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Sample records for deep-sea neutrino telescope

  1. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Ball, A.E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons

  2. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Calzas, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Dinkespiler, B. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Cuneo, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Favard, S. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France)]. E-mail: gregh@cppm.in2p3.fr; Jaquet, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Musumeci, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Papaleo, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Raia, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Valdy, P. [IFREMER - Institut francais de recherche pour l' exploitation de la mer, Centre de La Seyne, 83500 La Seyne sur mer (France); Vernin, P. [DSM-DAPNIA, CEA SACLAY, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub.

  3. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, M.; Calzas, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Cuneo, S.; Favard, S.; Hallewell, G.; Jaquet, M.; Musumeci, M.; Papaleo, R.; Raia, G.; Valdy, P.; Vernin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub

  4. The KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margiotta, Annarita

    2014-12-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will complement IceCube in its field of view and exceed it substantially in sensitivity. Its main goal is the detection of high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. The detector will have a modular structure with six building blocks, each consisting of about 100 Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in offshore Toulon, France and offshore Capo Passero on Sicily, Italy. The technological solutions for the neutrino detector of KM3NeT and the expected performance of the neutrino telescope are presented and discussed. - Highlights: • A deep-sea research infrastructure is being built in the Mediterranean Sea. • It will host a km{sup 3}-size neutrino telescope and a deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory. • The main goal of the neutrino telescope is the search for Galactic neutrino sources. • A major innovation is adopted in the design of the optical module. • 31 3 in. photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) will be hosted in the same glass sphere.

  5. AMADEUS—The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Chon Sen, N.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-01-01

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1 V/μPa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six “acoustic clusters”, each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on-shore computer cluster is used to process and filter the data stream and store the selected events. The daily volume of recorded data is about 10 GB. The system is operating continuously and automatically, requiring only little human intervention. AMADEUS allows for extensive studies of both transient signals and ambient noise in the deep sea, as well as signal correlations on several length scales and localisation of acoustic point sources. Thus the system is excellently suited to assess the background conditions for the measurement of the bipolar pulses expected to originate from neutrino interactions.

  6. A deep sea telescope for high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.J.; Basa, S.

    1999-05-01

    This document presents the scientific motivation for building a high energy neutrino undersea detector, with an effective area of 0.1 km 2 , along with a review of the technical issues involved in its design and construction. It contents: the scientific program, the detection principles, the research and development program, the detector design and performances and complementary technique. (A.L.B.)

  7. A deep sea telescope for high energy neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.J.; Basa, S. [and others

    1999-05-01

    This document presents the scientific motivation for building a high energy neutrino undersea detector, with an effective area of 0.1 km{sup 2}, along with a review of the technical issues involved in its design and construction. It contents: the scientific program, the detection principles, the research and development program, the detector design and performances and complementary technique. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems. PMID:28401960

  9. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-04-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.

  10. A mechanical design for a detection unit for a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbee, E.M.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Heine, E.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built on the seabed of the Mediterranean Sea at a depth between three and five kilometers. The high ambient pressure, but also the fact that the detector is hardly accessible, put severe constraints on the mechanical design of the detection units of the

  11. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Kooijman, P.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion

  12. A mechanical design for a detection unit for a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbee, E.M.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Heine, E.; Mul, G. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolf, E. de, E-mail: e.dewolf@nikhef.nl [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built on the seabed of the Mediterranean Sea at a depth between three and five kilometers. The high ambient pressure, but also the fact that the detector is hardly accessible, put severe constraints on the mechanical design of the detection units of the telescope. A detection unit is a vertical structure that supports the optical sensors of the telescope. It has a height of almost 900 m; two data cables run along the full length of the structure. The detection unit will be installed at the seabed as a compact package. Once acoustically released, it unfurls to its full length. The stability of the detection unit during unfurling and during operation is an important requirement for the mechanical design of the structure. We present the evolution of the design of the detection unit for the KM3NeT detector.

  13. A mechanical design for a detection unit for a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbee, E.M.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Heine, E.; Mul, G.; Wolf, E. de

    2013-01-01

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built on the seabed of the Mediterranean Sea at a depth between three and five kilometers. The high ambient pressure, but also the fact that the detector is hardly accessible, put severe constraints on the mechanical design of the detection units of the telescope. A detection unit is a vertical structure that supports the optical sensors of the telescope. It has a height of almost 900 m; two data cables run along the full length of the structure. The detection unit will be installed at the seabed as a compact package. Once acoustically released, it unfurls to its full length. The stability of the detection unit during unfurling and during operation is an important requirement for the mechanical design of the structure. We present the evolution of the design of the detection unit for the KM3NeT detector

  14. Transmission of light in deep sea water at the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Blanc, F.; Bland, R. W.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brooks, C. B.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Bugeon, F.; Burgio, G. F.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, P.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Croquette, J.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; Deschamps, A.; de Marzo, C.; Destelle, J.-J.; de Vita, R.; Dinkelspiler, B.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Goret, P.; Gournay, J.-F.; Hallewell, G.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hößl, J.; Hoffmann, C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Legou, T.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Maron, C.; Massol, A.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Michel, J.-L.; Millot, C.; Milovanovic, A.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.-P.; Moscoso, L.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J.; Ogden, P.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Petta, C.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Potheau, R.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; van Rens, B. A. P.; Réthoré, F.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Romeyer, A.; Rollin, J.-F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Saouter, S.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Sokalski, I.; Suvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Usik, A.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; Virieux, J.; Vladimirsky, E.; de Vries, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; de Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2005-02-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is a large photomultiplier array designed to detect neutrino-induced upward-going muons by their Cherenkov radiation. Understanding the absorption and scattering of light in the deep Mediterranean is fundamental to optimising the design and performance of the detector. This paper presents measurements of blue and UV light transmission at the ANTARES site taken between 1997 and 2000. The derived values for the scattering length and the angular distribution of particulate scattering were found to be highly correlated, and results are therefore presented in terms of an absorption length λabs and an effective scattering length λscteff. The values for blue (UV) light are found to be λabs ≃ 60(26) m, λscteff≃265(122)m, with significant (˜15%) time variability. Finally, the results of ANTARES simulations showing the effect of these water properties on the anticipated performance of the detector are presented.

  15. Detector design studies for a cubic kilometre Deep Sea neutrino telescope - KM3NeT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Dornic, D; Cohen, F; Jouvenot, F; Maurin, G; Naumann, C

    2008-01-01

    The KM3NeT consortium is currently preparing the construction of a cubic-kilometre sized neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea as a continuation of the previous efforts by the three Mediterranean projects ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR and as a counterpart to the South-Pole based IceCube detector. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. A key point during the early phases of this experiment is the determination of the ideal detector layout as well as of important design criteria such as required spatial and temporal resolution of the sensor elements, to optimise the sensitivity in the energy range of interest. For this purpose, several independent Monte-Carlo studies using a range of possible detector configurations are being performed. In this presentation, one of these studies, using the fast and flexible Mathematica-based simulation and reconstruction package NESSY, is described in more detail together with expected results for some exemplary detector configurations.

  16. First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Dessages-Ardellier, F.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J. C.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Legou, T.; Lim, G.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Niess, V.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Stubert, D.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vita, R.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2006-11-01

    In 2005, the ANTARES Collaboration deployed and operated at a depth of 2500 m a so-called Mini Instrumentation Line equipped with Optical Modules (MILOM) at the ANTARES site. The various data acquired during the continuous operation from April to December 2005 of the MILOM confirm the satisfactory performance of the Optical Modules, their front-end electronics and readout system, as well as the calibration devices of the detector. The in situ measurement of the Optical Module time response yields a resolution better than 0.5 ns. The performance of the acoustic positioning system, which enables the spatial reconstruction of the ANTARES detector with a precision of about 10 cm, is verified. These results demonstrate that with the full ANTARES neutrino telescope the design angular resolution of better than 0.3° can be realistically achieved.

  17. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ameli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' e Sezione INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Anghinolfi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. [DSM/DAPNIA-Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Laboratoire de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU et Universite de Provence, Traverse du Siphon-Les Trois Lucs, BP 8, 13012 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Battaglieri, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-11-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented.

  18. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented

  19. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, P; Heine, E; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art.

  20. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, P; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art

  1. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  2. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  3. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  4. NEMO-SMO acoustic array: A deep-sea test of a novel acoustic positioning system for a km3-scale underwater neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Keller, P.; Lahmann, R.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; NEMO Collaboration; SMO Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Within the activities of the NEMO project, the installation of a 8-floors tower (NEMO-Phase II) at a depth of 3500 m is foreseen in 2012. The tower will be installed about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero, in Sicily. On board the NEMO tower, an array of 18 acoustic sensors will be installed, permitting acoustic detection of biological sources, studies for acoustic neutrino detection and primarily acoustic positioning of the underwater structures. For the latter purpose, the sensors register acoustic signals emitted by five acoustic beacons anchored on the sea-floor. The data acquisition system of the acoustic sensors is fully integrated with the detector data transport system and is based on an “all data to shore” philosophy. Signals coming from hydrophones are continuously sampled underwater at 192 kHz/24 bit and transmitted to shore through an electro-optical cable for real-time analysis. A novel technology for underwater GPS time-stamping of data has been implemented and tested. The operation of the acoustic array will permit long-term test of sensors and electronics technologies that are proposed for the acoustic positioning system of KM3NeT.

  5. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  6. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  7. A new direction-sensitive optical module for deep-sea neutrino telescopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunoldi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Within the KM3NeT framework, the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project is studying new technologies for a km 3 -scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope goal will be the investigation of the high-energy component of the cosmic neutrino spectrum: a promising tool to better understand the mechanisms that originate extreme-energy cosmic rays. Neutrino energy and direction will be reconstructed using the Cherenkov light produced in water by muons coming from neutrino interactions. Two prototypes of a new large-area (10 in.) 4-anode photomultipliers, manufactured by Hamamatsu at the request of the NEMO Collaboration, have been extensively studied. These tubes will be integrated into spherical glass pressure-resistant optical modules and used for the first time to detect the direction of the detected Cherenkov light at the NEMO deep-sea (3600 m) site near Capo Passero in Sicily. The photocathode surface in these optical modules will be effectively divided into four quadrants by a pair of crescent-shaped mirrors embedded in the optical gel linking the PMT to the glass pressure sphere. A series of measurements was performed at the testing facility of the NEMO group at the INFN Sezione di Catania. The single photoelectron peak, the transit time spread, the gain and the cross-talk of the prototype have been studied, to have a complete characterization and make feasible a comparison with previous models. The first prototype of direction-sensitive optical module has been assembled and tested with a dedicated experimental setup at the INFN Sezione di Genova. First results of tests of the prototype are presented.

  8. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  9. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  10. A large fiber sensor network for an acoustic neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buis Ernst-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific prospects of detecting neutrinos with an energy close or even higher than the GKZ cut-off energy has been discussed extensively in literature. It is clear that due to their expected low flux, the detection of these ultra-high energy neutrinos (Ev > 1018 eV requires a telescope larger than 100 km3. Acoustic detection may provide a way to observe these ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos, as sound that they induce in the deep sea when neutrinos lose their energy travels undisturbed for many kilometers. To realize a large scale acoustic neutrino telescope, dedicated technology must be developed that allows for a deep sea sensor network. Fiber optic hydrophone technology provides a promising means to establish a large scale sensor network [1] with the proper sensitivity to detect the small signals from the neutrino interactions.

  11. Data filtering and expected muon and neutrino event rates in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [ECAP, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str.1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future Mediterranean deep sea neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of several cubic kilometres. The neutrino and muon events in KM3NeT will be reconstructed from the signals collected from the telescope's photo detectors. However, in the deep sea the dominant source of photon signals are the decays of K40 nuclei and bioluminescence. The selection of neutrino and muon events requires the implementation of fast and efficient data filtering algorithms for the reduction of accidental background event rates. Possible data filtering and triggering schemes for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and expected muon and neutrino event rates are discussed.

  12. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, F; Distefano, C

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  13. Study of data filtering algorithms for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The photomultiplier signals above a defined threshold (hits) are the main data collected from the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The neutrino and muon events will be reconstructed from these signals. However, in the deep sea the dominant source of hits are the decays of {sup 40}K isotope and marine fauna bioluminescence. The selection of neutrino and muon events requires the implementation of fast and efficient data filtering algorithms for the reduction of accidental background event rates. A possible data filtering scheme for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope is discussed in the paper.

  14. The Baikal Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aynutdinov, V. M.; Balkanov, V. A.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Borschev, D. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Burmistrov, K. V.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Davidov, Ya. I.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T. I.; Grishin, O. V.; Klabukov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We review the present status of the Baikal Neutrino Experiment and present results of a search for upward-going atmospheric neutrinos and magnetic monopoles obtained with the detector NT200. The results of a search for very high energy neutrinos are presented and an upper limit on the extraterrestrial diffuse neutrino flux is obtained. We describe the strategy of upgrading the NT200 to NT200+ and creating a detector on the Gigaton scale at Lake Baikal. The first results obtained with the new NT200+ detector as a basic cell of a future Gigaton detector are presented

  15. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  16. Erbium-doped fiber lasers as deep-sea hydrophones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a hydrophone prototype for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base-sensitive element is a single-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The high sensitivity of these sensors makes them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological and marine mammals surveys and above all as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos

  17. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its starting phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations

  18. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  19. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  20. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called ''equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model'' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/μPa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/√(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with exemplary results for

  1. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, C.L.

    2007-09-17

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called 'equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/{mu}Pa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/{radical}(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with

  2. A large spherical HPD for a novel deep-sea neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, A.E.; Braem, A.; Camilleri, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Chelkov, G.; Dydak, F.; Elagin, A.; Frandsen, P.; Grant, A.; Gostkin, M.; Guskov, A.; Joram, C.; Krumshteyn, Z.; Lustermann, W.; Postema, H.; Price, M.; Rovelli, T.; Schinzel, D.; Seguinot, J.; Valenti, G.; Voss, R.; Wotschack, J.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2005-01-01

    An underwater neutrino experiment has been proposed which provides precise measurements of the neutrino mixing parameters θ 23 and Δm 23 2 and permits an increase of sensitivity for the small angle θ 13 by more than one order of magnitude. A Cherenkov detector of about 1.5Mt active mass, deployed in the Gulf of Taranto, utilizes the CNGS beam in off-axis configuration which represents an essentially mono-energetic source of muon neutrinos. A unique feature of the experiment is the possibility to move the detector and therefore exploit different baselines around 1200km where the oscillation pattern is fully developed. The conceptual detector design consists of O(30,000) large area and acceptance photosensors arranged in a matrix of ∼300x300m 2 size. Hybrid photon detectors are considered as promising candidates as they provide clean signal characteristics and uniform collection efficiency. We discuss the design and expected performance of a large spherical HPD with 380mm diameter, which is housed in a high-pressure glass container. A scaled prototype HPD of 208mm diameter is currently under development using the existing CERN HPD facility

  3. Selected results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    ANTARES uses sea water as as a detection medium to observe cosmic neutrinos. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is taking data with its complete configuration since 2008. Its main goal is the detection of cosmic neutrinos from the Southern hemisphere sky, coming from Galactic and extragalactic sources. Recently, the ANTARES collaboration has published many results from data collected from 2007 to 2010 using detector configurations containing between 5 to 12 detection strings. Among those, search of point sources and diffuse flux from high energy cosmic neutrinos, both resulted in stringent and competitive upper limits for the flux of cosmic neutrinos. In addition, ANTARES is involved in multi-messenger projects looking for correlations between neutrinos and gamma rays or gravitational wave emitted by sources like Gamma-Ray bursts. In this paper we report on some recent results published by the ANTARES collaboration

  4. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed

  5. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  6. Power and Submarine Cable Systems for the KM3NeT kilometre cube Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sedita, M; Hallewell, G

    2009-01-01

    The KM3NeT EU-funded consortium, pursuing a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, is developing technical solutions for the construction of this challenging project, to be realized several kilometres below the sea level. In this framework a proposed DC/DC power system has been designed, maximizing reliability and minimizing difficulties and expensive underwater activities. The power conversion, delivery, transmission and distribution network will be described with particular attention to: the main electro-optical cable, on shore and deep sea power conversion, the subsea distribution network and connection systems, together with installation and maintenance issues.

  7. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  8. Neutrino telescopes sensitivity to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Lamoureux, J.; Smoot, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter of the Universe is yet unknown and most likely is connected with new physics. The search for its composition is underway through direct and indirect detection. Fundamental physical aspects such as energy threshold, geometry and location are taken into account to investigate proposed neutrino telescopes of km3 volume sensitivities to dark matter. These sensitivities are just sufficient to test a few weakly interacting massive particle scenarios. Telescopes of km3 volume, such as IceCube, can definitely discover or exclude superheavy (M>1010 GeV) strong interacting massive particles (simpzillas). Smaller neutrino telescopes such as ANTARES, AMANDA-II and NESTOR can probe a large region of simpzilla parameter space

  9. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  10. High energy neutrino astronomy and its telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than 10 -14 cm by mapping the sky using high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01 km 2 , we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1 km 2 . With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan

  11. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losa Agustín Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES detector is an underwater neutrino telescope, the largest in the Northern Hemisphere and the first one ever built under the sea, located in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the Southern coast of France, at a depth of 2.5 km. It comprises 885 photomultiplier tubes distributed along twelve detection lines. The signal due to neutrinos is searched by reconstructing the tracks of secondary particles produced in the surroundings of the detector. The detector is in data taking with its final configuration since 2008. It is aimed at identifying the sources, either steady or flaring, of cosmic neutrinos, and is also suitable for detection of dark matter within the Sun and/or Galactic Centre. ANTARES can contribute in the confirmation of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube, being particularly competitive for the Galactic Centre, and in general for galactic sources, due its latitude and at lower energies and softer spectra due its configuration. Several multi-messenger analyses have been also attempted, including the search of coincidence signals of neutrinos with gravitational-waves. Additional topics include neutrino oscillations or the search of exotic particles, like nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. Results from the latest analyses are presented.

  12. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapidis, Petros A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: rapidis@inp.demokritos.gr

    2009-04-11

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  13. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidis, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  14. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10 9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E ν interacts elastically with a parton inside a nucleon, loses a small fraction y of its energy, and starts a hadronic shower of energy yE ν ν . We analyze the ultraviolet dependence and the relevance of graviton emission in these processes, and show that they are negligible. We also study the energy distribution of cosmogenic events in AMANDA and IceCube and the possibility of multiple-bang events. For any neutrino flux, the observation of an enhanced rate of neutral current events above 100 TeV in neutrino telescopes could be explained by TeV-gravity interactions. The values of the fundamental scale of gravity that IceCube could reach are comparable to those to be explored at the LHC

  15. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects

  16. The deep sea Acoustic Detection system AMADEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, Christopher Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system is an array of acoustical sensors designed to investigate the possibilities of acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the deep sea. The complete system will comprise a total of 36 acoustic sensors in six clusters on two of the ANTARES detector lines. With an inter-sensor spacing of about one metre inside the clusters and between 15 and 340 metres between the different clusters, it will cover a wide range of distances as will as provide a considerable lever arm for point source triangulation. Three of these clusters have already been deployed in 2007 and have been in operation since, currently yielding around 2GB of acoustic data per day. The remaining three clusters are scheduled to be deployed in May 2008 together with the final ANTARES detector line. Apart from proving the feasibility of operating an acoustic detection system in the deep sea, the main aim of this project is an in-depth survey of both the acoustic properties of the sea water and the acoustic background present at the detector site. It will also serve as a platform for the development and refinement of triggering, filtering and reconstruction algorithms for acoustic particle detection. In this presentation, a description of the acoustic sensor and read-out system is given, together with examples for the reconstruction and evaluation of the acoustic data.

  17. Searching for dark matter with neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Silk, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting mysteries of astrophysics is the puzzle of dark matter. Although numerous techniques have been explored and developed to detect this elusive substance, its nature remains unknown. One such method uses large high-energy neutrino telescopes to look for the annihilation products of dark matter annihilations. In this paper, we briefly review this technique. We describe the calculations used to find the rate of capture of WIMPs in the Sun or Earth and the spectrum of neutrinos produced in the resulting dark matter annihilations. We will discuss these calculations within the context of supersymmetry and models with universal extra dimensions, the lightest supersymmetric particle and lightest Kaluza-Klein particle providing the WIMP candidate in these cases, respectively. We will also discuss the status of some of the experiments relevant to these searches: AMANDA, IceCube and ANTARES

  18. PORFIDO: Oceanographic data for neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelli, Marco; Martini, Agnese; Habel, Roberto; Trasatti, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) is a system designed to be installed in the optical modules of the NEMO experiment and possibly, in future underwater neutrino telescopes to gather oceanographic data with a minimum of disturbance to the main project and a very limited budget. The system gathers oceanographic data (temperature, etc.) from passive RFID tags (WISPs) attached to the outside of the NEMO optical modules with an RF reader situated inside the glass sphere, without the need of connectors or penetrators, which are very expensive and offer low reliability. Ten PORFIDOs will be deployed with the NEMO Phase 2 tower in 2011.

  19. PORFIDO: Oceanographic data for neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordelli, Marco; Martini, Agnese; Habel, Roberto [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Trasatti, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.trasatti@gmail.co [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) is a system designed to be installed in the optical modules of the NEMO experiment and possibly, in future underwater neutrino telescopes to gather oceanographic data with a minimum of disturbance to the main project and a very limited budget. The system gathers oceanographic data (temperature, etc.) from passive RFID tags (WISPs) attached to the outside of the NEMO optical modules with an RF reader situated inside the glass sphere, without the need of connectors or penetrators, which are very expensive and offer low reliability. Ten PORFIDOs will be deployed with the NEMO Phase 2 tower in 2011.

  20. Scrutinizing supergravity models through neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, R; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Yuan, K; Zichichi, Antonino; Gandhi, Raj; Lopez, Jorge L.; Yuan, Kajia

    1994-01-01

    Galactic halo neutralinos ($\\chi$) captured by the Sun or Earth produce high-energy neutrinos as end-products of various annihilation modes. These neutrinos can travel from the Sun or Earth cores to the neighborhood of underground detectors (``neutrino telescopes") where they can interact and produce upwardly-moving muons. We compute these muon fluxes in the context of the minimal $SU(5)$ supergravity model, and the no-scale and dilaton $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ supergravity models. At present, with the Kamiokande 90\\% C.L. upper limits on the flux, only a small fraction of the parameter space of the $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ models is accessible for $m_\\chi\\sim m_{\\rm Fe}$, which in turn implies constraints for the lightest chargino mass around 100 GeV for a range of $\\tan\\beta$ values. We also delineate the regions of parameter space that would be accessible with the improvements of experimental sensitivity expected in the near future at Gran Sasso, Super-Kamiokande, and other facilities such as DUMAND and AMANDA, curren...

  1. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with a 4 GeV threshold in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Baret, B.; Donzaud, C.; Kouchner, A.; Moscoso, L.; Van Elewyck, V.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Mazure, A.; Tasca, L.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Charvis, Ph.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Pillet, R.; Cottini, N.; Loucatos, S.; Moscoso, L.; Naumann, C.; Picq, C.; Schuller, J.P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the measurement of the muon flux in the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope and its dependence on the depth is presented. The method is based oil the observation of coincidence signals in adjacent storeys of the detector. This yields an energy threshold of about 4 GeV. The main sources of optical background are the decay of 40 K and the bioluminescence in the sea water. The 40 K background is used to calibrate the efficiency of the photo-multiplier tubes. (authors)

  2. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with a 4 GeV threshold in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 Rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, 68008 Colmar (FR); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers - Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Baret, B.; Donzaud, C.; Kouchner, A.; Moscoso, L.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC - Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164, CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, Rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (FR); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Mazure, A.; Tasca, L. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (FR); Carloganu, C.; Gay, P. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (FR); Charvis, Ph.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Pillet, R. [Geoazur - Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 48, F-06235 Villefranche-sur-mer (FR); Cottini, N.; Loucatos, S.; Moscoso, L.; Naumann, C.; Picq, C.; Schuller, J.P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers - Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (FR)

    2010-07-01

    A new method for the measurement of the muon flux in the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope and its dependence on the depth is presented. The method is based oil the observation of coincidence signals in adjacent storeys of the detector. This yields an energy threshold of about 4 GeV. The main sources of optical background are the decay of {sup 40}K and the bioluminescence in the sea water. The {sup 40}K background is used to calibrate the efficiency of the photo-multiplier tubes. (authors)

  3. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A.M.; Castell, J.V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the spermwhale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is stillpresently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the

  4. First all-flavor neutrino pointlike source search with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope between early 2007 and the end of 2015 is performed. For the first time, all neutrino interactions --charged and neutral current interactions of all flavours-- are considered in a search for point-like

  5. Signal and background in the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de

    2007-01-01

    At the bottom of the Mediterranean, the neutrino telescope ANTARES is being constructed. Its purpose is to detect cosmic neutrinos, which can yield information on distant and energetic processes that cannot be obtained from the more traditional study of light or charged particles. ANTARES searches

  6. Search for magnetic monopoles with the neutrino telescope ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picot-Clemente, N.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located at a 2500 meters depth, and is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers installed for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by neutrino-induced muons, after having interacted with matter, and in order to reconstruct their directions. However, besides of being capable of detecting high energy neutrinos, neutrino telescopes could measure the incoming flux of magnetic monopoles in the detector. In this work, were first presented the different methods used in order to calibrate the photomultipliers, which are the heart of a neutrino telescope. The possibility of detecting magnetic monopoles with ANTARES was then discussed, and a first analysis optimised for the search for high velocity magnetic monopoles showed the great sensitivity offered by the telescope. Finally, a track reconstruction algorithm was modified, and a new analysis this time sensitive over a wider range of velocities was performed. After the application of the last analysis on the data taken in 2008 with the ANTARES telescope, new upper limits on the upward going magnetic monopole flux, of masses lower than 10 14 GeV were obtained, and are the best experimental constraints on their flux for the velocity region β ∼ [0.65, 0.995]. (author)

  7. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Illana, J I; Meloni, D

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10^9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E_\

  8. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the NorthernHemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources.Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and arethus well-suited to detect neutrinos

  9. Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Yáñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  10. Indirect detection of dark matter with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambard, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ANTANARES telescope is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers (12 lines) that will be immersed in the Mediterranean sea at a depth of 2500 m. The photomultipliers are sensitive to the Cherenkov light emitted by high energy muons produced in the interactions of neutrinos with matter. My work consisted in the calibration of the detector, in time and charge in order to extract the crucial data for the reconstruction of the particle tracks and the ability of the detector to distinguish the atmospheric neutrinos from astrophysical neutrinos. The first part of this work is dedicated to the today understanding of the universe and of its models and of the importance of the neutrinos as the messengers of what occurs in the remote parts of the universe. The detection of neutrinos through the Cerenkov effect is detailed and the ANTANARES detector is presented. The second part deals with the study of the background radiation due to atmospheric muons and neutrinos. A simulation is the only tool to assess the background radiation level and to be able to extract the signal due to solar neutrinos. The third part shows how the solar neutrino flux might be influenced by the interaction of dark matter with baryonic matter. A Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to quantify this interaction and measure its impact on the number of events detected by ANTANARES. (A.C.)

  11. Determination of the atmospheric muon flux with the neutrino telescope ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, C.

    2009-06-01

    The neutrino telescope ANTARES is a deep-sea detector located in the Mediterranean Sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature of cosmic rays, their origins and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (>TeV) for observation of the universe. This thesis is dedicated to the study of the main background noise of the detector, due to the passage of atmospheric muons produced by high energy cosmic rays interacting with atmospheric nuclei. The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the detector. The different characteristics and the calibration of the detector as well as the techniques of monitoring the electronic are described. The second part of this thesis reports the various results obtained on the atmospheric muons with the five line detector. A detailed presentation of the simulations used is presented. The first difficulty of detecting atmospheric muons is due to the geometry of the detector. The second is due to the fact that the atmospheric muons often arrive in bundles and that the number of muons in these bundles is unknown at a depth of 2500 m. A first study based on simulations makes it possible to discriminate between the muons alone and the bundles of muons. A second study is dedicated to the measurement of the muon flux depending on the slant depth. The measurement is compatible with the results of other instruments when the systematic uncertainties are taken into account. (author)

  12. Results on dark matter searches with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Zornoza, Juande

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino telescopes have a wide scientific scope. One of their main goals is the detection of dark matter, for which they have specific advantages. The understanding of the nature of dark matter requires a multi-front approach since we still do not know many of their properties. Neutrino telescopes offer the possibility of look at several kinds of sources, not all of them available to other indirect searches. In this work we provide an overview of the results obtained by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, which has been taking data for almost ten years. It is installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 2475 m, off the coast of Toulon (France). The results presented in this work include searches for neutrino excess from several astrophysical sources. One of the most interesting ones is the Sun. Dark matter particles by the solar system would scatter with nuclei of the Sun, lose energy and accumulate in its centre. Among the final products of their annihilations, only neutrinos could escape. Therefore, a dete...

  13. The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Kooijman, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068449542; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located 40 km off the coast of Toulon in the Mediterranean Sea at a mooring depth of about 2475 m, consists of twelve detection lines equipped typically with 25 storeys. Every storey carries three optical modules that detect Cherenkov light induced by charged

  14. The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefevre, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located 40km off the coast of Toulon in the Mediterranean Sea at a mooring depth of about 2475m, consists of twelve detection lines equipped typically with 25 storeys. Every storey carries three optical modules that detect Cherenkov light induced by charged secondary

  15. The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A.C.A.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhofer, A.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; De Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefevre, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Schock, F.; Schuller, J.P.; Schussler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located 40km off the coast of Toulon in the Mediterranean Sea at a mooring depth of about 2475m, consists of twelve detection lines equipped typically with 25 storeys. Every storey carries three optical modules that detect Cherenkov light induced by charged secondary

  16. Status report on the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallage, B

    2008-01-01

    After a long and fruitful R and D phase to validate its detector concept, the ANTARES collaboration will complete by 2008 the deployment of its 12-string underwater detector at a depth of 2500 m in the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km south-east of the French town of Toulon The 3D array of 900 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) will allow high energy neutrino astronomy with a pointing accuracy better than 1 degree. The detector size grew by steps from 1 line in March 2006, to 5 lines in January 2007, sketching a real 3D detector. Data recorded continuously provide a precise calibration of the charge and arrival time of Cerenkov photons coming from muon tracks. The position and orientation of individual detectors are measured frequently by compasses, tiltmeters and external acoustic triangulation. The data from the 3D detector allow the reconstruction of downward going cosmic ray muons and the search for the first upward going neutrino induced muons. Preliminary results of these analysis are presented

  17. New technology allows closer study of neutrinos; researchers credit specialized telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Huang, N

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a newly designed telescope, University of California-Berkeley scientists and an international team of researchers have made a recent breakthrough in the study of neutrino emissions from the sun. The turning point is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada. This telescope is the first of its kind to be sensitive enough to detect all types of neutrinos (1 page).

