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Sample records for deep trek high

  1. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  2. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "DeepTrek"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CSI Technologies

    2007-08-31

    as the Ultra Seal-R represent materials fulfilling the objectives of the DeepTrek project.

  3. Deep Trek Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme; Michael Johnson

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop a high-temperature Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA). The RPDA development has incorporated multiple high-temperature (225C) electronic components within a compact co-fired ceramic Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) package. This assembly is suitable for use in down-hole oil and gas applications. The RPDA module is programmable to support a wide range of functionality. Specifically this project has demonstrated functional integrity of the RPDA package and internal components, as well as functional integrity of the RPDA configured to operate as a Multi-Channel Data Acquisition Controller. This report reviews the design considerations, electrical hardware design, MCM package design, considerations for manufacturing assembly, test and screening, and results from prototype assembly and characterization testing.

  4. Rating of perceived exertion and acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Adrian J; Woods, David R; O'Hara, John; Howley, Mark; Watchorn, James; Boos, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that strenuous exercise should be avoided on arrival at high altitude (HA) and during acclimatization. Data from chamber studies are contradictory and the studies are usually of short duration, therefore differing from the "real world." We studied 48 trekkers during a 10-d ascent to 16,827 ft (5129 m) in the Cordillera Real area of Bolivia. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores were recorded for the hardest perceived exertion during the day after ascents to 12,576, 14,600, and 16,827 ft (3833, 4450, and 5129 m). Heart rate, Spo2, and Lake Louise Score (LLS) were recorded simultaneously. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS 21 software. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was deemed significant. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) rates were higher after trekking days with higher levels of perceived exertion. The LLS was higher in those with a Borg RPE score ≥ 15 both following exercise (mean LLS 2.6 vs. 1.7) and at rest the following day (mean LLS 2.7 vs. 1.7). Heart rate was higher in those with high Borg RPE scores (80 vs. 87) and oxygen saturations lower at rest (86 vs. 83) the following morning. This data lends weight to the advice of moderate exertion during a trek to HA and suggests that reducing perceived exertion may reduce AMS.

  5. Changes in balance and joint position sense during a 12-day high altitude trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri medical research expedition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Clarke

    Full Text Available Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years. Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal. Pulse oximetry, and Lake Louise scores were also recorded on the morning and evening of each trek day. Data were compared between altitudes and relationships between pulse oximetry, Lake Louise score, and sway velocity were explored. Total sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open (p = 0.003, d = 1.9 and during Sharpened Romberg test with eyes open (p = 0.007, d = 1.6 was significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level. Anterior-posterior sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open was also significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level (p = 0.001, d = 1.9. Knee joint position sense was not altered at higher altitudes. There were no significant correlations between Lake Louise scores, pulse oximetry and postural sway. Despite a gradual ascent profile, exposure to 3619 m was associated with impairments in postural control without impairment in knee joint position sense. Importantly, these impairments did not worsen at higher altitudes of 4600 m or 5140 m. The present findings should be considered during future trekking expeditions when developing training strategies targeted to manage impairments in postural control that occur with increasing altitude.

  6. STAR TREK elab ja õilmitseb / Scott Abel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abel, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Artikli autor käis Bonnis "Star Treki" (USA, 1966-1969) fännide iga-aastasel kokkutulekul. Artiklis sellest, kuidas kulttussari on mõjutanud inimesi, kultuuri, meediat. Meenutavad näitleja Nichelle Nichols ja teismelisena sarja looja Gene Roddenberry juures vabatahtliku abilisena töötanud Richard Arnold. Sarja algusest, järgprojektidest ("Star Trek : The Next Generation", "Deep Space Nine" jt.) kuni J. J. Abramsi filmini, mis esilinastus 8. mail

  7. Science, art, academia : Star Trek

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Star Trek academic symposium will be held at the Faculty of ICT, University of Malta, on 15 and 16 July 2016. This event will be a platform for both academics from various disciplines as well as Star Trek fans to meet and explore the intersection between the humanities and the sciences. There will be inspirational presentations from national and international speakers, with the programme tailored to attract a wide audience. Contributors will be encouraged to explore contemporary issues in...

  8. Selective Small Molecule Activators of TREK-2 Channels Stimulate Dorsal Root Ganglion c-Fiber Nociceptor Two-Pore-Domain Potassium Channel Currents and Limit Calcium Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadi, Prasanna K; Vierra, Nicholas C; Days, Emily; Dickerson, Matthew T; Vinson, Paige N; Weaver, C David; Jacobson, David A

    2017-03-15

    The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-2 serves to modulate plasma membrane potential in dorsal root ganglia c-fiber nociceptors, which tunes electrical excitability and nociception. Thus, TREK-2 channels are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating pain; however, there are currently no selective pharmacological tools for TREK-2 channels. Here we report the identification of the first TREK-2 selective activators using a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium (Tl + ) flux screen (HTS). An initial pilot screen with a bioactive lipid library identified 11-deoxy prostaglandin F2α as a potent activator of TREK-2 channels (EC 50 ≈ 0.294 μM), which was utilized to optimize the TREK-2 Tl + flux assay (Z' = 0.752). A HTS was then performed with 76 575 structurally diverse small molecules. Many small molecules that selectively activate TREK-2 were discovered. As these molecules were able to activate single TREK-2 channels in excised membrane patches, they are likely direct TREK-2 activators. Furthermore, TREK-2 activators reduced primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) c-fiber Ca 2+ influx. Interestingly, some of the selective TREK-2 activators such as 11-deoxy prostaglandin F2α were found to inhibit the K2P channel TREK-1. Utilizing chimeric channels containing portions of TREK-1 and TREK-2, the region of the TREK channels that allows for either small molecule activation or inhibition was identified. This region lies within the second pore domain containing extracellular loop and is predicted to play an important role in modulating TREK channel activity. Moreover, the selective TREK-2 activators identified in this HTS provide important tools for assessing human TREK-2 channel function and investigating their therapeutic potential for treating chronic pain.

  9. Activation of TREK-1, but Not TREK-2, Channel by Mood Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have demonstrated that the tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying K+ channel (TWIK-related K+ (TREK-1 channel is inhibited by antidepressants and is associated with major depression. However, little is known about the effect of mood stabilizers that are commonly used for treatment of bipolar disorder on TREK channels, members of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P channel family. This study sought to investigate the effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels. HEK-293A cells were transfected with human TREK-1 or TREK-2 DNA. The effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 was studied using the patch clamp technique. Changes in TREK protein expression by mood stabilizers were studied in the HT-22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells using western blot analysis. Lithium chloride (LiCl, 1 mM, gabapentin (100 μM, valproate (100 μM, and carbamazepine (100 μM increased TREK-1 currents by 31 ± 14%, 25 ± 11%, 28 ± 12%, and 72 ± 12%, respectively, whereas they had no effect on TREK-2 channel activity. In addition, western blot analysis showed LiCl and carbamazepine slightly upregulated TREK-1 expression, but not TREK-2 in the HT-22 cells. These results suggest that TREK-1 could be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of bipolar disorders as well as depression, while TREK-2 is a target well suited for treatment of major depression.

  10. β(IV)-Spectrin regulates TREK-1 membrane targeting in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Thomas J; Snyder, Jedidiah S; Wu, Xiangqiong; Glynn, Patric; Koval, Olha M; Onal, Birce; Leymaster, Nicholas D; Unudurthi, Sathya D; Curran, Jerry; Camardo, Celia; Wright, Patrick J; Binkley, Philip F; Anderson, Mark E; Mohler, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac function depends on the highly regulated and co-ordinate activity of a large ensemble of potassium channels that control myocyte repolarization. While voltage-gated K(+) channels have been well characterized in the heart, much less is known about regulation and/or targeting of two-pore K(+) channel (K(2P)) family members, despite their potential importance in modulation of heart function. Here, we report a novel molecular pathway for membrane targeting of TREK-1, a mechano-sensitive K(2P) channel regulated by environmental and physical factors including membrane stretch, pH, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid). We demonstrate that β(IV)-spectrin, an actin-associated protein, is co-localized with TREK-1 at the myocyte intercalated disc, associates with TREK-1 in the heart, and is required for TREK-1 membrane targeting. Mice expressing β(IV)-spectrin lacking TREK-1 binding (qv(4J)) display aberrant TREK-1 membrane localization, decreased TREK-1 activity, delayed action potential repolarization, and arrhythmia without apparent defects in localization/function of other cardiac potassium channel subunits. Finally, we report abnormal β(IV)-spectrin levels in human heart failure. These data provide new insight into membrane targeting of TREK-1 in the heart and establish a broader role for β(IV)-spectrin in organizing functional membrane domains critical for normal heart function.

  11. βIV-Spectrin regulates TREK-1 membrane targeting in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Thomas J.; Snyder, Jedidiah S.; Wu, Xiangqiong; Glynn, Patric; Koval, Olha M.; Onal, Birce; Leymaster, Nicholas D.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Curran, Jerry; Camardo, Celia; Wright, Patrick J.; Binkley, Philip F.; Anderson, Mark E.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cardiac function depends on the highly regulated and co-ordinate activity of a large ensemble of potassium channels that control myocyte repolarization. While voltage-gated K+ channels have been well characterized in the heart, much less is known about regulation and/or targeting of two-pore K+ channel (K2P) family members, despite their potential importance in modulation of heart function. Methods and results Here, we report a novel molecular pathway for membrane targeting of TREK-1, a mechano-sensitive K2P channel regulated by environmental and physical factors including membrane stretch, pH, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid). We demonstrate that βIV-spectrin, an actin-associated protein, is co-localized with TREK-1 at the myocyte intercalated disc, associates with TREK-1 in the heart, and is required for TREK-1 membrane targeting. Mice expressing βIV-spectrin lacking TREK-1 binding (qv4J) display aberrant TREK-1 membrane localization, decreased TREK-1 activity, delayed action potential repolarization, and arrhythmia without apparent defects in localization/function of other cardiac potassium channel subunits. Finally, we report abnormal βIV-spectrin levels in human heart failure. Conclusions These data provide new insight into membrane targeting of TREK-1 in the heart and establish a broader role for βIV-spectrin in organizing functional membrane domains critical for normal heart function. PMID:24445605

  12. Genetic deletion of TREK-1 or TWIK-1/TREK-1 potassium channels does not alter the basic electrophysiological properties of mature hippocampal astrocytes in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing eDu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a linear current-to-voltage (I-V relationship of membrane conductance (passive conductance reflects the intrinsic property of K+ channels in mature astrocytes. While passive conductance is known to underpin a highly negative and stable membrane potential (VM essential for the basic homeostatic function of astrocytes, a complete repertoire of the involved K+ channels remains elusive. TREK-1 two-pore domain K+ channel (K2P is highly expressed in astrocytes, and covalent association of TREK-1 with TWIK-1, another highly expressed astrocytic K2P, has been reported as a mechanism underlying the trafficking of this heterodimer channel to the membrane and contributing to astrocytes’ passive conductance. To decipher the individual contribution of TREK-1 and address whether the appearance of passive conductance is conditional to the co-expression of TWIK-1/TREK-1 in astrocytes, TREK-1 single and TWIK-1/TREK-1 double gene knockout mice were used in the present study. The relative quantity of mRNA encoding other astrocyte K+ channels, such as Kir4.1, Kir5.1, and TREK-2, was not altered in these gene knockout mice. Whole-cell recording from hippocampal astrocytes in situ revealed no detectable changes in astrocyte passive conductance, VM, or membrane input resistance (Rin in either kind of gene knockout mouse. Additionally, TREK-1 proteins were mainly located in the intracellular compartments of the hippocampus. Altogether, genetic deletion of TREK-1 alone or together with TWIK-1 produced no obvious alteration in the basic electrophysiological properties of hippocampal astrocytes. Thus, future research focusing on other K+ channels may shed light on this long-standing and important question in astrocyte physiology.

