decrease of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Overall, EAE is an excellent natural antioxidant and depigmenting agent, which can be developed as a new food additive, medicine, and cosmetic.

  9. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  10. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  11. Compression Characteristics and Energy Requirement of Briquettes Made from a Mixture of Corn Stover and Peanut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Gong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover and peanut shells are both abundantly available biomass feedstocks in China. To determine the compression characteristics and energy requirement of briquettes, mixtures of the corn stover and peanut shells were compressed under three different pressures (30, 60, and 90 MPa with three moisture contents (9%, 14%, and 19%, wet basis and five corn stover-peanut shell mixtures (0%-100%, 25%-75%, 50%-50%, 75%-25%, and 100%-0% by mass. The results showed that applied pressure, moisture content, and the corn stover-peanut shell mixture all significantly affected briquette density and specific energy consumption. The density of the briquette ranged from 646 to 1052 kg/m3 and the specific energy consumption varied from 6.6 to 25.1 MJ/t. A moisture content of 9% was found to be better for the compression of the corn stover and peanut shells mixture. Adding peanut shells to the corn stover improved briquette density and reduced the specific energy consumption. Linear models were developed to describe the briquette density and the specific energy consumption. The briquette durability ranged from 57% to 94% and durable briquettes can be obtained when corn stover and peanut shells are compressed with the mixing ratio of 1:1 (50%-50% at moisture content of 9%.

  12. Impacts of climate change on peanut yield in China simulated by CMIP5 multi-model ensemble projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanqing; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Fan, Dongli; Shi, Runhe; Niu, Yilong; He, Xiaogang; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    Peanut is one of the major edible vegetable oil crops in China, whose growth and yield are very sensitive to climate change. In addition, agriculture climate resources are expected to be redistributed under climate change, which will further influence the growth, development, cropping patterns, distribution and production of peanut. In this study, we used the DSSAT-Peanut model to examine the climate change impacts on peanut production, oil industry and oil food security in China. This model is first calibrated using site observations including 31 years' (1981-2011) climate, soil and agronomy data. This calibrated model is then employed to simulate the future peanut yield based on 20 climate scenarios from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) developed by the InterSectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) driven by 4 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results indicate that the irrigated peanut yield will decrease 2.6% under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 9.9% under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 29% under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively. Similarly, the rain-fed peanut yield will also decrease, with a 2.5% reduction under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 11.5% reduction under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 30% reduction under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively.

  13. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  14. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  15. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnicky, David M; Roopchand, Diana E; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish-type peanut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be reduced substantially by in situ germination under unpredictable rainfed environments. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish x Spanish crosses was studied with two sets of segregating populations, an F2 population derived from true F1 hybrids ...

  17. A technique to study Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. More tha...

  18. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumanou Mohamed M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL and Candida rugosa (CRL was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricaprylin to peanut oil found was in the range 0.7 to 0.8. Using substrate molar ratio 0.7, high amount of structured triglyceride ST (about 35% MLM, 44% LML triglyceride fractions was obtained with lipase from RML in n-hexane. The results found in solvent free system were in some cases quite similar to that obtained in organic solvent. In nine successive batch interesterification in solvent free medium using immobilized RML and CRL, no significant loss of amount of both produced triacylglycerol fractions until batch 7 was observed with RML.

  19. An initial non-targeted analysis of the peanut seed metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are likely a large number of compounds that constitute the peanut seed metabolome that have yet to be elucidated. Although the proximate composition and nutrients such as vitamins and minerals are well known, the composition of many other small molecule metabolites present have not been syste...

  20. Mutagenesis of FAD2 genes in peanut with CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is known for its precise and efficient gene-editing of a targeted region in a variety of organisms including plants. We targeted FAD2 gene region to perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing in peanut. The FAD2 gene encodes fatty acid desaturase which catalyzes the conversion of oleic ...