  18. The data acquisition system for the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. The data acquisition system of the detector takes care of the digitisation of the photo-multiplier tube signals, data transport, data filtering, and data storage. The detector is operated using a control program interfaced with all elements. The design and the implementation of the data acquisition system are described

  19. The data acquisition system for the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ameli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' e Sezione INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. The data acquisition system of the detector takes care of the digitisation of the photo-multiplier tube signals, data transport, data filtering, and data storage. The detector is operated using a control program interfaced with all elements. The design and the implementation of the data acquisition system are described.

  20. Search for a neutrino emission from the Fermi Bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    BIAGI, S

    2012-01-01

    The first search for neutrinos from the Fermi Bubbles is presented using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. No evidence of a neutrino signal from the Fermi Bubbles region was found, hence upper limits were calculated for different energy cutoffs.

  1. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  2. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Exotic Physics with Neutrino Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    EPNT06

    2007-01-01

    The first Workshop on Exotic Physics with Neutrino Telescopes was held in Uppsala, Sweden, between September 20-22, 2006. The workshop was based on talks giving an overview of relevant subjects both from experiments and theorists. The theory talks provided guidelines for experimental searches, and covered the signatures expected in neutrino telescopes from different dark matter candidates, micro black holes, models with extra dimensions, non--standard neutrino oscillation scenarios and new neutrino interactions. The existing and planned neutrino telescopes presented their results and perspectives on the mentioned subjects.

  3. Possibility of observing high energy neutrinos from gamma bursts, with the Antanares telescope, feasibility study; Possibilite d'observation, par le telescope antares, de neutrinos de haute energie associes aux sursauts gamma et validation des techniques de detection a l'aide d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchner, A

    2001-04-01

    The European Antares collaboration intends to build a deep-sea neutrino telescope with a detection surface of about 1/10 km{sup 2} in the Mediterranean sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature and origin of cosmic rays and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (E>TeV) for observation of the universe. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to a study of the possibility of using the future telescope to look for correlations between gamma-ray bursts and high-energy neutrinos. It is based, on one hand, on the predictions of neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts in the framework of the theoretical model of 'fireballs', and, on the other hand, on the temporal properties of the gamma-ray bursts in the 4. BATSE catalogue. The second part of the thesis presents the results obtained with a prototype detector line deployed, at the end of 1999, some forty km south-west off Marseilles. The objective was to operate a complete apparatus, similar to the future detector lines, from the shore, and under realistic conditions. Data from 7 photomultiplier tubes disposed along the detector line were transmitted through 37 km of optical fiber to the shore, where they were used to reconstruct tracks due to atmospheric muons, thus validating the detection principles and methods. (author)

  4. The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Ardid, M; Ageron, M; Samarai, I Al; Aubert, J-J; Bertin, V; Aguilar, J A; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Baret, B; Basa, S; Biagi, S

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located 40 km off the coast of Toulon in the Mediterranean Sea at a mooring depth of about 2475 m, consists of twelve detection lines equipped typically with 25 storeys. Every storey carries three optical modules that detect Cherenkov light induced by charged secondary particles (typically muons) coming from neutrino interactions. As these lines are flexible structures fixed to the sea bed and held taut by a buoy, sea currents cause the lines to move and the storeys to rotate. The knowledge of the position of the optical modules with a precision better than 10 cm is essential for a good reconstruction of particle tracks. In this paper the ANTARES positioning system is described. It consists of an acoustic positioning system, for distance triangulation, and a compass-tiltmeter system, for the measurement of the orientation and inclination of the storeys. Necessary corrections are discussed and the results of the detector alignment procedure are described.

  5. The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-08-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located 40 km off the coast of Toulon in the Mediterranean Sea at a mooring depth of about 2475 m, consists of twelve detection lines equipped typically with 25 storeys. Every storey carries three optical modules that detect Cherenkov light induced by charged secondary particles (typically muons) coming from neutrino interactions. As these lines are flexible structures fixed to the sea bed and held taut by a buoy, sea currents cause the lines to move and the storeys to rotate. The knowledge of the position of the optical modules with a precision better than 10 cm is essential for a good reconstruction of particle tracks. In this paper the ANTARES positioning system is described. It consists of an acoustic positioning system, for distance triangulation, and a compass-tiltmeter system, for the measurement of the orientation and inclination of the storeys. Necessary corrections are discussed and the results of the detector alignment procedure are described.

  6. WIMP dark matter and supersymmetry searches with neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, N.

    2011-01-01

    The particle physics interpretation of the missing-mass, or dark-matter, a problem of cosmological and astrophysical nature, is going to be placed under strong scrutiny in the next years. From the particle physics side, accelerator physics will deeply test theoretical ideas about new physics beyond the Standard Model, where a particle physics candidate to dark matter is often naturally obtained. From the astrophysical side, many probes are already providing a great deal of independent information on signals which can be produced by the galactic or extra-galactic dark matter. The current and new-generation experimental efforts are therefore going to place under deep scrutiny the theoretical explanations of the relevant signals. The ultimate hope is in fact to be able to disentangle a dark matter signal from the various sources of backgrounds. Neutrino telescopes are one of the prominent tools for looking at dark matter and search for a signal, the neutrino flux from Earth and Sun. In this neutrino dark matter searches share properties with both direct dark matter searches and cosmic-ray indirect dark matter searches, and therefore complement these different detection techniques.

  7. Deep sea biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yayanos, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A collection of deep-sea bacterial cultures was completed. Procedures were instituted to shelter the culture collection from accidential warming. A substantial data base on the rates of reproduction of more than 100 strains of bacteria from that collection was obtained from experiments and the analysis of that data was begun. The data on the rates of reproduction were obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure found in the deep sea. The experiments were facilitated by inexpensively fabricated pressure vessels, by the streamlining of the methods for the study of kinetics at high pressures, and by computer-assisted methods. A polybarothermostat was used to study the growth of bacteria along temperature gradients at eight distinct pressures. This device should allow for the study of microbial processes in the temperature field simulating the environment around buried HLW. It is small enough to allow placement in a radiation field in future studies. A flow fluorocytometer was fabricated. This device will be used to determine the DNA content per cell in bacteria grown in laboratory culture and in microorganisms in samples from the ocean. The technique will be tested for its rapidity in determining the concentration of cells (standing stock of microorganisms) in samples from the ocean

  8. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  9. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tamburini

    Full Text Available The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  10. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma Nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  11. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E.; Bruijn, R.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V.; Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Donzaud, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Giordano, V.; Haren, H. van; Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marinelli, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Pradier, T.; Sanguineti, M.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  12. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE-Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Donzaud, C. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dumas, A.; Gay, P. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje, Texel (Netherlands); Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouchner, A. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); Loucatos, S. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (MA); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (FR); Sanguineti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (IT); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT)

    2017-01-15

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  13. Search for dark matter annihilation in the earth using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsasser, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Geisselsoder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hofestadt, J.; Hugon, C.; Hossl, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldana, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schussler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallee, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for a neutrino signal from WIMP pair annihilations in the centre of the Earth has been performed with the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. The event selection criteria have been developed and tuned to maximise the sensitivity of the experiment to such a

  14. Limits on dark matter annihilation in the sun using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tönnis, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    A search for muon neutrinos originating from dark matter annihilations in the Sun is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. In order to obtain the best possible sensitivities to dark matter signals, an optimisation of the event selection criteria is

  15. Possibility of observing high energy neutrinos from gamma bursts, with the Antanares telescope, feasibility study; Possibilite d'observation, par le telescope antares, de neutrinos de haute energie associes aux sursauts gamma et validation des techniques de detection a l'aide d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchner, A

    2001-04-01

    The European Antares collaboration intends to build a deep-sea neutrino telescope with a detection surface of about 1/10 km{sup 2} in the Mediterranean sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature and origin of cosmic rays and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (E>TeV) for observation of the universe. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to a study of the possibility of using the future telescope to look for correlations between gamma-ray bursts and high-energy neutrinos. It is based, on one hand, on the predictions of neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts in the framework of the theoretical model of 'fireballs', and, on the other hand, on the temporal properties of the gamma-ray bursts in the 4. BATSE catalogue. The second part of the thesis presents the results obtained with a prototype detector line deployed, at the end of 1999, some forty km south-west off Marseilles. The objective was to operate a complete apparatus, similar to the future detector lines, from the shore, and under realistic conditions. Data from 7 photomultiplier tubes disposed along the detector line were transmitted through 37 km of optical fiber to the shore, where they were used to reconstruct tracks due to atmospheric muons, thus validating the detection principles and methods. (author)

  16. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jessica; Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G.

    2011-01-01

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  17. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica, E-mail: j.craig@abdn.ac.u [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-21

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  18. Can the New Neutrino Telescopes Reveal the Gravitational Properties of Antimatter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter can be tested at the Ice Cube, a neutrino telescope, recently constructed at the South Pole. If there is such a gravitational repulsion, the gravitational field, deep inside the horizon of a black hole, might create neutrino-antineutrino pairs from the quantum vacuum. While neutrinos must stay confined inside the horizon, the antineutrinos should be violently ejected. Hence, a black hole (made from matter should behave as a point-like source of antineutrinos. Our simplified calculations suggest that the antineutrinos emitted by supermassive black holes in the centre of the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy could be detected by the new generation of neutrino telescopes.

  19. Limits on dark matter annihilation in the sun using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adrián-Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for muon neutrinos originating from dark matter annihilations in the Sun is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. In order to obtain the best possible sensitivities to dark matter signals, an optimisation of the event selection criteria is performed taking into account the background of atmospheric muons, atmospheric neutrinos and the energy spectra of the expected neutrino signals. No significant excess over the background is observed and 90% C.L. upper limits on the neutrino flux, the spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections are derived for WIMP masses ranging from 50 GeV to 5 TeV for the annihilation channels WIMP+WIMP→bb¯,W+W− and τ+τ−.

  20. Time calibration with atmospheric muon tracks in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Gómez-González, J.P.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    The ANTARES experiment consists of an array of photomultipliers distributed along 12 lines and located deep underwater in the Mediterranean Sea. It searches for astrophysical neutrinos collecting the Cherenkov light induced by the charged particles, mainly muons, produced in neutrino interactions around the detector. Since at energies of $\\sim$10 TeV the muon and the incident neutrino are almost collinear, it is possible to use the ANTARES detector as a neutrino telescope and identify a source of neutrinos in the sky starting from a precise reconstruction of the muon trajectory. To get this result, the arrival times of the Cherenkov photons must be accurately measured. A to perform time calibrations with the precision required to have optimal performances of the instrument is described. The reconstructed tracks of the atmospheric muons in the ANTARES detector are used to determine the relative time offsets between photomultipliers. Currently, this method is used to obtain the time calibration constants for ph...

  1. 1020 eV cosmic-ray and particle physics with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Halzen, F.

    2001-01-01

    We show that a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory, though optimized for TeV to PeV energy, is sensitive to the neutrinos associated with super-EeV sources. These include super-heavy relics, neutrinos associated with the Greisen cutoff, and topological defects which are remnant cosmic structures associated with phase transitions in grand unified gauge theories. It is a misconception that new instruments optimized to EeV energy are required to do this important science, although this is not their primary goal. Because kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes can reject atmospheric backgrounds by establishing the very high energy of the signal events, they have sensitivity over the full solid angle, including the horizon where most of the signal is concentrated. This is important because up-going neutrino-induced muons, routinely considered in previous calculations, are absorbed by the Earth

  2. Follow-up of high energy neutrinos detected by the ANTARES telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky with a high duty cycle. Potential neutrino sources are gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a detection method based on follow-up observations from the neutrino direction has been developed. This program, denoted as TAToO, includes a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT, Zadko and MASTER and the Swift-XRT telescope, which are triggered when an “interesting” neutrino is detected by ANTARES. A follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets in time/space coincidence or a single neutrino having a very high energy or in the specific direction of a local galaxy, significantly improves the perspective for the detection of transient sources. The analysis of early and long term follow-up observations to search for fast and slowly varying transient sources, respectively, has been performed and the results covering optical and X-ray data are presented in this contribution.

  3. Follow-up of high energy neutrinos detected by the ANTARES telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky with a high duty cycle. Potential neutrino sources are gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a detection method based on follow-up observations from the neutrino direction has been developed. This program, denoted as TAToO, includes a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT, Zadko and MASTER) and the Swift-XRT telescope, which are triggered when an "interesting" neutrino is detected by ANTARES. A follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets in time/space coincidence or a single neutrino having a very high energy or in the specific direction of a local galaxy, significantly improves the perspective for the detection of transient sources. The analysis of early and long term follow-up observations to search for fast and slowly varying transient sources, respectively, has been performed and the results covering optical and X-ray data are presented in this contribution.

  4. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  5. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A. [GRPHE—Université de Haute Alsace—Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Aubert, J.-J. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, 75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [IFIC—Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC—Universitat de València), c/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna, Valencia, E-46980 Spain (Spain); and others

    2017-04-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A time-dependent search has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008–2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter space for some astrophysical models.

  6. Constraints on the neutrino emission from the Galactic Ridge with the ANTARES telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adrián-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly significant excess of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of IceCube events hint at a North/South asymmetry of the neutrino flux. This could be due to the presence of the bulk of our Galaxy in the Southern hemisphere. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. It offers the best sensitivity to muon neutrinos produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions in this region of the sky. In this letter a search for an extended neutrino flux from the Galactic Ridge region is presented. Different models of neutrino production by cosmic ray propagation are tested. No excess of events is observed and upper limits for different neutrino flux spectral indices Γ are set. For Γ=2.4 the 90% confidence level flux upper limit at 100 TeV for one neutrino flavour corresponds to Φ01f(100 TeV=2.0⋅10−17 GeV−1cm−2s−1sr−1. Under this assumption, at most two events of the IceCube cosmic candidates can originate from the Galactic Ridge. A simple power-law extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT flux to account for IceCube High Energy Starting Events is excluded at 90% confidence level.

  7. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Belhorma, B.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Diaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; De Bonis, G.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Navas, S.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10 55 erg for a E -2 spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  8. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [Universite de Haute Alsace - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, GRPHE, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Belhorma, B. [National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques, Rabat (Morocco); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, Bucharest (Romania); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Celli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Diaz, A.F. [University of Granada, Department of Computer Architecture and Technology/CITIC, Granada (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, UCA, CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); De Bonis, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Haren, H. van [Utrecht University, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (NL); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (DE); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (FR); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Navas, S. [University of Granada, Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y C.A.F.P.E., Granada (ES); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Collaboration: The ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10{sup 55} erg for a E{sup -2} spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  9. An algorithm for the reconstruction of neutrino-induced showers in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; El Moursli, R.C.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; de Boris, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Garcia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Muons created by nm charged current (CC) interactions in the water surrounding the ANTARES neutrino telescopehave been almost exclusively used so far in searches for cosmic neutrino sources. Due to their long range, highlyenergetic muons inducing Cherenkov radiation in the water are reconstructed

  10. The neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirigotis, A. G. [Physics Laboratory, Hellenic Open University (Greece); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    With the measurement of a non zero value of the θ{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter, interest in neutrinos as source of the baryon asymmetry of the universe has increased. Among the measurements of a rich and varied program in near future neutrino physics is the determination of the mass hierarchy. We present the status of a study of the feasibility of using a densely instrumented undersea neutrino detector to determine the mass hierarchy, utilizing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect on atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The detector will use technology developed for KM3NeT. We present the systematic studies of the optimization of a detector in the required 5–10 GeV energy regime. These studies include new tracking and interaction identification algorithms as well as geometrical optimizations of the detector.

  11. Optical Module Front-End for a Neutrino Underwater Telescope PMT interface

    CERN Document Server

    Lo Presti, D; Caponetto, L

    2007-01-01

    A proposal for a new system to capture signals in the Optical Module (OM) of an Underwater Neutrino Telescope is described. It concentrates on the problem of power consumption in relation to precision. In particular, a solution for the interface between the photomultiplier (PMT) and the front-end electronics is presented.

  12. Characterisation of the Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, S.; Akrame, S.E.; Amélineau, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baars, M.; Bagatelas, C.; Barbarino, G.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Biernoth, C.; Bormuth, R.; Boumaaza, J.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Brânzas, H.; Briukhanova, N.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R,; Busto, J.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Celli, S.; Chabab, M.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Molla, M.C.; Coniglione, R.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D’Onofrio, A.; Dallier, R.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Domi, A.; Donà, R.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dörr, M.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ferrara, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Garufi, F.; Gauchery, S.; Geißelsöder, S.; Gialanella, L.; Giorgio, E.; Giuliante, A.; Gozzini, S.R.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, D.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Hekalo, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hofestädt, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jongen, M.; Jongewaard, B.; de Jong, M.; de Jong, P.; Kadler, M.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.F.; Khan Chowdhury, N.R.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Le Breton, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Levi, G.; Lincetto, M.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maggi, G.; Manczak, J.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Markou, C.; Martin, L.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Mollo, C.M.; Morganti, M.; Moser, M.; Moussa, A.; Muller, R.; Musumeci, M.; Nauta, L.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Nielsen, C.; Organokov, M.; Orlando, A.; Panagopoulos, V.; Papalashvili, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Pérez Romero, J.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pisanti, O.; Poirè, C.; Polydefki, G.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Post, M.; Pradier, T.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Razzaque, S.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Richer, M.; Rovelli, A.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schermer, B.; Sciacca, V.; Seneca, J.; Sgura, I.; Shanidze, R.; Sharma, A.; Simeone, F.; Sinopoulou, A.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, D.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Strandberg, B.; Stransky, D.; Stüven, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tatone, F.; Tayalati, Y.; Tenllado, E.; Thakore, T.; Timmer, P.; Trovato, A.; Tsagkli, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Tzanetatos, D.; Valieri, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; de Waardt, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Hamamatsu R12199-02 3-inch photomultiplier tube is the photodetector chosen for the first phase of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. About 7000 photomultipliers have been characterised for dark count rate, timing spread and spurious pulses. The quantum efficiency, the gain and the peak-to-valley

  13. Performance of the front-end electronics of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J-J; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, [No Value; Chiarusi, T.; Sen, N. Chon; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; de Botton, N.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fopma, J.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J-L; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hoffmann, C.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Monmarthe, E.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Olivetto, Ch; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavala, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pineau, J-P; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    2010-01-01

    ANTARES is a high-energy neutrino telescope installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 2475 m. It consists of a three-dimensional array of optical modules, each containing a large photomultiplier tube. A total of 2700 front-end ASICs named analogue ring samplers (ARS) process the phototube

  14. Multi-PMT optical module for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT will employ a novel type of a Digital Optical Module (DOM), developed during the recent FP6 Design Study. A pressure-resistant glass sphere hosts 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in, diameter, together with all the electronics for

  15. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  16. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope,

  17. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, C.O.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L.A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6∘ for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with

  18. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations (TAToO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornic, Damien; Brunner, Jurgen; Basa, Stephane; Al Samarai, Imen; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Busto, Jose; Escoffier, Stephanie; Klotz, Alain; Mazure, Alain; Vallage, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, flares of active galactic nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity to these sources, we have developed a new detection method based on the follow-up by optical telescopes of 'golden' neutrino events, such as neutrino doublets coincident in time and space or single neutrinos of very high energy. The ANTARES collaboration has therefore implemented a very fast on-line reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow us to trigger an optical telescope network. Since February 2009, ANTARES is sending alert triggers once or twice per month to the two 25 cm robotic telescope of TAROT. This optical follow-up of such special events would not only give access to the nature of the sources, but also would improve the sensitivity to transient neutrino sources.

  19. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations (TAToO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, Damien, E-mail: dornic@cppm.in2p3.f [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); IFIC, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valenciaa, Apdo. de correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Brunner, Jurgen [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Basa, Stephane [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Al Samarai, Imen; Bertin, Vincent [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boer, Michel [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); Busto, Jose; Escoffier, Stephanie [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Klotz, Alain [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); CESR, Observatiore Midi-Pyrenees, CNRS Universite de Toulouse, BP4346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Mazure, Alain [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Vallage, Bertrand [CEA-IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-21

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, flares of active galactic nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity to these sources, we have developed a new detection method based on the follow-up by optical telescopes of 'golden' neutrino events, such as neutrino doublets coincident in time and space or single neutrinos of very high energy. The ANTARES collaboration has therefore implemented a very fast on-line reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow us to trigger an optical telescope network. Since February 2009, ANTARES is sending alert triggers once or twice per month to the two 25 cm robotic telescope of TAROT. This optical follow-up of such special events would not only give access to the nature of the sources, but also would improve the sensitivity to transient neutrino sources.

  20. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  1. Development of an electronic board for a neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Enzo; Ricci, Pier Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) collaboration is involved in research and development for the construction of an underwater km 3 scale Cherenkov neutrino detector. The detector will consist of about four thousands of optical modules that interface with coaxial cables to electronics cards. The detector is connected to the shore by an electro-optical cable for data transmission and power supply. The board also provides signal synchronization, filtering, data compression and packing. We describe the details of this electronic control part, which has been developed using commercial components and the very high-speed, Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The design was implemented on a programmable device. A test-bench system was also designed using a PC-based acquisition board running on the National Instrument LabVIEW environment

  2. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  3. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-11-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  4. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, Michel [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Al Samarai, Imen, E-mail: samarai@cppm.in2p3.fr [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Akerlof, Carl [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Basa, Stephane [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Bertin, Vincent [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boer, Michel [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Klotz, Alain [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); IRAP, 9 avenue du colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand [CEA-IRFU, centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vecchi, Manuela [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Zheng, Weikang [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5 Degree-Sign . Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  5. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scal...

  6. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Larosa, G.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Charif, Z.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Dornic, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Lambard, E.; Riviere, C.; Vallee, C.; Vecchi, M.; Yatkin, K.; Andre, M.; Anton, G.; Classen, F.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Neff, M.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Wagner, S.; Anvar, S.; Louis, F.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jong, M. de; Michael, T.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulte, S.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Kouchner, A.; Elewyck, V. van; Barrios-Marti, J.; Bigongiari, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Emanuele, U.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Lambard, G.; Mangano, S.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Simeone, F.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Carloganu, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Guillard, G.; Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Lattuada, D.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, S.; Robert, A.; Tamburini, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dorosti, Q.; Loehner, H.; Flaminio, V.; Giordano, V.; Haren, H. van; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Kadler, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, C.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Pradier, T.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Wolf, E. de

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source. (orig.)

  7. On the Sensitivity of Neutrino Telescopes to a Modified Dispersion Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.; Bazo, J. L.; Miranda, O. G.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified dispersion relation and its effect on the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos originated at distant astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei. This dispersion relation arise naturally in different new physics (NP) effects such as violation of CPT invariance, of the equivalence principle and of Lorentz invariance. It is a common notion in the literature that by using the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected from distant astrophysical sources, the sensitivity to possible NP effects may be improved beyond the current bounds. However, performing a realistic analysis that takes into account the expected number of events in future neutrino telescopes, we find that the average detected flavour ratios with and without the inclusion of new physics have essentially the same value, making difficult to obtain an improved bound for this type of new physics

  8. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Larosa, G.; Martinez-Mora, J.A. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Charif, Z.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Dornic, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Lambard, E.; Riviere, C.; Vallee, C.; Vecchi, M.; Yatkin, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anton, G.; Classen, F.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Neff, M.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Louis, F.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jong, M. de; Michael, T.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulte, S.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Kouchner, A.; Elewyck, V. van [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Bigongiari, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Emanuele, U.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Lambard, G.; Mangano, S.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [Universitat de Valencia, IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Simeone, F. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Carloganu, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Guillard, G. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Circella, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coniglione, R.; Lattuada, D.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, S.; Robert, A.; Tamburini, C. [Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universit du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Donzaud, C. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dorosti, Q.; Loehner, H. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), Groningen (Netherlands); Flaminio, V. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Kadler, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, C.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); Loucatos, S. [Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Montaruli, T. [Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite de Geneve, Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Morganti, M. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Rostovtsev, A. [ITEP, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (Netherlands); Taiuti, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (IT); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (MA); Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (NL); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (NL); Collaboration: The ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-02-15

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source. (orig.)

  9. Can the new Neutrino Telescopes and LHC reveal the gravitational proprieties of antimatter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2011-01-01

    What are the gravitational proprieties of antimatter is still not known. One possibility is the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter (in short we call it antigravity). We point out two possible signatures of the assumed existence of antigravity. First, the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy (Southern Sky)and in the center of the Andromeda Galaxy (Northern Sky)may produce a flux of antineutrinos measurable with the new generation of the neutrino telescopes; like the IceCube Neutrino Detector under construction at the South Pole, and the future one cubic kilometer telescope in Mediterranean Sea. Second, if microscopic black holes are successfully produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, their thermal (Hawking's) radiation should be dominated by a non-thermal radiation caused by antigravity.

  10. A time dependent search for neutrino emission from micro-quasars with the ANTARES telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galata, S.

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration has successfully built, deployed and is currently operating an underwater Cherenkov detector dedicated to high energy neutrino astronomy. The primary aim of the experiment is to detect cosmic sources of neutrinos in order to reveal the production sites of cosmic rays. Among the sources likely to be significant sources of neutrinos are those accelerating relativistic jets, like gamma ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and micro-quasars. Micro-quasars are binary systems formed by a compact object accreting mass from a companion star. The mass transfer causes the emission of X-rays, whereas the onset of magnetic forces in the accreting plasma can cause the acceleration of relativistic jets, which are observed by radio telescopes via their non-thermal synchrotron emission. In some systems, a correlation between X-ray and radio light curves indicates an interplay between accretion and ejection respectively. Some micro-quasars are also high energy and very high energy gamma ray emitters. In this thesis, a time dependent search for neutrino emission from micro-quasars was performed with a multi-messenger approach (photon/neutrino). The data from the X-ray monitors RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT, and the gamma-ray telescope FERMI/LAT were used to select transient events in which the source was supposed to accelerate relativistic jets. The restriction of the analysis to the ejection periods allows a drastic reduction of atmospheric muon and neutrino background, and thus to increase the chances of a discovery. The search was performed with the ANTARES data taken between 2007 and 2010. Statistical analysis was carried out using an un-binned likelihood method based on a likelihood ratio test. The cuts for the event selection were optimized in order to maximize the chance of a discovery. As no neutrino signal was observed in correlation with these micro-quasars, upper limits on the neutrino fluxes of the micro-quasars under study were calculated and compared

  11. The capability to detect wimps with a high energy neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondeau, F.

    1998-05-01

    We studied the potential of the proposed ANTARES undersea neutrino telescope to detect muons coming from from neutralinos annihilating at the center of the Earth. First results show that the full 1 km 3 -scale detector can indicate, after a few years of operation, if there are indeed neutralinos trapped at the core of celestial bodies, as expected are the major form of dark matter in our galaxy. (author)

  12. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2. 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  13. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovato A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E−2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  14. Probing velocity dependent self-interacting dark matter with neutrino telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Denis S.; Albuquerque, Ivone F. M.

    2018-02-01

    Self-interacting dark matter models constitute an attractive solution to problems in structure formation on small scales. A simple realization of these models considers the dark force mediated by a light particle which can couple to the Standard Model through mixings with the photon or the Z boson. Within this scenario we investigate the sensitivity of the IceCube-DeepCore and PINGU neutrino telescopes to the associated muon neutrino flux produced by dark matter annihilations in the Sun. Despite the model's simplicity, several effects naturally appear: momentum suppressed capture by nuclei, velocity dependent dark matter self-capture, Sommerfeld enhanced annihilation, as well as the enhancement on the neutrino flux due to mediator late decays. Taking all these effects into account, we find that most of the model relevant parameter space can be tested by the three years of data already collected by the IceCube-DeepCore. We show that indirect detection through neutrinos can compete with the strong existing limits from direct detection experiments, specially in the case of isospin violation.

  15. The sensitivity of the Antares detector to the galactic neutrino flux; Sensibilite du telescope Antares au flux diffus de neutrinos galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvenot, F

    2005-06-15

    The Antares european collaboration builds an underwater neutrinos telescope which will be deployed in the Mediterranean by 2500 m depth. This detector consists of a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers which detects the Cherenkov light produced in water by muons created from the interaction of neutrinos in the Earth. Cosmic rays are confined in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar matter producing charged pions which decay into neutrinos. The observation of the sky with high energy neutrinos (> 100 GeV) could open a new window on the Galaxy, in particular, the detection of these neutrinos may make it possible to directly observe the dense parts of the Galaxy. In this work, corresponding fluxes have been calculated using a simulation program GALPROP, for several models, constrained by various gamma and cosmic rays observations. The expected sensitivity of the Antares detector to these models was reviewed, as well as a first estimation of the performances of what would give a future km{sup 3} scale detector. A shape recognition algorithm was also developed: it would permit to highlight the structures of the Galaxy in the optimistic case which the number of events detected would be sufficient. This work shows that Antares has an insufficient size for observing the galactic plane. It was also demonstrated that a new generation of neutrino telescope having an effective area at least 40 times larger will be needed to detect the hardest spectrum model and put limits on the other models. (author)

  16. Study of large hemispherical photomultiplier tubes for the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Blanc, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brooks, C. B.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, P.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; Deschamps, A.; de Marzo, C.; Denans, D.; Destelle, J.-J.; de Vita, R.; Dinkelspiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fopma, J.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Goret, P.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hößl, J.; Hoffmann, C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Laubier, L.; Legou, T.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Maron, C.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Milovanovic, A.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.-P.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J.; Ogden, P.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Potheau, R.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; van Rens, B. A. P.; Réthoré, F.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.-F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Saouter, S.; Sapienza, P.; Shanidze, R.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Sokalski, I.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.; Virieux, J.; de Vries, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zakharov, V.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, to be immersed depth in the Mediterranean Sea, will consist of a three-dimensional matrix of 900 large area photomultiplier tubes housed in pressure-resistant glass spheres. The selection of the optimal photomultiplier was a critical step for the project and required an intensive phase of tests and developments carried out in close collaboration with the main manufacturers worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the tests performed by the collaboration and describes in detail the features of the photomultiplier tube chosen for ANTARES.