  13. The physics of Star Trek

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Lawrence M

    1997-01-01

    Demarrant en fleche, le professeur Lawrence Krauss vous propulsera a vitesse superluminique dans l'univers de STAR TREK, qui lui servira de base pour explorer le monde fascinant de la physique moderne. A l'aide de diapositives, de divers supports et de clips video, mais aussi avec son humour et son charme, l'auteur de The Physics of Star Trek vous guidera dans des domaines allant du voyage dans le temps aux distorsions spaciotemporelles, du Big Bang a la recherche d'une intelligence extraterrestre. La conference comportera egalement un extrait de son repertoire des dix plus grosses erreurs de physique de la serie televisee. Cette conference amusante est accessible a tous.

  14. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey eMirkovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-pore domain K+ (K2P channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and resistance to depression. While the distribution of Trek2 mRNA in the CNS is broad, little is known about the relevance of this Trek family member to neurobiology and behavior. Here, we probed the effect of constitutive Trek2 ablation, as well as the simultaneous constitutive ablation of all three Trek family genes, in paradigms that assess motor activity, coordination, anxiety-related behavior, learning and memory, and drug-induced reward-related behavior. No differences were observed between Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice in coordination or total distance traveled in an open-field. A gender-dependent impact of Trek ablation on open-field anxiety-related behavior was observed, as female but not male Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice spent more time in, and made a greater number of entries into, the center of the open-field than wild-type counterparts. Further evaluation of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box, however, did not reveal a significant influence of genotype on performance for either gender. Furthermore, Trek–/– mice behaved normally in tests of learning and memory, including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition, and with respect to opioid-induced motor stimulation and conditioned place preference. Collectively, these data argue that despite their broad distribution in the CNS, Trek channels exert a minimal influence on a wide-range of behaviors.

  15. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  16. Review: Trek | Foster | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tydskrif vir letterkunde. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 51, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Review: Trek. L Foster. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  17. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  18. NASA's Solar System Treks: Online Portals for Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Treks are a suite of web-based of lunar and planetary mapping and modeling portals providing interactive visualization and analysis tools enabling mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, Vesta, and more. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look ahead to future features and releases. Moon Trek is a new portal replacing its predecessor, the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), that significantly upgrades and builds upon the capabilities of LMMP. It features greatly improved navigation, 3D visualization, fly-overs, performance, and reliability. Additional data products and tools continue to be added. These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for NASA's Resource Prospector mission as well as for missions being planned by NASA's international partners. The latest release of Mars Trek includes new tools and data products requested by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. Phobos Trek, the latest effort in the Solar System Treks suite, is being developed in coordination with the International Phobos/Deimos Landing Site Working Group, with landing site selection and analysis for JAXA's MMX (Martian Moons eXploration) mission as a primary driver.

  19. NASA's Solar System Treks: Online Portals for Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Solar System Treks are a suite of web-based of lunar and planetary mapping and modeling portals providing interactive visualization and analysis tools enabling mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, Vesta, and more. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look ahead to future features and releases. Moon Trek is a new portal replacing its predecessor, the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), that significantly upgrades and builds upon the capabilities of LMMP. It features greatly improved navigation, 3D visualization, fly-overs, performance, and reliability. Additional data products and tools continue to be added. These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for NASA's Resource Prospector mission as well as for missions being planned by NASA's international partners. The latest release of Mars Trek includes new tools and data products requested by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. Phobos Trek, the latest effort in the Solar System Treks suite, is being developed in coordination with the International Phobos/Deimos Landing Site Working Group, with landing site selection and analysis for JAXA's MMX mission as a primary driver.

  20. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these posi...

  1. BARTHESOVA ANALIZA MITOLOGIJE V STAR TREK FILMIH

    OpenAIRE

    Arcet, Nik

    2016-01-01

    Temeljni princip magistrske naloge je identificirati in analizirati različne mite v Star Trek filmih, s pomočjo literarne teorije. V nalogi so uporabljene primerjalne, korelacijske in deskriptivne metode raziskovalnega dela. Primarni teoretični vir je zbirka esejev imenovana Mitologije, avtorja Rolanda Barthesa. Teoretični principi opisani v esejih, so bili implicirani v vseh dvanajst znanstveno fantastičnih filmov. Miti so bili analizirani skozi dejanja protagonistov oziroma antagonistov, sk...

  2. Seeking New Civilizations: Race Normativity in the "Star Trek" Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Allen

    2007-01-01

    As with many science fiction works, the "Star Trek" franchise uses allegory to address contemporary social issues. Taking a liberal humanistic stance, it addresses race and racism using aliens as allegorical stand-ins for humanity. However, the producers of the "Star Trek" franchise were inadvertently perpetuating the racism they were advocating…

  3. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  4. Gokyo Khumbu/Ama Dablam Trek 2012: effects of physical training and high-altitude exposure on oxidative metabolism, muscle composition, and metabolic cost of walking in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, E; Bruseghini, P; Calabria, E; Dal Sacco, L; Doria, C; Grassi, B; Pietrangelo, T; Pogliaghi, S; Reggiani, C; Salvadego, D; Schena, F; Toniolo, L; Verratti, V; Vernillo, G; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of moderate-intensity training at low and high altitude on VO2 and QaO2 kinetics and on myosin heavy-chain expression (MyHC) in seven women (36.3 yy ± 7.1; 65.8 kg ± 11.7; 165 cm ± 8) who participated in two 12- to 14-day trekking expeditions at low (598 m) and high altitude (4132 m) separated by 4 months of recovery. Breath-by-breath VO2 and beat-by-beat QaO2 at the onset of moderate-intensity cycling exercise and energy cost of walking (Cw) were assessed before and after trekking. MyHC expression of vastus lateralis was evaluated before and after low-altitude and after high-altitude trekking; muscle fiber high-resolution respirography was performed at the beginning of the study and after high-altitude trekking. Mean response time of VO2 kinetics was faster (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001) and oxygen deficit was smaller (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0004) after low- and high-altitude trekking, whereas ˙ QaO2 kinetics and Cw did not change. Percentages of slow and fast isoforms of MyHC and mitochondrial mass were not affected by low- and high-altitude training. After training altitude, muscle fiber ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration was decreased as compared with the control condition (P = 0.016), whereas leak respiration was increased (P = 0.031), leading to a significant increase in the respiratory control ratio (P = 0.016). Although training did not significantly modify muscle phenotype, it induced beneficial adaptations of the oxygen transport-utilization systems witnessed by faster VO2 kinetics at exercise onset.

  5. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate activates the mechanically gated human KCNK channels KCNK 2 (TREK-1), KCNK 4 (TRAAK), and KCNK 10 (TREK-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Leopoldo; Beltrán, Madeline; Aguado, Ainhara; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2013-01-01

    Two-pore domain K(+) (KCNK, K2P) channels underlie the "leak" (background) potassium conductance in many types of excitable cells. They oppose membrane depolarization and cell excitability. These channels have been reported to be modulated by several physical and chemical stimuli. The compound 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) was originally described as an inhibitor of IP3-induced Ca(2+) release but has been shown to act as either a blocker or an activator for several ion channels. Here, we report the effects of this compound on members of the TREK (TWIK related K(+) channels) subfamily of human KCNK channels. We injected Xenopus laevis oocytes with cRNAs (complementary RNAs) encoding several KCNK channels and measured their response using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. 2-APB was found to be an effective activator for all members of the TREK subfamily (hKCNK2, hKCNK4, and hKCNK10), with the highest efficacy in hKCNK10. We also found that 2-APB was able to activate these channels in cell-excised patches of HEK293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cell transfected with hKCNK4 or hKCNK10, demonstrating direct activation. TREK channels are widely expressed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, where they play roles in several key processes. However, little is known regarding their pharmacology; therefore, the identification of a common, stable and inexpensive agonist should aid further investigations of these channels. Additionally, 2-APB has been used to study native receptors in cell systems that endogenously express members of the TREK subfamily (e.g., rat dorsal root ganglia); our results thus warn against the use of 2-APB at high concentrations in these systems.

  6. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  7. A Soluble Fluorescent Binding Assay Reveals PIP2 Antagonism of TREK-1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerrone Cabanos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid regulation of ion channels by low-abundance signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 and phosphatidic acid (PA has emerged as a central cellular mechanism for controlling ion channels and the excitability of nerves. A lack of robust assays suitable for facile detection of a lipid bound to a channel has hampered the probing of the lipid binding sites and measuring the pharmacology of putative lipid agonists for ion channels. Here, we show a fluorescent PIP2 competition assay for detergent-purified potassium channels, including TWIK-1-related K+-channel (TREK-1. Anionic lipids PA and phosphatidylglycerol (PG bind dose dependently (9.1 and 96 μM, respectively and agonize the channel. Our assay shows PIP2 binds with high affinity (0.87 μM but surprisingly can directly antagonize TREK-1 in liposomes. We propose a model for TREK-1 lipid regulation where PIP2 can compete with PA and PG agonism based on the affinity of the lipid for a site within the channel.

  8. Star Trek Physics: Where Does the Science End and the Fiction Begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhe, Sue Ellen; Cole, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Uses the science fiction television show "Star Trek" as an instructional medium to teach physics concepts. Includes suggestions on how to motivate students through "Star Trek" episodes and the Internet. (YDS)

  9. Enhancing Nephrology Career Interest through the ASN Kidney TREKS Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maursetter, Laura J; Stern, Lauren D; Sozio, Stephen M; Patel, Ankit B; Rao, Reena; Shah, Hitesh H; Leight, Katlyn; Okusa, Mark D; Zeidel, Mark L; Parker, Mark G

    2016-06-01

    The Kidney Tutored Research and Education for Kidney Students (TREKS) Program is a product of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Workforce Committee that seeks to connect medical and graduate students to nephrology. This program starts with a weeklong camp-like course introducing participants to renal physiology through classic and modern experiments. Next, each student is matched with a nephrology mentor at his or her home institution to foster a better understanding of a nephrology career. Lastly, the students are encouraged to participate in scholarly activities and attend the ASN Kidney Week. Now in its third year, with a total of 84 participants, survey data suggest early success of the program, with a self-reported 40% increased interest in nephrology fellowship and/or research careers. In addition, students give high ratings to the course components and mentorship pairings. Continued student tracking will be necessary to determine the long-term program effect. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  11. Closeout Report - Search for Time Reversal Symmetry Violation with TREK at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, Michael [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    academic positions. Two former graduate students of the group have graduated and received their PhD degrees in nuclear physics (Dr. Anusha Liyanage and Dr. Ozgur Ates). In particular, this award has enabled Dr. Kohl to pursue the TREK project (Time Reversal Experiment with Kaons) at J-PARC, which he has been leading and advancing as International Spokesperson. Originally proposed as a search for time reversal symmetry violation [6], the project has evolved into a precision test of lepton flavor universality in the Standard Model along with sensitive searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through a possible discovery of new particles such as a sterile neutrino or a neutral gauge boson from the hidden sector in the mass region up to 300 MeV/c2 [7]. Experiment TREK/E36, first proposed in 2010, has been mounted between November 2014 and April 2015, and commissioning with beam has been started in April 2015, with production running anticipated in early summer and late fall 2015. It uses the apparatus from the previous KEK/E-246 experiment with partial upgrades to measure the ratio of decay widths of leptonic two-body decays of the charged kaon to µν and eν, respectively, which is highly sensitive to the ratio of electromagnetic charged lepton couplings and possible new physics processes that could differentiate between μ and e, hence breaking lepton flavor universality of the Standard Model. Through the searches for neutral massive particles, TREK/E36 can severely constrain any new physics scenarios designed to explain the proton radius puzzle [12, 13].