  1. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  2. Fungicides and Application Timing for Control of Early Leafspot, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia Blight of Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in south Texas near Yoakum and from 2008 to 2011 in central Texas near Stephenville to evaluate various fungicides for foliar and soilborne disease control as well as peanut yield response under irrigation. Control of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger with penthiopyrad at 1.78 L/ha was comparable to fluazinam or boscalid; however, the 1.2 L/ha dose of penthiopyrad did not provide consistent control. Peanut yield was reduced with the lower penthiopyrad dose when compared with boscalid, fluazinam, or the high dose of penthiopyrad. Control of early leaf spot, caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori or southern blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., with penthiopyrad in a systems approach was comparable with propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and resulted in disease control that was higher than the nontreated control. Peanut yield was also comparable with the penthiopyrad, propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and reflects the ability of the newer fungicides to control multiple diseases found in Texas peanut production.

  3. Structure, Function and Epitope Mapping the Peanut Panallergen Ara h 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of peanut allergy continues to rise in the US and Europe. Whereas exposure to the major allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 6 can cause fatal anaphylaxis, exposure to the minor allergens usually does not. Ara h 8 is a minor allergen. Importantly, it is the minor food allergens that are though...

  4. Effect of growing location on seed oil composition in the cultivated peanut germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly important component of seed oils is the content of oleic acid as this fatty acid has several health benefits and contributes to increased oil stability, i.e. longer shelf life. We measured 8846 available accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection to gauge the range of variatio...

  5. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  6. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  7. A comprehensive look at the effect of processing on peanut (Arachis spp.) texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Boer, Den Lara; Hamoen, Remco; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between process and peanut texture have only been studied in Hypogaea species, and focused on very limited processing conditions. In this study, 94 samples were prepared from a combination of 12 raw materials (Arachis hypogaea and fastigiata cultivars) and 11 roasting

  8. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birima, A H; Desa, M N M; Muda, Z C; Hammad, H A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO 3 , KCl, NH 4 Cl and NaNO 3 . Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R 2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  9. Temperature/Humidity Conditions in Stacked Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers for Shelled Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelled peanuts are loaded into flexible intermediate bulk containers, or totes. After loading, the 1000-kg totes are placed directly into cold storage at 3ºC and 65% relative humidity until shipment to the customer domestically in the United States or internationally requiring transport overseas. ...

  10. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil. II. Alleviation of drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Doddema, H; Kuiper, PJC; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drought stress and inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on root colonization and plant growth and yield was studied in two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars-a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil : I. Host-fungus compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Kuiper, P.J C; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars, a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a modern, high-yielding cultivar (Falcon), were tested in a non-sterile and

  13. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ligia Manoel; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    , the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection. The limit of detection...

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  15. Magnetically modified peanut husks as an effective sorbent of heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozumová, L.; Životský, O.; Seidlerová, J.; Motyka, O.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 549-555 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cadmium * Ions sorption * Lead * Magnetic modification * Peanut husks * Waste water Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  16. European Survey for Hidden Allergens in Food: A Case Study with Peanut and Hazelnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgertner, S.; Furtler-Leitzenberger, L.; Molinelli, E.; Krska, R.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Bremer, M.; Haasnoot, W.; Danks, C.; Romkies, V.; Reece, P.; Wilson, P.; Kiening, M.; Weller, M.; Niessner, R.; Corsini, E.; Mendonca, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the EU-funded project Allergentest (QLK1-CT-2001-01151) a survey for the presence of hidden proteins of hazelnut and peanut in suspected pre-packed foodstuffs within EC member states was carried out to check the usefulness of the developed rapid test-kits. There were 11 participating

  17. Effect of extrusion conditions on aflatoxin content of corn–peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn-peanut extrudates and flakes were then produced at various combinations of feed moisture contents (17% and 21%,) barrel temperatures (140°C, 160°C and 180°C) and screw speeds (150 rpm,200 rpm and 250 rpm)in a double screw extruder under factorial design. The process parameters were recorded during the ...

  18. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill. Thellung, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L., Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats., and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L. was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemergence. Peanut stunting was 19% when paraquat alone was applied early-postemergence. Stunting increased to greater than 30% when ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated was followed by S-metolachlor applied preemergence and paraquat applied early-postemergence. Stunting (7% was also observed when ethalfluralin was followed by flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor applied preemergence with lactofen applied mid-postemergence. Ethalfluralin followed by paraquat applied early-postemergence reduced peanut yield when compared to the nontreated check. Ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by imazapic applied mid-postemergence provided the greatest yield (6220 kg/ha. None of the herbicide treatments reduced peanut grade (sound mature kernels plus sound splits when compared with the nontreated check.