  17. Digital optical modules for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalekin, Oleg [Universitaet Erlangen, ECAP (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. In the currently running Phase 1 of the project, almost 30 detection units - 700 m tall vertical structures holding 18 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) each - will be produced and deployed. A KM3NeT DOM consists of a pressure resistant glass sphere encapsulating 31 photomultiplier tubes of 80 mm diameter, readout electronics and additional instrumentation for calibration and monitoring. The Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics is one of the DOM integration sites of the project. This contribution describes the design, functionality and integration procedure of the KM3NeT DOM.

  18. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  19. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  20. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  1. Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Van Dover; J. A. Ardron; E. Escobar; M. Gianni; K. M. Gjerde; A. Jaeckel; D. O. B. Jones; L. A. Levin; H. Niner; L. Pendleton; C. R. Smith; T. Thiele; P. J. Turner; L. Watling; P. P. E. Weaver

    2017-01-01

    The emerging deep-sea mining industry is seen by some to be an engine for economic development in the maritime sector. The International Seabed Authority (ISA) – the body that regulates mining activities on the seabed beyond national jurisdiction – must also protect the marine environment from harmful effects that arise from mining. The ISA is currently drafting a regulatory framework for deep-sea mining that includes measures for environmental protection. Responsible mining increasingly stri...

  2. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgitas, Theodore; Creusot, Alexandre; Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  4. Evaluation of the discovery potential of an underwater Mediterranean neutrino telescope taking into account the estimated directional resolution and energy of the reconstructed tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A.G.; Tzamarias, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of search methods for point-like and extended neutrino sources, utilizing the tracking and energy estimation capabilities of an underwater, Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope (VLVnT). We demonstrate that the developed techniques offer a significant improvement on the telescope's discovery potential. We also present results on the potential of the Mediterranean KM3NeT to discover galactic neutrino sources

  5. Indirect research of dark matter toward dwarf galaxies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this document summarizes the astrophysical arguments to suppose the existence of dark matter. The cosmological model γCDM is presented as well as the concept of cross section of dark matter self-annihilation. Dwarf galaxies satellites of the Milky Way, the sources of our study are introduced into a second chapter. After recalling the large structures that make up the universe, the issues related to dwarf galaxies are addressed: missing satellites problem, distribution of dark matter density within them and tidal forces due to the Milky Way. The second part discusses the modeling of the dark matter density in dwarf galaxies. The methodology, using the Jeans equation and dispersion of projected stars velocities, is presented. Three dark matter profiles are retained: NFW, Burkert and Einasto and fifteen dwarf galaxies. Neutrino production during the self-annihilation of dark matter is then addressed. The energy spectra of neutrinos are generated with PYTHIA software and compared with other results for the galactic center. Twenty-three assumptions of mass dark matter candidates are chosen, ranging from 25 GeV/c 2 100 TeV/c 2 . Five self-annihilation channels are selected for analysis: b - b, W + W - T + T - μ + μ - νμ νμ. The third part includes a presentation of the detector used for the study, the ANTARES neutrino telescope. Three reconstruction algorithms developed and used in collaboration are also detailed: AAFIT, BBFit and GridFit. The analysis of data ANTARES aimed to find a neutrinos excess characteristic of dark matter self-annihilation is summarized in the sixth and final chapter. No excess was observed, a limit on the cross section of dark matter self-annihilation was determined. (author)

  6. On the measurement of high-energetic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino telescope and with acoustic detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunck, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, two subjects have been addressed to enhance the detection of astrophysical neutrinos with the existing IceCube neutrino telescope as well as to explore new detection methods, namely the acoustic detection. In the first part of this thesis, the determination of the acoustic attenuation length in South-Pole ice is presented. This is part of a feasibility study to investigate the acoustic neutrino detection as a possibility to enhance the detection of the highest-energy neutrinos. For this, the acoustic properties of the ice have to be known, and the South-Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been built to determine these. The attenuation length is determined using in-situ measurements with SPATS and a retrievable transmitter (pinger), which was deployed in a depth between 190 and 500 m into the water-filled drilling holes. Even though, the unknown angular-dependent sensitivities of the SPATS sensor channels cannot be avoided and are considered as the dominant systematic effect for these measurements. In this thesis, the acoustic attenuation length is calculated by comparing the energy contents of the pinger pulses recorded by the various SPATS sensor channels for different distances between the pinger and the respective channel. The energy was calculated from the Fourier spectra of the pinger pulses for a frequency range between 5 and 35 kHz. The attenuation coefficient is calculated for each channel individually and the weighted mean over the distribution of all considered channels leads to an attenuation length of 264 +52 -37 m. The dependence of the attenuation on both depth and frequency has been investigated, showing no indications for either. In the second part, a new event reconstruction method based on a Top-Down approach is presented. The method has been implemented for the IC40 detector and applied to the muon energy reconstruction. The Top-Down method is based on the direct comparison of single measured events with a large sample of

  7. On the measurement of high-energetic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino telescope and with acoustic detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunck, Matthias

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, two subjects have been addressed to enhance the detection of astrophysical neutrinos with the existing IceCube neutrino telescope as well as to explore new detection methods, namely the acoustic detection. In the first part of this thesis, the determination of the acoustic attenuation length in South-Pole ice is presented. This is part of a feasibility study to investigate the acoustic neutrino detection as a possibility to enhance the detection of the highest-energy neutrinos. For this, the acoustic properties of the ice have to be known, and the South-Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been built to determine these. The attenuation length is determined using in-situ measurements with SPATS and a retrievable transmitter (pinger), which was deployed in a depth between 190 and 500 m into the water-filled drilling holes. Even though, the unknown angular-dependent sensitivities of the SPATS sensor channels cannot be avoided and are considered as the dominant systematic effect for these measurements. In this thesis, the acoustic attenuation length is calculated by comparing the energy contents of the pinger pulses recorded by the various SPATS sensor channels for different distances between the pinger and the respective channel. The energy was calculated from the Fourier spectra of the pinger pulses for a frequency range between 5 and 35 kHz. The attenuation coefficient is calculated for each channel individually and the weighted mean over the distribution of all considered channels leads to an attenuation length of 264{sup +52} {sub -37} m. The dependence of the attenuation on both depth and frequency has been investigated, showing no indications for either. In the second part, a new event reconstruction method based on a Top-Down approach is presented. The method has been implemented for the IC40 detector and applied to the muon energy reconstruction. The Top-Down method is based on the direct comparison of single measured events with a large sample

  8. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  9. Yearlong moored bioluminescence and current data at KM3NeT neutrino telescope sites in the deep Ionian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; de Jong, M.; Kooijman, P.

    2015-01-01

    Yearlong observations are presented using stand-alone small optical sensors and current meters in the deep Ionian Sea, E-Mediterranean. At two future neutrino telescope sites, off Sicily (I) and off Peloponessos (Gr), we deployed 2500–3000 m long mooring lines with oceanographic instrumentation. At

  10. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  11. Stable isotope geochemistry of deep sea cherts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, Y; Epstein, S [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological Sciences

    1976-10-01

    Seventy four samples of DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) recovered cherts of Jurassic to Miocene age from varying locations, and 27 samples of on-land exposed cherts were analyzed for the isotopic composition of their oxygen and hydrogen. These studies were accompanied by mineralogical analyses and some isotopic analyses of the coexisting carbonates. delta/sup 18/0 of chert ranges between 27 and 39 parts per thousand relative to SMOW, delta/sup 18/0 of porcellanite - between 30 and 42 parts per thousand. The consistent enrichment of opal-CT in porcellanites in /sup 18/0 with respect to coexisting microcrystalline quartz in chert is probably a reflection of a different temperature (depth) of diagenesis of the two phases. delta/sup 18/0 of deep sea cherts generally decrease with increasing age, indicating an overall cooling of the ocean bottom during the last 150 m.y. A comparison of this trend with that recorded by benthonic foraminifera (Douglas et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project; 32:509(1975)) indicates the possibility of delta/sup 18/0 in deep sea cherts not being frozen in until several tens of millions of years after deposition. Cherts of any Age show a spread of delta/sup 18/0 values, increasing diagenesis being reflected in a lowering of delta/sup 18/0. Drusy quartz has the lowest delta/sup 18/0 values. On land exposed cherts are consistently depleted in /sup 18/0 in comparison to their deep sea time equivalent cherts. Water extracted from deep sea cherts ranges between 0.5 and 1.4 wt%. deltaD of this water ranges between -78 and -95 parts per thousand and is not a function of delta/sup 18/0 of the cherts (or the temperature of their formation).

  12. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the southern sky with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-Martí J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A search for cosmic neutrino point-like sources using the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes over the Southern Hemisphere is presented. The ANTARES data were collected between January 2007 and December 2012, whereas the IceCube data ranges from April 2008 to May 2011. An unbinned maximum likelihood method is used to search for a localized excess of muon events in the southern sky assuming an E−2 neutrino source spectrum. A search over a pre-selected list of candidate sources has also been carried out for different source assumptions: spectral indices of 2.0 and 2.5, and energy cutoffs of 1 PeV, 300 TeV and 100 TeV. No significant excess over the background has been found, and upper limits for the candidate sources are presented compared to the individual experiments.

  13. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)

  14. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tayalati, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 "c"i"r"c"l"e for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E"2 . Φ"9"0"% = 4.9 . 10"-"8 GeV . cm"-"2 . s"-"1 . sr"-"1 is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E"-"2 spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  15. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, 077125, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Celli, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Geoazur, UCA, Sophia Antipolis (France); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Eberl, T. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont Universite, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V in Rabat, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (MA)

    2017-06-15

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 {sup circle} for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E{sup 2} . Φ{sup 90%} = 4.9 . 10{sup -8} GeV . cm{sup -2} . s{sup -1} . sr{sup -1} is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E{sup -2} spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  16. Assessing Deep Sea Communities Through Seabed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkin, A. G.; Cross, K.; Milititsky, M.

    2016-02-01

    The deep sea still remains virtually unexplored. Human activity, such as oil and gas exploration and deep sea mining, is expanding further into the deep sea, increasing the need to survey and map extensive areas of this habitat in order to assess ecosystem health and value. The technology needed to explore this remote environment has been advancing. Seabed imagery can cover extensive areas of the seafloor and investigate areas where sampling with traditional coring methodologies is just not possible (e.g. cold water coral reefs). Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are an expensive option, so drop or towed camera systems can provide a more viable and affordable alternative, while still allowing for real-time control. Assessment of seabed imagery in terms of presence, abundance and density of particular species can be conducted by bringing together a variety of analytical tools for a holistic approach. Sixteen deep sea transects located offshore West Africa were investigated with a towed digital video telemetry system (DTS). Both digital stills and video footage were acquired. An extensive data set was obtained from over 13,000 usable photographs, allowing for characterisation of the different habitats present in terms of community composition and abundance. All observed fauna were identified to the lowest taxonomic level and enumerated when possible, with densities derived after the seabed area was calculated for each suitable photograph. This methodology allowed for consistent assessment of the different habitat types present, overcoming constraints, such as specific taxa that cannot be enumerated, such as sponges, corals or bryozoans, the presence of mobile and sessile species, or the level of taxonomic detail. Although this methodology will not enable a full characterisation of a deep sea community, in terms of species composition for instance, itt will allow a robust assessment of large areas of the deep sea in terms of sensitive habitats present and community

  17. Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new phasics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. The measured neutrino flavor parameters pose a challenge to flavor models.

  18. A Moessbauer study of deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Furuta, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to determine the chemical states of iron in deep sea sediments, Moessbauer spectra of the sediments collected from various areas of the Pacific have been measured. The Moessbauer spectra were composed of paramagnetic ferric, high-spin ferrous, and magnetic components. The correlation of their relative abundance to the sampling location and the kind of sediments may afford clues to infer the origin of each iron-bearing phase. (author)

  19. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles ( 3 was observed. •The depths from where these microplastics were recovered range from 1176 to 4843 m. •The sizes of the particles range from 75 to 161 μm at their largest cross-section. -- Here, we demonstrate that microplastics have invaded the marine environment to an extent that they appear to even be present in the remote deep sea

  20. R&D for an innovative acoustic positioning system for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, F.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Bonori, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Calì, C.; D'Amico, A.; Giovanetti, G.; Imbesi, M.; Keller, P.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Masullo, R.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Speziale, F.; Viola, S.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    An innovative Acoustic Positioning System for the km3-scale neutrino telescope has been designed and is under realization within the KM3NeT Consortium. Compared to the Acoustic Positioning Systems used for the km3 demonstrators, ANTARES and NEMO Phase 1, this new system is based on the “all data to shore” concept and it will permit the enhancement of detector positioning performances, reduction of costs and its use as real-time monitor of environmental acoustic noise.

  1. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italy neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarusi, T.; Favaro, M.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2017-10-01

    KM3NeT-Italy is an INFN project that will develop the central part of a submarine cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope in the Ionian Sea, at about 80 km from the Sicilian coast (Italy). It will use hundreds of distributed optical modules to measure the Cherenkov light emitted by high-energy muons, whose signal-to-noise ratio is quite disfavoured. In this contribution the Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) developed for the KM3NeT-Italy detector is presented. The “all data to shore” approach is adopted to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector: at the shore station the TriDAS collects, processes and filters all the data coming from the detector, storing triggered events to a permanent storage for subsequent analysis. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the sea can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the performances of the TriDAS processes and the related network infrastructure.

  2. Notice of Intent to Prepare a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE) for the Construction and Operation of a High-Energy Neutrino Telescope (Project Ice Cube) at the South Pole

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Request for comments from the NSF for a proposed project to construct and operate a high-energy neutrino telescope at the South Pole. The proposed telescope would be a second-generation instrument based on the successful evolution of a smaller neutrino telescope at the South Pole (1 page).

  3. Optical radiation background from 40K decays in undersea neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, F.

    2002-01-01

    The photon flux produced by light sources uniformly distributed in an infinite homogeneous medium is calculated on the basis of a known property of light propagation, taking into account the contribution of both absorption and scattering processes. The results are applied to the issue of the decays of 40 K content in sea salt and then to the rates detected by photomultipliers deployed in the deep sea. Numerical calculations are in agreement with the recent measurements performed in the Mediterranean Sea by the ANTARES and NEMO Collaborations. (orig.)

  4. Constraints on the neutrino emission from the Galactic Ridge with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, C.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    A highly significant excess of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of IceCube events hint at a North/South asymmetry of the neutrino flux. This could be due to the presence of the bulk of our

  5. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, S.

    2004-09-01

    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v μ , cm -2 can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v μ per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  6. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, ...

  7. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal

  8. The dynamics of biogeographic ranges in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Craig R; Hardy, Sarah Mincks

    2010-12-07

    Anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, mining, oil drilling, bioprospecting, warming, and acidification in the deep sea are increasing, yet generalities about deep-sea biogeography remain elusive. Owing to the lack of perceived environmental variability and geographical barriers, ranges of deep-sea species were traditionally assumed to be exceedingly large. In contrast, seamount and chemosynthetic habitats with reported high endemicity challenge the broad applicability of a single biogeographic paradigm for the deep sea. New research benefiting from higher resolution sampling, molecular methods and public databases can now more rigorously examine dispersal distances and species ranges on the vast ocean floor. Here, we explore the major outstanding questions in deep-sea biogeography. Based on current evidence, many taxa appear broadly distributed across the deep sea, a pattern replicated in both the abyssal plains and specialized environments such as hydrothermal vents. Cold waters may slow larval metabolism and development augmenting the great intrinsic ability for dispersal among many deep-sea species. Currents, environmental shifts, and topography can prove to be dispersal barriers but are often semipermeable. Evidence of historical events such as points of faunal origin and climatic fluctuations are also evident in contemporary biogeographic ranges. Continued synthetic analysis, database construction, theoretical advancement and field sampling will be required to further refine hypotheses regarding deep-sea biogeography.

  9. Ion transport in deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Initial assessment of the ability of deep-sea clays to contain nuclear waste is optimistic. Yet, the investigators have no delusions about the complexity of the natural geochemical system and the perturbations that may result from emplacement of thermally-hot waste cannisters. Even though they may never be able to predict the exact nature of all these perturbations, containment of the nuclides by the waste form/cannister system until most of the heat has decayed, and burial of the waste to a sufficient depth that the altered zone can be treated as a black box source of dissolved nuclides to the enclosing unperturbed sediment, encourage them to believe that ion migration in the deep seabed can be modeled accurately and that our preliminary estimates of migration rates are likely to be reasonably realistic

  10. Extreme Longevity in Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Fallon, S J; Mucciarone, D A

    2009-02-09

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins world-wide at depths of 300 to {approx}3000 meters. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age date from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes glaberrima show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 {micro}m yr{sup -1} and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The management and conservation of deep sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea ecosystems.

  11. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments

  12. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments.

  13. Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

    We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

  14. Nuclear wastes beneath the deep sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hollister, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    Projections of energy demands for the year 2000 show that nuclear power will likely be one of our energy sources. But the benefits of nuclear power must be balanced against the drawbacks of its by-product: high-level wastes. While it may become possible to completely destroy or eliminate these wastes, it is at least equally possible that we may have to dispose of them on earth in such a way as to assure their isolation from man for periods of the order of a million years. Undersea regions in the middle of tectonic plates and in the approximate center of major current gyres offer some conceptual promise for waste disposal because of their geologic stability and comparatively low organic productivity. The advantages of this concept and the types of detailed information needed for its accurate assessment are discussed. The technical feasibility of permanent disposal beneath the deep sea floor cannot be accurately assessed with present knowledge, and there is a need for a thorough study of the types and rates of processes that affect this part of the earth's surface. Basic oceanographic research aimed at understanding these processes is yielding answers that apply to this societal need. (U.S.)

  15. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array : Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, IceCube; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; André, J. P. A. M. de; Clercq, C. De; Rosendo, E. del Pino; Dembinski, H.; Ridder, S. De; Desiati, P.; Vries, K. D. de; Wasseige, G. de; With, M. de; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Lorenzo, V. di; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C. -C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Heros, C. Pérez de los; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H. -G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Vanheule, S.; Santen, J. van; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; Collaboration, Pierre Auger; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; García-Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Hervé, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. W. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Coz, S. Le; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Carvalho, W. Rodrigues de; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Gomez, J. D. Sanabria; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tibolla, O.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Velzen, S. van; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Collaboration, Telescope Array; Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube

  16. New constraints on all flavor Galactic diffuse neutrino emission with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.; Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.

    2017-01-01

    The flux of very high-energy neutrinos produced in our Galaxy by the interaction of accelerated cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is not yet determined. The characterization of this flux will shed light on Galactic accelerator features, gas distribution morphology and Galactic cosmic ray

  17. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, I.; Andre, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhofer, A.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Geisselsoder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Muller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Perrina, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schussler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallee, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.; Zuniga, J.; the ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma

  18. Deep-Sea Corals: A New Oceanic Archive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Jess

    1998-01-01

    Deep-sea corals are an extraordinary new archive of deep ocean behavior. The species Desmophyllum cristagalli is a solitary coral composed of uranium rich, density banded aragonite that I have calibrated for several paleoclimate tracers...

  19. Deep Sea Coral National Observation Database, Northeast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The national database of deep sea coral observations. Northeast version 1.0. * This database was developed by the NOAA NOS NCCOS CCMA Biogeography office as part of...

  20. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamare Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  1. Deep-sea impact experiments and their future requirements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    In recent years, several experiments to assess the potential impacts due to deep-sea mining in the Pacific as well as the Indian Oceans have indicated the immediate changes and restoration patterns of environmental conditions in the marine ecosystem...

  2. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  3. Diversity and adaptations of deep-sea microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    -tolerant enzymes, natural products of potential use in human health management and environmental bioremediation using solvent-tolerant microorganisms are some of the potential biotechnological applications of these deep-sea microbes....

  4. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  5. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board

  6. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal methods which exist in on-land mining and the coastal mining fields, a new tailings disposal procedure, i.e., the submarine–backfill–dam–reuse (SBDR) tailings disposal procedure, is proposed. It com...

  7. Challenging oil bioremediation at deep-sea hydrostatic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Scoma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (biotechnology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons at deep-sea remain unanswered, as much as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil take up are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled-oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar and that of hydrocarbons degradation rates was largely overlooked, as the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea, despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation.

  8. U.V. repair in deep-sea bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, L.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of cells to light of less than 320 nanometers wavelengths may lead to lethal lesions and perhaps carcinogenesis. Many organisms have evolved mechanisms to repair U.V. light-induced damage. Organisms such as deep-sea bacteria are presumably never exposed to U.V. light and perhaps occasionally to visible from bioluminescence. Thus, the repair of U.V. damage in deep-sea bacterial DNA might be inefficient and repair by photoreactivation unlikely. The bacteria utilized in this investigation are temperature sensitive and barophilic. Four deep-sea isolates were chosen for this study: PE-36 from 3584 m, CNPT-3 from 5782 m, HS-34 from 5682 m, and MT-41 from 10,476 m, all are from the North Pacific ocean. The deep-sea extends from 1100 m to depths greater than 7000 m. It is a region of relatively uniform conditions. The temperature ranges from 5 to -1 0 C. There is no solar light in the deep-sea. Deep-sea bacteria are sensitive to U.V. light; in fact more sensitive than a variety of terrestrial and sea-surface bacteria. All four isolates demonstrate thymine dimer repair. Photoreactivation was observed in only MT-41. The other strains from shallower depths displayed no photoreactivation. The presence of DNA sequences homologous to the rec A, uvr A, B, and C and phr genes of E. coli have been examined by Southern hybridization techniques

  9. Secluded Dark Matter search in the Sun with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Adrián-Martínez, S

    2014-01-01

    Models where Dark Matter (DM) is secluded from the Standard Model via a mediator have increased their presence during the last decade to explain some experimental observations. This is a special scenario where DM, which would gravitationally accumulate in sources like the Sun, the Earth or the Galactic Centre, is annihilated into a non-standard Model mediator which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles, two co-linear muons for example. As the lifetime of the mediator could be large enough, its decay may occur in the vicinity of the Earth and the resulting SM particles could be detected. In this work we will describe the analysis for secluded dark matter coming from the Sun with ANTARES in three different cases: a) detection of di-muons that result of the mediator decay, or neutrino detection from: b) mediator that decays into di-muon and, in turn, into neutrinos, and c) mediator that directly decays into neutrinos. Sensitivities and results of the analysis for each case will be presented.

  10. Characterization of optical properties of the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes-Ramírez, H.

    2013-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino detector based on a three-dimensional grid of photomultipliers tubes (PMT's) arranged in several detection lines anchored to the seabed at depth of 2.5 km in the Mediterranean Sea (40 km off the Toulon coast in France), its main physics goal is the reconstruction and identification of high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. The PMT's register the Cherenkov light induced by relativistic charged leptons produced by the interaction of neutrinos with material in the detector surroundings. The propagation of Cherenkov light strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, the understanding of which is crucial in order to achieve the expected detector performance. To reach the ANTARES physics goals, good time and positioning calibration systems are required. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of a set of pulsed light sources strategically located throughout the detector. The system is mainly used for time calibration but can also be used as a tool to study the water optical properties and their stability. In this contribution we will present the current status of our measurements of the group velocity and transmission length of light carried out between 2008 and 2011. A set of water models strategically defined will be discussed as well as some preliminary results concerning track reconstruction parameters

  11. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the very high-energy cosmic rays. Neutrinos and gamma rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. Moreover, blazars generally show high time variability in their light curves at different wavelengths and on various time scales. This paper presents a time-dependent analysis applied to a selection of flaring gamma-ray blazars observed by the FERMI/LAT experiment and by TeV Cherenkov telescopes using five years of ANTARES data taken from 2008 to 2012. The results are compatible with fluctuations of the background. Upper limits on the neutrino fluence have been produced and compared to the measured gamma-ray spectral energy distribution.

  12. Study of the sensibility of the Antares neutrino telescope to very high energy photons: Contribution to the time calibration of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillard, G.

    2010-10-01

    From the sea-floor, the 900-odd photomultiplier tubes of the Antares neutrino telescope scrutinize the abysses attempting to discern, amid bioluminescence and marine radioactivity, Cerenkov photons emitted by muons from astrophysical neutrinos, and to distinguish these muons from those generated by air showers produced by cosmic rays. Antares has been collecting data since 2006; this feat of engineering has paved the way for submarine neutrino astronomy: Antares is expected to be the forerunner of a larger instrument, KM3NeT. Telescope's performance is characterized in part by its angular resolution. In the case of Antares, the angular resolution is directly related to the time resolution of the detector's elements. This manuscript presents a correction for one of the main sources of deterioration of this time resolution, the walk effect induced by the set up of a fixed threshold for triggering the photomultiplier tubes signal. This correction, implemented in the official software chain of the Antares collaboration, improves in particular the events reconstruction quality estimator. This implementation allows further optimizations. The author also attempts to evaluate, using a complete Monte-Carlo simulation, the possibility of using very high energy photon sources as calibrated muon beams in order to estimate the absolute pointing and the angular resolution of the telescope. Although limited by large uncertainties, it is demonstrated that the possibility to detect such sources is extremely small. In addition, it is shown that the atmospheric neutrino background induced by very high-energy photons is negligible. (author)

  13. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  14. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  15. The biomass of the deep-sea benthopelagic plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishner, K. F.

    1980-04-01

    Deep-sea benthopelagic plankton samples were collected with a specially designed opening-closing net system 10 to 100 m above the bottom in five different oceanic regions at depths from 1000 to 4700 m. Benthopelagic plankton biomasses decrease exponentially with depth. At 1000 m the biomass is about 1% that of the surface zooplankton, at 5000 m about 0.1%. Effects of differences in surface primary productivity on deep-sea plankton biomass are much less than the effect of depth and are detectable only in a few comparisons of extreme oceanic regions. The biomass at 10 m above the bottom is greater than that at 100 m above the bottom (in a three-sample comparison), which could be a consequence of an enriched near-bottom environment. The deep-sea plankton biomass in the Red Sea is anomalously low. This may be due to increased decomposition rates in the warm (22°C) deep Red Sea water, which prevent much detritus from reaching the deep sea. A model of organic carbon utilization in the benthic boundary layer (bottom 100 m), incorporating results from deep-sea sediment trap and respiration studies, indicates that the benthopelagic plankton use only a small amount of the organic carbon flux. A large fraction of the flux is unaccounted for by present estimates of benthic and benthopelagic respiration.

  16. 40Ar/39Ar studies of deep sea igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidemann, D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to date deep-sea igneous rocks reliably was made using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique. It was determined that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental release technique could not be used to eliminate the effects of excess radiogenic 40 Ar in deep-sea basalts. Excess 40 Ar is released throughout the extraction temperature range and cannot be distinguished from 40 Ar generated by in situ 40 K decay. The problem of the reduction of K-Ar dates associated with sea water alteration of deep-sea igneous rocks could not be resolved using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar technique. Irradiation induced 39 Ar loss and/or redistribution in fine-grained and altered igneous rocks results in age spectra that are artifacts of the experimental procedure and only partly reflect the geologic history of the sample. Therefore, caution must be used in attributing significance to age spectra of fine grained and altered deep-sea igneous rocks. Effects of 39 Ar recoil are not important for either medium-grained (or coarser) deep-sea rocks or glasses because only a small fraction of the 39 Ar recoils to channels of easy diffusion, such as intergranular boundaries or cracks, during the irradiation. (author)

  17. Deep-sea coral research and technology program: Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Chris; Stone, Robert P.; Etnoyer, Peter; Conrath, Christina; Reynolds, Jennifer; Greene, H. Gary; Williams, Branwen; Salgado, Enrique; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Waller, Rhian G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems are widespread throughout most of Alaska’s marine waters. In some places, such as the central and western Aleutian Islands, deep-sea coral and sponge resources can be extremely diverse and may rank among the most abundant deep-sea coral and sponge communities in the world. Many different species of fishes and invertebrates are associated with deep-sea coral and sponge communities in Alaska. Because of their biology, these benthic invertebrates are potentially impacted by climate change and ocean acidification. Deepsea coral and sponge ecosystems are also vulnerable to the effects of commercial fishing activities. Because of the size and scope of Alaska’s continental shelf and slope, the vast majority of the area has not been visually surveyed for deep-sea corals and sponges. NOAA’s Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program (DSCRTP) sponsored a field research program in the Alaska region between 2012–2015, referred to hereafter as the Alaska Initiative. The priorities for Alaska were derived from ongoing data needs and objectives identified by the DSCRTP, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), and Essential Fish Habitat-Environmental Impact Statement (EFH-EIS) process.This report presents the results of 15 projects conducted using DSCRTP funds from 2012-2015. Three of the projects conducted as part of the Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative included dedicated at-sea cruises and fieldwork spread across multiple years. These projects were the eastern Gulf of Alaska Primnoa pacifica study, the Aleutian Islands mapping study, and the Gulf of Alaska fish productivity study. In all, there were nine separate research cruises carried out with a total of 109 at-sea days conducting research. The remaining projects either used data and samples collected by the three major fieldwork projects or were piggy-backed onto existing research programs at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC).