  12. Inhibition of TREK-2 K(+) channels by PI(4,5)P2: an intrinsic mode of regulation by intracellular ATP via phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joohan; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yoo, Hae Young; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-08-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o). Steady state ITREK-2,i-o was reversibly decreased by 3 mM ATP applied to the cytoplasmic side, and this reduction was prevented by wortmannin, a PI-kinase inhibitor. An exogenous application of PI(4,5)P2 inhibited the spontaneously increased ITREKs,i-o, suggesting that intrinsic PI(4,5)P2 maintained by intracellular ATP and PI kinase may set the basal activity of TREKs in the intact cells. The inhibition of intrinsic TREK-2 by ATP was more prominent in WEHI-231 cells than astrocytes. Interestingly, unspecific screening of negative charges by poly-L-lysine also inhibited ITREK-2,i-o. Application of PI(4,5)P2 after the poly-L-lysine treatment showed dose-dependent dual effects, initial activation and subsequent inhibition of ITREK-2,i-o at low and high concentrations, respectively. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and a voltage-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase, sustained depolarization increased ITREK-2,w-c initially (PI(4,5)P2 suggests the existence of dual regulatory modes that depend on PI(4,5)P2 concentration.

  13. Moon Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B; Law, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Moon Trek (https://moontrek.jpl.nasa.gov) is the successor to and replacement for NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). Released in 2017, Moon Trek features a new interface with improved ways to access, visualize, and analyze data. Moon Trek provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions.

  14. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  15. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  16. Cardiac response to hypobaric hypoxia: persistent changes in cardiac mass, function, and energy metabolism after a trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Murray, Andrew J.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Codreanu, Ion; Hopwood, Naomi; Johnson, Andrew W.; Rider, Oliver J.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Francis, Jane M.; Neubauer, Stefan; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Clarke, Kieran; Grocott, Mike; Montgomery, Hugh; Levett, Denny; Martin, Daniel; Wilson, Mark; Windsor, Jeremy; Luery, Helen; Murray, Andrew; Stroud, Mike; Khosravi, Maryam; Wandrag, Liesl; Holloway, Cameron; Edwards, Lindsay; Ince, Can; Mythen, Monty; Jonas, Max; Imray, Chris; Newman, Stan; Stygal, Jan; Doyle, Patrick; Rodway, George; Howard, David; McMorrow, Roger; Ahuja, Vijay; Aref-Adib, Golnar; Burnham, Richard Dick; Chisholm, Amber; Coates, David; Cook, Debbie; Dhillon, Sundeep; Dougall, Christina; Duncan, Polly; Edsell, Mark; Evans, Lynn; Gardiner, Paul Bugs; Gunning, Paul; Hart, Nigel; Harrington, Jane; Harvey, John Jules; Hurlbut, Dan; van der Kaaij, Jildou; Kolfschoten, Nicoline Nikki; Luks, Andrew; Meale, Paula; Mitchell, Kay; Morgan, Gwen; Mythen, Michael Monty; O'Dwyer, Michael Mick; Pate, James Jim; Plant, Tracie; Pun, Matiram; Richards, Paul; Richardson, Alan; Simpson, Joanna Jo; Stroud, Callan; Vercueil, Andre; Cox, Mark; Morgan, Jonathan Jon; van Tulleken, Chris; van Tulleken, Alex; Szawarski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We postulated that changes in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism may underlie the myocardial dysfunction caused by hypobaric hypoxia. Healthy volunteers (n=14) were studied immediately before, and within 4 d of return from, a 17-d trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp (5300 m). (31)P magnetic

  17. Highly efficient deep ultraviolet generation by sum-frequency mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generation of deep ultraviolet radiation at 210 nm by Type-I third harmonic generation is achieved in a pair of BBO crystals with conversion efficiency as high as 36%. The fundamental source is the dye laser radiation pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser. A walk-off compensated configuration ...

  18. Highly efficient deep ultraviolet generation by sum-frequency mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Generation of deep ultraviolet radiation at 210 nm by Type-I third harmonic generation is achieved in a pair of BBO crystals with conversion efficiency as high as 36%. The fundamental source is the dye laser radiation pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser. A walk-off compensated ...

  19. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  20. Involvement of intracellular transport in TREK-1c current run-up in 293T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andharia, Naaz; Joseph, Ancy; Hayashi, Mikio; Okada, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroko

    2017-05-04

    The TREK-1 channel, the TWIK-1-related potassium (K + ) channel, is a member of a family of 2-pore-domain K + (K2P) channels, through which background or leak K + currents occur. An interesting feature of the TREK-1 channel is the run-up of current: i.e. the current through TREK-1 channels spontaneously increases within several minutes of the formation of the whole-cell configuration. To investigate whether intracellular transport is involved in the run-up, we established 293T cell lines stably expressing the TREK-1c channel (K2P2.1) and examined the effects of inhibitors of membrane protein transport, N-methylmaleimide (NEM), brefeldin-A, and an endocytosis inhibitor, pitstop2, on the run-up. The results showing that NEM and brefeldin-A inhibited and pitstop2 facilitated the run-up suggest the involvement of intracellular protein transport. Correspondingly, in cells stably expressing the mCherry-TREK-1 fusion protein, NEM decreased and pitstop2 increased the cell surface localization of the fusion protein. Furthermore, the run-up was inhibited by the intracellular application of a peptide of the C-terminal fragment TREK335-360, corresponding to the interaction site with microtubule-associated protein 2 (Mtap2). This peptide also inhibited the co-immunoprecipitation of Mtap2 with anti-mCherry antibody. The extracellular application of an ezrin inhibitor (NSC668394) also suppressed the run-up and surface localization of the fusion protein. The co-application of these inhibitors abolished the TREK-1c current, suggesting that the additive effects of ezrin and Mtap2 enhance the surface expression of TREK-1c channels and the run-up. These findings clearly showed the involvement of intracellular transport in TREK-1c current run-up and its mechanism.

  1. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  2. Starry white trek: Science fiction and racial discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that the science fiction’s visions of the future are not exempt from problems of rasism even when openly opposed it. Film and TV Star Trek production is commonly regarded as a significant example of courageous and effective intervention of mass culture on the widespread racial prejudices legitimized by the public policy. Subsequent interpretations, however, in its ‘emancipatory text’ finds smuggled recurrences of the same racial discourse against which it acted, whether it concerns other ‘races’ on Earth or space aliens. A fair interpretation would have to conclude that the white male norm requires effort of its ‘deconstruction’ that would be more extensive then involvement in the program the non-white characters - if we do not want to extend his exclusive and discriminatory rule, in mitigated or disguised form, to the galaxy.

  3. Veganism In Star Trek : A Comic Reformatting Of Plant-Based Space Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Tamminen, Tiariia

    2017-01-01

    My thesis revolves around collecting references to veganism and animal rights in five different science fiction TV series of the Star Trek franchise. I especially concentrate on how the character creation, setting and spoken lines express development and implementation of food technology and ethics. My objective is to show how our relationship to food and animal rights is presented in the main canon of the Star Trek franchise in terms of exploration in space. I will express this further t...

  4. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  5. High Rate Deep Si Etching using Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Itsuko; Sakurai, Noriko; Ohiwa, Tokuhisa

    High rate deep Si etching using SF6/O2 gas chemistry by Magnetically-Enhanced Reactive Ion Etch (MERIE) system using a Dipole-Ring Magnet (DRM) is studied. It is capable of etching holes 40 μm in diameter in a Si substrate at etch rates as high as 50 μm/min. It was found that the Si etch reaction is dominated by the density of fluorine radicals, which is realized at high frequency and pressure. In holes with higher aspect ratios, it was found that the Si etch rate at the bottom of holes is determined not only by the supply of fluorine radicals, but is also influenced by an etch-inhibiting effect related to the sidewall of the hole. Using an 8 μm square mask, holes with straight sidewalls were etched to a depth of 60 μm at an etch rate of 24 μm/min.

  6. Fashion’s Final Frontier”: The Correlation of Gender Roles and Fashion in Star Trek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Andres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its creation in 1966, Star Trek has been a dominant part of popular culture and as thus served as the source for many cultural references. Star Trek’s creator Gene Roddenberry wanted to realize his vision of a utopia but at the same time, he used the futuristic setting of the show to comment on the present time, on ac-tual social and political circumstances. This means that each series can be regarded as a mirror image of the time in which it was created. The clothing of the characters in the different series is one part of that image. The uniforms of The Original Series show influences of the 1960s pop art movement as well as the mini-skirt trend that experienced its peak in that decade. In the course of almost 40 years, however, many things changed. In the 1990s, in Deep Space Nine and Voyager, a unisex uniform replaced the mini-dresses, with few exceptions; the colorful shirts gave way to ones that were mostly black. This trend continues into the new century. This essay interprets the evolution of the female officers’ uniforms from femi-nized dresses to androgynous clothing over the development of the series as a reflection of the change of gender roles in contemporary American society. The general functions of the female characters’ uniforms are the central object of its analysis while the few, but noteworthy exceptions to this pattern are given specific attention. Finally, one of the most intriguing lines of enquiry is, how the prequel series Enterprise, supposed to be set before The Original Series, but produced and aired from 2001 to 2005, fits in the picture.

  7. Explorations on High Dimensional Landscapes: Spin Glasses and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Levent

    This thesis deals with understanding the structure of high-dimensional and non-convex energy landscapes. In particular, its focus is on the optimization of two classes of functions: homogeneous polynomials and loss functions that arise in machine learning. In the first part, the notion of complexity of a smooth, real-valued function is studied through its critical points. Existing theoretical results predict that certain random functions that are defined on high dimensional domains have a narrow band of values whose pre-image contains the bulk of its critical points. This section provides empirical evidence for convergence of gradient descent to local minima whose energies are near the predicted threshold justifying the existing asymptotic theory. Moreover, it is empirically shown that a similar phenomenon may hold for deep learning loss functions. Furthermore, there is a comparative analysis of gradient descent and its stochastic version showing that in high dimensional regimes the latter is a mere speedup. The next study focuses on the halting time of an algorithm at a given stopping condition. Given an algorithm, the normalized fluctuations of the halting time follow a distribution that remains unchanged even when the input data is sampled from a new distribution. Two qualitative classes are observed: a Gumbel-like distribution that appears in Google searches, human decision times, and spin glasses and a Gaussian-like distribution that appears in conjugate gradient method, deep learning with MNIST and random input data. Following the universality phenomenon, the Hessian of the loss functions of deep learning is studied. The spectrum is seen to be composed of two parts, the bulk which is concentrated around zero, and the edges which are scattered away from zero. Empirical evidence is presented for the bulk indicating how over-parametrized the system is, and for the edges that depend on the input data. Furthermore, an algorithm is proposed such that it would

  8. High energy deep inelastic scattering in perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, we deal with high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering in Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, two main topics are emphasized: The first one deals with dynamics based on perturbative renormalization group, and on perturbative Regge approaches. We discuss the applicability of these predictions, the possibility of distinguishing them in the HERA experiments, and their unification. We prove that the perturbative Regge dynamic can be successfully applied to describe the HERA data. Different observables are proposed for distinguishing these two approaches. We show that these two predictions can be unified in a system of equations. In the second one, unitarization and saturation problems in high energy QCD are discussed. In the multi-Regge approach, equivalent to the integrable one-dimensional XXX Heisenberg spin chain, we develop methods in order to solve this system, based on the Functional Bethe Ansatz. In the dipole model context, we propose a new formulation of unitarity and saturation effects, using Wilson loops. (author)

  9. Nonlinear Creep Model for Deep Rock under High Stress and High Pore Water Pressure Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yuanguang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional triaxial compression creep experiments for deep sandstone under high confining pressure and high pore water pressure were carried out, in order to predict the creep response of deep rock under these conditions. A nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep constitutive model was proposed based on the experimental results. The theory of component model was used as a basis for the formulation of this model. First, by using mathematical fitting and analogy, a new nonlinear viscous component was introduced based on the properties of the creep curves during the tertiary stage. Second, a timer component to judge whether the creep can get into the tertiary stage was presented. Finally, a nonlinear creep model was proposed. Results showed good agreement between theory curves from the nonlinear creep model and experimental data. This model can be applied to predict deep rock creep responses under high stress and high pore water pressure conditions. Hence, the obtained conclusions in this study are beneficial to deep rock engineering.