  19. Evaluation of tillage, cover crop, and herbicide effects on weed control, yield, and grade in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut production plays a large role in agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Weeds are detrimental to their production because of the competition that they create; weeds will compete with crops for resources such as nutrients and sunlight, among others. Therefore, it is important to reduce...

  20. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Köster (Johannes); S. Rahmann (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based

  1. Effect of kernel characteristics on color and flavor development during peanut roasting: two years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with Crop Year (CY) 2014 samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) revealed that color and flavor profile development were related to kernel moisture content (MC) during dry roasting. That work was repeated with CY 2015 UPPT samples with additional replication. Raw MC, ...

  2. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  3. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2016-04-01

    Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffer from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. We included 155 children suspected of hazelnut allergy and challenged according to the guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin prick test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families were measured using ImmunoCAP. Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had a concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components was seen in 45% of all included children, irrelevant to allergy to peanut or hazelnut. A cut-off >0.72 kU/L of IgE towards Cor a 14 diagnosed 87% correctly, making Cor a 14 the superior serology marker. However, nine hazelnut-allergic children were primarily sensitized to Cor a 9. Concomitant peanut allergy is common in hazelnut-allergic children, but decision points as well as diagnostic values for Cor a 14 are not affected. We found three independent and well-characterized serotypes; hazelnut-allergic children were sensitized to Cor a 14, peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2, and independently of this were children sensitized to birch pollen (Bet v 1). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of high-oleic peanut natural mutants derived from an intersectional cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, X. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As compared with its normal oleate counterpart, high oleate peanuts have better storage quality and several health benefits, and are therefore preferred by peanut shellers and consumers. High oleate has now become one of the main breeding objectives of peanuts. Thus far, over 50 high oleate peanut cultivars have been registered. Yet high oleate peanut breeding relies heavily on a limited number of high oleate genotypes. In this paper, we reported, for the first time, high peanut oleate natural mutants with large seeds derived from an intersectional cross, which were identified with near infra-red spectroscopy and confirmed by gas chromatography. Sequencing of FAD2 from the high-oleic hybrids along with their normal oleate parents indicated that a 448G >A mutation in FAD2A coupled with a 441_442ins A or G in FAD2B together caused high oleate phenotypes in these peanut hybrids.En comparación con su homólogo con contenido normal de oleico, el maní alto oleato mantiene una mejor calidad durante la conservación y tiene beneficios para la salud, y de ahí que sea preferido por desgranadoras de maní y por los consumidores. El alto oleato se ha convertido actualmente en uno de los principales objetivos para la mejora del maní. Hasta el momento, más de 50 cultivares de maní alto oleato han sido registrados. Sin embargo, la reproducción de maní alto oleato se basa principalmente en un número limitado de genotipos alto oleato. En este trabajo se presentan por primera vez mutantes naturales de maní alto oleato con semillas derivadas de un cruce de intersecciones, que fue identificado mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano y se confirma me diante cromatografía de gases. La secuenciación de FAD2 de los híbridos de alto oleico junto con sus progenitores oleato normal, indicó que la mutación 448G >A en FAD2A unido a un 441_442ins A o G en FAD2B juntos da lugar a fenotipos alto oleato en estos híbridos de maní.

  5. Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers of peanut from public database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5% within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5% was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%, AAT (10.9%, and AT (10.3%.The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders.

  6. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  7. Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphande, Fingani A; Siame, Bupe A; Taylor, Joanne E

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are important food commodities, but they are susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. Raw peanuts were purchased from retail outlets in Botswana and examined for fungi and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) contamination. Zygomycetes were the most common fungi isolated; they accounted for 41% of all the isolates and were found on 98% of the peanut samples. Among the Zygomycetes, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus stolonifer were the most common. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 35% of all the isolates, with Aspergillus niger being the most prevalent (20.4%). Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus were also present and accounted for 8.5% of all the isolates, with A. flavus accounting for the majority of the A. flavus/parasiticus identified. Of the 32 isolates of A. flavus screened for mycotoxin production, 11 did not produce detectable aflatoxins, 8 produced only aflatoxins B1 and B2, and 13 produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in varying amounts. Only 6 of the A. flavus isolates produced cyclopiazonic acid at concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 microg/kg. The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. When the raw peanut samples (n = 120) were analyzed for total aflatoxins, 78% contained aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12 to 329 microg/kg. Many of the samples (49%) contained total aflatoxins at concentrations above the 20 microg/kg limit set by the World Health Organization. Only 21% (n = 83) of the samples contained cyclopiazonic acid with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microg/kg. The results show that mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi are common contaminants of peanuts sold at retail in Botswana.