  18. Signal classification for acoustic neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, M.; Anton, G.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Graf, K.; Hößl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Richardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on signal classification for deep-sea acoustic neutrino detection. In the deep sea, the background of transient signals is very diverse. Approaches like matched filtering are not sufficient to distinguish between neutrino-like signals and other transient signals with similar signature, which are forming the acoustic background for neutrino detection in the deep-sea environment. A classification system based on machine learning algorithms is analysed with the goal to find a robust and effective way to perform this task. For a well-trained model, a testing error on the level of 1% is achieved for strong classifiers like Random Forest and Boosting Trees using the extracted features of the signal as input and utilising dense clusters of sensors instead of single sensors.

  19. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, The IceCube; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. -H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; André, J. P. A. M. de; Clercq, C. De; Rosendo, E. del Pino; Dembinski, H.; Ridder, S. De; Desiati, P.; Vries, K. D. de; Wasseige, G. de; With, M. de; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Lorenzo, V. di; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C. -C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Heros, C. Pérez de los; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H. -G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Vanheule, S.; Santen, J. van; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Collaboration, M. Zoll The Pierre Auger; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. C. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Debatin, J.; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Carvalho, W. Rodrigues de; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Gomez, J. D. Sanabria; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strafella, F.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Collaboration, F. Zuccarello The Telescope Array; Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of

  20. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Gomez

    Full Text Available Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna. Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and

  1. Long-term measurements of acoustic background noise in very deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2009-01-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km E offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater laboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an underwater high energy neutrino km 3 -scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this framework the Collaboration deployed and successfully operated for about two years, starting from January 2005, an experimental apparatus for on-line monitoring of deep-sea noise. The station was equipped with four hydrophones and it is operational in the range 30 Hz-43 kHz. This interval of frequencies matches the range suitable for the proposed acoustic detection technique of high energy neutrinos. Hydrophone signals were digitized underwater at 96 kHz sampling frequency and 24 bits resolution. The stored data library, consisting of more than 2000 h of recordings, is a unique tool to model underwater acoustic noise at large depth, to characterize its variations as a function of environmental parameters, biological sources and human activities (ship traffic, etc.), and to determine the presence of cetaceans in the area.

  2. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    The final report describes the general biology and ecology of the 15 holothurians, 3 asteroids, 2 zoanthids and 1 crustacea species studied in Reports I-XIII, the sampling methods used and the station data. A summary of the histological, histochemical and biochemical results for the species examined is given. The data suggest that the reproductive processes in the deep-sea species examined are highly unlikely to be part of a pathway for the transfer of radionuclides from the deep-sea back to man. (author)

  3. Bipolar gene flow in deep-sea benthic foraminifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, J.; Fahrni, J.; Lecroq, B.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its often featureless appearance, the deep-ocean floor includes some of the most diverse habitats on Earth. However, the accurate assessment of global deep-sea diversity is impeded by a paucity of data on the geographical ranges of bottom-dwelling species, particularly at the genetic leve...

  4. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria: Comparison between coastal and deep sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biche, S.; Pandey, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    in the CIB sediments (r=0.59) than in the coastal sediments (r= 0.22). It is apparent that the enzyme activity in the coastal sediments could be more for P mobilization and in the oligotrophic deep sea it could be both for P and C mobilization....

  5. Fungi and macroaggregation in deep-sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Raghukumar, C.

    Whereas fungi in terrestrial soils have been well studied, little is known of them in deep-sea sediments. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of fungal hyphae in such sediments but in low abundance. We present evidence in this study...

  6. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  7. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is ...

  8. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services becomes apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses that are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary for fueling surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a wealth of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown that has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and timescales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, which covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a variety of ways; however, the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society. In

  9. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki

    2016-01-01

    in 39 deep-sea sediment samples from bathyal and abyssal depths worldwide. The eDNA dataset was dominated by meiobenthic taxa and we identified all animal phyla commonly found in the deep-sea benthos; yet, the diversity within these phyla remains largely unknown. The large numbers of taxonomically...... for pure and applied deep-sea environmental research but also emphasizes the necessity to integrate such new approaches with traditional morphology-based examination of deep-sea organisms....

  11. Monitoring the impact of simulated deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.; Jaisankar, S.

    Monitoring the Impact of Simulated Deep-sea Mining in Central Indian Basin R. SHARMA, B. NAGENDER NATH, AND S. JAI SANKAR National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Monitoring of deep-sea disturbances, natural or man-made, has gained... has shown a partial recovery of the benthic ecosystem, with indications of restoration and recolonization. Keywords deep-sea mining, environmental impact, Central Indian Basin Deep-sea mineral deposits such as the polymetallic nodules and crusts...

  12. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  13. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array: Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; et al.

    2015-11-06

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube `high-energy starting events' sample and the other with 16 high-energy `track events'. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned over. The same events are also used in a separate search using a maximum likelihood approach, after the neutrino arrival directions are stacked. To estimate the significance we assume UHECR magnetic deflections to be inversely proportional to their energy, with values $3^\\circ$, $6^\\circ$ and $9^\\circ$ at 100 EeV to allow for the uncertainties on the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube sample of through-going muon track events which were optimized for neutrino point-source searches.

  14. Indian deep-sea environment experiment (INDEX): Monitoring the restoration of marine enviroment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    the restoration of marine environment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin Guest Editor Rahul Sharma Note from guest editor A special issue on Indian Deep-sea Environment Experiment (INDEX) conducted by the scientists... in Geochemical Associations in Artificially Disturbed Deep-Sea Sediments B. Nagender Nath, G. Parthiban, S. Banaulikar, and Subhadeep Sarkar Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 24:61–62, 2006 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1064-119X print/1521...

  15. Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA): Combined Imaging Observation of Astroparticles — For Clear Identification of Cosmic Accelerators and Fundamental Physics Using Cosmic Beams —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kifune, Tadashi

    In VHEPA (very high energy particle astronomy) 2014 workshop, focused on the next generation explorers for the origin of cosmic rays, held in Kashiwa, Japan, reviewing and discussions were presented on the status of the observation of GeV-TeV photons, TeV-PeV neutrinos, EeV-ZeV hadrons, test of interaction models with Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and theoretical aspects of astrophysics. The acceleration sites of hadrons, i.e., sources of PeV-EeV cosmic rays, should exist in the universe within the GZK-horizon even in the remotest case. We also affirmed that the hadron acceleration mechanism correlates with cosmic ray composition so that it is important to investigate the acceleration mechanism in relevance to the composition survey at PeV-EeV energy. We regard that LHC and astrophysics theories are ready to be used to probe into hadron acceleration mechanism in the universe. Recently, IceCube has reported detection of three events of neutrinos with energies around 1 PeV and additional events at lower energies, which significantly deviate from the expected level of background events. It is necessary to observe GeV-TeV photon, EeV-ZeV hadron and TeV-PeV neutrino all together, in order to understand hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the PeV-EeV energy region. It is required to make a step further toward exploring the PeV-EeV universe with high accuracy and high statistics observations for both neutrinos and gamma rays simultaneously, by using the instrument such as Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA). Wide and fine survey of gamma-rays and neutrinos with simultaneously detecting Cherenkov and fluorescence light with NTA will guide us to a new intriguing stage of recognizing astronomical objects and non-thermal phenomena in ultra-high energy region, in addition, new aspect about the fundamental concepts of physics beyond our presently limited understanding; the longstanding problem of cosmic ray origin, the radiation mechanism of gamma-rays, neutrino and

  16. Sorption of americium and neptunium by deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Rees, L.V.C.; Cronan, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption and desorption of americium and neptunium by a wide range of deep-sea sediments from natural sea water at 4 0 C has been studied using a carefully controlled batch technique. All the sediments studied should form an excellent barrier to the migration of americium since distribution coefficients were uniformly greater than 10 5 and the sorption-desorption reaction may not be reversible. The sorption of neptunium was reversible and, except for one red clay, the distribution coefficients were greater than 10 3 for all the sediments investigated. Nevertheless the migration of neptunium should also be effectively retarded by most deep-sea sediments even under relatively oxidizing conditions. The neptunium in solution remained in the V oxidation state throughout the experiments. Under the experimental conditions used colloidal americium was trapped by the sediment and solubility did not seem to be the controlling factor in the desorption of americium. (Auth.)

  17. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  18. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  19. Modelling neutrino and gamma-ray fluxes in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J; Cassam-Chenai, G; Maurin, G; Naumann, C

    2008-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to accelerate charged particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and to produce the majority of galactic cosmic rays, at least up to the 'knee' at 3-10 15 electron volts. In the framework of a hydrodynamic self-similar simulation of the evolution of young supernova remnants, its interaction with the ambient matter as well as the microwave and infrared background is studied. The photon spectra resulting from synchrotron and inverse Compton emission as well as from hadronic processes are calculated, as are the accompanying neutrino fluxes. Applying this method to the particular case of the SNR RXJ-1713, 7-3946, we find that its TeV emission can in principle be explained by pion decay if the ambient density is assumed to grow with increasing distance from the centre. The neutrino flux associated with this hadronic model is of a magnitude that may be detectable by a cubic-kilometre sized deep-sea neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. In this poster, a description of the supernova remnant simulation is given together with the results concerning RXJ-1713.

  20. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bienhold

    Full Text Available Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  1. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  2. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  3. Research on the usage of a deep sea fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsubo, Akira; Kowata, Yasuki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-09-01

    Many new types of fast reactors have been studied in PNC. A deep sea fast reactor has the highest realization probability of the reactors studied because its development is desired by many specialists of oceanography, meteorology, deep sea bottom oil field, seismology and so on and because the development does not cost big budget and few technical problems remain to be solved. This report explains the outline and the usage of the reactor of 40 kWe and 200 to 400 kWe. The reactor can be used as a power source at an unmanned base for long term climate prediction and the earth science and an oil production base in a deep sea region. On the other hand, it is used for heat and electric power supply to a laboratory in the polar region. In future, it will be used in the space. At the present time, a large FBR development plan does not proceed successfully and a realization goal time of FBR has gone later and later. We think that it is the most important to develop the reactor as fast as possible and to plant a fast reactor technique in our present society. (author)

  4. ANTARES: An underwater neutrino observatory for the exploration of both the deep Ocean and the deep Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a new and unique method to explore the Universe. It is full of promises, such as improving our knowledge on cosmic accelerators or distinguishing unambiguously between hadronic and electronic acceleration mechanisms of very high energy cosmic rays. In this document the issues of neutrino astronomy are introduced and an overview of current and former neutrino telescopes is given, with a description of the performance results expected from the ANTARES underwater detector. My research path is marked by contributions to the detector calibration and by studies of the trigger system with the development of a new data selection algorithm. The potential for discovery of the ANTARES telescope is then illustrated with two analyses, one dedicated to the research of high-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursters and the other dedicated to the search for magnetic monopoles. Within this dissertation, I also discuss the opportunity offered by a submarine detector to understand the deep-sea environment. Indeed, ANTARES is a multidisciplinary, permanent marine observatory bringing its brick to the edifice of the global understanding of physical phenomena and biological oceanography in the context of global changes. I illustrate these remarks with studies on marine bioluminescence observed by ANTARES and its connection to the dense water formation originating from the Gulf of Lion. (author)

  5. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L. eversa by Zhang et al. (2016). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Observations of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Occurrences from the NOAA National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database, 1842-Present (NCEI Accession 0145037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA’s Deep-Sea Coral Research and Technology Program (DSC-RTP) compiles a national database of the known locations of deep-sea corals and sponges in U.S....

  7. Study of the sensibility of the Antares neutrino telescope to very high energy photons: Contribution to the time calibration of the detector; Etude de la sensibilite du telescope a neutrinos Antares aux photons de tres haute energie: Contribution a l'etalonnage en temps du detecteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, G.

    2010-10-15

    From the sea-floor, the 900-odd photomultiplier tubes of the Antares neutrino telescope scrutinize the abysses attempting to discern, amid bioluminescence and marine radioactivity, Cerenkov photons emitted by muons from astrophysical neutrinos, and to distinguish these muons from those generated by air showers produced by cosmic rays. Antares has been collecting data since 2006; this feat of engineering has paved the way for submarine neutrino astronomy: Antares is expected to be the forerunner of a larger instrument, KM3NeT. Telescope's performance is characterized in part by its angular resolution. In the case of Antares, the angular resolution is directly related to the time resolution of the detector's elements. This manuscript presents a correction for one of the main sources of deterioration of this time resolution, the walk effect induced by the set up of a fixed threshold for triggering the photomultiplier tubes signal. This correction, implemented in the official software chain of the Antares collaboration, improves in particular the events reconstruction quality estimator. This implementation allows further optimizations. The author also attempts to evaluate, using a complete Monte-Carlo simulation, the possibility of using very high energy photon sources as calibrated muon beams in order to estimate the absolute pointing and the angular resolution of the telescope. Although limited by large uncertainties, it is demonstrated that the possibility to detect such sources is extremely small. In addition, it is shown that the atmospheric neutrino background induced by very high-energy photons is negligible. (author)

  8. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the "naked-eye" GRB 080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the ......V and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events....

  9. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line; Etude de la production de neutrinos associes aux Sursauts Gamma dans le modele du Boulet de canon: possibilite d'observation de ces neutrinos par le detecteur ANTARES, et etude du bruit de fond optique enregistre par le prototype d'un secteur de ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, S

    2004-09-15

    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v{sub {mu}}, cm{sup -2} can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v{sub {mu}} per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  10. Deep-sea Lebensspuren of the Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Dundas, Kate; Radke, Lynda; Anderson, Tara J.

    Much of the deep sea comprises soft-sediment habitats dominated by comparatively low abundances of species-rich macrofauna and meiofauna. Although often not observed, these animals bioturbate the sediment during feeding and burrowing, leaving signs of their activities called Lebensspuren ('life traces'). In this study, we use still images to quantify Lebensspuren from the eastern (1921 images, 13 stations, 1300-2200 m depth) and western (1008 images, 11 stations, 1500-4400 m depth) Australian margins using a univariate measure of trace richness and a multivariate measure of Lebensspuren assemblages. A total of 46 Lebensspuren types were identified, including those matching named trace fossils and modern Lebensspuren found elsewhere in the world. Most traces could be associated with waste, crawling, dwellings, organism tests, feeding, or resting, but the origin of 15% of trace types remains unknown. Assemblages were significantly different between the two regions and depth profiles, with five Lebensspuren types accounting for over 95% of the differentiation (ovoid pinnate trace, crater row, spider trace, matchstick trace, mesh trace). Lebensspuren richness showed no strong relationships with depth, total organic carbon, or mud, although there was a positive correlation to chlorin index (i.e., organic freshness) in the eastern margin, with richness increasing with organic freshness. Lebensspuren richness was not related to epifauna either, indicating that epifauna may not be the primary source of Lebensspuren. Despite the abundance and distinctiveness of several traces both in the current and previous studies (e.g., ovoid pinnate, mesh, spider), their origin and distribution remains a mystery. We discuss this and several other considerations in the identification and quantification of Lebensspuren. This study represents the first comprehensive catalogue of deep-sea Lebensspuren in Australian waters and highlights the potential of Lebensspuren as valuable and often

  11. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  12. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  13. Deep sea AUV navigation using multiple acoustic beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Da-xiong; Song, Wei; Zhao, Hong-yu; Liu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Navigation is a critical requirement for the operation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). To estimate the vehicle position, we present an algorithm using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to integrate dead-reckoning position with acoustic ranges from multiple beacons pre-deployed in the operating environment. Owing to high latency, variable sound speed multipath transmissions and unreliability in acoustic measurements, outlier recognition techniques are proposed as well. The navigation algorithm has been tested by the recorded data of deep sea AUV during field operations in a variety of environments. Our results show the improved performance over prior techniques based on position computation.

  14. Turbidites and Benthic Faunal Succession in the Deep Sea: An Ecological Paradox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, David

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of benthic faunal succession following turbidity flows in the deep sea will vary according to the composition of turbidite materials, the spatial scales of deposition, the structure...

  15. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  16. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, growth rate, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and growth estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.

  17. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  18. Deep sea mega-geomorphology: Progress and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, marine geologists have always worked with mega-scale morphology. This is a consequence both of the scale of the ocean basins and of the low resolution of the observational remote sensing tools available until very recently. In fact, studies of deep sea morphology have suffered from a serious gap in observational scale. Traditional wide-beam echo sounding gave images on a scale of miles, while deep sea photography has been limited to scales of a few tens of meters. Recent development of modern narrow-beam echo sounding coupled with computer-controlled swath mapping systems, and development of high-resolution deep-towed side-scan sonar, are rapidly filling in the scale gap. These technologies also can resolve morphologic detail on a scale of a few meters or less. As has also been true in planetary imaging projects, the ability to observe phenomena over a range of scales has proved very effective in both defining processes and in placing them in proper context.

  19. Magnetically tunable oil droplet lens of deep-sea shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, M.; Hirota, N.; Oba, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the tunable properties of a bio-lens from a deep-sea shrimp were investigated for the first time using magnetic fields. The skin of the shrimp exhibited a brilliantly colored reflection of incident white light. The light reflecting parts and the oil droplets in the shrimp's skin were observed in a glass slide sample cell using a digital microscope that operated in the bore of two superconducting magnets (maximum strengths of 5 and 13 T). In the ventral skin of the shrimp, which contained many oil droplets, some comparatively large oil droplets (50 to 150 μm in diameter) were present. A distinct response to magnetic fields was found in these large oil droplets. Further, the application of the magnetic fields to the sample cell caused a change in the size of the oil droplets. The phenomena observed in this work indicate that the oil droplets of deep sea shrimp can act as lenses in which the optical focusing can be modified via the application of external magnetic fields. The results of this study will make it possible to fabricate bio-inspired soft optical devices in future.

  20. Deep Sea Coral voucher sequence dataset - Identification of deep-sea corals collected during the 2009 - 2014 West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project resides in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Database. Deep-sea corals are often components of trawling bycatch, though their...

  1. Preparatory Study of Photomultiplier Tubes of 10-inch and 3-inch Diameter for KM3NeT Underwater Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consists of a photodetector enclosed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. KM3NeT collaboration aims to construct an underwater 'hybrid' neutrino telescope by using two models detection unit. The 'tower' detection unit will be composed of large area 10-inch photomultipliers tube enclosed into 13-inch glass vessel sphere. In the 'string' detection unit instead, the light detector will be the 'digital optical module' (DOM) a glass vessel of 17-inch with 31 photomultipliers of 3- inch diameter looking upwards and downwards. The choice of two different kinds of photomultipliers, obliges us to investigate their main characteristics. Noise pulses at the anode of each photomultiplier strongly affect the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses, and after-pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass vessels was also studied. Moreover the presence of the Earth's magnetic field should modify quantities like gain and transit time spread in photomultipliers and we will deeply investigate on this. (authors)

  2. NOAA National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database 1842-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Deep-Sea Coral Research and Technology Program (DSC-RTP) is compiling a national geodatabase of the known locations of deep-sea corals and sponges in U.S....

  3. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  4. An oceanographic model for the dispersion of wastes disposed of in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report reviews the present knowledge of oceanic processes by which substances might be transferred from a deep-sea dump site back to man or his food chain and recommends pragmatic ways to calculate such transfers in order that deep-sea dumping of contaminants may be regulated effectively. The recommendations as to the currently most appropriate models are given

  5. An interactive end-user software application for a deep-sea photographic database

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaisankar, S.; Sharma, R.

    . The software is the first of its kind in deep-sea applications and it also attempts to educate the user about deep-sea photography. The application software is developed by modifying established routines and by creating new routines to save the retrieved...

  6. Deep-sea disposal: Protecting fish and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The definition of radioactive waste unsuitable for dumping at sea is based on the protection of man. See IAEA Safety Series No. 78. The development of criteria for assessing the impact on deep sea marine organisms at the population level has been attempted in a report recently published by the IAEA. See IAEA Technical Reports Series, No. 228 (1988). The report indicates that certain radionuclides may give rise to high dose rates to marine organisms if dumping is carried out with the assumptions of instantaneous release at the sea floor and dumping over long periods of time. In the report, a hypothetical dose rate to molluscs from zinc-65, which poses no significant harm to man, has the potential for giving high doses to bottom-dwelling molluscs

  7. Dynamics of a deep-sea cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, V.I.; Koshkin, V.L.; Serpak, I.O.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of the dynamics of a deep-sea cable system consisting of branches of constant and variable length, interacting with an undercurrent which is variable in depth and direction. We construct a mathematical model for the motion of the element of the cable system. The cables are modeled as inextensible, flexible filaments of variable length. For numerical realization of the problem, we suggest special regularizing transformations of the variables, making it possible (without additional simplifications) to take into account all the characteristic features of the motion of the filaments and to avoid difficulties in the integration of the equations of motion connected with the variability of the length of the branches of the cable system. The proposed mathematical model and the technique for its numerical analysis is applicable for the investigation of the dynamics of a complex for mining minerals from the ocean floor

  8. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  9. Consolidation properties and stress history of some deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.; Jordan, S.A.

    1983-09-01

    This paper summarizes results of 180 consolidation tests on samples from 52 cores taken with a variety of samplers in deep sea regimes of the North Western Atlantic and North Central Pacific. Most of the samplers were of large cross sectional area (over 10-cm dia) and attention was given to improving field techniques and reducing structural disturbance to the sediments. Good quality samples have been recovered to depths in excess of 25 m in several locations. The sediments were primarily fine-grained clays and silty clays with the predominant clay mineral being illite; however, the presence of smectite and calcium carbonate in some samples had significant influence on the properties. 34 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  10. Deep-Sea Microbes: Linking Biogeochemical Rates to -Omics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndl, G. J.; Sintes, E.; Bayer, B.; Bergauer, K.; Amano, C.; Hansman, R.; Garcia, J.; Reinthaler, T.

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade substantial progress has been made in determining deep ocean microbial activity and resolving some of the enigmas in understanding the deep ocean carbon flux. Also, metagenomics approaches have shed light onto the dark ocean's microbes but linking -omics approaches to biogeochemical rate measurements are generally rare in microbial oceanography and even more so for the deep ocean. In this presentation, we will show by combining metagenomics, -proteomics and biogeochemical rate measurements on the bulk and single-cell level that deep-sea microbes exhibit characteristics of generalists with a large genome repertoire, versatile in utilizing substrate as revealed by metaproteomics. This is in striking contrast with the apparently rather uniform dissolved organic matter pool in the deep ocean. Combining the different -omics approaches with metabolic rate measurements, we will highlight some major inconsistencies and enigmas in our understanding of the carbon cycling and microbial food web structure in the dark ocean.

  11. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  12. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  13. Global diversity and biogeography of deep-sea pelagic prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar, Guillem

    2015-08-07

    The deep-sea is the largest biome of the biosphere, and contains more than half of the whole ocean\\'s microbes. Uncovering their general patterns of diversity and community structure at a global scale remains a great challenge, as only fragmentary information of deep-sea microbial diversity exists based on regional-scale studies. Here we report the first globally comprehensive survey of the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the bathypelagic ocean using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This work identifies the dominant prokaryotes in the pelagic deep ocean and reveals that 50% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belong to previously unknown prokaryotic taxa, most of which are rare and appear in just a few samples. We show that whereas the local richness of communities is comparable to that observed in previous regional studies, the global pool of prokaryotic taxa detected is modest (∼3600 OTUs), as a high proportion of OTUs are shared among samples. The water masses appear to act as clear drivers of the geographical distribution of both particle-attached and free-living prokaryotes. In addition, we show that the deep-oceanic basins in which the bathypelagic realm is divided contain different particle-attached (but not free-living) microbial communities. The combination of the aging of the water masses and a lack of complete dispersal are identified as the main drivers for this biogeographical pattern. All together, we identify the potential of the deep ocean as a reservoir of still unknown biological diversity with a higher degree of spatial complexity than hitherto considered.

  14. Global diversity and biogeography of deep-sea pelagic prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar, Guillem; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Á lvarez-Salgado, X. Antó n; Duarte, Carlos M.; Gasol, Josep M.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea is the largest biome of the biosphere, and contains more than half of the whole ocean's microbes. Uncovering their general patterns of diversity and community structure at a global scale remains a great challenge, as only fragmentary information of deep-sea microbial diversity exists based on regional-scale studies. Here we report the first globally comprehensive survey of the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the bathypelagic ocean using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This work identifies the dominant prokaryotes in the pelagic deep ocean and reveals that 50% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belong to previously unknown prokaryotic taxa, most of which are rare and appear in just a few samples. We show that whereas the local richness of communities is comparable to that observed in previous regional studies, the global pool of prokaryotic taxa detected is modest (∼3600 OTUs), as a high proportion of OTUs are shared among samples. The water masses appear to act as clear drivers of the geographical distribution of both particle-attached and free-living prokaryotes. In addition, we show that the deep-oceanic basins in which the bathypelagic realm is divided contain different particle-attached (but not free-living) microbial communities. The combination of the aging of the water masses and a lack of complete dispersal are identified as the main drivers for this biogeographical pattern. All together, we identify the potential of the deep ocean as a reservoir of still unknown biological diversity with a higher degree of spatial complexity than hitherto considered.

  15. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  16. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  17. Neutrinos from the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Erwin Lourens

    2015-01-01

    A guaranteed source of neutrinos is the production in cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar matter in our Galaxy. The signal has never been detected however and only an upper limit on this flux of neutrinos has been published by the AMANDA-II detector. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located

  18. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    .... 100513223-0289-02] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine...-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery that were implemented in May 2010...

  19. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    .... 100513223-0254-01] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine... deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea...

  20. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... 100105009-0053-01] RIN 0648-AY51 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including...

  1. Deep-sea ciliates: Recorded diversity and experimental studies on pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenle, Alexandra; Nitsche, Frank; Werner, Jennifer; Arndt, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play an important role in biogeochemical cycles not only in productive surface waters but also in the deep sea. Recent studies based on metagenomics report deep-sea protistan assemblages totally different from continental slopes and shelf waters. To give an overview about the ciliate fauna recorded from the deep sea we summarized the available information on ciliate occurrence in the deep sea. Our literature review revealed that representatives of the major phylogenetic groups of ciliates were recorded from the deep sea (> 1000 m depth): Karyorelictea, Heterotrichea, Spirotrichea (Protohypotrichia, Euplotia, Oligotrichia, Choreotrichia, Hypotrichia), Armophorea (Armophorida), Litostomatea (Haptoria), Conthreep (Phyllopharyngea incl. Cyrtophoria, Chonotrichia, Suctoria; Nassophorea incl. Microthoracida, Synhymeniida, Nassulida; Colpodea incl. Bursariomorphida, Cyrtolophosidida; Prostomatea; Plagiopylea incl. Plagiopylida, Odontostomatida; Oligohymenophorea incl. Peniculia, Scuticociliatia, Hymenostomatia, Apostomatia, Peritrichia, Astomatia). Species occurring in both habitats, deep sea and shallow water, are rarely found to our knowledge to date. This indicates a high deep-sea specific ciliate fauna. Our own studies of similar genotypes (SSU rDNA and cox1 gene) revealed that two small scuticociliate species (Pseudocohnilembus persalinus and Uronema sp.) could be isolated from surface as well as deep waters (2687 m, 5276 m, 5719 m) of the Pacific. The adaptation to deep-sea conditions was investigated by exposing the ciliate isolates directly or stepwise to different hydrostatic pressures ranging from 1 to 550 atm at temperatures of 2 °C and 13 °C. Although the results indicated no general barophilic behavior, all four isolated strains survived the highest established pressure. A better survival at 550 atm could be observed for the lower temperature. Among microbial eukaryotes, ciliates should be considered as a diverse and potentially

  2. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C. Roder; M. L. Berumen; J. Bouwmeester; E. Papathanassiou; A. Al-Suwailem; C. R. Voolstra

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ?deep-sea? and ?cold-water? corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20?C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the ...

  3. Restoration of deep-sea macrofauna after simulated benthic disturbance in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Pavithran, S.; Ansari, Z.A.

    feeding by holoyhurians in the deep sea: some observations and comments. Progress in Oceanography 50, 407-421. Glasby, G.P., 1977. Marine manganese deposits. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.523. Grassle, J.F. and Sanders, H.L., 1973. Life histories and role... gesamten Hydrobiologie 77, 331-339. Thiel, H., 2001. Use and protection of the deep sea - an introduction. Deep-Sea Research II 48, (17-18), 3427-3431. Trueblood, D., Ozturgut, E., Pilipchuk, M., Gloumov, I. 1997. The ecological impacts of the joint U...

  4. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Food web transport of trace metals and radionuclides from the deep sea: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.

    1979-06-01

    This report summarizes aspects of the potential distribution pathways of metals and radionuclides, particularly Co and Ni, through a biological trophic framework after their deposition at 4000 to 5000 meters in the North Atlantic or North Pacific. It discusses (a) the basic, deep-sea trophic structure of eutrophic and oligotrophic regions; (b) the transport pathways of biologically available energy to and from the deep sea, pathways that may act as accumulators and vectors of radionuclide distribution, and (c) distribution routes that have come into question as potential carriers of radionuclides from the deep-sea bed to man

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SEA WRECK USS INDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Symons

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of ongoing efforts to better understand the nature of shipwrecks in National Marine Sanctuaries which may pose some level of pollution risk, and in this case, to definitively locate what is likely the only shipwreck in a sanctuary involved in both nuclear testing and nuclear waste disposal, NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries collaborated with NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and The Boeing Company, which provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS in March 2015. The presence of the deep-sea scuttled radioactive aircraft carrier USS Independence off the California coast has been the source of consistent media speculation and public concern for decades. The survey confirmed that a sonar target charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck, and revealed no detectable levels of radioactivity. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence’s use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. While further surveys may reveal more, physical assessment and focused archival work has demonstrated that the level of concern and speculation of danger from either a radioactive or oil pollution threat posed may be exaggerated.