  10. STEM Engagement with NASA's Solar System Treks Portals for Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E. S.; Day, B. H.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the uses and capabilities of NASA's Solar System Treks family of online mapping and modeling portals. While also designed to support mission planning and scientific research, this presentation will focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) engagement and public outreach capabilities of these web based suites of data visualization and analysis tools.

  11. De trek van kruiden van volgroeid wortelmateriaal : handleiding van A tot Z in beknopte vorm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van C.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Deze teelthandleiding richt zich op de trek van vooral dragon, krulpeterselie, rucola en munt, uitgaande van wortelmateriaal dat in de vollegrond wordt geteeld. Deze forcering richt zich zowel op aanbod van kruiden in potjes als de meermalige oogst van het gesneden product in een kas of een

  12. High power deep UV-LEDs for analytical optical instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Dvořák, Miloš; Nesterenko, P. N.; Nuchtavorn, N.; Macka, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 2 (2018), s. 1238-1243 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : deep UV Light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical detection * portable analytical instrumentation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  13. High power deep UV-LEDs for analytical optical instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Dvořák, Miloš; Nesterenko, P. N.; Nuchtavorn, N.; Macka, M.

    Roč. 255, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 1238-1243 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : deep UV Light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical detection * portable analytical instrumentation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  14. Ultra High Field MRI-Guided Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Birte U; Isaacs, Bethany R; Temel, Yasin

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical treatment for neurological disorders often planned with 1.5-T or 3-T MRI. The clinical efficacy of DBS can be improved using ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI for planning by increasing the level of precision required for an individualized approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of deep cryogenic treatment on the properties of high-vanadium alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haizhi [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tong, Weiping, E-mail: wptong@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cui, Junjun [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, Liqing [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zuo, Liang [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-04-26

    Deep cryogenic treatment can improve the mechanical properties of many metallic materials, but there are few reports of the effect of deep cryogenic treatment on high-vanadium alloy steel. The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, impact toughness and abrasive wear resistance of high-vanadium alloy steel. The results show that large amounts of small secondary carbide precipitation after deep cryogenic treatment and microcracks were detected and occurred preferentially at carbide/matrix interfaces; except for the hardness, the mechanical properties increased compared to those of the conventional treatment sample. By increasing the deep cryogenic processing time and cycle number, impact toughness and abrasive wear resistance can be further improved, the carbide contents continuously increase, and the hardness decreases.

  16. Analysis of crack and deflection states of high performance reinforced fiber concrete deep beams with openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Smarzewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the crack and deflection states analysis of the reinforced deep beams with openings made of high performance steel and polypropylene fibre concrete. Research was carried out with regard to quantity and the type of reinforcement. The deep beam T1 was constructed conventionally with steel rods reinforcement. As regards deep beams T2 and T3, instead of the steel wire mesh, fibre reinforcement of variable fibre volume percentage was applied. The analysis of the behaviour of the deep beams under static load was based on the measurements of cracks and deflections.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete deep beams with openings, high performance concrete, steel fibre, polypropylene fibre, crack state, deflections

  17. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  18. Solar System Treks: Interactive Web Portals or STEM, Exploration and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B. H.; Viotti, M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Solar System Treks project produces a suite of online visualization and analysis tools for lunar and planetary mapping and modeling. These portals offer great benefits for education and public outreach, providing access to data from a wide range of instruments aboard a variety of past and current missions. As a component of NASA's STEM Activation Infrastructure, they are available as resources for NASA STEM programs, and to the greater STEM community. As new missions are planned to a variety of planetary bodies, these tools facilitate public understanding of the missions and engage the public in the process of identifying and selecting where these missions will land. There are currently three web portals in the program: Moon Trek (https://moontrek.jpl.nasa.gov), Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov), and Vesta Trek (https://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov). A new release of Mars Trek includes new tools and data products focusing on human landing site selection. Backed by evidence-based cognitive and computer science findings, an additional version is available for educational and public audiences in support of earning along novice-to-expert pathways, enabling authentic, real-world interaction with planetary data. Portals for additional planetary bodies are planned. As web-based toolsets, the portals do not require users to purchase or install any software beyond current web browsers. The portals provide analysis tools for measurement and study of planetary terrain. They allow data to be layered and adjusted to optimize visualization. Visualizations are easily stored and shared. The portals provide 3D visualization and give users the ability to mark terrain for generation of STL/OBJ files that can be directed to 3D printers. Such 3D prints are valuable tools in museums, public exhibits, and classrooms - especially for the visually impaired. The program supports additional clients, web services, and APIs facilitating dissemination of planetary data to external

  19. Fluoxetine protection in decompression sickness in mice is enhanced by blocking TREK-1 potassium channel with the spadin antidepressant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eVallée

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In mice, disseminated coagulation, inflammation and ischemia induce neurological damages that can lead to the death. These symptoms result from circulating bubbles generated by a pathogenic decompression. An acute fluoxetine treatment or the presence of the TREK-1 potassium channel increased the survival rate when mice are subjected to an experimental dive/decompression protocol. This is a paradox because fluoxetine is a blocker of TREK-1 channels. First, we studied the effects of an acute dose of fluoxetine (50mg/kg in wild-type (WT and TREK-1 deficient mice (Knockout homozygous KO and heterozygous HET. Then, we combined the same fluoxetine treatment with a five-day treatment by spadin, in order to specifically block TREK-1 activity (KO-like mice. KO and KO-like mice could be regarded as antidepressed models.167 mice (45 WTcont 46 WTflux 30 HETflux and 46 KOflux constituting the flux-pool and 113 supplementary mice (27 KO-like 24 WTflux2 24 KO-likeflux 21 WTcont2 17 WTno dive constituting the spad-pool were included in this study. Only 7% of KO-TREK-1 treated with fluoxetine (KOflux and 4% of mice treated with both spadin and fluoxetine (KO-likeflux died from decompression sickness (DCS symptoms. These values are much lower than those of WT control (62% or KO-like mice (41%. After the decompression protocol, mice showed a significant consumption of their circulating platelets and leukocytes.Spadin antidepressed mice were more likely to declare DCS. Nevertheless, which had both blocked TREK-1 channel and were treated with fluoxetine were better protected against DCS. We conclude that the protective effect of such an acute dose of fluoxetine is enhanced when TREK-1 is inhibited. We confirmed that antidepressed models may have worse DCS outcomes, but a concomitant fluoxetine treatment not only decreases DCS severity but increases the survival rate.

  20. Hydration of high-silica glasses in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Natural analogs of nuclear waste glasses are important because they provide information of the one variable that is not controllable in the laboratory - long intervals of time in the actual environment of storage. Some natural glasses have persisted for millions of years in deep-sea sediments in the form of disseminated particles and distinct tephra layers, while other apparently similar specimens have been completely altered to clay assemblages relatively quickly. Geologists have reached no firm conclusions as to why these differences exist, and more research is certainly warranted. These glasses vary in age, composition, and in the in-situ conditions they have experienced. They may provide important information for two different aspects of nuclear waste glass research: First, the chemical composition and especially the water content of these glasses as a function of time may give an understanding of the mechanisms and rates of diffusion in glasses in the natural environment. Second, the apparent differing durability of these glasses in different environmental conditions may suggest the optimal characteristics of a nuclear waste glass depository

  1. High-Power, Solid-State, Deep Ultraviolet Laser Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Xuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, deep ultraviolet (DUV lasers at the wavelength of fourth harmonics of 1 μm (266 nm/258 nm and at the wavelength of 193 nm are widely utilized in science and industry. We review the generation of these DUV lasers by nonlinear frequency conversion processes using solid-state/fiber lasers as the fundamental frequency. A DUV laser at 258 nm by fourth harmonics generation (FHG could achieve an average power of 10 W with a beam quality of M2 < 1.5. Moreover, 1 W of average power at 193 nm was obtained by sum-frequency generation (SFG. A new concept of 193-nm DUV laser generation by use of the diamond Raman laser is also introduced. A proof-of-principle experiment of the diamond Raman laser is reported with the conversion efficiency of 23% from the pump to the second Stokes wavelength, which implies the potential to generate a higher power 193 nm DUV laser in the future.

  2. A Reconfigurable Low Power High Throughput Architecture for Deep Network Training

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Raqibul; Taha, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    General purpose computing systems are used for a large variety of applications. Extensive supports for flexibility in these systems limit their energy efficiencies. Neural networks, including deep networks, are widely used for signal processing and pattern recognition applications. In this paper we propose a multicore architecture for deep neural network based processing. Memristor crossbars are utilized to provide low power high throughput execution of neural networks. The system has both tr...

  3. Spadin, a sortilin-derived peptide, targeting rodent TREK-1 channels: a new concept in the antidepressant drug design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mazella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current antidepressant treatments are inadequate for many individuals, and when they are effective, they require several weeks of administration before a therapeutic effect can be observed. Improving the treatment of depression is challenging. Recently, the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 has been identified as a new target in depression, and its antagonists might become effective antidepressants. In mice, deletion of the TREK-1 gene results in a depression-resistant phenotype that mimics antidepressant treatments. Here, we validate in mice the antidepressant effects of spadin, a secreted peptide derived from the propeptide generated by the maturation of the neurotensin receptor 3 (NTSR3/Sortilin and acting through TREK-1 inhibition. NTSR3/Sortilin interacted with the TREK-1 channel, as shown by immunoprecipitation of TREK-1 and NTSR3/Sortilin from COS-7 cells and cortical neurons co-expressing both proteins. TREK-1 and NTSR3/Sortilin were colocalized in mouse cortical neurons. Spadin bound specifically to TREK-1 with an affinity of 10 nM. Electrophysiological studies showed that spadin efficiently blocked the TREK-1 activity in COS-7 cells, cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and CA3 hippocampal neurons in brain slices. Spadin also induced in vivo an increase of the 5-HT neuron firing rate in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus. In five behavioral tests predicting an antidepressant response, spadin-treated mice showed a resistance to depression as found in TREK-1 deficient mice. More importantly, an intravenous 4-d treatment with spadin not only induced a strong antidepressant effect but also enhanced hippocampal phosphorylation of CREB protein and neurogenesis, considered to be key markers of antidepressant action after chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This work also shows the development of a reliable method for dosing the propeptide in serum of mice by using AlphaScreen technology. These findings point out

  4. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    massive CDR interventions eventually bring down the global mean pH value to the RCP2.6 level, yet cannot restore a similarly homogenous distribution - while the pH of the upper ocean returns to the preindustrial value or even exceed it (in the 180 ppm scenario), the deep ocean remains acidified. The deep ocean is out of contact with the atmosphere and therefore unreachable by atmospheric CDR. Our results suggest that the proposition that the marine consequences of early emissions reductions are comparable to those of delayed reductions plus CDR is delusive and that a policy that allows for emitting CO2 today in the hopes of removing it tomorrow is bound to generate substantial regrets.