  8. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  9. Guangzhou’s Baozai Meal a Popular Fast Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN Guangzhou, where restaurants are plentiful and food from many places is served, the baozai meal, a kind of traditional Chinese fast food, has retained its place in the hearts of Guangzhou’s caterers. The history of the baozai meal starts at least from the beginning of this century. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the largest trading port in south China with a developed, commodities-based economy. There were many dockworkers and porters living in the city at the time. They worked very hard and were often too busy to eat their meals at home. As a result, different kinds of meals were invented to meet their needs, such as the botou meal (bo is kind of earthen bowl), the dietou meal (die is small plate) and the baozai meal

  10. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  11. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  12. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  13. Study of the composition of Pyracantha crenulata roem seed, oil and meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, Susana M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Pyracantha crenulata Roem, harvested in Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane, obtaining raw oil with a yield of 5.5 % dry basis. The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: refractive index: 1.4770 (at 25ºC, iodine value: 121; saponification index: 203, unsaponifiable matter: 7.4 %, peroxide value: 8.7. The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Major fatty acids of seed oil were: linoleic (61.1 %, oleic (17.3 % and palmitic acid (17.4 %. The residual seed meal contained low level of crude protein (13%, dry basis, considerable content of crude fiber and a relativity high value of neutral detergent fiber, that matching with the low digestibility observed. Metals, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported.Semillas de Pyracantha crenulata Roem, provenientes de frutos cosechados en Olavarría (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina se trataron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo (rendimiento: 5,5 % y la harina residual de extracción. Las características fisicoquímicas del aceite crudo fueron: índice de refracción: 1,4770 (a 25ºC; índice de iodo: 121; índice de saponificación: 203; insaponificable: 7,4%, índice de peróxidos (mEq/kg 8,7. Se determinó la composición acídica del aceite por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron: ácido linoleico (61,1%, ácido oleico (17,3% y ácido palmítico (17,4%. La harina residual de extracción contenía baja proporción de proteína cruda (13% b.s, considerable contenido de fibra cruda; y un valor de fibra detergente neutra relativamente alto, lo que concuerda con la muy baja digestibilidad observada. Se informan valores de cenizas, minerales e hidratos de carbono.

  14. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 87.4%, providing an extract that is 22% hydrolyzed. In addition, an increment of up to 4.5 times in protein solubility at low pH values is achieved, which correlates with the degree of hydrolysis. The extracts that were obtained in the presence of alcalase had a higher proline and glycine content, suggesting that the protease improves extraction of proline-rich and glycine-rich cell wall proteins that are part of the lignocellulosic fraction. These protein extracts can be directly dried without generation of wastewater, and the resulting fiber-rich material could be used for animal feeding.Se ha mejorado la extracción proteica de la harina desengrasa de girasol mediante la adición de la proteasa alcalasa durante la extracción alcalina. Este método ofrece varias ventajas adicionales en comparación con la extracción alcalina tradicional sin alcalasa, que se desarrolla normalmente mediante un proceso de flotación/sedimentación para retirar la fracción lignocelulósica. En comparación a la extracción sin alcalasa, la adicción de 0.1% (v/v de alcalasa mejora los rendimientos de extracción proteica desde un 57.5% a un 87.4%, dando un extracto con un 22% de grado de hidrólisis. Además se obtiene un incremento de hasta 4.5 veces de la solubilidad proteica a bajos pHs, que se correlaciona con el grado de hidrólisis. Los extractos obtenidos con alcalasa tenían un mayor contenido de prolina y glicina, sugiriendo que la proteasa mejora la extracción de las