  7. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  8. Sungsanpin, a lasso peptide from a deep-sea streptomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Soohyun; Kim, Young-Joo; Kwon, Hyuknam; Wen, He; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Park, Sunghyouk; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2013-05-24

    Sungsanpin (1), a new 15-amino-acid peptide, was discovered from a Streptomyces species isolated from deep-sea sediment collected off Jeju Island, Korea. The planar structure of 1 was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy. The absolute configurations of the stereocenters in this compound were assigned by derivatizations of the hydrolysate of 1 with Marfey's reagents and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate, followed by LC-MS analysis. Careful analysis of the ROESY NMR spectrum and three-dimensional structure calculations revealed that sungsanpin possesses the features of a lasso peptide: eight amino acids (-Gly(1)-Phe-Gly-Ser-Lys-Pro-Ile-Asp(8)-) that form a cyclic peptide and seven amino acids (-Ser(9)-Phe-Gly-Leu-Ser-Trp-Leu(15)) that form a tail that loops through the ring. Sungsanpin is thus the first example of a lasso peptide isolated from a marine-derived microorganism. Sungsanpin displayed inhibitory activity in a cell invasion assay with the human lung cancer cell line A549.

  9. The permeability and consolidation of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, P.J.; Gunn, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents permeability and consolidation data for a wide range of sediment types. Permeability is one of the two parameters which are needed to directly quantify pore water advection in deep sea sediments and which are being investigated in high-level radioactive waste study areas. While it is desirable that these parameters should be measured in situ it is argued that values of permeability can be measured sufficiently accurately in the laboratory from core samples. Consequently, an apparatus has been developed which enables sediment permeability to be measured at decreasing void ratios during a back-pressured consolidation test. Data presented in this report from over 60 samples have established the major differences in permeability between various sediment types and how permeability changes as a function of burial depth and void ratio. Samples from two study areas in the North Atlantic Ocean, King's Trough Flank (KTF) and Great Meteor East (GME), have been compared with samples of Red Clay (RC) obtained from the NW Pacific Ocean. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Hydration of high-silica glasses in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Natural analogs of nuclear waste glasses are important because they provide information of the one variable that is not controllable in the laboratory - long intervals of time in the actual environment of storage. Some natural glasses have persisted for millions of years in deep-sea sediments in the form of disseminated particles and distinct tephra layers, while other apparently similar specimens have been completely altered to clay assemblages relatively quickly. Geologists have reached no firm conclusions as to why these differences exist, and more research is certainly warranted. These glasses vary in age, composition, and in the in-situ conditions they have experienced. They may provide important information for two different aspects of nuclear waste glass research: First, the chemical composition and especially the water content of these glasses as a function of time may give an understanding of the mechanisms and rates of diffusion in glasses in the natural environment. Second, the apparent differing durability of these glasses in different environmental conditions may suggest the optimal characteristics of a nuclear waste glass depository

  11. Virtual Investigations of an Active Deep Sea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, L.; Taylor, M. M.; Fundis, A.; Kelley, D. S.; Elend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Axial Seamount, located on the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge 300 miles off the Oregon coast, is an active volcano whose summit caldera lies 1500 m beneath the sea surface. Ongoing construction of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) cabled observatory by the University of Washington (funded by the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative) has allowed for exploration of recent lava flows and active hydrothermal vents using HD video mounted on the ROVs, ROPOS and JASON II. College level oceanography/marine geology online laboratory exercises referred to as Online Concept Modules (OCMs) have been created using video and video frame-captured mosaics to promote skill development for characterizing and quantifying deep sea environments. Students proceed at their own pace through a sequence of short movies with which they (a) gain background knowledge, (b) learn skills to identify and classify features or biota within a targeted environment, (c) practice these skills, and (d) use their knowledge and skills to make interpretations regarding the environment. Part (d) serves as the necessary assessment component of the laboratory exercise. Two Axial Seamount-focused OCMs will be presented: 1) Lava Flow Characterization: Identifying a Suitable Cable Route, and 2) Assessing Hydrothermal Vent Communities: Comparisons Among Multiple Sulfide Chimneys.

  12. Stronger at Depth: Jamming Grippers as Deep Sea Sampling Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stephen; Collins, Everett; Mendes, Manuel Lopes; Baxter, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate (a) that the holding strength of universal jamming grippers increases as a function of the jamming pressure to greater than three atmospheres, and (b) that jamming grippers can be operated in the deep sea in ambient pressures exceeding one hundred atmospheres, where such high jamming pressures can be readily achieved. Laboratory experiments in a pressurized, water-filled test cell are used to measure the holding force of a "universal" style jamming gripper as a function of the pressure difference between internal membrane pressure and ambient pressure. Experiments at sea are used to demonstrate that jamming grippers can be installed on, and operated from, remotely operated vehicles at depths in excess of 1200 m. In both experiments, the jamming gripper consists of a latex balloon filled with a mixture of fresh water and ∼200 μm glass beads, which are cheaply available in large quantities as sand blasting media. The use of a liquid, rather than a gas, as the fluid media allows operation of the gripper with a closed-loop fluid system; jamming pressure is controlled with an electrically driven water hydraulic cylinder in the laboratory and with an oil hydraulic-driven large-bore water hydraulic cylinder at sea.

  13. The fluid dynamics of deep-sea mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Thomas; Rzeznik, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    With vast mineral deposits on the ocean floor, deep-sea nodule mining operations are expected to commence in the next decade. Among several fundamental fluid dynamics problems, this could involve plans for dewatering plumes to be released into the water column by surface processing vessels. To study this scenario, we consider the effects of non-uniform, realistic stratifications on forced compressible plumes with finite initial size. The classical plume model is developed to take into account the influence of thermal conduction through the dewatering pipe and also compressibility effects, for which a dimensionless number is introduced to determine their importance compared to the background stratification. Among other things, our results show that small-scale features of a realistic stratification can have a large effect on plume dynamics compared to smoothed profiles and that for any given set of environmental parameters there is a discharge flow rate that minimizes the plume vertical extent. Our findings are put in the context of nodule mining plumes for which the rapid and efficient re-sedimentation of waste material has important environmental consequences.

  14. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep sea megabenthos VIII. Biochemical and calorific content of the reproductive organs of deep sea holothurians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Walker, M.

    1987-01-01

    The data for protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash content of the ovary, testes, gut and body wall of a variety of deep sea holothurians are presented. The dominant biochemical is insoluble protein in all tissues followed by lipid in the ovary. The ash content was lowest in the gonads and highest in the body wall of most species. The mean calorific content of the species studied is 25.08Jmg -1 thus representing a significant energy store in the deep sea. The data suggest active metabolic pathways in these species which may pass radionuclides to the developing gametes and after spawning to dispersal in deep waters. (author)

  15. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  16. Recovery of deep-sea meiofauna after artificial disturbance in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Goltekar, N.R.; Gonsalves, S.; Ansari, Z.A.

    -1 1 Recovery of Deep-sea Meiofauna after Artificial Disturbance in the Central Indian Basin INGOLE B.S*., R. GOLTEKAR, S. GONSALVES and Z. A. ANSARI Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa; 403004...

  17. Bacterial Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediments from Afanasy Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Meena, R.M.; Deobagkar, D.D.

    Deep-sea sediments can reveal much about the last 200 million years of Earth history, including the history of ocean life and climate. Microbial diversity in Afanasy Nikitin seamount located at Equatorial East Indian Ocean (EEIO) was investigated...

  18. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Rooper: Deep sea coral and sponge distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a series of ongoing research projects, the AFSC has been mapping and modeling the distribution of deep-sea coral and sponge communities throughout Alaska....

  19. Ship Track for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  1. Deep-sea fungi as a source of alkaline and cold-tolerant proteases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Raghukumar, C.; Muraleedharan, U.; Raghukumar, S.

    ,5]. Fungi and their enzymes from the deep-sea environment have received scant attention. Proteins and peptides constitute a substantial portion of the organic nutrients present in the deep-sea sediments as well as suspended particulate matter [6... alkaline protease using a qualitative plate assay on Czapek Dox agar (CDA) supplemented with 1% skimmed milk powder (Trade name Sagar, India). Clearance zone produced around the fungal colonies in plates indicated protease positive reaction [19...

  2. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    on marine ecosystem, the project on ‘EIA studies for nodule mining in CIB’ was initiated in 1996, under the national programme on polymetallic nodules funded by the Dept. of Ocean Development. Mining of the deep-sea minerals [1] is expected to alter... for the future • Development of predictive ecosystem models • Creation of environmental database • Evaluating the biogeochemical coupling of biota with deep-sea ecosystem • Development of environment management plan for nodule mining References...

  3. Exponential Decline of Deep-Sea Ecosystem Functioning Linked to Benthic Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Vanreusel, Ann; Vincx, Magda; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundRecent investigations suggest that biodiversity loss might impair the functioning and sustainability of ecosystems. Although deep-sea ecosystems are the most extensive on Earth, represent the largest reservoir of biomass, and host a large proportion of undiscovered biodiversity, the data needed to evaluate the consequences of biodiversity loss on the ocean floor are completely lacking.ResultsHere, we present a global-scale study based on 116 deep-sea sites that relates benthic biodi...

  4. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    OpenAIRE

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-01-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites...

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly and positive selection analysis of an individual deep-sea fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xu, Ting; Chen, Chong; Tian, Renmao; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2018-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure and low temperatures make the deep sea a harsh environment for life forms. Actin organization and microtubules assembly, which are essential for intracellular transport and cell motility, can be disrupted by high hydrostatic pressure. High hydrostatic pressure can also damage DNA. Nucleic acids exposed to low temperatures can form secondary structures that hinder genetic information processing. To study how deep-sea creatures adapt to such a hostile environment, one of the most straightforward ways is to sequence and compare their genes with those of their shallow-water relatives. We captured an individual of the fish species Aldrovandia affinis, which is a typical deep-sea inhabitant, from the Okinawa Trough at a depth of 1550 m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We sequenced its transcriptome and analyzed its molecular adaptation. We obtained 27,633 protein coding sequences using an Illumina platform and compared them with those of several shallow-water fish species. Analysis of 4918 single-copy orthologs identified 138 positively selected genes in A. affinis, including genes involved in microtubule regulation. Particularly, functional domains related to cold shock as well as DNA repair are exposed to positive selection pressure in both deep-sea fish and hadal amphipod. Overall, we have identified a set of positively selected genes related to cytoskeleton structures, DNA repair and genetic information processing, which shed light on molecular adaptation to the deep sea. These results suggest that amino acid substitutions of these positively selected genes may contribute crucially to the adaptation of deep-sea animals. Additionally, we provide a high-quality transcriptome of a deep-sea fish for future deep-sea studies.

  6. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, K; Horikoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the...

  7. A review on deep-sea fungi: Occurrence, diversity and adaptions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.

    soil. In contrast to land, however, most studies on deep-sea sediments have focused exclusively on bacteria and have demonstrated their intense metabolic activities therein (Turley and Dixon 2002). The fungi and their role in the deep-sea sediments... polymerization and form brown-coloured products, constituting humus (Tisdall and Oades 1982). The humic material combines with soil particles to form microaggregates. Fungal hyphae further act as binding agents to form macroaggregates by trapping fine particles...

  8. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  9. An abyssal mobilome: Viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    OpenAIRE

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here...

  10. Fossil manganese nodules from Timor: geochemical and radiochemical evidence for deep-sea origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, S.V.; Fein, C.D.; Glasby, G.P.; Audley-Charles, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Fossil Mn nodules of Cretaceous age from western Timor exhibit chemical, structural and radioisotope compositions consistent with their being of deep-sea origin. These nodules show characteristics similar to nodules now found at depths of 3,500-5,000 m in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Slight differences in the fine structure and chemistry of these nodules and modern deep-sea nodules are attributed to diagenetic alteration after uplift of enclosing sediments

  11. Starvation and recovery in the deep-sea methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti

    OpenAIRE

    Tavormina, Patricia L.; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Tocheva, Elitza I.; Dalleska, Nathan F.; Jensen, Ashley J.; Valentine, David L.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Jensen, Grant J.; Dubilier, Nicole; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2017-01-01

    In the deep ocean, the conversion of methane into derived carbon and energy drives the establishment of diverse faunal communities. Yet specific biological mechanisms underlying the introduction of methane-derived carbon into the food web remain poorly described, due to a lack of cultured representative deep-sea methanotrophic prokaryotes. Here, the response of the deep-sea aerobic methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti to methane starvation and recovery was characterized. By combining lipid...

  12. Species-energy relationship in the deep sea: A test using the Quaternary fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Roy, K.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the processes regulating species richness in deep-sea communities. Here we take advantage of natural experiments involving climate change to test whether predictions of the species-energy hypothesis hold in the deep sea. In addition, we test for the relationship between temperature and species richness predicted by a recent model based on biochemical kinetics of metabolism. Using the deep-sea fossil record of benthic foraminifera and statistical meta-analyses of temperature-richness and productivity-richness relationships in 10 deep-sea cores, we show that temperature but not productivity is a significant predictor of species richness over the past c. 130 000 years. Our results not only show that the temperature-richness relationship in the deep-sea is remarkably similar to that found in terrestrial and shallow marine habitats, but also that species richness tracks temperature change over geological time, at least on scales of c. 100 000 years. Thus, predicting biotic response to global climate change in the deep sea would require better understanding of how temperature regulates the occurrences and geographical ranges of species. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Potential Osteoporosis Recovery by Deep Sea Water through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hen-Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8 and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Deep sea water at hardness (HD 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3 by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.

  14. Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rastelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-15

    Benthic deep-sea environments are the largest ecosystem on Earth, covering ∼65% of the Earth surface. Microbes inhabiting this huge biome at all water depths represent the most abundant biological components and a relevant portion of the biomass of the biosphere, and play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing evidence suggests that global climate changes are affecting also deep-sea ecosystems, both directly (causing shifts in bottom-water temperature, oxygen concentration and pH) and indirectly (through changes in surface oceans' productivity and in the consequent export of organic matter to the seafloor). However, the responses of the benthic deep-sea biota to such shifts remain largely unknown. This applies particularly to deep-sea microbes, which include bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes and their viruses. Understanding the potential impacts of global change on the benthic deep-sea microbial assemblages and the consequences on the functioning of the ocean interior is a priority to better forecast the potential consequences at global scale. Here we explore the potential changes in the benthic deep-sea microbiology expected in the coming decades using case studies on specific systems used as test models. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Age of Human-Robot Collaboration: Deep Sea Exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama

    2018-01-18

    The promise of oceanic discovery has intrigued scientists and explorers for centuries, whether to study underwater ecology and climate change, or to uncover natural resources and historic secrets buried deep at archaeological sites. Reaching these depth is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling increasingly threaten ecology and archaeological sites. These needs demand a system deploying human-level expertise at the depths, and yet remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task. To meet the challenge of dexterous operation at oceanic depths, in collaboration with KAUSTメs Red Sea Research Center and MEKA Robotics, Oussama Khatib and the team developed Ocean One, a bimanual humanoid robot that brings immediate and intuitive haptic interaction to oceanic environments. Introducing Ocean One, the haptic robotic avatar During this lecture, Oussama Khatib will talk about how teaming with the French Ministry of Cultureメs Underwater Archaeology Research Department, they deployed Ocean One in an expedition in the Mediterranean to Louis XIVメs flagship Lune, lying off the coast of Toulon at ninety-one meters. In the spring of 2016, Ocean One became the first robotic avatar to embody a humanメs presence at the seabed. Ocean Oneメs journey in the Mediterranean marks a new level of marine exploration: Much as past technological innovations have impacted society, Ocean Oneメs ability to distance humans physically from dangerous and unreachable work spaces while connecting their skills, intuition, and experience to the task promises to fundamentally alter remote work. Robotic avatars will search for and acquire materials, support equipment, build infrastructure, and perform disaster prevention and recovery operations - be it deep in oceans and mines, at mountain tops, or in space.

  16. Study of different type neutrino oscillations based on neutrino beams from 600 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of the different type neutrino oscillations based on a wide-band and narrow-band neutrino beam from the 600 GeV UNK-1 machine using the Baical Neutrino Telescope (4200 km from a accelerator) are discussed. The main parameters of the neutrino channel are presented. 17 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  18. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  19. Seawater Carbonate Chemistry of Deep-sea Coral Beds off the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.; Shamberger, K.; Roark, E. B.; Miller, K.; Baco-Taylor, A.

    2016-02-01

    Many species of deep-sea octocorals produce calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons and form coral beds that support diverse ecosystems crucial to fisheries. The geochemistry of deep-sea coral skeletons can provide valuable paleoceanographic information on ocean circulation and nutrient cycling. Deep-sea corals in the older bottom waters of the Pacific are naturally exposed to higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and lower pH than in the Atlantic where much of the previous deep-sea coral work has occurred. Therefore, some Pacific deep-sea corals may live and calcify in waters that are corrosive to their skeletons, but there have been few current seawater carbonate chemistry measurements of the waters surrounding deep-sea coral beds to assess this. The input of anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 known as ocean acidification (OA) lowers ocean pH and causes an expansion of these corrosive waters. Seawater carbonate chemistry must be characterized before accurate predictions can be made for the effects of OA on these important ecosystems. Total Alkalinity (TA) and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) samples were collected in the fall of 2014 and 2015 from the surface to 1450 m depth off the Northwestern Hawaiian Island chain where deep-sea octocorals are found. The partial pressure of CO2 increased and pH, calcite saturation state (Ωca) and aragonite saturation state (Ωar) decreased with increasing latitude and depth. Notably, waters were undersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite (Ωca and Ωar less than 1) below 800 m and 500 m, respectively. Therefore, deep-sea corals below these depths must calcify in waters that are thermodynamically favorable for CaCO3 dissolution. How deep-sea octocorals cope with such adverse seawater chemistry is critical to understanding future effects of OA. It is not known whether OA is currently negatively impacting deep-sea octocorals, but their naturally acidified environments could make them particularly susceptible to OA.

  20. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramirez-Llodra

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008. A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past to exploitation (present. We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this

  1. Stakeholder perspectives on the importance of rare-species research for deep-sea environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Phillip J.; Campbell, Lisa M.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2017-07-01

    The apparent prevalence of rare species (rarity) in the deep sea is a concern for environmental management and conservation of biodiversity. Rare species are often considered at risk of extinction and, in terrestrial and shallow water environments, have been shown to play key roles within an ecosystem. In the deep-sea environment, current research focuses primarily on abundant species and deep-sea stakeholders are questioning the importance of rare species in ecosystem functioning. This study asks whether deep-sea stakeholders (primarily scientists) view rare-species research as a priority in guiding environmental management. Delphi methodology (i.e., an iterative survey approach) was used to understand views about whether or not 'deep-sea scientists should allocate more resources to research on rare species in the deep sea, even if this means less resources might be available for abundant-species research.' Results suggest little consensus regarding the prioritization of resources for rare-species research. From Survey 1 to Survey 3, the average participant response shifted toward a view that rare-species research is not a priority if it comes at a cost to research on abundant species. Participants pointed to the need for a balanced approach and highlighted knowledge gaps about even the most fundamental questions, including whether rare species are truly 'rare' or simply under-sampled. Participants emphasized the lack of basic biological knowledge for rare and abundant species, particularly abundant meio- and microscopic species, as well as uncertainty in the roles rare and abundant species play in ecosystem processes. Approaches that jointly consider the role of rare and abundant species in ecosystem functioning (e.g., biological trait analysis) may help to clarify the extent to which rare species need to be incorporated into deep-sea environment management in order to maintain ecosystem functioning.

  2. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A.; Baker, Maria C.; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R.; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A.; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  3. Detection of magnetic monopoles in the future neutrino telescope Antares and characterization of the photomultiplier pulse treatment; Etude de la detection de monopoles magnetiques au sein du futur telescope a neutrinos antares et caracterisation des performances du traitement des impulsions des photomultiplicateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricol, J.St

    2002-10-01

    Grand unified theories (GUT) involve phase transitions in the early universe, that could create topological defects, like magnetic monopoles. Monopoles main characteristics are shown and in particular energy losses and flux limits. High energy neutrino telescopes offer a new opportunity for magnetic monopole search. The study of the photomultiplier pulse treatment by the Antares detector front-end electronics indicates that this one is well adapted to the telescope needs. The pulses detailed analysis has allowed to obtain a time measurement precision lower than 0.6 ns and electronic noise and saturation have no relevant effect on the telescope performances. Relativistic monopoles generate a large amount of light, that leads to an effective area for the Antares detector of about 0.06 km{sup 2} for velocities {beta}{sub mon} = 0.6 and 0.35 km{sup 2} for velocities {beta}{sub mon} {approx} 1. Monopole track are well reconstructed and the velocity determination is made with an error lower than few percents, which represents a decisive result for the background rejection, caused by high energy muons with a velocity {beta}{sub {mu}} {approx} 1. The very dispersive light emission of monopoles below the Cherenkov limit, 0.6 {approx}< {beta}{sub mon} {<=} 0.74, via the delta-rays produced by ionisation, does not allow an accurate expecting signal and the bad reconstructed muons rejection must be improved. Above the Cherenkov limit, {beta}{sub mon} {>=} 0.8, bad reconstructed events can be rejected from the Cherenkov emission parametrisation. A magnetic monopole signal can then clearly be distinguished from background. (author)

  4. Advances in deep-sea biology: biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and conservation. An introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2017-03-01

    Once considered as monotonous and devoid of life, the deep sea was revealed during the last century as an environment with a plethora of life forms and extremely high species richness (Rex and Etter, 2010). Underwater vehicle developments allowed direct observations of the deep, disclosing unique habitats and diverse seascapes, and other technological advances enabled manipulative experimentation and unprecedented prospects to pursue novel research topics (Levin and Sibuet, 2012; Danovaro et al., 2014). Alongside, the growing human population greatly increased the pressure on deep-sea ecosystems and the services they provide (Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2011; Thurber et al., 2014; Levin et al., 2016). Societal changes further intensified worldwide competition for natural resources, extending the present footprint of impacts over most of the global ocean (Halpern et al., 2008). In this socio-economic context, and in tandem with cutting edge technological advances and an unclear legal framework to regulate access to natural resources (Boyes and Elliott, 2014), the deep sea has emerged as a new opportunity for industrial exploitation and novel economic activities. The expanding use of the deep sea prompted a rapid reply from deep-sea scientists that recommended "a move from a frontier mentality of exploitation and single-sector management to a precautionary system that balances use of living marine resources, energy, and minerals from the deep ocean with maintenance of a productive and healthy marine environment, while improving knowledge and collaboration" and proposed "three directions to advance deep-ocean stewardship: i) protection and mitigation, ii) research, and iii) collaborative governance" (Mengerink et al., 2014). The European Marine Board position paper 22 (Rogers et al., 2015) further examined the key societal and environmental drivers confronting the deep sea and the role of deep-sea research to deliver future knowledge needs for science and society; a clear

  5. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  6. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K; Horikoshi, K

    1999-08-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the phylogenetic analysis, a number of rDNA sequences obtained from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were placed in deep lineages of the crenarchaeotic phylum prior to the divergence of cultivated thermophilic members of the crenarchaeota or between thermophilic members of the euryarchaeota and members of the methanogen-halophile clade. Whole cell in situ hybridization analysis suggested that some microorganisms of novel phylotypes predicted by molecular phylogenetic analysis were likely present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. These findings expand our view of the genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments and of the phylogenetic organization of archaea.

  7. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  8. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dydak, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  10. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  11. An oceanographic model for the dispersion of wastes disposed of in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The report presents results of IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution (GESAMP) to provide advice on the most suitable oceanographic modelling techniques to be applied to the deep-sea dumping of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances. There are four main parts of the work: the present knowledge of oceanic processes that may transfer substances from a deep-sea dump site back to man or his food chain, methods and models presently available for estimating or calculating concentration distributions of contaminants arising from releases from deep-sea dump sites and recommendations as to the presently most appropriate models, the reliability of the concentration distributions obtained using these models and recommended areas for further improvements including research needs

  12. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  13. Molecular analyses reveal high levels of eukaryotic richness associated with enigmatic deep-sea protists (Komokiacea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecroq, Beatrice; Gooday, Andrew John; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Komokiaceans are testate agglutinated protists, extremely diverse and abundant in the deep sea. About 40 species are described and share the same main morpholog- ical feature: a test consisting of narrow branching tubules forming a complex system. In some species, the interstices between the tubu......Komokiaceans are testate agglutinated protists, extremely diverse and abundant in the deep sea. About 40 species are described and share the same main morpholog- ical feature: a test consisting of narrow branching tubules forming a complex system. In some species, the interstices between...... suggest strongly that komokiaceans, and probably many other large testate protists, provide a habitat structure for a large spectrum of eukaryotes, significantly contributing to maintaining the biodiversity of micro- and meiofaunal communities in the deep sea....

  14. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the “Database of Taiwan’s Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/” as part of the “Fish Database of Taiwan,” can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity.

  15. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsumi Nakamura

    Full Text Available We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes, indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  17. Impact of Deepwater Horizon Spill on food supply to deep-sea benthos communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Pamela; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerald; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems encompass unique and often fragile communities that are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic and natural impacts. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, sampling efforts documented the acute impact of the spill on some deep-sea coral colonies. To investigate the impact of the DWH spill on quality and quantity of biomass delivered to the deep-sea, a suite of geochemical tracers (e.g., stable and radio-isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and compound specific isotopes) was measured from monthly sediment trap samples deployed near a high-density deep-coral site in the Viosca Knoll area of the north-central Gulf of Mexico prior to (Oct-2008 to Sept-2009) and after the spill (Oct-10 to Sept-11). Marine (e.g., autochthonous) sources of organic matter dominated the sediment traps in both years, however after the spill, there was a pronounced reduction in marinesourced OM, including a reduction in marine-sourced sterols and n-alkanes and a concomitant decrease in sediment trap organic carbon and pigment flux. Results from this study indicate a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea in 2010-2011, at least 6-18 months after the spill started. Whereas satellite observations indicate an initial increase in phytoplankton biomass, results from this sediment trap study define a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea community. In addition, a dilution from a low-14C carbon source (e.g., petrocarbon) was detected in the sediment trap samples after the spill, in conjunction with a change in the petrogenic composition. The data presented here fills a critical gap in our knowledge of biogeochemical processes and sub-acute impacts to the deep-sea that ensued after the 2010 DWH spill.

  18. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events, their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.

  19. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  20. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  1. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Guinotte

    Full Text Available Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington. Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS. Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled.

  2. The National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database: A Comprehensive Resource for United States Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornback, M.; Hourigan, T.; Etnoyer, P.; McGuinn, R.; Cross, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Research on deep-sea corals has expanded rapidly over the last two decades, as scientists began to realize their value as long-lived structural components of high biodiversity habitats and archives of environmental information. The NOAA Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges is a comprehensive resource for georeferenced data on these organisms in U.S. waters. The National Database currently includes more than 220,000 deep-sea coral records representing approximately 880 unique species. Database records from museum archives, commercial and scientific bycatch, and from journal publications provide baseline information with relatively coarse spatial resolution dating back as far as 1842. These data are complemented by modern, in-situ submersible observations with high spatial resolution, from surveys conducted by NOAA and NOAA partners. Management of high volumes of modern high-resolution observational data can be challenging. NOAA is working with our data partners to incorporate this occurrence data into the National Database, along with images and associated information related to geoposition, time, biology, taxonomy, environment, provenance, and accuracy. NOAA is also working to link associated datasets collected by our program's research, to properly archive them to the NOAA National Data Centers, to build a robust metadata record, and to establish a standard protocol to simplify the process. Access to the National Database is provided through an online mapping portal. The map displays point based records from the database. Records can be refined by taxon, region, time, and depth. The queries and extent used to view the map can also be used to download subsets of the database. The database, map, and website is already in use by NOAA, regional fishery management councils, and regional ocean planning bodies, but we envision it as a model that can expand to accommodate data on a global scale.

  3. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karen M.; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-01-01

    The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO2), =33,000 mu atm...... extracellular pH remained significantly lower during recovery. Intracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity of the posterior adductor muscle of hypercapnic animals was significantly lower than control values, but this was not the case for the remaining tissues analyzed. Oxygen consumption initially dropped...

  4. Monitoring the sedimentary carbon in an artificially disturbed deep-sea sedimentary environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Khadge, N.H.; Nabar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Ingole, B.S.; Valsangkar, A.B.; Sharma, R.; Srinivas, K.

    1 Author version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.184; 2012; 2829-2844 Monitoring the sedimentary carbon in an artificially disturbed deep-sea sedimentary environment B. Nagender Nath * , N.H. Khadge, Sapana Nabar, C. Raghu Kumar, B.S. Ingole... community two years after an artificial rapid deposition event. Publication of Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 39(1), 17-27. Gage, J.D. (1978). Animals in deep-sea sediments. Proceedings of Royal Society of Edinburgh, 768, 77-93. Gage, J.D., & Tyler...