  5. Innovative Deep Throttling, High Performance Injector Concept Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Science and Technology Applications, LLC's (STA) vision for a versatile space propulsion system is a highly throttleable, high performance, and cost effective Liquid...

  6. Automated analysis of high-content microscopy data with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Grys, Ben T; Ba, Jimmy; Chong, Yolanda; Frey, Brendan J; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-04-18

    Existing computational pipelines for quantitative analysis of high-content microscopy data rely on traditional machine learning approaches that fail to accurately classify more than a single dataset without substantial tuning and training, requiring extensive analysis. Here, we demonstrate that the application of deep learning to biological image data can overcome the pitfalls associated with conventional machine learning classifiers. Using a deep convolutional neural network (DeepLoc) to analyze yeast cell images, we show improved performance over traditional approaches in the automated classification of protein subcellular localization. We also demonstrate the ability of DeepLoc to classify highly divergent image sets, including images of pheromone-arrested cells with abnormal cellular morphology, as well as images generated in different genetic backgrounds and in different laboratories. We offer an open-source implementation that enables updating DeepLoc on new microscopy datasets. This study highlights deep learning as an important tool for the expedited analysis of high-content microscopy data. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2...

  8. Structure functions and parton distributions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1993-08-01

    The possibilities to measure structure functions, to extract parton distributions, and to measure α s and Λ QCD in current and future high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments are reviewed. A comparison is given for experiments at HERA, an ep option at LEP xLHC, and a high energy neutrino experiment. (orig.)

  9. A deep sea telescope for high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.J.; Basa, S.

    1999-05-01

    This document presents the scientific motivation for building a high energy neutrino undersea detector, with an effective area of 0.1 km 2 , along with a review of the technical issues involved in its design and construction. It contents: the scientific program, the detection principles, the research and development program, the detector design and performances and complementary technique. (A.L.B.)

  10. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Most of the radio galaxies with > 3 have been found using the red-shift spectral index correlation.We have started a programme with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to exploit this correlation at flux density levels about 100 times deeper than the known high-redshift radio galaxies, with an ...

  11. The Role of the Two-Pore Domain Potassium Channel TREK-1 in the Therapeutic Effects of Escitalopram in a Rat Model of Poststroke Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dai-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Rong; Ye, Dong-Qing; Xi, Guang-Jun; Hui, Jiao-Jie; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Lin-Jiang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric complications after stroke. TREK-1, a two-pore-domain potassium channel, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TREK-1 plays a role in the therapeutic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram in a rat PSD model. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was performed to assess the effect of escitalopram on recombinant TREK-1 currents in HEK293 cells. The expression of TREK-1 mRNA and protein was measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation was detected in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in PSD rats after 3 weeks of escitalopram administration. Escitalopram reversibly inhibited TREK-1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Chronic treatment with escitalopram significantly reversed the reductions in weight gain, locomotor activity, and sucrose preference in PSD rats. The expressions of TREK-1 mRNA and protein were significantly increased in hippocampal CA1, CA3, DG, and PFC in PSD rats, with the exception of TREK-1 mRNA in hippocampal CA1. NSC proliferation was significantly decreased in hippocampal DG of PSD rats. Escitalopram significantly reversed the regional increases of TREK-1 expression and the reduction of hippocampal NSC proliferation in PSD rats. TREK-1 plays an important role in the therapeutic effects of the SSRI escitalopram in PSD model, making TREK-1 an attractive candidate molecule for further understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of PSD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A deep sea telescope for high energy neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.J.; Basa, S. [and others

    1999-05-01

    This document presents the scientific motivation for building a high energy neutrino undersea detector, with an effective area of 0.1 km{sup 2}, along with a review of the technical issues involved in its design and construction. It contents: the scientific program, the detection principles, the research and development program, the detector design and performances and complementary technique. (A.L.B.)

  13. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Jørgensen, Ole A

    2004-01-01

    were correlated with predicted whale predation levels based on diving behavior. The difference in Greenland halibut biomass between an area with high predation and a comparable area without whales, approximately 19000 tonnes, corresponded well with the predicted biomass removed by the narwhal sub......-population on a diet of 50-75% Greenland halibut. (C) 2004 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  15. High-pressure phase transitions of deep earth materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Kei

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in synchrotron XRD measurements combined with laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) techniques have enabled us to search for a novel phase transition at extremely high pressure and temperature. A phase transition from MgSiO 3 perovskite to post-perovskite was discovered through a drastic change in XRD patterns above 120 GPa and 2500 K, corresponding to the condition in the lowermost mantle (Murakami et al., 2004; Oganov and Ono, 2004). A pressure-induced phase transformation from ABO 3 -type perovskite to any denser structures was not known at that time. This new MgSiO 3 polymorph called post-perovskite has an orthorhombic symmetry (space group: Cmcm) with a sheet-stacking structure. The Mg site in post-perovskite is smaller than that in perovskite, which results in a volume reduction by 1.0-1.5% from perovskite structure. The electrical conductivity of post-perovskite is higher by three orders of magnitude than that of perovskite at similar pressure range (Ohta et al., 2008). This is likely due to a shorter Fe-Fe distance in post-perovskite structure, while conduction mechanism is yet to be further examined. Phase transition boundary between perovskite and post-perovskite has been determined in a wide temperature range up to 4400 K at 170 GPa (Tateno et al., 2008). Phase relations of Fe alloys have been also studied at core pressures (>135 GPa), although the generation of high temperature is more difficult at higher pressures. A new high-pressure B2 phase of B2 phase of FeS was recently discovered above 180 GPa (Sata et al., 2008). The Fe-Ni alloys have a wide pressure-temperature stability field of fcc phase at the core pressure range, depending on the Ni content (Kuwayama et al., 2008). (author)

  16. First systematic deep search for high-z CO absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Elizabeth; Sadler, Elaine; Morganti, Raffaella; Ekers, Ron; Curran, Steve; Allison, James Richard; Chow, Kate; Emonts, Bjorn

    2012-04-01

    Molecular gas plays an important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies and is thought to be a crucial link between the central Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and the host galaxy. The most common way to study the properties of this cool, molecular gas is to look for Carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, these studies are extremely expensive in telescope time. We propose to look for CO absorption against high redshift, bright millimetre sources selected from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey. This will be the first systematic study of CO absorption properties of a large sample (20 objects) of galaxies providing insight into the molecular gas properties of the host galaxy without the time-consuming nature of CO emission line searches.

  17. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-02-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  18. A Study of Complex Deep Learning Networks on High Performance, Neuromorphic, and Quantum Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Schuman, Catherine D [ORNL; Young, Steven R [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Spedalieri, Federico [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Liu, Jeremy [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Yao, Ke-Thia [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Rose, Garrett [University of Tennessee (UT); Chakma, Gangotree [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2016-01-01

    Current Deep Learning models use highly optimized convolutional neural networks (CNN) trained on large graphical processing units (GPU)-based computers with a fairly simple layered network topology, i.e., highly connected layers, without intra-layer connections. Complex topologies have been proposed, but are intractable to train on current systems. Building the topologies of the deep learning network requires hand tuning, and implementing the network in hardware is expensive in both cost and power. In this paper, we evaluate deep learning models using three different computing architectures to address these problems: quantum computing to train complex topologies, high performance computing (HPC) to automatically determine network topology, and neuromorphic computing for a low-power hardware implementation. Due to input size limitations of current quantum computers we use the MNIST dataset for our evaluation. The results show the possibility of using the three architectures in tandem to explore complex deep learning networks that are untrainable using a von Neumann architecture. We show that a quantum computer can find high quality values of intra-layer connections and weights, while yielding a tractable time result as the complexity of the network increases; a high performance computer can find optimal layer-based topologies; and a neuromorphic computer can represent the complex topology and weights derived from the other architectures in low power memristive hardware. This represents a new capability that is not feasible with current von Neumann architecture. It potentially enables the ability to solve very complicated problems unsolvable with current computing technologies.

  19. High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...

  20. High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...

  1. The Mommy Trek? Working Women’s Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P. Eisner

    2011-01-01

    A quarter century after Felice Schwartz urged companies to craft policies accommodating parental responsibilities or risk losing talented women, many highly educated women are leaving traditional careers. Is the 21st century workplace experiencing a “Mommy Trek” foreshadowed by Schwartz’s recommendation for a Mommy Track? What choices are today’s working women making? Do things turn out as planned? Will Family Friendly programs keep women from leaving? This paper presents results of a study c...

  2. Dimethylurea/citric acid as a highly efficient deep eutectic solvent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimethylurea/citric acid deep eutectic solvent was used as a dual catalyst and a green reaction medium for the efficient synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes, quinolines and aryl-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazoles. Ease of recovery and reusability of DES with high activity makes this method efficient and eco-friendly.

  3. Plan of deep underground construction for investigations on high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayanovskij, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The program of studies of the Japanese PNC corporation on construction of deep underground storage for high-level radioactive wastes is presented. The program is intended for 20 years. The total construction costs equal about 20 billion yen. The total cost of the project is equal to 60 billion yen. The underground part is planned to reach 1000 m depth

  4. Deep geologic storage of high level radioactive wastes: conceptual generic designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the studies on deep geologic storage of radioactive wastes and specially for the high-level radioactive wastes. The study is focussed to the geotechnical assessment and generic-conceptual designs. Methodology analysis, geotechnical feasibility, costs and operation are studied

  5. Dimethylurea/citric acid as a highly efficient deep eutectic solvent for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimethylurea/citric acid deep eutectic solvent was used as a dual catalyst and a green reaction medium for the efficient synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes, quinolines and aryl-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazoles. Ease of recovery and reusability of DES with high activity makes this method efficient and eco-friendly.

  6. High-throughput verification of transcriptional starting sites by Deep-RACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe; Plessy, Charles; Carninci, Piero

    2009-01-01

    We present a high-throughput method for investigating the transcriptional starting sites of genes of interest, which we named Deep-RACE (Deep–rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Taking advantage of the latest sequencing technology, it allows the parallel analysis of multiple genes and is free of t...

  7. Highly efficient deep ultraviolet generation by sum-frequency mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generation of deep ultraviolet radiation at 210 nm by Type-I third harmonic generation is achieved in a pair of BBO crystals with conversion efficiency as high as 36%. The fundamental source is the dye laser radiation pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser. A walk-off compensated configuration ...

  8. Deep-inelastic Electron-Photon Scattering at High Q^2 : Neutral and Charged Current Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder, A. Gehrmann-De

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a calculation of deep inelastic electron-photon scattering at a linear collider for very high virtuality of the intermediate gauge boson up to NLO in perturbative QCD. The real photon is produced unpolarized via the Compton back scattering of laser light of the incoming beam. For $Q^2$ values close to the masses squared of the Z and W gauge bosons, the deep inelastic electron-photon scattering process receives important contributions not only from virtual photon exch...

  9. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  10. Building Extraction in Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning and Guided Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery has been used for land cover classification, and it tends to a transition from land-use classification to pixel-level semantic segmentation. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning and the filter method in computer vision, this work provides a segmentation model, which designs an image segmentation neural network based on the deep residual networks and uses a guided filter to extract buildings in remote sensing imagery. Our method includes the following steps: first, the VHR remote sensing imagery is preprocessed and some hand-crafted features are calculated. Second, a designed deep network architecture is trained with the urban district remote sensing image to extract buildings at the pixel level. Third, a guided filter is employed to optimize the classification map produced by deep learning; at the same time, some salt-and-pepper noise is removed. Experimental results based on the Vaihingen and Potsdam datasets demonstrate that our method, which benefits from neural networks and guided filtering, achieves a higher overall accuracy when compared with other machine learning and deep learning methods. The method proposed shows outstanding performance in terms of the building extraction from diversified objects in the urban district.