  15. Television, Home-Cooked Meals, and Family Meal Frequency: Associations with Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Adults, regardless of whether they are parents, regularly eat meals with family at home, but few studies have analyzed large, population-based samples to examine how mealtime practices or family meal frequency are associated with health. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between the frequency of family meals eaten at home, watching television or videos during family meals, and consumption of meals that were cooked and eaten at home and the odds of being obese in adults. This was an analysis of the cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey (OMAS), a telephone survey of Ohio's population. The study sample was adult Ohio residents responding to the 2012 OMAS who ate at least one family meal in the past week (n=12,842). Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30), calculated from self-reported height and weight, was the outcome. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and family meal practices, adjusted for respondents' employment status, marital status, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and age. Family meal frequency was not associated with odds of obesity: those who ate family meals most (6-7) days were as likely as those who ate family meals few (1-2) days to be obese (adjusted odds ratio [OR adj ]=1.01, 95% CI=0.86, 1.18). Thirty-six percent of adults never watched television or videos while eating family meals, and 62% ate family meals that were all home-cooked. Adults who never watched television or videos during family meals had 37% lower odds of obesity compared with those who always did (95% CI=0.54, 0.73), regardless of family meal frequency. Adults whose family meals were all home-cooked had 26% lower odds of obesity than those who ate some or no home-cooked family meals (95% CI=0.62, 0.88). This association was more pronounced among adults who ate few family meals. Family meal practices may be associated with obesity in adults, even if they eat few family meals per week. Future research

  16. Relation between cognitive and hedonic responses to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccantelli, B; Pribic, T; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period. The liquid meal induced a relatively strong cognitive response with satiation (4.7±0.7 score increment), fullness (3.3±0.7 score increment), and inhibition of desire of eating a food of choice; in contrast, its impact on sensation of digestive well-being and satisfaction was not significant (0.7±0.7 score increment). The high-calorie solid-liquid meal, with larger volume load and caloric content, induced much lower satiation (2.4±0.8 score increment; P=.041 vs liquid meal) and fullness sensation (1.3±0.6 score increment; P=.031 vs liquid meal), but a markedly higher level of satisfaction (2.7±0.4 score increment; P=.021 vs liquid meal); the low-calorie mixed meal had less prominent effects with significantly lower satisfaction (1.0±0.4 score increment; P=.039 vs high-calorie meal). The cognitive (satiation, fullness) and hedonic responses (satisfaction) to meals with equivalent levels of palatability, that is, equally likable, are dissociable. The characteristics of meals in terms of satiation and rewarding power could be adapted to specific clinical targets, whether nutritional supplementation or restriction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  18. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Frequency of Hospital Use Before and After Home-Delivery Meal by Meals On Wheels, of Tarrant County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Thorud, J L; Marishak-Simon, S; Hammack, L; Stevens, A B

    2018-01-01

    Patients recently discharged from the hospital are vulnerable and are at high risk for readmission. Home-delivered meals may be beneficial in improving their health and facilitating independent living in the community. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between home-delivered meals and use of hospital services. This study includes 120 clients recently discharged from an inpatient hospital stay or from an emergency department (ED) visit who received meal services from Meals On Wheels, Inc., of Tarrant County. Healthcare utilization data was extracted from the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council Foundation, a regional all claims database used by over 90% of hospitals in Dallas-Fort Worth area. Signed tests and generalized linear models (GLM) were performed. A total of 16,959 meals were delivered from March 2013 through March 2014. Each client received an average of 6.19 meals per week. The average number of ED visits decreased from 5.03 before receipt of meals to 1.45 after receipt of meals, z = -5.23, p meals were less likely to experience ED visits and hospitalizations after controlling for demographic characteristics and levels of physical functioning. The findings of this study indicate that home-delivered meals services may contribute to a reduction in hospital based care services among frail and vulnerable adults. Additional studies should consider the short and long-term effects of home-delivered meals services on healthcare utilization and the potential to decrease healthcare costs.

  20. Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

    2004-06-01

    Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (Pfoods. Both maize and sorghum-based composite gruels had a short shelf-life under ambient conditions (26.4 degrees C) ranging between 4 and 6 h, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite gruels except those containing germinated rojo beans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (Pfoods for older infants and young children. Further investigations are suggested to extend the shelf-life of the composite products and improve the organoleptic quality of the diets containing germinated rojo beans.