  5. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    Full Text Available Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth, including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components

  6. Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E Brendan; Mohon, Leslye M; Chang, Ching-Chih

    2018-07-01

    Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico. Organo-iodine is the dominant iodine species in the black corals, demonstrating that binding of iodine to organic matter plays an important role in the transport and transfer of iodine to the deep-sea corals. The identification of growth bands captured in high-resolution scanning electron images (SEM) with synchronous peaks in iodine variability suggest that riverine delivery of terrestrial-derived organo-iodine is the most plausible explanation to account for annual periodicity in the deep-sea coral geochemistry. Whereas previous studies have suggested the presence of annual growth rings in deep-sea corals, this present study provides a mechanism to explain the formation of annual growth bands. Furthermore, deep-sea coral ages based on iodine peak counts agree well with those ages derived from radiocarbon ( 14 C) measurements. These results hold promise for developing chronologies independent of 14 C dating, which is an essential component in constraining reservoir ages and using radiocarbon as a tracer of ocean circulation. Furthermore, the presence of enriched 129 I/ 127 I ratios during the most recent period of skeleton growth is linked to nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s. The sensitivity of the coral skeleton to record changes in surface water 129 I composition provides further evidence that iodine composition and isotope

  7. Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Mohon, Leslye M.; Chang, Ching-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico. Organo-iodine is the dominant iodine species in the black corals, demonstrating that binding of iodine to organic matter plays an important role in the transport and transfer of iodine to the deep-sea corals. The identification of growth bands captured in high-resolution scanning electron images (SEM) with synchronous peaks in iodine variability suggest that riverine delivery of terrestrial-derived organo-iodine is the most plausible explanation to account for annual periodicity in the deep-sea coral geochemistry. Whereas previous studies have suggested the presence of annual growth rings in deep-sea corals, this present study provides a mechanism to explain the formation of annual growth bands. Furthermore, deep-sea coral ages based on iodine peak counts agree well with those ages derived from radiocarbon (14C) measurements. These results hold promise for developing chronologies independent of 14C dating, which is an essential component in constraining reservoir ages and using radiocarbon as a tracer of ocean circulation. Furthermore, the presence of enriched 129I/127I ratios during the most recent period of skeleton growth is linked to nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s. The sensitivity of the coral skeleton to record changes in surface water 129I composition provides further evidence that iodine composition and isotope

  8. Revealing Holobiont Structure and Function of Three Red Sea Deep-Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have long been regarded as cold-water coral; however a reevaluation of their habitat limitations has been suggested after the discovery of deep-sea coral in the Red Sea where temperatures exceed 20˚C. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals at these temperatures, the work in this PhD employed a holotranscriptomic approach, looking at coral animal host and bacterial symbiont gene expression in Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus sp. sampled from the deep Red Sea. Bacterial community composition was analyzed via amplicon-based 16S surveys and cultured bacterial strains were subjected to bioprospecting in order to gauge the pharmaceutical potential of coralassociated microbes. Coral host transcriptome data suggest that coral can employ mitochondrial hypometabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and surface cilia to enhance mass transport rates to manage the low oxygen and highly oligotrophic Red Sea waters. In the microbial community associated with these corals, ribokinases and retron-type reverse transcriptases are abundantly expressed. In its first application to deep-sea coral associated microbial communities, 16S-based next-generation sequencing found that a single operational taxonomic unit can comprise the majority of sequence reads and that a large number of low abundance populations are present, which cannot be visualized with first generation sequencing. Bioactivity testing of selected bacterial isolates was surveyed over 100 cytological parameters with high content screening, covering several major organelles and key proteins involved in a variety of signaling cascades. Some of these cytological profiles were similar to those of several reference pharmacologically active compounds, which suggest that the bacteria isolates produce compounds with similar mechanisms of action as the reference compounds. The sum of this work offers several mechanisms by which Red Sea deep-sea corals cope with environmental

  9. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Ageron, M.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Billault, M.; Brunner, J.; Caillat, L.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Destelle, J.J.; Dornic, D.; Gallo, F.; Henry, S.; Keller, P.; Lamare, P.; Royon, J.; Solazzo, M.; Tezier, D.; Theraube, S.; Yatkin, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Aharonian, F.; Drury, L. [DIAS, Dublin (Ireland); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, IUT de Colmar, Colmar (France); Ameli, F.; De Bonis, G.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Anassontzis, E.G. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Deparment of Physics, Athens (Greece); Anghinolfi, M.; Cereseto, R.; Hugon, C.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Classen, L.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Gal, T.; Graf, K.; Heid, T.; Herold, B.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Reubelt, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Stransky, D.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Durand, D.; Le Provost, H.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Zonca, E. [CEA, Irfu/Sedi, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Asmundis, R. de; Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Balasi, K.; Drakopoulou, E.; Markou, C.; Pikounis, K.; Siotis, I.; Stavropoulos, G.; Tzamariudaki, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Band, H.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Beveren, V. van; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bouwhuis, M.; Gajana, D.; Gebyehu, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hoek, M. van der; Hogenbirk, J.; Jansweijer, P.; Kieft, G.; Kok, H.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Michael, T.; Mos, S.; Peek, H.; Schmelling, J.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Zwart, A. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.; De Rosa, G.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Champion, C.; Colonges, S.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Kouchner, A.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC,Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Belias, A.; Rapidis, P.A.; Trapierakis, H.I. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); National Observatory of Athens, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Technology, and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, Pylos (Greece); Berg, A.M. van den; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M.A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Loehner, H.; Wooning, R.H.L. van [KVI-CART, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beverini, N. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipertimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S.; Cecchini, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Bianucci, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Calamai, M.; Morganti, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Terreni, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipertimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Birbas, A.; Bourlis, G.; Christopoulou, B.; Gizani, N.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S. [Hellenic Open University, School of Science and Technology, Patras (Greece); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouche, V.; Fermani, P.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G. [Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica, Fisciano (Italy); Bruijn, R.; Koffeman, E.; Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacopardo, G.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; D' Amico, A.; Distefano, C.; Grasso, R.; Grmek, A.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Piattelli, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration; and others

    2014-09-15

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same {sup 40}K decay and the localisation of bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions. (orig.)

  10. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Gallo, F.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Petridou, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Royon, J.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Savvidis, I.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Solazzo, M.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trapierakis, H. I.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Yatkin, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2014-09-01

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same $^{40}$K decay and the localization bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions.

  11. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M.; Ageron, M.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Billault, M.; Brunner, J.; Caillat, L.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Destelle, J.J.; Dornic, D.; Gallo, F.; Henry, S.; Keller, P.; Lamare, P.; Royon, J.; Solazzo, M.; Tezier, D.; Theraube, S.; Yatkin, K.; Aharonian, F.; Drury, L.; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Ameli, F.; De Bonis, G.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Cereseto, R.; Hugon, C.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Anton, G.; Classen, L.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Gal, T.; Graf, K.; Heid, T.; Herold, B.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Reubelt, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Stransky, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Durand, D.; Le Provost, H.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Zonca, E.; Asmundis, R. de; Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.; Balasi, K.; Drakopoulou, E.; Markou, C.; Pikounis, K.; Siotis, I.; Stavropoulos, G.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Band, H.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Beveren, V. van; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bouwhuis, M.; Gajana, D.; Gebyehu, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hoek, M. van der; Hogenbirk, J.; Jansweijer, P.; Kieft, G.; Kok, H.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Michael, T.; Mos, S.; Peek, H.; Schmelling, J.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Zwart, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.; De Rosa, G.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D.; Barbarito, E.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Champion, C.; Colonges, S.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Kouchner, A.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Van Elewyck, V.; Belias, A.; Rapidis, P.A.; Trapierakis, H.I.; Berg, A.M. van den; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M.A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Loehner, H.; Wooning, R.H.L. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Cecchini, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Bianucci, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Calamai, M.; Morganti, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Terreni, G.; Birbas, A.; Bourlis, G.; Christopoulou, B.; Gizani, N.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouche, V.; Fermani, P.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Bruijn, R.; Koffeman, E.; Wolf, E. de; Cacopardo, G.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; Distefano, C.; Grasso, R.; Grmek, A.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Piattelli, P.

    2014-01-01

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same 40 K decay and the localisation of bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions. (orig.)

  12. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  13. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  14. Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639......Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639...

  15. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  16. 76 FR 36511 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-BA22 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY... the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (Amendment 3), incorporating a draft... current trap limit regulations state that red crab may not be harvested from gear other than a marked red...

  17. 76 FR 60379 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... 100903433-1531-02] RIN 0648-BA22 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab... approved in Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The New England... ABC control rule.'' The NS1 guidelines further state that ``ABC may not exceed OFL,'' and that ``the...

  18. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  19. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formatio...

  20. Deep-sea mining: Economic, technical, technological, and environmental considerations for sustainable development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    investment of $1.95 billion as capital expenditure and $9 billion as operating expenditure for a single deep-sea mining venture. In view of high investment, technological challenges and economic considerations, private-public cooperation could be an effective...

  1. Clay as indicator of sediment plume movement in deep-sea environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    artificially disturbed and resuspended 5 m above the seabed in 1997 during the Indian Deep-Sea Experiment. Initial studies have shown that the clay content during monitoring-1 phase significantly increased compared to post-disturbance, by 15 and 24...

  2. Technological and profitable analysis of airlifting in deep sea mining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.; van Rhee, C.; Schott, D.L.

    2017-01-01

    Airlifting technology utilized in deep-sea mining (DSM) industry was proposed in the 70s of last century, which was triggered by the discovery of vast amounts of mineral resources on the seabed. The objective of this paper is to assess the technological feasibility and profitability analyses in

  3. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-12-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites ranging from 350 to 4800 m water depth inside or near the channel and away from its influence. Ifremer conducted eight deep-sea cruises on board research vessels between 2000 and 2005. Standardized methods of sampling together with new technologies such as the ROV Victor 6000 and its associated instrumentation were used to investigate this poorly known continental margin. In addition to the study of sedimentary environments more or less influenced by turbidity events, the discovery of one of the largest cold seeps near the Congo channel and deep coral reefs extends our knowledge of the different habitats of this margin. This paper presents the background, objectives and major results of the BIOZAIRE Program. It highlights the work achieved in the 16 papers in this special issue. This synthesis paper describes the knowledge acquired at a regional and local scale of the Equatorial East Atlantic margin, and tackles new interdisciplinary questions to be answered in the various domains of physics, chemistry, taxonomy and ecology to better understand the deep-sea environment in the Gulf of Guinea.

  4. Similar rapid response to phytodetritus deposition in shallow and deep-sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The short-term benthic response to an input of fresh organic matter was examined in vastly contrasting benthic environments (estuarine intertidal to deep-sea) using 13C-labeled diatoms as a tracer of labile carbon. Benthic processing was assessed in major compartments through 13C-enrichment in CO2,

  5. Modeling food web interactions in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Van Oevelen, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological

  6. Chemosynthesis in deep-sea red-clay: Linking concepts to probable martian life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Mourya, B.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Khadge, N.H.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    of microbial biogeochemistry are used in the pres- ent deep-sea analogue studies and would be imple- mented for actual Martian soil samples in future: Microbial abundance in terms of total counts » Diversity of culture dependent and independent Chemos... soils done earlier by Viking I robots [5, Bianciardi et. al, 2012

  7. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamburini, C.; Canals, M.; de Madron, X.D.; Houpert, L.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, V.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Robert, A.; Testor, P.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A.C.A.; Astraatmadja, T.L.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, H.Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; De Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.N.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, V.G.; Salesa, F.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schock, F.; Schuller, J.P.; Schussler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.G.F.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June

  8. An approach for in situ studies of deep-sea amphipods and their microbial gut flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, H. W.; Cuhel, R. L.; Wirsen, C. O.; Taylor, C. D.

    1980-10-01

    A technique has been developed and field-tested for the trapping, feeding, and timed incubation of amphipods on the deep-sea floor. Data obtained from experiments using radiolabeled foodstuffs indicate that shifts within the labeled fractions of the major biological polymers make it possible to distinguish between the metabolism of the amphipods and that of their intestinal microflora.

  9. Ciliatamides A-C, bioactive lipopeptides from the deep-sea sponge Aaptos ciliata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakao, Y.; Kawatsu, S.; Okamoto, C.; Okamoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Fusetani, N.

    2008-01-01

    Three lipopeptides, ciliatamides A−C, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Aaptos ciliata, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Ciliatamides A and B were found to be antileishmanial, while B also exhibited marginal cytotoxicity to HeLa cells.

  10. Ciliatamides A-C, bioactive lipopeptides from the deep-sea sponge Aaptos ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoichi; Kawatsu, Shizuka; Okamoto, Chikane; Okamoto, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Matsunaga, Shigeki; van Soest, Rob W M; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2008-03-01

    Three lipopeptides, ciliatamides A-C ( 1- 3), were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Aaptos ciliata, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Ciliatamides A ( 1) and B ( 2) were found to be antileishmanial, while 2 also exhibited marginal cytotoxicity to HeLa cells.

  11. Correlation of the Eemian (interglacial) Stage and the deep-sea oxygen-isotope stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangerud, J.; Soenstegaard, E.; Sejrup, H.-P.

    1979-01-01

    A complete interglacial sequence in coastal marine sediments in western Norway is here correlated with the Eemian Stage by means of pollen stratigraphy, and with deep-sea cores by means of marine fossils. The Eemian is correlated with isotope stage 5e. (author)

  12. Biological responses to disturbance from simulated deep-sea polymetallic nodulemining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, D.O.B.; Kaiser, S.; Sweetman, A.K.; Smith, C.R.; Menot, L.; Vink, A.; Trueblood, D.; Greinert, J.; Billett, D.S.M.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Radziejewska, T.; Singh, R.; Ingole, B.; Stratmann, T.; Simon-Lledó, E.; Durden, J.M.; Clack, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial-scale mining for polymetallic nodules could have a major impact on the deepseaenvironment, but the effects of these mining activities on deep-sea ecosystems are verypoorly known. The first commercial test mining for polymetallic nodules was carried out in1970. Since then a number of

  13. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the

  14. From deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in Epsilonproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bolognini, Marie; Ricci, Jessica; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-05-01

    Chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. In many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. Within the Epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxS/autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mechanism to control the expression of some of these functions. In this study we showed that luxS is conserved in Epsilonproteobacteria and that pathogenic and mesophilic members of this class inherited this gene from a thermophilic ancestor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is expressed--and a quorum-sensing signal is produced--during growth of Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Caminibacter mediatlanticus, two Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Finally, we detected luxS transcripts in Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm communities collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, our findings indicate that the epsiloproteobacterial lineage of the LuxS enzyme originated in high-temperature geothermal environments and that, in vent Epsilonproteobacteria, luxS expression is linked to the production of AI-2 signals, which are likely produced in situ at deep-sea vents. We conclude that the luxS gene is part of the ancestral epsilonproteobacterial genome and represents an evolutionary link that connects thermophiles to human pathogens.

  15. State of the deep-sea shrimp stock of Angola | Djama | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 3 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. State of the deep-sea shrimp stock of Angola.

  16. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation.

  17. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka eMino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 P. hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough. Although the strains share > 98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types, indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

  18. Testing deep-sea biodiversity paradigms on abyssal nematode genera and Acantholaimus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Lidia; da Silva, Maria Cristina; Neres, Patrícia; Esteves, André Morgado; Vanreusel, Ann

    2018-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns in the deep sea have been extensively studied in the last decades. In this study, we investigated whether reputable concepts in deep-sea ecology also explain diversity and distribution patterns of nematode genera and species in the abyss. Among them, three paradigms were tackled: (1) the deep sea is a highly diverse environment at a local scale, while on a regional and even larger geographical scale, species and genus turnover is limited; (2) the biodiversity of deep-sea nematode communities changes with the nature and amount of organic matter input from the surface; and (3) patch-mosaic dynamics of the deep-sea environment drive local diversity. To test these hypotheses, diversity and density of nematode assemblages and of species of the genus Acantholaimus were studied along two abyssal E-W transects. These two transects were situated in the Southern Ocean ( 50°S) and the North Atlantic ( 10°N). Four different hierarchical scales were used to compare biodiversity: at the scale of cores, between stations from the same region, and between regions. Results revealed that the deep sea harbours a high diversity at a local scale (alpha diversity), but that turnover can be shaped by different environmental drivers. Therefore, these results question the second part of the paradigm about limited species turnover in the deep sea. Higher surface primary productivity was correlated with greater nematode densities, whereas diversity responses to the augmentation of surface productivity showed no trend. Areas subjected to a constant and low food input revealed similar nematode communities to other oligotrophic abyssal areas, while stations under high productivity were characterized by different dominant genera and Acantholaimus species, and by a generally low local diversity. Our results corroborate the species-energy hypothesis, where productivity can set a limit to the richness of an ecosystem. Finally, we observed no correlation between sediment

  19. Deep-Sea Mining With No Net Loss of Biodiversity—An Impossible Aim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J. Niner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea mining is likely to result in biodiversity loss, and the significance of this to ecosystem function is not known. “Out of kind” biodiversity offsets substituting one ecosystem type (e.g., coral reefs for another (e.g., abyssal nodule fields have been proposed to compensate for such loss. Here we consider a goal of no net loss (NNL of biodiversity and explore the challenges of applying this aim to deep seabed mining, based on the associated mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimize, remediate. We conclude that the industry cannot at present deliver an outcome of NNL. This results from the vulnerable nature of deep-sea environments to mining impacts, currently limited technological capacity to minimize harm, significant gaps in ecological knowledge, and uncertainties of recovery potential of deep-sea ecosystems. Avoidance and minimization of impacts are therefore the only presently viable means of reducing biodiversity losses from seabed mining. Because of these constraints, when and if deep-sea mining proceeds, it must be approached in a precautionary and step-wise manner to integrate new and developing knowledge. Each step should be subject to explicit environmental management goals, monitoring protocols, and binding standards to avoid serious environmental harm and minimize loss of biodiversity. “Out of kind” measures, an option for compensation currently proposed, cannot replicate biodiversity and ecosystem services lost through mining of the deep seabed and thus cannot be considered true offsets. The ecosystem functions provided by deep-sea biodiversity contribute to a wide range of provisioning services (e.g., the exploitation of fish, energy, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, play an essential role in regulatory services (e.g., carbon sequestration and are important culturally. The level of “acceptable” biodiversity loss in the deep sea requires public, transparent, and well-informed consideration, as well as wide agreement

  20. Model output for deep-sea coral habitat suitability in the U.S. North and Mid-Atlantic from 2013 (NCEI Accession 0145923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was created for potential use as an environmental predictor in spatial predictive models of deep-sea coral habitat suitability. Deep-sea corals are of...

  1. Fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments associated with asphalt seeps at the Sao Paulo Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Miura, Toshiko; Nishi, Shinro; Lima, Andre O.; Nakayama, Cristina; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the fungal diversity in a total of 20 deep-sea sediment samples (of which 14 samples were associated with natural asphalt seeps and 6 samples were not associated) collected from two different sites at the Sao Paulo Plateau off Brazil by Ion Torrent PGM targeting ITS region of ribosomal RNA. Our results suggest that diverse fungi (113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97% sequence similarity assigned into 9 classes and 31 genus) are present in deep-sea sediment samples collected at the Sao Paulo Plateau, dominated by Ascomycota (74.3%), followed by Basidiomycota (11.5%), unidentified fungi (7.1%), and sequences with no affiliation to any organisms in the public database (7.1%). However, it was revealed that only three species, namely Penicillium sp., Cadophora malorum and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, were dominant, with the majority of OTUs remaining a minor community. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in major fungal community structure between the asphalt seep and non-asphalt seep sites, despite the presence of mass hydrocarbon deposits and the high amount of macro organisms surrounding the asphalt seeps. However, there were some differences in the minor fungal communities, with possible asphalt degrading fungi present specifically in the asphalt seep sites. In contrast, some differences were found between the two different sampling sites. Classification of OTUs revealed that only 47 (41.6%) fungal OTUs exhibited >97% sequence similarity, in comparison with pre-existing ITS sequences in public databases, indicating that a majority of deep-sea inhabiting fungal taxa still remain undescribed. Although our knowledge on fungi and their role in deep-sea environments is still limited and scarce, this study increases our understanding of fungal diversity and community structure in deep-sea environments.

  2. Surface oceanographic fronts influencing deep-sea biological activity: Using fish stable isotopes as ecological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.

    2017-06-01

    Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results

  3. Larval transport modeling of deep-sea invertebrates can aid the search for undiscovered populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Yearsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many deep-sea benthic animals occur in patchy distributions separated by thousands of kilometres, yet because deep-sea habitats are remote, little is known about their larval dispersal. Our novel method simulates dispersal by combining data from the Argo array of autonomous oceanographic probes, deep-sea ecological surveys, and comparative invertebrate physiology. The predicted particle tracks allow quantitative, testable predictions about the dispersal of benthic invertebrate larvae in the south-west Pacific. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a test case presented here, using non-feeding, non-swimming (lecithotrophic trochophore larvae of polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons, we show that the likely dispersal pathways in a single generation are significantly shorter than the distances between the three known population centres in our study region. The large-scale density of chiton populations throughout our study region is potentially much greater than present survey data suggest, with intermediate 'stepping stone' populations yet to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a new method that is broadly applicable to studies of the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. This test case demonstrates the power and potential applications of our new method, in generating quantitative, testable hypotheses at multiple levels to solve the mismatch between observed and expected distributions: probabilistic predictions of locations of intermediate populations, potential alternative dispersal mechanisms, and expected population genetic structure. The global Argo data have never previously been used to address benthic biology, and our method can be applied to any non-swimming larvae of the deep-sea, giving information upon dispersal corridors and population densities in habitats that remain intrinsically difficult to assess.

  4. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    OpenAIRE

    Yum, L. K.; Baumgarten, S.; Röthig, T.; Roder, C.; Roik, Anna; Michell, C.; Voolstra, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20??C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studie...

  5. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Wright, Roseanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Hauton, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of deep-sea mineral resources is burgeoning, raising concerns regarding ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Assessing toxicity in deep-sea species is technologically challenging, which promotes interest in establishing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on toxicity, and how adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions might moderate these effects, are unknown. To address these uncertainties we assessed behavioural and physiological (antioxidant enzyme activity) responses to exposure to copper-spiked artificial sediments in a laboratory experiment using a shallow-water holothurian (Holothuria forskali), and in an in situ experiment using a deep-sea holothurian (Amperima sp.). Both species demonstrated sustained avoidance behaviour, evading contact with contaminated artificial sediment. However, A. sp. demonstrated sustained avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment whereas H. forskali demonstrated only temporary avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment, suggesting that H. forskali may be more tolerant of metal exposure over 96h. Nonetheless, the acute behavioural response appears consistent between the shallow-water species and the deep-sea species, suggesting that H. forskali may be a suitable ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. in acute (≤24h) exposures, which may be representative of deep-sea mining impacts. No antioxidant response was observed in either species, which was interpreted to be the consequence of avoiding copper exposure. Although these data suggest that shallow-water taxa may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea taxa, differences in methodological and analytical approaches, and in sex and reproductive stage of experimental subjects, require caution in assessing the suitability of H. forskali as an ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. Nonetheless, avoidance behaviour may have bioenergetic consequences that

  6. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  7. Deep-sea pennatulaceans (sea pens) - recent discoveries, morphological adaptations, and responses to benthic oceanographic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pennatulaceans are sessile, benthic marine organisms that are bathymetrically wide-ranging, from the intertidal to approximately 6300 m in depth, and are conspicuous constituents of deep-sea environments. The vast majority of species are adapted for anchoring in soft sediments by the cylindrical peduncle - a muscular hydrostatic skeleton. However, in the past decade a few species ("Rockpens") have been discovered and described that can attach to hard substratum such as exposed rocky outcrops at depths between 669 and 1969 m, by a plunger-like adaptation of the base of the peduncle. Of the thirty-six known genera, eleven (or 30%) have been recorded from depths greater than 1000 m. The pennatulacean depth record holders are an unidentified species of Umbellula from 6260 m in the Peru-Chile Trench and a recently-discovered and described genus and species, Porcupinella profunda, from 5300 m the Porcupine Abyssal Plain of the northeastern Atlantic. A morphologically-differentiated type of polyp (acrozooid) have recently been discovered and described in two genera of shallow-water coral reef sea pens. Acrozooids apparently represent asexual buds and presumably can detach from the adult to start clonal colonies through asexual budding. Acrozooids are to be expected in deep-sea pennatulaceans, but so far have not been observed below 24 m in depth. Morphological responses at depths greater than 1000 m in deep-sea pennatulaceas include: fewer polyps, larger polyps, elongated stalks, and clustering of polyps along the rachis. Responses to deep-ocean physical parameters and anthropogenic changes that could affect the abundance and distribution of deep-sea pennatulaceans include changes in bottom current flow and food availability, changes in seawater temperature and pH, habitat destruction by fish trawling, and sunken refuse pollution. No evidence of the effects of ocean acidification or other effects of anthropogenic climate change in sea pens of the deep-sea has been

  8. Neutrinos at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    CERN's long and distinguished neutrino tradition began in 1958 at the then new 500 MeV synchrocyclotron (SC) with the first observation of the decay of a charged pion into an electron and a neutrino. At that time, the first ideas on the special (vector/axial vector) structure of the weak interactions had been put forward by Feynman and Gell-Mann and by Marshak and Sudarshan, but the continual non-observation of that charged pion decay was holding up progress. This decay is only one part in ten thousand, and is masked by the dominant muon-neutrino channel. A special telescope was built to pick up the high energy electrons from the pion decay. In 1962 came another SC neutrino success, with the first measurement of the decay of a charged pion into a neutral one, with emission of an electron and a neutrino. Meanwhile the main thrust of CERN's neutrino effort was taking shape at the PS. By the close of 1960, CERN had decided to attack neutrino physics using several detectors - a 1m heavy liquid bubble chamber from Andre Lagarrigue's team in Paris, a CERN 1 m heavy liquid bubble chamber, and a hybrid chamber/counter from a group led by Helmut Faissner

  9. Neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Botella, I.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac), of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end. (author)

  10. Postcolonial partnerships: deep sea research, media coverage and (inter)national narratives on the Galathea Deep Sea Expedition from 1950 to 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2010-03-01

    The Danish Galathea Deep Sea Expedition between 1950 and 1952 combined scientific and official objectives with the production of national and international narratives distributed through the daily press and other media. Dispatched by the Danish government on a newly acquired naval ship, the expedition undertook groundbreaking deep sea research while also devoting efforts to showing the flag, public communication of science, and international cooperation. The expedition was conceived after the war as a way in which to rehabilitate Denmark's reputation internationally and to rebuild national pride. To this end, the expedition included an onboard press section reporting the expedition to the Danish public and to an international audience. The press section mediated the favourable, post-war and postcolonial image of Denmark as an internationalist, scientific, modernizing and civilizing nation for which the expedition planners and many others were hoping. The expedition, therefore, was highly relevant to, indeed fed on, the emerging internationalist agenda in Denmark's foreign policy. Bringing out these aspects of the historical context of the expedition, this paper adds important perspectives to our knowledge about the expedition in particular and, more generally, about scientific exploration in the immediate post-war and postcolonial period.

  11. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos III. The deep-sea commensal species Epizoanthus paguriphilus (zoanthidea, anthozoa) and Parapagurus pilosimanus (paguroidea, crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, A.; Tyler, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the biological processes of deep-sea megainvertebrates. The research programme aims to aid long term planning of nuclear waste disposal by providing information on the nature and rates of reproductive activities of deep sea invertebrates from several different phylogenetic groups. This information serves three functions:- Firstly, baseline information is provided concerning processes at or around the sediment/water interface. Secondly, knowledge of the actual mode of reproduction indicates the extent to which the biota could be involved in recycling leaked radioactive heavy metals to different areas of the environment via their reproductive processes. The third function fulfilled by this programme is to provide information on the rates at which these processes occur. Evaluation of these aspects of the life cycles of the megainvertebrates of a specific site will indicate the potential role of a large proportion of the biota inhabiting that site following leakage of dumped material. This report is concerned with the growth and modes of reproduction of a hermit crab, Parapagurus pilosimanus and the zoanthids Epizoanthus paguriphilus and E. abyssorum with which it lives at different depths of the N. Atlantic. (U.K.)

  12. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  13. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  14. Spontaneous and Widespread Electricity Generation in Natural Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kasaya, Takafumi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takai, Ken

    2017-05-15

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents discharge abundant reductive energy into oxidative seawater. Herein, we demonstrated that in situ measurements of redox potentials on the surfaces of active hydrothermal mineral deposits were more negative than the surrounding seawater potential, driving electrical current generation. We also demonstrated that negative potentials in the surface of minerals were widespread in the hydrothermal fields, regardless of the proximity to hydrothermal fluid discharges. Lab experiments verified that the negative potential of the mineral surface was induced by a distant electron transfer from the hydrothermal fluid through the metallic and catalytic properties of minerals. These results indicate that electric current is spontaneously and widely generated in natural mineral deposits in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. Our discovery provides important insights into the microbial communities that are supported by extracellular electron transfer and the prebiotic chemical and metabolic evolution of the ocean hydrothermal systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the deep-sea sponge Poecillastra laminaris (Astrophorida, Vulcanellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cong; Thomas, Leighton J; Kelly, Michelle; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a New Zealand specimen of the deep-sea sponge Poecillastra laminaris (Sollas, 1886) (Astrophorida, Vulcanellidae), from the Colville Ridge, New Zealand, was sequenced using the 454 Life Science pyrosequencing system. To identify homologous mitochondrial sequences, the 454 reads were mapped to the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Geodia neptuni (GeneBank No. NC_006990). The P. laminaris genome is 18,413 bp in length and includes 14 protein-coding genes, 24 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Gene order resembled that of other demosponges. The base composition of the genome is A (29.1%), T (35.2%), C (14.0%) and G (21.7%). This is the second published mitogenome for a sponge of the order Astrophorida and will be useful in future phylogenetic analysis of deep-sea sponges.

  16. Predicting drivers and distributions of deep-sea ecosystems: A cold-water coral case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Brown, Colin

    2015-01-01

    pertusa as a case study (Rengstorf et al., 2014). The study shows that predictive models incorporating hydrodynamic variables perform significantly better than models based on terrain parameters only. They are a potentially powerful tool to improve our understanding of deep-sea ecosystem functioning......, facilitating species distribution modelling with high spatial detail. In this study, we used high resolution data (250 m grid size) from a newly developed hydrodynamic model to explore linkages between key physical drivers and occurrences of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa in selected areas of the NE...... and to provide decision support for marine spatial planning and conservation in the deep sea. Mohn et al., 2014.Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 122, 92-104. Rengstorf et...

  17. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  18. From Exploration to Exploitation? Opportunities and Imperatives in the Deep Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-01-16

    We may think of the depths of the ocean as unseen, unfathomable, but there have been breakthroughs in technology that allow scientists access to the deep sea and that bring the deep sea directly to the public through live video feeds and data links. We can now map the seafloor to resolve features the size of a football and smaller using sound waves, while at the same time, sensors report to us the chemical nature of the surrounding environment. We will look at examples of robots and other assets that we use to explore the seafloor and at some of the discoveries that arise from our expanding capabilities. We will look at some of the blank places on the map and wonder what might be located there. And finally, we will explore the growing interest in mining the seabed and the potential for a Blue Economy in the deep ocean.