  11. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  12. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  13. Deep ultraviolet emission in hexagonal boron nitride grown by high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Rousseau, E.; Summerfield, A.; Mellor, C. J.; Cho, Y.; Cheng, T. S.; Albar, J. D.; Eaves, L.; Foxon, C. T.; Beton, P. H.; Novikov, S. V.; Gil, B.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the opto-electronic properties of hexagonal boron nitride grown by high temperature plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We combine atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet to compare the quality of hexagonal boron nitride grown either on sapphire or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. For both substrates, the emission spectra peak at 235 nm, indicating the high optical quality of hexagonal boron nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The epilayers on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite demonstrate superior performance in the deep ultraviolet (down to 210 nm) compared to those on sapphire. These results reveal the potential of molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene, and more generally, for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures and devices by means of a scalable technology.

  14. K2P2.1 (TREK-1)–activator complexes reveal a cryptic selectivity filter binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolicato, Marco; Arrigoni, Cristina; Mori, Takahiro; Sekioka, Yoko; Bryant, Clifford; Clark, Kimberly A.; Minor, Jr , Daniel L. (Ono); (UCSF)

    2017-07-10

    Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK1 subfamily generate ‘leak’ currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses1, 2, 3. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit4, 5, 6. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter ‘C-type’ gate7, 8, 9, 10 as the principal gating site. Despite recent advances3, 11, 12, poor pharmacological profiles of K2P channels limit mechanistic and biological studies. Here we describe a class of small-molecule TREK activators that directly stimulate the C-type gate by acting as molecular wedges that restrict interdomain interface movement behind the selectivity filter. Structures of K2P2.1 (also known as TREK-1) alone and with two selective K2P2.1 (TREK-1) and K2P10.1 (TREK-2) activators—an N-aryl-sulfonamide, ML335, and a thiophene-carboxamide, ML402—define a cryptic binding pocket unlike other ion channel small-molecule binding sites and, together with functional studies, identify a cation–π interaction that controls selectivity. Together, our data reveal a druggable K2P site that stabilizes the C-type gate ‘leak mode’ and provide direct evidence for K2P selectivity filter gating.

  15. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2......) Kinematics in progressive solitary waves; (3) Reflection of solitary waves from a vertical wall; (4) Reflection and diffraction around a vertical plate; (5) Quartet and quintet interactions and class I and II instabilities; (6) Extreme events from focused directionally spread waveelds; (7) Bragg scattering...

  16. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. One true threesome: Reconciling canon and fan desire in Star Trek: Voyager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Kies

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fan-written stories that involve three-way relationships among the characters Tom Paris, Harry Kim, and B'Elanna Torres from Star Trek: Voyager capitalize on the homosocial bond between Paris and Kim and the canonical relationship between Paris and Torres to create a queer triangular relationship in which characterization, sexuality, and desire are all reoriented from the canon. Some of these stories relegate the nontraditional relationship to something approximating heteronormativity; in these instances, the story mirrors the canon in its often undesirable depiction of domesticity. In other stories, the triad moves away from dominant cultural expectations like marriage and children; in these stories, the triad seems to endure happily. The key to the stability of the erotic triangle therefore shifts the relationship or relationships away from the burden of hegemonic values, both in canon and in fan fiction.

  18. Pixel-Wise Classification Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the classification of high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, this paper presents a novel classification method for such imagery using deep neural networks. Deep learning methods, such as a fully convolutional network (FCN model, achieve state-of-the-art performance in natural image semantic segmentation when provided with large-scale datasets and respective labels. To use data efficiently in the training stage, we first pre-segment training images and their labels into small patches as supplements of training data using graph-based segmentation and the selective search method. Subsequently, FCN with atrous convolution is used to perform pixel-wise classification. In the testing stage, post-processing with fully connected conditional random fields (CRFs is used to refine results. Extensive experiments based on the Vaihingen dataset demonstrate that our method performs better than the reference state-of-the-art networks when applied to high-resolution remote sensing imagery classification.

  19. High-performance deep-ultraviolet optics for free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Alexandre; Thielsch, Roland; Heber, Joerg; Kaiser, Norbert; Ristau, Detlev; Günster, Stephan; Kohlhaas, Juergen; Marsi, Marino; Trovò, Mauro; Walker, Richard; Garzella, David; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Torchio, Philippe; Alvisi, Marco; Amra, Claude

    2002-06-01

    Working with wavelengths shorter than the deep ultraviolet involves the development of dedicated optics for free-electron lasers with devoted coating techniques and characterizations. High-performance deep-ultraviolet optics are specially developed to create low-loss, high-reflectivity dielectric mirrors with long lifetimes in harsh synchrotron radiation environments. In February 2001, lasing at 189.7 nm, the shortest wavelength obtained so far with free-electron-laser oscillators, was obtained at the European Free-electron-laser project at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Trieste, Italy. In July 2001, 330-mW extracted power at 250 nm was measured with optimized transmission mirrors. Research and development of coatings correlated to lasing performance are reported.

  20. Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xinlong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel change detection method is proposed based on deep learning to improve the accuracy of change detection in very high spatial resolution remote sensing images. On the base of image pre-processing, spectral and texture changes are extracted by modified change vector analysis and grey level co-occurrence matrix respectively, both concerning spatial-contextual information. Most likely changed and unchanged pixel-pairs are obtained by an adaptive threshold for selecting the labeled samples. The proposed model based on Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machines with a label layer is built to learn high-level features and is trained for determining the change areas. Experimental results on WorldView-3 and Pléiades-1 show that the proposed method out performs the compared methods in the accuracy of change detection.

  1. A role for TREK1 in generating the slow afterhyperpolarization in developing starburst amacrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin J; Arroyo, David A; Kay, Jeremy N; Lloyd, Eric E; Bryan, Robert M; Sanes, Joshua R; Feller, Marla B

    2013-05-01

    Slow afterhyperpolarizations (sAHPs) play an important role in establishing the firing pattern of neurons that in turn influence network activity. sAHPs are mediated by calcium-activated potassium channels. However, the molecular identity of these channels and the mechanism linking calcium entry to their activation are still unknown. Here we present several lines of evidence suggesting that the sAHPs in developing starburst amacrine cells (SACs) are mediated by two-pore potassium channels. First, we use whole cell and perforated patch voltage clamp recordings to characterize the sAHP conductance under different pharmacological conditions. We find that this conductance was calcium dependent, reversed at EK, blocked by barium, insensitive to apamin and TEA, and activated by arachidonic acid. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated phosphodiesterase reduced the sAHP. Second, we performed gene profiling on isolated SACs and found that they showed strong preferential expression of the two-pore channel gene kcnk2 that encodes TREK1. Third, we demonstrated that TREK1 knockout animals exhibited an altered frequency of retinal waves, a frequency that is set by the sAHPs in SACs. With these results, we propose a model in which depolarization-induced decreases in cAMP lead to disinhibition of the two-pore potassium channels and in which the kinetics of this biochemical pathway dictate the slow activation and deactivation of the sAHP conductance. Our model offers a novel pathway for the activation of a conductance that is physiologically important.

  2. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  3. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  4. Diphenylmethyl linked high-triplet-energy material as a host for deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chil Won [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Myoung-Seon [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center, Dankook University Graduate School, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A diphenylmethyl-linkage-based high-triplet-energy organic material, 3-(dibenzofuran-2-yldiphenylmethyl)-9-phenyl-9H-carbazole (TCDFCz), was synthesized as a host material for deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). High-triplet-energy moieties, 9-phenylcarbazole and dibenzofuran, were connected through diphenylmethyl linkage, and high triplet energy of 2.97 eV was obtained. TCDFCz was effective as the high-triplet-energy host material for deep-blue PHOLEDs, and a high quantum efficiency of 13.1% was achieved. - Highlights: ► High quantum efficiency of 13.1% in deep blue phosphorescent device ► Phenylcarbazole and dibenzofuran as high triplet energy moieties ► High triplet energy of 2.97 eV for energy transfer to deep blue dopant.

  5. Fusion of shallow and deep features for classification of high-resolution remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lang; Tian, Tian; Sun, Xiao; Li, Hang

    2018-02-01

    Effective spectral and spatial pixel description plays a significant role for the classification of high resolution remote sensing images. Current approaches of pixel-based feature extraction are of two main kinds: one includes the widelyused principal component analysis (PCA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) as the representative of the shallow spectral and shape features, and the other refers to the deep learning-based methods which employ deep neural networks and have made great promotion on classification accuracy. However, the former traditional features are insufficient to depict complex distribution of high resolution images, while the deep features demand plenty of samples to train the network otherwise over fitting easily occurs if only limited samples are involved in the training. In view of the above, we propose a GLCM-based convolution neural network (CNN) approach to extract features and implement classification for high resolution remote sensing images. The employment of GLCM is able to represent the original images and eliminate redundant information and undesired noises. Meanwhile, taking shallow features as the input of deep network will contribute to a better guidance and interpretability. In consideration of the amount of samples, some strategies such as L2 regularization and dropout methods are used to prevent over-fitting. The fine-tuning strategy is also used in our study to reduce training time and further enhance the generalization performance of the network. Experiments with popular data sets such as PaviaU data validate that our proposed method leads to a performance improvement compared to individual involved approaches.

  6. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  7. A deep learning and novelty detection framework for rapid phenotyping in high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christoph; Hoefler, Rudolf; Samwer, Matthias; Gerlich, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Supervised machine learning is a powerful and widely used method for analyzing high-content screening data. Despite its accuracy, efficiency, and versatility, supervised machine learning has drawbacks, most notably its dependence on a priori knowledge of expected phenotypes and time-consuming classifier training. We provide a solution to these limitations with CellCognition Explorer, a generic novelty detection and deep learning framework. Application to several large-scale screening data sets on nuclear and mitotic cell morphologies demonstrates that CellCognition Explorer enables discovery of rare phenotypes without user training, which has broad implications for improved assay development in high-content screening. PMID:28954863

  8. Study on high-speed deep etching of GaN film by UV laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Sugioka, K.; Wada, S.; Tashiro, H.; Midorikawa, K.

    1998-06-01

    High-speed deep etching of GaN thin films by UV (266 nm) laser ablation followed by a treatment in HCl solution, was achieved. The etch rate was as high as 50 nm/pulse. Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy measurement results indicate that the surface of the etched films was structurally well-defined and cleanly patterned. Micro-photoluminescence measurements of ablated samples revealed no severe damage to the optical properties or the crystal structure. In addition, coupling with VUV (133-184 nm) laser beams, the etch quality of GaN was markedly improved. The etch rate was 55 nm/pulse

  9. A Two-Stream Deep Fusion Framework for High-Resolution Aerial Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively. Second, two feature fusion strategies are adopted to fuse the two different types of deep convolutional features extracted by the original RGB stream and the saliency stream. Finally, we use the extreme learning machine (ELM classifier for final classification with the fused features. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is tested on four challenging datasets: UC-Merced dataset with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS dataset with 19 scene categories, AID dataset with 30 scene categories, and NWPU-RESISC45 dataset with 45 challenging scene categories. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.

  10. Ductility and performance assessment of high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadhassani, Mohammad; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Jameel, Mohammed; Badiee, Hamid; Arumugam, Arul M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. ► The width of the load point and the support point influences premature failure. ► Load–deflection relationship is linear till 85% of the ultimate load. ► The absorbed energy increases with the increase of tensile reinforcement ratios. - Abstract: The behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of normal beams. Because of their proportions, deep beams are likely to have strength controlled by shear. This paper discusses the results of eight simply supported high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams having variation in ratio of web reinforcement and tensile reinforcement. The deflection at two points along the beam length, web strains, tensile bars strains and the strain at concrete surface are recorded. The results show that the strain distribution at the section height of mid span is nonlinear. Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. The effect of width of load point and the support point is more important than the effect of tensile reinforcement ratio in preventing premature failure. Load–deflection graphs confirm linear relationship up to 85% of the ultimate load for HSSCC over-reinforcement web sections. The absorbed energy index increases with the increase in tensile reinforcement ratios.