  19. Estimation of the iron loss in deep-sea permanent magnet motors considering seawater compressive stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  20. Estimation of the Iron Loss in Deep-Sea Permanent Magnet Motors considering Seawater Compressive Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM. The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  1. Bacterial diversity and biogeography in deep-sea sediments of the South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Bienhold, Christina; Ramette, Alban

    2010-01-01

    in 1051 sequences. Phylotypes affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were present in all three basins. The distribution of these shared phylotypes seemed to be influenced neither by the Walvis Ridge nor by different deep water masses, suggesting a high dispersal......Microbial biogeographic patterns in the deep sea depend on the ability of microorganisms to disperse. One possible limitation to microbial dispersal may be the Walvis Ridge that separates the Antarctic Lower Circumpolar Deep Water from the North Atlantic Deep Water. We examined bacterial...... communities in three basins of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean to determine diversity and biogeography of bacterial communities in deep-sea surface sediments. The analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries in each basin revealed a high diversity, representing 521 phylotypes with 98% identity...

  2. Metagenomic Signatures of Microbial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sediments of Azores Vent Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Teresa; Barroso, Cristina; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Bettencourt, Raul

    2018-01-21

    The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Differences in the microbial community structure might be reflecting the distinct depth, geology, and distance from vent of the studied sediments. A metagenomic sequencing approach was conducted to characterize the microbiome of the deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and the relevant metabolic pathways used by microbes. Both Menez Gwen and Rainbow metagenomes contained a significant number of genes involved in carbon fixation, revealing the largely autotrophic communities thriving in both sites. Carbon fixation at Menez Gwen site was predicted to occur mainly via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely reflecting the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria at this site, while different autotrophic pathways were identified at Rainbow site, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Chemolithotrophy appeared to be primarily driven by the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, whether through the SOX-dependent pathway at Menez Gwen site or through reverse sulfate reduction at Rainbow site. Other energy-yielding processes, such as methane, nitrite, or ammonia oxidation, were also detected but presumably contributing less to chemolithoautotrophy. This work furthers our knowledge of the microbial ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and represents an important repository of novel genes with potential biotechnological interest.

  3. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Jobstvogt

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders.

  4. Deep-Sea Trench Microbiology Down to 10.9 Kilometers Below the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea trenches, extending to more than 10.9 km below the sea surface, are among the most remote and infrequently sampled habitats. As a result a global perspective of microbial diversity and adaptation is lacking in these extreme settings. I will present the results of studies of deep-sea trench microbes collected in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), Tonga Trench, New Britain Trench and Mariana Trench. The samples collected include sediment, seawater and animals in baited traps. The analyses to be described include microbial community activity and viability measurements as a function of hydrostatic pressure, microbial culturing at high pressure under various physiological conditions, phylogenetics and metagenome and single-cell genome characterizations. Most of the results to date stem from samples recovered from the PRT. The deep-sea PRT Trench microbes have more in common at the species level with other deep-sea microbial communities previously characterized in the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea than with the microbial populations above them in shallow waters. They also harbor larger genomes with more genes assigned to signal transduction, transcription, replication, recombination and repair and inorganic ion transport. The overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome include di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that correspond to the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. But, perhaps the most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes is heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the high numbers of metal efflux systems present. Single-cell genomics approaches have proven particularly useful for placing PRT metagenomic data into context.

  5. The contribution of deep-sea macrohabitat heterogeneity to global nematode diversity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vanreusel, A.; Fonseca, G.; Danovaro, R.; DaSilva, M.C.; Esteves, A.M.; Ferrero, T.; Gad, G.; Galtsova, V.; Gambi, C.; Genevois, V.F.; Ingels, J.; Ingole, B.S.; Lampadariou, N.; Merckx, B.; Miljutina, M.; Muthumbi, A.; Netto, S.; Portnova, D.; Radziejewska, T.; Raes, M.; Tchesunov, A.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Van Gaever, S.; Venekey, V.; Bezerra, T.N.; Flint, H; Copley, J.; Pape, E; Zeppilli, D.; Martinez, P.A.; Galeron, J.

    An edited version of this paper was published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Copyright [2010] Abstract : The great variety of geological and hydrological settings in the deep-sea generates many different habitats, some of them only recently explored whereas... were assumed to be the main driving factors for differences in benthic standing stock, biodiversity and community composition of the benthos (Grassle, 1989; Gage and Tyler, 1991). However, through increasing exploration by means of bathymetric...

  6. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobstvogt, Niels; Townsend, Michael; Witte, Ursula; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders.

  7. Alterations in geochemical associations in artificially disturbed deep-sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Parthiban, G.; Banaulikar, S.; Sarkar, S.

    Alterations in Geochemical Associations in Artificially Disturbed Deep-Sea Sediments B. NAGENDER NATH, G. PARTHIBAN, AND S. BANAULIKAR National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India SUBHADEEP SARKAR Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian... the lithogenic component by transporting it from other locations within the Basin during commercial mining operations. Keywords manganese nodule mining, artificial benthic disturbance experiment, environmental impact assessment, metals Trace metals in marine...

  8. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  9. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  10. Distribution of deep-sea benthos in the proposed mining area of Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    . 1997. Imediate response of benthic meio and megafauna to disturbancecaused by polymetallic nodule miner simulator. Proceedings,International Symposiumon Environmental Studies for Deep-Sea Mining, Tokyo,Japan,November 20–21. Pp.223–235.Reghukumar... in the western Pacific in rela-tion to environmental factors. Oceanologia Acta7:113–121. Shirayama,Y.,and T. Fukushima. 1997. Response of a meiobenthic community to rapidresedimentation. In:Proceedings,International Symposium on Environmental Studies for...

  11. Structure elucidation of the new citharoxazole from the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Latrunculia (Biannulata) citharistae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Francezon, Nellie; Puissant, Alexandre; Auberger, Patrick; Vacelet, Jean; Pérez, Thierry; Fontana, Angelo; Mourabit, Ali Al; Thomas, Olivier P

    2011-08-01

    Citharoxazole (1), a new batzelline derivative featuring a benzoxazole moiety, was isolated from the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Latrunculia (Biannulata) citharistae Vacelet, 1969, together with the known batzelline C (2). This is the first chemical study of a Mediterranean Latrunculia species and the benzoxazole moiety is unprecedented for this family of marine natural products. The structure was mainly elucidated by the interpretation of NMR spectra and especially HMBC correlations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Life on wood - the carnivorous deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus (Bathymodiolinae, Mytilidae, Bivalvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2011-01-01

    to an ephemeral habitat in the deep sea of both species are described herein. Although larviphagi is known to occur in some filter-feeding bivalves, Idas argenteus is the first mytilid known to be specifically adapted to a carnivorous life. Further, it is argued that the modifications of I. argenteus with regard...... to its shell development, alimentary system, gill anatomy and life habits provide important clues to the evolution of the Bathymodiolinae....

  13. Velocity and Attenuation Profiles in the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    a. 11 o n i n and depth. Sol ’^ a 11 e i"i u a 11 o >) a i::> 1 n Ci sediment for each of the f i...i. n c t ion o f f r e q u e n c; y...estimate of sea floor depth was obtained from an oceano - graphic map of the Monterey fan (’Oceanographic Data of the Monterey Deep Sea Fan’, 1st

  14. High levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinbanks, D D; Shirayama, Y

    1986-03-27

    The paper concerns the high levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench. Measured /sup 210/Po activities and barium contents of various parts of Occultammina profunda and the surrounding sediment are given, together with their estimated /sup 210/Pb and /sup 226/Ra activities. The data suggest that xenophyphores are probably subject to unusually high levels of natural radiation.

  15. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeão, Mariana E; Reis, Luciana; Leomil, Luciana; de Oliveira, Louisi; Otsuki, Koko; Gardinali, Piero; Pelz, Oliver; Valle, Rogerio; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C). We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface), transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark) and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical-chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae , and Alcanivoracaceae ), archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae , and Methanobacteriaceae ), and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  16. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, S.; Coll, Marta; Sarda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloo...

  17. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E. Campeão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C. We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface, transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical–chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae, and Alcanivoracaceae, archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae, and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  18. Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sarda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterrane...

  19. Gulf of Mexico Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystem Studies, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Most people are familiar with tropical coral reefs, located in warm, well-illuminated, shallow waters. However, corals also exist hundreds and even thousands of meters below the ocean surface, where it is cold and completely dark. These deep-sea corals, also known as cold-water corals, have become a topic of interest due to conservation concerns over the impacts of trawling, exploration for oil and gas, and climate change. Although the existence of these corals has been known since the 1800s, our understanding of their distribution, ecology, and biology is limited due to the technical difficulties of conducting deep-sea research. DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) is a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) program focused on deep-water coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. This integrated, multidisciplinary, international effort investigates a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level, including components of microbiology, population genetics, paleoecology, food webs, taxonomy, community ecology, physical oceanography, and mapping.

  20. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenatul Basher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future.

  1. The detection of magnetotactic bacteria in deep sea sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wuchang; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhao, Yuan; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei; Pan, Hongmiao

    2016-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are distributed ubiquitously in sediments from coastal environments to the deep sea. The Pacific Manganese Nodule Province contains numerous polymetallic nodules mainly composed of manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and nickel. In the present study we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology to assess the communities of putative MTB in deep sea surface sediments at nine stations in the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. A total of 402 sequence reads from MTB were classified into six operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Among these, OTU113 and OTU759 were affiliated with the genus Magnetospira, OTU2224 and OTU2794 were affiliated with the genus Magnetococcus and Magnetovibrio, respectively, OTU3017 had no known genus affiliation, and OTU2556 was most similar to Candidatus Magnetananas. Interestingly, OTU759 was widely distributed, occurring at all study sites. Magnetism measurements revealed that all sediments were dominated by low coercivity, non-interacting single domain magnetic minerals. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the magnetic minerals were magnetosomes. Our data suggest that diverse putative MTB are widely distributed in deep sea surface sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Harpacticoid copepod diversity at two physically reworked sites in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, David

    1998-01-01

    Grassle's and Jumars' theories of diversity maintenance in the quiescent deep sea view millimeter-to-meter-scale patchiness (mostly of biological origin) as crucial. In other deep-sea regions, episodes of strong near-bottom flow put the surficial sediment layers into motion, obliterating the biologically produced, millimeter-to-meter-scale patchiness. Under these theories, sites eroded so frequently that such patchiness is eliminated almost as soon as it is created should have lower diversities than sites where the time between erosive events is sufficient for this type of patchiness to be produced and exploited. I tested this prediction by comparing the diversities of harpacticoid copepods at two sites on Fieberling Guyot to determine whether Grassle's and Jumars' theories can be extended to the portion of the deep sea that experiences episodic erosive flows. At White Sand Swale (=WSS) (32°27.581'N, 127°47.839'W), strong near-bottom flows erode the surficial sediment daily. At Sea Pen Rim (=SPR) (32°27.631'N, 127°49.489'W), strong near-bottom flows erode the surficial sediment a few times annually. Contrary to expectation, the diversity of harpacticoid copepods was significantly greater at WSS than at SPR. However, the erosion regime at WSS may create small-scale patchiness that promotes harpacticoid diversity.

  3. Recent developments in the thermophilic microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hot vents was actively studied over the last two decades. The ever growing interest is reflected in the exponentially increasing number of novel thermophilic genera described. The goal of this paper is to survey the progress in this field made in the years 2000-2005. In this period, representatives of several new taxa of hyperthermophilic archaea were obtained from deep-sea environments. Two of these isolates had phenotypic features new for this group of organisms: the presence of an outer cell membrane (the genus Ignicoccus) and the ability to grow anaerobically with acetate and ferric iron (the genus Geoglobus). Also, our knowledge on the diversity of thermophilic bacteria from deep-sea thermal environments extended significantly. The new bacterial isolates represented diverse bacterial divisions: the phylum Aquificae, the subclass Epsilonproteobacteria, the order Thermotogales, the families Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Thermaceae, and a novel bacterial phylum represented by the genus Caldithrix. Most of these isolates are obligate or facultative lithotrophs, oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of different types of anaerobic respiration or microaerobic growth. The existence and significant ecological role of some of new bacterial thermophilic isolates was initially established by molecular methods.

  4. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi.

  5. Bacterial community diversity of the deep-sea octocoral Paramuricea placomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Kellogg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to tropical corals, much less is known about deep-sea coral biology and ecology. Although the microbial communities of some deep-sea corals have been described, this is the first study to characterize the bacterial community associated with the deep-sea octocoral, Paramuricea placomus. Samples from five colonies of P. placomus were collected from Baltimore Canyon (379–382 m depth in the Atlantic Ocean off the east coast of the United States of America. DNA was extracted from the coral samples and 16S rRNA gene amplicons were pyrosequenced using V4-V5 primers. Three samples sequenced deeply (>4,000 sequences each and were further analyzed. The dominant microbial phylum was Proteobacteria, but other major phyla included Firmicutes and Planctomycetes. A conserved community of bacterial taxa held in common across the three P. placomus colonies was identified, comprising 68–90% of the total bacterial community depending on the coral individual. The bacterial community of P. placomus does not appear to include the genus Endozoicomonas, which has been found previously to be the dominant bacterial associate in several temperate and tropical gorgonians. Inferred functionality suggests the possibility of nitrogen cycling by the core bacterial community.

  6. Genetic homogeneity in the deep-sea grenadier Macrourus berglax across the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Ilaria; Castilho, Rita; Massa-Gallucci, Alexia; Sacchi, Carlotta; Cunha, Regina L.; Stefanni, Sergio; Helyar, Sarah J.; Knutsen, Halvor; Mariani, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    Paucity of data on population structure and connectivity in deep sea species remains a major obstacle to their sustainable management and conservation in the face of ever increasing fisheries pressure and other forms of impacts on deep sea ecosystems. The roughhead grenadier Macrourus berglax presents all the classical characteristics of a deep sea species, such as slow growth and low fecundity, which make them particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic impact, due to their low resilience to change. In this study, the population structure of the roughhead grenadier is investigated throughout its geographic distribution using two sets of molecular markers: a partial sequence of the Control Region of mitochondrial DNA and species-specific microsatellites. No evidence of significant structure was found throughout the North Atlantic, with both sets of molecular markers yielding the same results of overall homogeneity. We posit two non-mutually exclusive scenarios that can explain such outcome: i) substantial high gene flow among locations, possibly maintained by larval stages, ii) very large effective size of post-glacially expanded populations. The results can inform management strategies in this by-caught species, and contribute to the broader issue of biological connectivity in the deep ocean.

  7. The secret to successful deep-sea invasion: does low temperature hold the key?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Smith

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that today's deep-sea biodiversity has largely resulted from recurrent invasions and speciations occurring through homogenous waters during periods of the Phanerozoic eon. Migrations likely continue today, primarily via isothermal water columns, such as those typical of Polar Regions, but the necessary ecological and physiological adaptations behind them are poorly understood. In an evolutionary context, understanding the adaptations, which allow for colonisation to high-pressure environments, may enable us to predict future events. In this investigation, we examine pressure tolerance during development, in the shallow-water neogastropod Buccinum undatum using thermally acclimated egg masses from temperate and sub-polar regions across the species range. Fossil records indicate neogastropods to have a deep-water origin, suggesting shallow-water species may be likely candidates for re-emergence into the deep sea. Our results show population level differences in physiological thresholds, which indicate low temperature acclimation to increase pressure tolerance. These findings imply this species is capable of deep-sea penetration through isothermal water columns prevailing at high latitudes. This study gives new insight into the fundamentals behind past and future colonisation events. Such knowledge is instrumental to understand better how changes in climate envelopes affect the distribution and radiation of species along latitudinal as well as bathymetric temperature gradients.

  8. Predictive modeling of deep-sea fish distribution in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Hugo E.; Pham, Christopher K.; Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the link between fish and their habitat is essential for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. However, determining such relationship is challenging, especially for deep-sea species. In this study, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate presence-absence and relative abundance data of eight economically-important fish species to environmental variables (depth, slope, aspect, substrate type, bottom temperature, salinity and oxygen saturation). We combined 13 years of catch data collected from systematic longline surveys performed across the region. Overall, presence-absence GAMs performed better than abundance models and predictions made for the observed data successfully predicted the occurrence of the eight deep-sea fish species. Depth was the most influential predictor of all fish species occurrence and abundance distributions, whereas other factors were found to be significant for some species but did not show such a clear influence. Our results predicted that despite the extensive Azores EEZ, the habitats available for the studied deep-sea fish species are highly limited and patchy, restricted to seamounts slopes and summits, offshore banks and island slopes. Despite some identified limitations, our GAMs provide an improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of these commercially important fish species in the region.

  9. Starvation and recovery in the deep-sea methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Patricia L; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Tocheva, Elitza I; Dalleska, Nathan F; Jensen, Ashley J; Valentine, David L; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Jensen, Grant J; Dubilier, Nicole; Orphan, Victoria J

    2017-01-01

    In the deep ocean, the conversion of methane into derived carbon and energy drives the establishment of diverse faunal communities. Yet specific biological mechanisms underlying the introduction of methane-derived carbon into the food web remain poorly described, due to a lack of cultured representative deep-sea methanotrophic prokaryotes. Here, the response of the deep-sea aerobic methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti to methane starvation and recovery was characterized. By combining lipid analysis, RNA analysis, and electron cryotomography, it was shown that M. sedimenti undergoes discrete cellular shifts in response to methane starvation, including changes in headgroup-specific fatty acid saturation levels, and reductions in cytoplasmic storage granules. Methane starvation is associated with a significant increase in the abundance of gene transcripts pertinent to methane oxidation. Methane reintroduction to starved cells stimulates a rapid, transient extracellular accumulation of methanol, revealing a way in which methane-derived carbon may be routed to community members. This study provides new understanding of methanotrophic responses to methane starvation and recovery, and lays the initial groundwork to develop Methyloprofundus as a model chemosynthesizing bacterium from the deep sea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Feeding in deep-sea demosponges: Influence of abiotic and biotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leah M.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2017-09-01

    In shallow benthic communities, sponges are widely recognized for their ability to contribute to food webs by cycling nutrients and mediating carbon fluxes through filter feeding. In comparison, little is known about filter feeding in deep-sea species and how it may be modulated by environmental conditions. Here, a rare opportunity to maintain live healthy deep-sea sponges for an extended period led to a preliminary experimental study of their feeding metrics. This work focused on demosponges collected from the continental slope of eastern Canada at 1000 m depth. Filtration rates (as clearance of phytoplankton cells) at holding temperature (6 °C) were positively correlated with food particle concentration, ranging on average from 18.8 to 160.6 cells ml-1 h-1 at nominal concentrations of 10,000-40,000 cells ml-1. Cell clearance was not significantly affected by decreasing seawater temperature, from 6 °C to 3 °C or 0 °C, although two of the sponges showed decreased filtration rates. Low pH ( 7.5) and the presence of a predatory sea star markedly depressed or inhibited feeding activity in all sponges tested. While performed under laboratory conditions on a limited number of specimens, this work highlights the possible sensitivity of deep-sea demosponges to various types and levels of biotic and abiotic factors, inferring a consequent vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  11. Developments for a passive optical node network for deployment in deep sea enabling time synchronous data readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, Eric; Hoek, Mar van der; Hogenbirk, Jelle; Jansweijer, Peter; Mos, Sander; Peek, Henk

    2009-01-01

    An overview of an optical network design for a Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope (VLVnT) [Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical aspects of a VLVnT in the Mediterranean Sea, ISBN90-6488-026-3] residing on the seabed is presented. The passive optical network transports all data to shore in a synchronous way without data congestion. Due to fixed propagation delay and low jitter over the fiber network an accurate event time stamp can be generated onshore. The determined signal propagation can also serve for detector calibration. The results of a proto type vertical cable test are presented.

  12. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  13. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  14. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojun; Barrett, Nolan H; McCarthy, Peter J

    2017-02-02

    The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. Copyright © 2017 Wang et al.

  16. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  17. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  18. The Effects of Temperature and Hydrostatic Pressure on Metal Toxicity: Insights into Toxicity in the Deep Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2017-09-05

    Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96 h) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians. Low temperature reduced toxicity in both metals, but reduced cadmium toxicity significantly more. In contrast, elevated hydrostatic pressure increased copper toxicity, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. The synergistic interaction between copper and cadmium was not affected by low temperature, but high hydrostatic pressure significantly enhanced the synergism. Differential environmental effects on toxicity suggest different mechanisms of action for copper and cadmium, and highlight that mechanistic understanding of toxicity is fundamental to predicting environmental effects on toxicity. Although results infer that sensitivity to toxicants differs across biogeographic ranges, shallow-water species may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea species, dependent on adaptation to habitats with similar environmental variability.

  19. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  20. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  1. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2017-07-19

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  2. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Lauren K; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Roik, Anna; Michell, Craig; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-07-25

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  3. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Rö thig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Michell, Craig; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  4. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  5. Neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)

  6. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  7. Astrophysics and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Harigel, G G

    1997-01-01

    This seminar is primarily intended for CERN guides. The formation of sun-like stars, their life cycle, and their final destiny will be explained in simple terms, appropriate for the majority of our visitors. An overview of the nuclear reaction chains in our sun will presented (Standard Solar Model), with special emphasis on the production of neutrinos and their measurement in underground detectors. These detectors are also able to record high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Since many properties of neutrinos are still unknown, a brief description of table-top and nuclear reactor experiments is included, as well as those using beams from particle accelerators. Measurements with a variety of space telescopes complement the knowledge of our universe, previously limited to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Ecosystem Services: a Framework for Environmental Management of the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, J. T.; Levin, L. A.; Carson, R. T.

    2016-02-01

    As demand for deep-sea resources rapidly expands in the food, energy, mineral, and pharmaceutical sectors, it has become increasingly clear that a regulatory structure for extracting these resources is not yet in place. There are jurisdictional gaps and a lack of regulatory consistency regarding what aspects of the deep sea need protection and what requirements might help guarantee that protection. Given the mining sector's intent to exploit seafloor massive sulphides, Mn nodules, cobalt crusts, and phosphorites in the coming years, there is an urgent need for deep-ocean environmental management. Here, we propose an ecosystem services-based framework to inform decisions and best practices regarding resource exploitation, and to guide baseline studies, preventative actions, monitoring, and remediation. With policy in early stages of development, an ecosystem services approach has the potential to serve as an overarching framework that takes protection of natural capital provided by the environment into account during the decision-making process. We show how an ecosystem services approach combined with economic tools, such as benefit transfer techniques, should help illuminate issues where there are direct conflicts among different industries, and between industry and conservation. We argue for baseline and monitoring measurements and metrics that inform about deep-sea ecosystem services that would be impaired by mining, and discuss ways to incorporate the value of those losses into decision making, mitigation measures, and ultimately product costs. This proposal is considered relative to current International Seabed Authority recommendations and contractor practices, and new actions are proposed. An ecosystem services-based understanding of how these systems work and their value to society can improve sustainability and stewardship of the deep ocean.

  9. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments represented by Caloranaerobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing; Xu, Hongxiu; Zeng, Xiang; Wu, Xiaobing; Long, Minnan; Shao, Zongze

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen is an important energy source for deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. However, little is known about microbes and their role in hydrogen turnover in the environment. In this study, the diversity and physiological characteristics of fermentative hydrogen-producing microbes from deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields were described for the first time. Seven enrichments were obtained from hydrothermal vent sulfides collected from the Southwest Indian Ocean, East Pacific and South Atlantic. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that members of the Caloranaerobacter genus were the dominant component in these enrichments. Subsequently, three thermophilic hydrogen producers, strains H363, H53214 and DY22619, were isolated. They were phylogenetically related to species of the genus Caloranaerobacter. The H2 yields of strains H363, H53214, DY22619 and MV107, which was the type species of genus Caloranaerobacter, were 0.11, 1.21, 3.13 and 2.85 mol H2/mol glucose, respectively. Determination of the main soluble metabolites revealed that strains H363, H53214 and MV107 performed heterolactic fermentations, while strain DY22619 performed butyric acid fermentation, indicating distinct fermentation patterns among members of the genus. Finally, a diversity of forms of [FeFe]-hydrogenase with different modular structures was revealed based on draft genomic data of Caloranaerobacter strains. This highlights the complexity of hydrogen metabolism in Caloranaerobacter, reflecting adaptations to environmental conditions in hydrothermal vent systems. Collectively, results suggested that Caloranaerobacter species might be ubiquitous and play a role in biological hydrogen generation in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12 were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Novel N-Acetylneuraminate Lyase from a Deep-Sea Symbiotic Mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-lu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac based novel pharmaceutical agents and diagnostic reagents are highly required in medical fields. However, N-acetylneuraminate lyase(NAL)for Neu5Ac synthesis is not applicable for industry due to its low catalytic efficiency. In this study, we biochemically characterized a deep-sea NAL enzyme (abbreviated form: MyNal from a symbiotic Mycoplasma inhabiting the stomach of a deep-sea isopod, Bathynomus jamesi. Enzyme kinetic studies of MyNal showed that it exhibited a very low Km for both cleavage and synthesis activities compared to previously described NALs. Though it favors the cleavage process, MyNal out-competes the known NALs with respect to the efficiency of Neu5Ac synthesis and exhibits the highest kcat/Km values. High expression levels of recombinant MyNal could be achieved (9.56 mol L−1 culture with a stable activity in a wide pH (5.0–9.0 and temperature (40–60 °C range. All these features indicated that the deep-sea NAL has potential in the industrial production of Neu5Ac. Furthermore, we found that the amino acid 189 of MyNal (equivalent to Phe190 in Escherichia coli NAL, located in the sugar-binding domain, GX189DE, was also involved in conferring its enzymatic features. Therefore, the results of this study improved our understanding of the NALs from different environments and provided a model for protein engineering of NAL for biosynthesis of Neu5Ac.

  12. Long-term viability of carbon sequestration in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Zhang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep-sea sediments has been proposed for the long-term storage of anthropogenic CO2, due to the negative buoyancy effect and hydrate formation under conditions of high pressure and low temperature. However, the multi-physics process of injection and post-injection fate of CO2 and the feasibility of sub-seabed disposal of CO2 under different geological and operational conditions have not been well studied. On the basis of a detailed study of the coupled processes, we investigate whether storing CO2 into deep-sea sediments is viable, efficient, and secure over the long term. Also studied are the evolution of the multiphase and multicomponent flow and the impact of hydrate formation on storage efficiency during the upward migration of the injected CO2. It is shown that low buoyancy and high viscosity slow down the ascending plume and the forming of the hydrate cap effectively reduces the permeability and finally becomes an impermeable seal, thus limiting the movement of CO2 towards the seafloor. Different flow patterns at varied time scales are identified through analyzing the mass distribution of CO2 in different phases over time. Observed is the formation of a fluid inclusion, which mainly consists of liquid CO2 and is encapsulated by an impermeable hydrate film in the diffusion-dominated stage. The trapped liquid CO2 and CO2 hydrate finally dissolve into the pore water through diffusion of the CO2 component. Sensitivity analyses are performed on storage efficiency under variable geological and operational conditions. It is found that under a deep-sea setting, CO2 sequestration in intact marine sediments is generally safe and permanent.

  13. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150–200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  14. Fish food in the deep sea: revisiting the role of large food-falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Higgs

    Full Text Available The carcasses of large pelagic vertebrates that sink to the seafloor represent a bounty of food to the deep-sea benthos, but natural food-falls have been rarely observed. Here were report on the first observations of three large 'fish-falls' on the deep-sea floor: a whale shark (Rhincodon typus and three mobulid rays (genus Mobula. These observations come from industrial remotely operated vehicle video surveys of the seafloor on the Angola continental margin. The carcasses supported moderate communities of scavenging fish (up to 50 individuals per carcass, mostly from the family Zoarcidae, which appeared to be resident on or around the remains. Based on a global dataset of scavenging rates, we estimate that the elasmobranch carcasses provided food for mobile scavengers over extended time periods from weeks to months. No evidence of whale-fall type communities was observed on or around the carcasses, with the exception of putative sulphide-oxidising bacterial mats that outlined one of the mobulid carcasses. Using best estimates of carcass mass, we calculate that the carcasses reported here represent an average supply of carbon to the local seafloor of 0.4 mg m(-2d(-1, equivalent to ∼ 4% of the normal particulate organic carbon flux. Rapid flux of high-quality labile organic carbon in fish carcasses increases the transfer efficiency of the biological pump of carbon from the surface oceans to the deep sea. We postulate that these food-falls are the result of a local concentration of large marine vertebrates, linked to the high surface primary productivity in the study area.

  15. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Sutton, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen A; Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Sánchez-Carbente, María Del Rayo; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixon; Dobson, Alan D W; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2017-01-01

    Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C) and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12) were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  16. Colonization of habitat islands in the deep sea: recruitment to glass sponge stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.

    2001-04-01

    Biogenic structures in the deep sea often act as hard substratum 'islands' for the attachment of encrusting fauna. At an abyssal station in the NE Pacific, stalks of hexactinellid sponges in the genus Hyalonema are habitat islands for species-rich epifaunal communities. An experimental study was conducted to (1) determine the colonization rates of artificial Hyalonema stalks, (2) compare the species composition and diversity of recruits to newly available substrata to that of the natural communities, and (3) examine the vertical distribution of recruits. Four sets of six artificial sponge stalks, constructed of Hyalonema spicules, were deployed at 4100 m depth for 3- to 5-month periods. There was no difference in net colonization or immigration rate among the four deployments. Colonization rates were similar to those reported for other deep-sea, hard substratum recruitment experiments. The taxa that recruited to the artificial stalks were a subset of the taxa found in natural communities. However, several taxa important in structuring natural communities did not recruit to the artificial stalks. The two taxa with the highest invasion rates, a calcareous foraminiferan ( Cibicides lobatulus) and a serpulid polychaete ( Bathyvermilia sp.), also were the two taxa with greatest relative abundance in natural communities. Vertical distributions of Cibicides and an agglutinated foraminiferan ( Telammina sp.) were skewed towards the top of the artificial stalks, potentially because of active habitat selection. These results have several implications for natural Hyalonema stalk communities. Most importantly, species composition and abundance of individuals in the stalk communities appear to be maintained by frequent recruitment of a few common taxa and infrequent recruitment of many rare taxa. An argument is presented for temporal-mosaic maintenance of diversity in these deep-sea, hard substratum communities.