  11. Performance Analysis of High-Speed Deep/Shallow Recessed Hybrid Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and width of shallow recess. The results indicate that the load capacity, drag torque increases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio (half angle of deep recess versus half angle of shallow recess is smaller. In contrast, the flow rate decreases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio is smaller. Nevertheless, the appropriate design of the depth and width of shallow recess might well induce the performance of high-speed deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing.

  12. Detection of Thermal Erosion Gullies from High-Resolution Images Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, T.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal erosion gullies, one type of thermokarst landforms, develop due to thawing of ice-rich permafrost. Mapping the location and extent of thermal erosion gullies can help understand the spatial distribution of thermokarst landforms and their temporal evolution. Remote sensing images provide an effective way for mapping thermokarst landforms, especially thermokarst lakes. However, thermal erosion gullies are challenging to map from remote sensing images due to their small sizes and significant variations in geometric/radiometric properties. It is feasible to manually identify these features, as a few previous studies have carried out. However manual methods are labor-intensive, therefore, cannot be used for a large study area. In this work, we conduct automatic mapping of thermal erosion gullies from high-resolution images by using Deep Learning. Our study area is located in Eboling Mountain (Qinghai, China). Within a 6 km2 peatland area underlain by ice-rich permafrost, at least 20 thermal erosional gullies are well developed. The image used is a 15-cm-resolution Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM) generated in July 2016. First, we extracted 14 gully patches and ten non-gully patches as training data. And we performed image augmentation. Next, we fine-tuned the pre-trained model of DeepLab, a deep-learning algorithm for semantic image segmentation based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. Then, we performed inference on the whole DOM and obtained intermediate results in forms of polygons for all identified gullies. At last, we removed misidentified polygons based on a few pre-set criteria on the size and shape of each polygon. Our final results include 42 polygons. Validated against field measurements using GPS, most of the gullies are detected correctly. There are 20 false detections due to the small number and low quality of training images. We also found three new gullies that missed in the field observations. This study shows that (1) despite a challenging

  13. TREK-1 Channel Expression in Smooth Muscle as a Target for Regulating Murine Intestinal Contractility: Therapeutic Implications for Motility Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolin Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI motility disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS can occur when coordinated smooth muscle contractility is disrupted. Potassium (K+ channels regulate GI smooth muscle tone and are key to GI tract relaxation, but their molecular and functional phenotypes are poorly described. Here we define the expression and functional roles of mechano-gated K2P channels in mouse ileum and colon. Expression and distribution of the K2P channel family were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The contribution of mechano-gated K2P channels to mouse intestinal muscle tension was studied pharmacologically using organ bath. Multiple K2P gene transcripts were detected in mouse ileum and colon whole tissue preparations. Immunohistochemistry confirmed TREK-1 expression was smooth muscle specific in both ileum and colon, whereas TREK-2 and TRAAK channels were detected in enteric neurons but not smooth muscle. In organ bath, mechano-gated K2P channel activators (Riluzole, BL-1249, flufenamic acid, and cinnamyl 1-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate induced relaxation of KCl and CCh pre-contracted ileum and colon tissues and reduced the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. These data reveal the specific expression of mechano-gated K2P channels in mouse ileum and colon tissues and highlight TREK-1, a smooth muscle specific K2P channel in GI tract, as a potential therapeutic target for combating motility pathologies arising from hyper-contractility.

  14. High-speed railway real-time localization auxiliary method based on deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongjie; Zhang, Wensheng; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    High-speed railway intelligent monitoring and management system is composed of schedule integration, geographic information, location services, and data mining technology for integration of time and space data. Assistant localization is a significant submodule of the intelligent monitoring system. In practical application, the general access is to capture the image sequences of the components by using a high-definition camera, digital image processing technique and target detection, tracking and even behavior analysis method. In this paper, we present an end-to-end character recognition method based on a deep CNN network called YOLO-toc for high-speed railway pillar plate number. Different from other deep CNNs, YOLO-toc is an end-to-end multi-target detection framework, furthermore, it exhibits a state-of-art performance on real-time detection with a nearly 50fps achieved on GPU (GTX960). Finally, we realize a real-time but high-accuracy pillar plate number recognition system and integrate natural scene OCR into a dedicated classification YOLO-toc model.

  15. High-Throughput Classification of Radiographs Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkomar, Alvin; Lingam, Sneha; Taylor, Andrew G; Blum, Michael; Mongan, John

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations. We then pre-trained a series of deep convolutional networks based on the open-source GoogLeNet with various transformations of the open-source ImageNet (non-radiology) images. These trained networks were then fine-tuned using the original and augmented radiology images. The model with highest validation accuracy was applied to our institutional test set and a publicly available set. Accuracy was assessed by using the Youden Index to set a binary cutoff for frontal or lateral classification. This retrospective study was IRB approved prior to initiation. A network pre-trained on 1.2 million greyscale ImageNet images and fine-tuned on augmented radiographs was chosen. The binary classification method correctly classified 100 % (95 % CI 99.73-100 %) of both our test set and the publicly available images. Classification was rapid, at 38 images per second. A deep convolutional neural network created using non-radiological images, and an augmented set of radiographs is effective in highly accurate classification of chest radiograph view type and is a feasible, rapid method for high-throughput annotation.

  16. Charged Particle Production in High Q2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, $\\xp$, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic $\\ep$ scattering at high $Q^2$ in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality $100 < Q^2 < 20 000 \\GeV^{2}$. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher $Q^{2}$ and to the full range of $\\xp$. The results are compared with $e^+e^-$ annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process.

  17. Turning the Star Trek Dream into Reality by Understanding Matter & Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2002-04-01

    People are going to learn all about matter and antimatter. Where matter and antimatter comes from. Where antimatter exists within our solar system. What the Periodic Table of Matter-AntiMatter Elements looks like. What each of the 109 antimatter element's nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics are. How much energy is produced from matter and antimatter. And what needs to be done to turn the Star Trek Dream into Reality. The Milky Way Galaxy is composed of matter and antimatter. At the center of the galaxy, there are two black holes. One black hole is composed of matter; and the other is antimatter. The black holes are ejecting matter and antimatter into space forming a halo and spiral arms of matter & antimatter stars. The sun is one of the billions of stars that are composed of matter. There are a similar number of antimatter stars. Our Solar System contains the sun, earth, planets, and asteroids that are composed of matter, and comets that are composed of antimatter. When galactic antimatter enters our solar system, the antimatter is called comets. Astronomers have observed hundred of comets orbiting the sun and are finding new comets every year. During the last century, mass destruction has resulted when antimatter collided with Jupiter and Earth. How Humanity deals with the opportunities and dangers of antimatter will determine our destiny. Mankind has known about comets destructive power for thousands of years going back to the days of antiquity. Did comets have anything to do with the disappearance of Atlantis over twelve thousand years ago? We may never know; but is there a similar situation about to take place? Scientists have been studying antimatter by producing, storing, and colliding small quantities at national laboratories for several decades. Symmetry exists between matter and antimatter. Science and Technology provides unlimited opportunities to benefit humanity. Antimatter can be used, as a natural source of energy, to bring every country

  18. High temperature tensile properties and deep drawing of fully green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research and development of materials using biomass sources are much expected to construct a sustainable society. The so-called green composite consisting of natural fibers and biodegradable resin, is one of the most promising materials in developing biomass products. In this study, especially, we focus on the tensile deformation behavior of the green composites reinforced with ramie woven fabrics at high temperature. The results show that the fracture strain at high temperatures increases larger than that of room temperature, and initial deformation resistance of the composites seen at room temperature does not appear at high temperatures. Thus, several conditions to cause more deformability of the green composites were found. Finally, in order to utilize such deformability, Lankford-values of the green composites were clarified, and deep drawing was carried out for sheet materials made of the green composites.

  19. Accurate Classification of Protein Subcellular Localization from High-Throughput Microscopy Images Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel Pärnamaa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput microscopy of many single cells generates high-dimensional data that are far from straightforward to analyze. One important problem is automatically detecting the cellular compartment where a fluorescently-tagged protein resides, a task relatively simple for an experienced human, but difficult to automate on a computer. Here, we train an 11-layer neural network on data from mapping thousands of yeast proteins, achieving per cell localization classification accuracy of 91%, and per protein accuracy of 99% on held-out images. We confirm that low-level network features correspond to basic image characteristics, while deeper layers separate localization classes. Using this network as a feature calculator, we train standard classifiers that assign proteins to previously unseen compartments after observing only a small number of training examples. Our results are the most accurate subcellular localization classifications to date, and demonstrate the usefulness of deep learning for high-throughput microscopy.

  20. Accurate Classification of Protein Subcellular Localization from High-Throughput Microscopy Images Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärnamaa, Tanel; Parts, Leopold

    2017-05-05

    High-throughput microscopy of many single cells generates high-dimensional data that are far from straightforward to analyze. One important problem is automatically detecting the cellular compartment where a fluorescently-tagged protein resides, a task relatively simple for an experienced human, but difficult to automate on a computer. Here, we train an 11-layer neural network on data from mapping thousands of yeast proteins, achieving per cell localization classification accuracy of 91%, and per protein accuracy of 99% on held-out images. We confirm that low-level network features correspond to basic image characteristics, while deeper layers separate localization classes. Using this network as a feature calculator, we train standard classifiers that assign proteins to previously unseen compartments after observing only a small number of training examples. Our results are the most accurate subcellular localization classifications to date, and demonstrate the usefulness of deep learning for high-throughput microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Parnamaa and Parts.

  1. High-Content Analysis of Breast Cancer Using Single-Cell Deep Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Chetak; Silva, Luís M; Alexandre, Luís A; Santos, Jorge M

    2016-03-01

    High-content analysis has revolutionized cancer drug discovery by identifying substances that alter the phenotype of a cell, which prevents tumor growth and metastasis. The high-resolution biofluorescence images from assays allow precise quantitative measures enabling the distinction of small molecules of a host cell from a tumor. In this work, we are particularly interested in the application of deep neural networks (DNNs), a cutting-edge machine learning method, to the classification of compounds in chemical mechanisms of action (MOAs). Compound classification has been performed using image-based profiling methods sometimes combined with feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis or factor analysis. In this article, we map the input features of each cell to a particular MOA class without using any treatment-level profiles or feature reduction methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of DNN in this domain, leveraging single-cell information. Furthermore, we use deep transfer learning (DTL) to alleviate the intensive and computational demanding effort of searching the huge parameter's space of a DNN. Results show that using this approach, we obtain a 30% speedup and a 2% accuracy improvement. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We describe an update of the miRBase database (http://www.mirbase.org/), the primary microRNA sequence repository. The latest miRBase release (v20, June 2013) contains 24 521 microRNA loci from 206 species, processed to produce 30 424 mature microRNA products. The rate of deposition of novel microRNAs and the number of researchers involved in their discovery continue to increase, driven largely by small RNA deep sequencing experiments. In the face of these increases, and a range of microRNA annotation methods and criteria, maintaining the quality of the microRNA sequence data set is a significant challenge. Here, we describe recent developments of the miRBase database to address this issue. In particular, we describe the collation and use of deep sequencing data sets to assign levels of confidence to miRBase entries. We now provide a high confidence subset of miRBase entries, based on the pattern of mapped reads. The high confidence microRNA data set is available alongside the complete microRNA collection at http://www.mirbase.org/. We also describe embedding microRNA-specific Wikipedia pages on the miRBase website to encourage the microRNA community to contribute and share textual and functional information.