  17. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deep-sea coral-associated sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Stamler, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals support distinct populations of infauna within surrounding sediments that provide vital ecosystem functions and services in the deep sea. Yet due to their sedentary existence, infauna are vulnerable to perturbation and contaminant exposure because they are unable to escape disturbance events. While multiple deep-sea coral habitats were injured by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the extent of adverse effects on coral-associated sediment communities is unknown. In 2011, sediments were collected adjacent to several coral habitats located 6 to 183 km from the wellhead in order to quantify the extent of impact of the DWH spill on infaunal communities. Higher variance in macrofaunal abundance and diversity, and different community structure (higher multivariate dispersion) were associated with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and contaminants at sites closest to the wellhead (MC294, MC297, and MC344), consistent with impacts from the spill. In contrast, variance in meiofaunal diversity was not significantly related to distance from the wellhead and no other community metric (e.g. density or multivariate dispersion) was correlated with contaminants or hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) provided the best statistical explanation for observed macrofaunal community structure, while depth and presence of fine-grained mud best explained meiofaunal community patterns. Impacts associated with contaminants from the DWH spill resulted in a patchwork pattern of infaunal community composition, diversity, and abundance, highlighting the role of variability as an indicator of disturbance. These data represent a useful baseline for tracking post-spill recovery of these deep-sea communities.

  18. Feeding strategies and resource partitioning among elasmobranchs and cephalopods in Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Maria; Rueda, Lucía; Quetglas, Antoni

    2017-10-01

    Cephalopods and elasmobranchs are important components of marine ecosystems, whereby knowing the ecological role they play in the structure and dynamics of trophic networks is paramount. With this aim, stomach contents and stable isotopes of the most abundant elasmobranch and cephalopod species (5 and 18 species, respectively) inhabiting deep-sea ecosystems from the western Mediterranean were analyzed. The predators investigated encompassed different taxonomic groups, such as rays and sharks within elasmobranchs, and squids, octopuses and cuttlefishes within cephalopods. Specifically, we investigated ontogenetic shifts in diet, feeding strategies and prey consumption, trophic structure and potential dietary overlap between and within both taxonomical groups. Stable isotope analysis revealed ontogenetic shifts in diet in three elasmobranch (rays and sharks) and two cephalopod (octopuses and squids) species. Isotopic data showed a contrasting food source gradient (δ13C), from pelagic (squids and cuttlefishes) to benthic (octopuses and elasmobranchs). Stomach data highlighted a great variety of trophic guilds which could be further aggregated into three broad categories: benthic, benthopelagic and pelagic feeders. The combination of both stomach content and stable isotope analyses revealed a clear food partitioning among species. Mesopelagic prey were found to be an important food resource for deep-sea elasmobranchs and cephalopods, which could be related to the strong oligotrophic conditions in the area. The observed differences in feeding strategies within cephalopods and elasmobranchs should be taken into account when defining functional groups in trophodynamic models from the western Mediterranean. Our results also revealed that cephalopods play a key role for the benthopelagic coupling, whereas demersal elasmobranchs contribute primarily to a one-way flux accumulating energy resources into deep-sea ecosystems.

  19. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.; Roark, B.; Koenig, A.; Batista, F. C.; Kocar, B. D.; Selby, D. S.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Mienis, F.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  20. Southern Ocean Circulation: a High Resolution Examination of the Last Deglaciation from Deep-Sea Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L. F.; Li, T.; Chen, T.; Burke, A.; Pegrum Haram, A.; Stewart, J.; Rae, J. W. B.; van de Flierdt, T.; Struve, T.; Wilson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two decades ago it was first noted that the skeletal remains of deep-sea corals had the potential to provide absolutely dated archives of past ocean conditions. In the intervening twenty years this field has developed to the point where strategic collections and high throughput dating techniques now allow high resolution, well dated records of past deep sea behaviour to be produced. Likewise, efforts to improve understanding of biomineralisation and growth rates are leading to refinements in proxy tools useful for examining circulation, nutrient and carbon cycling, temperature and weathering processes. Deep-sea corals are particularly valuable archives in high latitude regions where radiocarbon-based age models are susceptible to large changes in surface reservoir ages. In this presentation we show new high resolution multiproxy records of the Southern Ocean (Drake Passage) made on U-Th dated corals spanning the last glacial cycle. With more than seventeen hundred reconnaissance ages, and around 200 precise isotope dilution U-Th ages, subtle changes in ocean behaviour can be identified during times of abrupt climate change. The geochemical signature of corals from the deepest sites, closest to modern day Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters, typically show a gradual shift from glacial to Holocene values during deglaciation, likely related to ventilation of the deep ocean. By contrast for the samples collected shallower in the water column (within sites currently bathed by Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters and Antarctic Intermediate and Mode Waters) the evidence points to a more complicated picture. Vertical zonation in the geochemical data suggests that periods of stratification are interspersed with mixing events within the upper 1500m of the water column. At the same time comparison to U-Th dated records from the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic points to an important role for the Southern Ocean in feeding the intermediate waters of both ocean basins throughout the

  1. Diverse, rare microbial taxa responded to the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea hydrocarbon plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Sara; Grim, Sharon; Sogin, Mitchell; Bracco, Annalisa; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Joye, Samantha B

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil well blowout generated an enormous plume of dispersed hydrocarbons that substantially altered the Gulf of Mexico's deep-sea microbial community. A significant enrichment of distinct microbial populations was observed, yet, little is known about the abundance and richness of specific microbial ecotypes involved in gas, oil and dispersant biodegradation in the wake of oil spills. Here, we document a previously unrecognized diversity of closely related taxa affiliating with Cycloclasticus, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae and describe their spatio-temporal distribution in the Gulf's deepwater, in close proximity to the discharge site and at increasing distance from it, before, during and after the discharge. A highly sensitive, computational method (oligotyping) applied to a data set generated from 454-tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4-V6 regions, enabled the detection of population dynamics at the sub-operational taxonomic unit level (0.2% sequence similarity). The biogeochemical signature of the deep-sea samples was assessed via total cell counts, concentrations of short-chain alkanes (C1-C5), nutrients, (colored) dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, as well as methane oxidation rates. Statistical analysis elucidated environmental factors that shaped ecologically relevant dynamics of oligotypes, which likely represent distinct ecotypes. Major hydrocarbon degraders, adapted to the slow-diffusive natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Gulf of Mexico, appeared unable to cope with the conditions encountered during the DWH spill or were outcompeted. In contrast, diverse, rare taxa increased rapidly in abundance, underscoring the importance of specialized sub-populations and potential ecotypes during massive deep-sea oil discharges and perhaps other large-scale perturbations.

  2. Deciphering Equatorial Pacific Deep Sea Sediment Transport Regimes by Core-Log-Seismic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Marcantonio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating deep-sea sediment transportation and deposition regimes is a key to accurately understand implications from geological information recorded by pelagic sediments, e.g. climate signals. However, except for physical oceanographic particle trap experiments, geochemical analyses of in situsediments, and theoretical modeling of the relation between the bottom currents and sediment particle flux, it has remained a challenging task to document the movement of deep sea sediments, that takes place over time. We utilized high-resolution, multichannel reflection seismic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific region with drilling and logging results from two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) 7 (Site U1337) and 8 (Site U1338), to characterize sediment transportation regimes on 18-24 Ma oceanic crust. Site U1337, constructed by a series of distinct abyssal hills and abyssal basins; Site U1338, located 570 km SE from Site U1337 site and constructed by a series of ridges, seamounts, and abyssal hills. These sites are of particular interest due to their proximity to the equatorial productivity zone, areas with high sedimentation rates and preservation of carbonate-bearing sediment that provide invaluable insights on equatorial Pacific ecosystems and carbon cycle. We integrate downhole geophysical logging data as well as geochemistry and physical properties measurements on recovered cores from IODP Sites U1337 and U1338 to comprehensively examine the mobility of deep-sea sediments and sediment diagenesis over times in a quasi-3D manner. We also examine 1100 km of high resolution underway seismic surveys from site survey lines in between PEAT 7 and 8 in order to investigate changes in sediment transportation between both sites. Integrating detailed seismic interpretations, high resolution core data, and 230Th flux measurements we aim to create a detailed chronological sedimentation and sediment diagenesis history

  3. Benthic Foraminifera, Food in the Deep Sea, and Limits to Bentho-Pelagic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Boscolo-Galazzo, F.; Arreguin-Rodrigu, G. J.; Ortiz, S.; Alegret, L.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-sea is the largest habitat on Earth, contains highly diverse biota, but is very little known. Many of its abundant benthic biota (e.g., nematodes) are not preserved in the fossil record. Calcareous and agglutinated benthic foraminifera (unicellular eukaryotes, Rhizaria; efficient dispersers) and ostracodes (Animalia, Crustacea; non-efficient dispersers) are the most common organisms providing a fossil record of deep-sea environments. Very little food is supplied to the deep-sea, because organic matter produced by photosynthesis is largely degraded before it arrives at the seafloor. Only a few % of organic matter is carried to the ocean bottom by 'marine snow', with its particle size and behavior in the water column controlled by surface ecosystem structure, including type of dominant primary producers (diatoms, cyanobacteria). Food supply and its seasonality are generally seen as the dominant control on benthic assemblages (combined with oxygenation), providing bentho-pelagic coupling between primary and benthic productivity. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages (composition and density) thus are used widely to estimate past productivity, especially during episodes of global climate change, ocean acidification, and mass extinction of primary producers. We show that some environmental circumstances may result in interrupting bentho-pelagic coupling, e.g. through lateral supply of organic matter along continental margins (adding more refractory organic matter), through trophic focusing and/or fine particle winnowing on seamounts (giving an advantage to suspension feeders), and through carbonate undersaturation (giving advantage to infaunal over epifaunal calcifyers). In addition, increased remineralization of organic matter combined with increased metabolic rates may cause assemblages to reflect more oligotrophic conditions at stable primary productivity during periods of global warming. As a result, benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates must be carefully

  4. Support of Publication Costs, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Special Issue of Deep Sea Research II Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Honchar

    2012-11-12

    The contribution of funds from DOE supported publication costs of a special issue of Deep Sea Research arising from presentations at the First U.S. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) Meeting held 4-6 May, 2009 to review the US implementation plan and its coordination with other monitoring activities. The special issue includes a total of 16 papers, including publications from three DOE-supported investigators (ie Sevellec, F., and A.V. Fedorov; Hu et. al., and Wan et. al.,). The special issue addresses DOE interests in understanding and simulation/modeling of abrupt climate change.

  5. Draft genome of bagasse-degrading bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 from deep sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 was isolated from deep sea water of the South China Sea, which can produce glucose and fructose by degrading bagasse at 25 °C. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03. The data obtained revealed 37 contigs with genome size of 5,105,129 bp and G+C content of 38.09%. The draft genome of B. aryabhattai GZ03 may provide insights into the mechanism of microbial carbohydrate and lignocellulosic material degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  7. Systems analysis for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep sea bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpf, A.D.

    1988-12-01

    Part I of the report outlines substantial fundamentals and results that impart sufficient knowledge to understand the resepctive calculations, the influence of essential parameters and to allow unambiguous conclusions as regards the potential riks of a repository in the deep sea bottom. In addition, significant features of the developed programme are described and an overview of international cooperation in this field is given. The more detailed parts II and III deal with the actual repository in the sea sediment layer and its sea biosphere, respectively. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining: Challenges ahead for technologists and environmentalists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    occur beyond 4800m water depths. For over 30 years, deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining has been a subject of interest to many research groups in the world because of its identified potential for the economic recovery of large reserves of minerals... PolymetallicnoduleswerefirstdiscoveredduringthevoyagesofH.M.S.Challengerin 1873–76, (Murray and Renard 1891) but their economic value as potential ores of Ni, Cu,andCobaltwasnotrealizeduntilthelate1950s(Mero1958).Thenodulesarealso valuable for other applications such as a sorbent in gas purification...

  9. Evolution in the deep sea: biological traits, ecology and phylogenetics of pelagic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakmann, Silke; Auel, Holger; Kochzius, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Deep-sea biodiversity has received increasing interest in the last decade, mainly focusing on benthic communities. In contrast, studies of zooplankton in the meso- to bathypelagic zones are relatively scarce. In order to explore evolutionary processes in the pelagic deep sea, the present study focuses on copepods of two clausocalanoid families, Euchaetidae and Aetideidae, which are abundant and species-rich in the deep-sea pelagic realm. Molecular phylogenies based on concatenated-portioned data on 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were examined on 13 species, mainly from Arctic and Antarctic regions, together with species-specific biological traits (i.e. vertical occurrence, feeding behaviour, dietary preferences, energy storage, and reproductive strategy). Relationships were resolved on genus, species and even sub-species levels, the latter two established by COI with maximum average genetic distances ranging from ≤5.3% at the intra-specific, and 20.6% at the inter-specific level. There is no resolution at a family level, emphasising the state of Euchaetidae and Aetideidae as sister families and suggesting a fast radiation of these lineages, a hypothesis which is further supported by biological parameters. Euchaetidae were similar in lipid-specific energy storage, reproductive strategy, as well as feeding behaviour and dietary preference. In contrast, Aetideidae were more diverse, comprising a variety of characteristics ranging from similar adaptations within Paraeuchaeta, to genera consisting of species with completely different reproductive and feeding ecologies. Reproductive strategies were generally similar within each aetideid genus, but differed between genera. Closely related species (congeners), which were similar in the aforementioned biological and ecological traits, generally occurred in different depth layers, suggesting that vertical partitioning of the water column

  10. Molecular Phylogeny Of Microbes In The Deep-Sea Sediments From Tropical West Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Xiao, X.; Wang, P.

    2005-12-01

    The presence and phylogeny of bacteria and archaea in five deep-sea sediment samples collected from west Pacific Warm Pool area (WP-0, WP-1, WP-2, WP-3, WP-4), and in five sediment layers (1cm-, 3cm-, 6cm-, 10cm-, 12cm- layer) of the 12-cm sediment core of WP-0 were checked and compared. The microbial diversity in the five deep-sea sediments were similar as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and all of them contained members of non-thermophilic marine group I crenarchaeota as the predominant archaeal group. The composition of methylotrophs including methanotrophs, sulfate reducing bacteria in the WP-0 sediment core were further investigated by molecular marker based analysis of mxaF, pmoA, dsrAB, specific anoxic methane oxidation archaeal and sulfate reducing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. From MxaF amino acid sequence analysis, it was demonstrated that microbes belonging to α - Proteobacteria most related to Hyphomicrobium and Methylobacterium were dominant aerobic methylotrophs in this deep-sea sediment; and small percentage of type II methanotrophs affiliating closest to Methylocystis and Methylosinus were also detected in this environment. mxaF quantitative PCR results showed that in the west Pacific WP sediment there existed around 3× 10 4-5 methylotrophs per gram sediment, 10-100 times more than that in samples collected from several other deep-sea Pacific sediment sample, but about 10 times less than that present in samples collected from rice and flower garden soil. Diverse groups of novel archaea (named as WPA), not belonging to any known archaeal lineages were checked out. They could be placed in the euryarchaeota kingdom, separated into two distinct groups, the main group was peripherally related with methanogens, the other group related with Thermoplasma. Possible sulfate reducing bacterial related with Desulfotomaculum, Desulfacinum, Desulfomonile and Desulfanuticus were also detected in our study. The vertical distributions of WPA

  11. Are deep-sea ecosystems surrounding Madagascar threatened by land-use or climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, Christophe; Mamo, Briony; Toucanne, Samuel; Bayon, Germain; Schmidt, Sabine; Deflandre, Bruno; Dennielou, Bernard; Jouet, Gwenael; Garnier, Eline; Sakai, Saburo; Lamas, Ruth Martinez; Duros, Pauline; Toyofuku, Takashi; Salé, Aurélien; Belleney, Déborah; Bichon, Sabrina; Boissier, Audrey; Chéron, Sandrine; Pitel, Mathilde; Roubi, Angélique; Rovere, Mickaël; Grémare, Antoine; Dupré, Stéphanie; Jorry, Stéphan J.

    2018-01-01

    In this short communication, we present a multidisciplinary study of sedimentary records collected from a deep-sea interfluve proximal to the mouths of major northwestern Madagascan rivers. For the last 60 years, the seafloor has been repeatedly disturbed by the deposition of organic rich, tropical, terrestrial sediments causing marked reductions in benthic biodiversity. Increased soil erosion due to local land-use, deforestation and intensifying tropical cyclones are potential causes for this sedimentary budget and biodiversity shift. Our marine sedimentary records indicate that until now, these conditions have not occurred within the region for at least 20,000 years.

  12. Microfabric of illitic clays from the Pacific deep-sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, D.J.; Bennett, R.H.; Bryant, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The microfabric of deep-sea illitic clays was investigated using electron microscopy in support of the In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE) Simulation test (ISIMU) and the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). Sandia National Laboratories, ISHTE and the field exercises were designed to investigate the thermal, fluid, and mechanical response of the sediment to the emplacement of radioactive waste in the seabed. Clay fabric of an undisturbed core sample, designated RAMA, was compared to dredge, remolded, reconsolidated material in order to investigate the effects of mechanical disturbances from sediment remolding and heater probe insertion and effects of induced thermal gradients caused by heating of the sediment

  13. A sterol and spiroditerpenoids from a Penicillium sp. isolated from a deep sea sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Dezan; Shao, Zongze; Cui, Chengbin; Che, Yongsheng

    2012-02-01

    A new polyoxygenated sterol, sterolic acid (1), three new breviane spiroditerpenoids, breviones I-K (2-4), and the known breviones (5-8), were isolated from the crude extract of a Penicillium sp. obtained from a deep sea sediment sample that was collected at a depth of 5115 m. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were deduced by comparison of their CD spectra with those of the model compounds. Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells, which is comparable to the positive control cisplatin.

  14. Experimental studies on the geochemical behaviour of 54-Mn considering coastal and deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Boust, D.; Aprosi, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the geochemical behaviour of 54-Mn in the marine environment (Mn 2+ ) 200 sediments gathered in deep sea and in coastal waters were contaminated experimentally. To correlate the various results, the oxidation processes occuring with or without sediments should be specified. Without sediments, in 'blanks', the deposition rate of 54-Mn on the walls brings into play oxidation developing approximately according to a single order linear function. Consequently, it is characterized by a half-life (time for half 54-Mn to be retained) very similar to a residence time (Tsub(R)). In our water samples, Tsub(R) ranged from 12 to 150 days. (author)

  15. Behaviour of long-lived radionuclides associated with deep-sea disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The IAEA sponsored this Coordinated Research Programme to improve knowledge of various long-lived radionuclides likely to be dumped in the deep sea. During the three years of this programme the state of knowledge has advanced significantly in this area, and this document provides a review of the progress. The isotopes studied were mainly 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and 99 Tc. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 papers

  16. Chemosynthetic activity prevails in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Sujith, P.P.; Mourya, B.S.; Biche, S.U.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    difference between the results at 4±2°C, 1 atm and 4±2°C, 500 atm. The difference could not be discerned in the time frame used for the experiment (Table 1). C/N ratios, TOC, TIC, LOM and bacterial counts In the CIB sediments, elemental C/N ratios... varied from 0.7 to infinitely large values due to very low levels of total nitrogen. TOC varied from <0.05-1.54%, TIC varied from non detectable in most of the deep-sea sediment to 10% in carbonaceous oozes. LOM varied from 0.025-0.14%. Bacterial...

  17. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  18. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  19. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  20. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; ISAKSEN, MF; JANNASCH, HW

    1992-01-01

    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  1. Results from the search for dark matter in the Milky Way with 9 years of data of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Using data recorded with the ANTARES telescope from 2007 to 2015, a new search for dark matter annihilation in the Milky Way has been performed. Three halo models and five annihilation channels, WIMP + WIMP -> b (b) over bar, W+W-, tau(+)tau(-), mu(+)mu(-) and v (v) over bar, with WIMP masses

  2. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G.

    2014-12-10

    The Standard Model has been incredibly successful in predicting the outcome of almost all the experiments done up so far. In it, neutrinos are mass-less. However, in recent years we have accumulated evidence pointing to tiny masses for the neutrinos (as compared to the charged leptons). These masses allow neutrinos to change their flavour and oscillate. In these lectures I review the properties of neutrinos in and beyond the Standard Model.

  3. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, T; Buhagiar, D; Farrugia, R N

    2014-01-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units

  4. Shelf erosion and submarine river canyons: implications for deep-sea oxygenation and ocean productivity during glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsandev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The areal exposure of continental shelves during glacial sea level lowering enhanced the transfer of erodible reactive organic matter to the open ocean. Sea level fall also activated submarine canyons thereby allowing large rivers to deposit their particulate load, via gravity flows, directly in the deep-sea. Here, we analyze the effects of shelf erosion and particulate matter re-routing to the open ocean during interglacial to glacial transitions, using a coupled model of the marine phosphorus, organic carbon and oxygen cycles. The results indicate that shelf erosion and submarine canyon formation may significantly lower deep-sea oxygen levels, by up to 25%, during sea level low stands, mainly due to the supply of new material from the shelves, and to a lesser extent due to particulate organic matter bypassing the coastal zone. Our simulations imply that deep-sea oxygen levels can drop significantly if eroded shelf material is deposited to the seafloor. Thus the glacial ocean's oxygen content could have been significantly lower than during interglacial stages. Primary production, organic carbon burial and dissolved phosphorus inventories are all affected by the erosion and rerouting mechanisms. However, re-routing of the continental and eroded shelf material to the deep-sea has the effect of decoupling deep-sea oxygen demand from primary productivity in the open ocean. P burial is also not affected showing a disconnection between the biogeochemical cycles in the water column and the P burial record.

  5. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  6. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  7. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  8. Physiological compensation for environmental acidification is limited in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.; Lovera, C.; Whaling, P. J.; Buck, K. R.; Pane, E. F.; Barry, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals - particularly, calcifiers - are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, during two long-term exposure experiments (1 month and 4 month) at three levels of reduced pH at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% saturation, and also to control pH at 100% O2 saturation. During the first experiment, internal acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by reduced pH, due in part to low non-bicarbonate extracellular fluid buffering capacity. During the second experiment, longer-term effects of hypercapnia and variable O2 on locomotion, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were investigated; results show significant mortality and correlation of all measured parameters with environmental acidification at pH 6.6. Transient adverse effects on locomotion and feeding were seen at pH 7.2, without compromise of growth or GSI. Based on the expected changes in ocean pH and oxygen, results suggest extinction of S. fragilis in the eastern North Pacific is unlikely. Rather, we expect a shoaling and contraction of its bathymetric range.

  9. Chronicles of the deep : ageing deep-sea corals in New Zealand waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, D.; Neil, H.; Gordon, D.; O'Shea, S.

    2003-01-01

    How old is a coral? Finding the answer requires some rather complex steps. We need to understand: the source of carbonate; the effects of climatic events; how to interpret growth zones; the effect of 14 C and biological processes such as feeding and reproduction; and how to overcome the lack of deep-sea environmental data records. We also need to find out where on the coral we should be sampling to get the best estimates of age. At the moment we know little about how deep-sea corals deposit their calcite, but we will be exploring this further so that we can have greater confidence in our age estimates. To confirm and validate age and growth, it will be necessary to use a combination of some of the the possible methods for ageing coral. In addition to ageing the corals, this work should yield a high-resolution record of ocean temperature during the past 100 years by using stable-isotope signatures preserved in the corals' carbonate skeletons. (author). 4 figs

  10. Precise Th/U-dating of small and heavily coated samples of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomitschka, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    1999-07-01

    Marine carbonate skeletons like deep-sea corals are frequently coated with iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides which adsorb additional thorium and uranium out of the sea water. A new cleaning procedure has been developed to reduce this contamination. In this further cleaning step a solution of Na 2EDTA (Na 2H 2T B) and ascorbic acid is used which composition is optimised especially for samples of 20 mg of weight. It was first tested on aliquots of a reef-building coral which had been artificially contaminated with powdered ferromanganese nodule. Applied on heavily contaminated deep-sea corals (scleractinia), it reduced excess 230Th by another order of magnitude in addition to usual cleaning procedures. The measurement of at least three fractions of different contamination, together with an additional standard correction for contaminated carbonates results in Th/U-ages corrected for the authigenic component. A good agreement between Th/U- and 14C-ages can be achieved even for extremely coated corals.

  11. Dispersal of volcaniclasts during deep-sea eruptions: Settling velocities and entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Soule, S. Adam; Sohn, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    We use tank experiments to measure settling rates of deep-sea volcaniclastic material recovered from the Arctic (85°E Gakkel Ridge) and Pacific (Juan de Fuca Ridge, Loihi seamount) Oceans. We find that clast size and shape exert a strong influence on settling velocity, with velocities of ~ 30 cm/s for large (~ 8 mm), blocky clasts, compared to velocities of ~ 2.5 cm/s for small (Pele) entrained in a megaplume could be advected as far as a few kilometers from a source region. These results indicate that entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes during an eruption may play an important role in clast dispersal, but it is not clear if this mechanism can explain the distribution of volcaniclastic material at the sites on the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca Ridges where our samples were acquired. In order to understand the dispersal of volcaniclastic material in the deep-sea it will be necessary to rigorously characterize existing deposits, and develop models capable of incorporating explosive gas phases into the eruption plume.

  12. Supernova-produced radionuclides in deep-sea sediments measured with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feige, J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to computational micromagnetics, where several new numerical methods are In this work a set of long-lived radionuclides is measured to detect supernova-traces presumably deposited on Earth 2-3 Myr ago. Approximately 100 samples of four deep-sea sediment cores (Indian Ocean) were analyzed for 26 Al, 53Mn, and 60 Fe with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Additionally, 10 Be was measured to confirm the existing paleomagnetic chronology of the sediments. A signal of extraterrestrial 60 Fe, which is not produced in-situ on Earth, was detected in a time period of 1.7-3.2 Myr in the sediments used for this work. 60 Fe/ 26 Al ratios were used to calculate limits on theoretical nucleosynthesis models. A supernova-signature of 26 Al is hidden behind a terrestrial background. The measured 26 Al/ 10 Be ratios indicate, that the major source of 26 Al detected in the sediments is of atmospheric origin. Because of the extraordinarily good depth profile for the deep-sea sediments from the measured 26 Al data, this radionuclide was used for dating. (author) [de

  13. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea ferromanganese nodules from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Deep sea ferromanganese (FeMn) nodules contain metallic mineral resources and have great economic potential. In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent (16S rRNA genes clone library and pyrosequencing) methods was used to investigate the bacterial diversity in FeMn nodules from Jiaolong Seamount, the South China Sea. Eleven bacterial strains including some moderate thermophiles were isolated. The majority of strains belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria; one isolate belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. A total of 259 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in a clone library and 67,079 valid reads obtained using pyrosequencing indicated that members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated, with the most abundant bacterial genera being Pseudomonas and Alteromonas. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of many organisms whose closest relatives are known manganese oxidizers, iron reducers, hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methylotrophs. This is the first reported investigation of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea FeMn nodules from the South China Sea.

  14. A Simple and Efficient RNA Extraction Method from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hisashi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Miho; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2017-12-27

    RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals. This decrease in RNA was prevented by the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), salmon sperm DNA, and NaOH. The addition of STPP was also effective for RNA extraction from the mixture of E. coli cells and mock chimney minerals when TRIzol reagent and the RNeasy column were used, but not when the RNeasy PowerSoil total RNA kit was used. A combination of STPP, TRIzol reagent, the RNeasy column, and sonication resulted in the highest RNA yield from a natural chimney. This indirect extraction procedure is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may be used for large-scale RNA extraction.

  15. Defying Dissolution: Discovery of Deep-Sea Scleractinian Coral Reefs in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baco, Amy R; Morgan, Nicole; Roark, E Brendan; Silva, Mauricio; Shamberger, Kathryn E F; Miller, Kelci

    2017-07-14

    Deep-sea scleractinian coral reefs are protected ecologically and biologically significant areas that support global fisheries. The absence of observations of deep-sea scleractinian reefs in the Central and Northeast Pacific, combined with the shallow aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) and high carbonate dissolution rates there, fueled the hypothesis that reef formation in the North Pacific was improbable. Despite this, we report the discovery of live scleractinian reefs on six seamounts of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamount Chain at depths of 535-732 m and aragonite saturation state (Ω arag ) values of 0.71-1.33. Although the ASH becomes deeper moving northwest along the chains, the depth distribution of the reefs becomes shallower, suggesting the ASH is having little influence on their distribution. Higher chlorophyll moving to the northwest may partially explain the geographic distribution of the reefs. Principle Components Analysis suggests that currents are also an important factor in their distribution, but neither chlorophyll nor the available current data can explain the unexpected depth distribution. Further environmental data is needed to elucidate the reason for the distribution of these reefs. The discovery of reef-forming scleractinians in this region is of concern because a number of the sites occur on seamounts with active trawl fisheries.

  16. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Herrero, Laura; Fernández, Mario; Gómara, Belén; Acuña, José Luis

    2017-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ 15 N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for PCB-153 in the pelagic food web (spanning four trophic levels) was 6.2 or 2.2, depending on whether homeotherm top predators (cetaceans and seabirds) were included or not in the analysis, respectively. Since body size is significantly correlated with δ 15 N, it can be used as a proxy to estimate trophic magnification, what can potentially lead to a simple and convenient method to calculate the TMF. In spite of their lower biomagnification, deep-sea fishes showed higher concentrations than their shallower counterparts, although those differences were not significant. In summary, the AC fauna exhibits contaminant levels comparable or lower than those reported in other systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ radionuclide transfers in the deep-sea Lysianassidae amphipod Eurythenes gryllus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Charmasson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies at the NEA dumpsite confirmed the existence of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus. The aim of this study was to inquire if, under deep-sea conditions of low temperature and high pressure, this species of crustacean would retain artificial radionuclides in the same organ as those observed in similar coastal species of the same family. This necrophagous species is easily attracted by bait. It can ingest 30 to 60% of its body weight in 30 ± 10 min. In addition, this species can store ingested food for several weeks. Thus, the ingestion of radiolabelled food over a period of several days could be considered as a single-meal contamination experiment. For all these reasons Eurythenes gryllus appeared to be a good test animal to compare laboratory experi