  3. Scalable High-Performance Image Registration Framework by Unsupervised Deep Feature Representations Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Munsell, Brent C; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-01

    Feature selection is a critical step in deformable image registration. In particular, selecting the most discriminative features that accurately and concisely describe complex morphological patterns in image patches improves correspondence detection, which in turn improves image registration accuracy. Furthermore, since more and more imaging modalities are being invented to better identify morphological changes in medical imaging data, the development of deformable image registration method that scales well to new image modalities or new image applications with little to no human intervention would have a significant impact on the medical image analysis community. To address these concerns, a learning-based image registration framework is proposed that uses deep learning to discover compact and highly discriminative features upon observed imaging data. Specifically, the proposed feature selection method uses a convolutional stacked autoencoder to identify intrinsic deep feature representations in image patches. Since deep learning is an unsupervised learning method, no ground truth label knowledge is required. This makes the proposed feature selection method more flexible to new imaging modalities since feature representations can be directly learned from the observed imaging data in a very short amount of time. Using the LONI and ADNI imaging datasets, image registration performance was compared to two existing state-of-the-art deformable image registration methods that use handcrafted features. To demonstrate the scalability of the proposed image registration framework, image registration experiments were conducted on 7.0-T brain MR images. In all experiments, the results showed that the new image registration framework consistently demonstrated more accurate registration results when compared to state of the art.

  4. Scalable High Performance Image Registration Framework by Unsupervised Deep Feature Representations Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Munsell, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection is a critical step in deformable image registration. In particular, selecting the most discriminative features that accurately and concisely describe complex morphological patterns in image patches improves correspondence detection, which in turn improves image registration accuracy. Furthermore, since more and more imaging modalities are being invented to better identify morphological changes in medical imaging data,, the development of deformable image registration method that scales well to new image modalities or new image applications with little to no human intervention would have a significant impact on the medical image analysis community. To address these concerns, a learning-based image registration framework is proposed that uses deep learning to discover compact and highly discriminative features upon observed imaging data. Specifically, the proposed feature selection method uses a convolutional stacked auto-encoder to identify intrinsic deep feature representations in image patches. Since deep learning is an unsupervised learning method, no ground truth label knowledge is required. This makes the proposed feature selection method more flexible to new imaging modalities since feature representations can be directly learned from the observed imaging data in a very short amount of time. Using the LONI and ADNI imaging datasets, image registration performance was compared to two existing state-of-the-art deformable image registration methods that use handcrafted features. To demonstrate the scalability of the proposed image registration framework image registration experiments were conducted on 7.0-tesla brain MR images. In all experiments, the results showed the new image registration framework consistently demonstrated more accurate registration results when compared to state-of-the-art. PMID:26552069

  5. High resolution depth reconstruction from monocular images and sparse point clouds using deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrievski, Martin; Goossens, Bart; Veelaert, Peter; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the 3D structure of the environment is advantageous for many tasks in the field of robotics and autonomous vehicles. From the robot's point of view, 3D perception is often formulated as a depth image reconstruction problem. In the literature, dense depth images are often recovered deterministically from stereo image disparities. Other systems use an expensive LiDAR sensor to produce accurate, but semi-sparse depth images. With the advent of deep learning there have also been attempts to estimate depth by only using monocular images. In this paper we combine the best of the two worlds, focusing on a combination of monocular images and low cost LiDAR point clouds. We explore the idea that very sparse depth information accurately captures the global scene structure while variations in image patches can be used to reconstruct local depth to a high resolution. The main contribution of this paper is a supervised learning depth reconstruction system based on a deep convolutional neural network. The network is trained on RGB image patches reinforced with sparse depth information and the output is a depth estimate for each pixel. Using image and point cloud data from the KITTI vision dataset we are able to learn a correspondence between local RGB information and local depth, while at the same time preserving the global scene structure. Our results are evaluated on sequences from the KITTI dataset and our own recordings using a low cost camera and LiDAR setup.

  6. High biodiversity on a deep-water reef in the eastern Fram Strait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin S Meyer

    Full Text Available We report on the distribution and abundance of megafauna on a deep-water rocky reef (1796-2373 m in the Fram Strait, west of Svalbard. Biodiversity and population density are high, with a maximum average of 26.7±0.9 species m(-2 and 418.1±49.6 individuals m(-2 on the east side of the reef summit. These figures contrast with the surrounding abyssal plain fauna, with an average of only 18.1±1.4 species and 29.4±4.3 individuals m(-2 (mean ± standard error. The east side of the reef summit, where the highest richness and density of fauna are found, faces into the predominant bottom current, which likely increases in speed to the summit and serves as a source of particulate food for the numerous suspension feeders present there. We conclude that the observed faunal distribution patterns could be the result of hydrodynamic patterns and food availability above and around the reef. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the distribution and diversity of benthic fauna on a rocky reef in deep water.

  7. High Quantities of Microplastic in Arctic Deep-Sea Sediments from the HAUSGARTEN Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Melanie; Wirzberger, Vanessa; Krumpen, Thomas; Lorenz, Claudia; Primpke, Sebastian; Tekman, Mine B; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2017-10-03

    Although mounting evidence suggests the ubiquity of microplastic in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, our knowledge of its distribution in remote environments such as Polar Regions and the deep sea is scarce. Here, we analyzed nine sediment samples taken at the HAUSGARTEN observatory in the Arctic at 2340-5570 m depth. Density separation by MicroPlastic Sediment Separator and treatment with Fenton's reagent enabled analysis via Attenuated Total Reflection FTIR and μFTIR spectroscopy. Our analyses indicate the wide spread of high numbers of microplastics (42-6595 microplastics kg -1 ). The northernmost stations harbored the highest quantities, indicating sea ice as a possible transport vehicle. A positive correlation between microplastic abundance and chlorophyll a content suggests vertical export via incorporation in sinking (ice-) algal aggregates. Overall, 18 different polymers were detected. Chlorinated polyethylene accounted for the largest proportion (38%), followed by polyamide (22%) and polypropylene (16%). Almost 80% of the microplastics were ≤25 μm. The microplastic quantities are among the highest recorded from benthic sediments. This corroborates the deep sea as a major sink for microplastics and the presence of accumulation areas in this remote part of the world, fed by plastics transported to the North via the Thermohaline Circulation.

  8. Deep Arm/Ear-ECG Image Learning for Highly Wearable Biometric Human Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification. In the former stage, the ECG heartbeats are projected to a 2D state space, to reveal heartbeats' trajectory behaviors and produce 2D images by a split-then-hit method. In the second stage, a convolutional neural network is introduced to automatically learn the intricate patterns directly from the ECG image representations without heavy feature engineering, and then perform user identification. Experimental results on two acquired datasets using our wearable prototype, show a promising identification rate of 98.4% (single-arm-ECG) and 91.1% (ear-ECG), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study on the feasibility of using single-arm-ECG/ear-ECG for user identification purpose, which is expected to contribute to pervasive ECG-based user identification in smart health applications.

  9. Highly efficient white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using a mixed host structure in deep blue emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chang Woo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr

    2012-05-31

    Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) were developed using a deep blue phosphorescent emitter doped into a mixed host of high triplet energy host materials. The deep blue emitting layer was combined with a red:green emitting layer to fabricate PHWOLEDs. A high quantum efficiency of 19.5% with a color coordinate of (0.29,0.38) and 19.8% with a color coordinate of (0.39,0.46) were achieved in the PHWOLEDs using the mixed host emitting layer doped with a deep blue phosphorescent dopant. In addition, a low optimum doping concentration below 5% in red, green and blue dopants was realized in the PHWOLEDs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quantum efficiency in phosphorescent white device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed host structure for high power efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low doping concentration below 5% in phosphorescent white device.

  10. High external quantum efficiency in deep blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using a simple device structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chang Woo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr

    2012-09-30

    Simple high efficiency deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes were developed using a mixed host of high triplet energy host materials. A hole transport type host was used both as the hole transport layer and host in the mixed host emitting layer and an electron transport type host was mixed with the hole transport type host in the emitting layer. A three organic layer device structure of the hole transport layer/emitting layer/electron transport layer gave high external quantum efficiency of 26.4% with a color coordinate of (0.14, 0.19). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple three organic layer device structure in deep blue device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High external quantum efficiency of 26.4% in deep blue device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixed host emitting structure of high triplet energy host materials.

  11. Candidate high-redshift and primeval galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, D. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baker, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the results of colour selection of candidate high-redshift galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) using the Lyman dropout scheme. The HDF-S data we discuss were taken in a number of different filters extending from the near-UV (F300W) to the infrared (F222M) in two different fields. This allows us to select candidates with redshifts from z~3 to z~12. We find 15 candidate z~3 objects (F300W dropouts), one candidate z~4 object (F450W dropout) and 16 candidate z~5 objects (F606W dropouts) in the ~4.7-arcmin^2 WFPC-2 field, and four candidate z~6 objects (optical dropouts) and one candidate z~8 object (F110W dropout) in the 0.84-arcmin^2 NICMOS-3 field. No F160W dropouts are found (z~12). We compare our selection technique with existing data for Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and discuss alternative interpretations of the objects. We conclude that there are a number of lower redshift interlopers in the selections, including one previously identified object, and reject those objects most likely to be foreground contaminants. Even after this we conclude that the F606W dropout list is likely to still contain substantial foreground contamination. The lack of candidate very-high-redshift UV-luminous galaxies supports earlier conclusions by Lanzetta et al. We discuss the morphologies and luminosity functions of the high-redshift objects, and their cosmological implications.

  12. Getting together in deep space - The Rosetta space probe's long trek to Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The countdown to Rosetta’s rendezvous in space began on 1 March 1997. At the end of February 2004, seven years and not a few headaches later, the European Space Agency (ESA) probe will at last be setting off on its journey to meet Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The long-planned get-together will not however take place until the middle of 2014. A few months after arriving at the comet, Rosetta will release a small lander onto its surface. Then, for almost two years it will investigate Churyumov-Gerasimenko from close up. Dr Gerhard Schwehm, lead scientist for the Rosetta project, explains that, “With this mission we will be breaking new ground - this will be the first protracted cometary encounter.” The trip to the meeting place in space will certainly be a long one, located as it is some 4.5 astronomical units from the Sun, which translates into something like 675 million kilometres. Rosetta will be on the road for ten years, during which time it will clock up in excess of five billion kilometres. Launch in February 2004 Rosetta will be waved off on 26 February when it lifts off from the space centre in Kourou, French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5 launcher. Shortly after the spacecraft’s release, its solar panels will be deployed and turned towards the Sun to build up the necessary power reserves. Its various systems and experiments will be gradually brought into operation and tested. Just three months into the mission the first active phase will be over, followed by final testing of the experiments in October 2004. Rosetta will then spend the following years flying a lonely path to the comet, passing by the Earth, Mars, the Earth and the Earth again. There is no alternative to this detour, for even Ariane 5, the most powerful launcher on the market today, lacks the power to hurl the probe on a direct route to the comet. To get the required momentum, it will rely on swing-by manœuvres, using the gravitation pull of Mars (in 2007) and the Earth (three times, in 2005, 2007 and 2008) to pick up speed. Asteroids for company A change is as good as a rest, and a meeting with at least one asteroid should help break the monotony for Rosetta. The spacecraft will come close to an asteroid at the end of 2008. Asteroids are, it will be remembered, rocky bodies, some as large as mountains, some even larger, that orbit the Sun in much the same way as planets. “These ‘brief encounters’ are a scientific opportunity and also a chance to test Rosetta’s instrument payload,” says Gerhard Schwehm. But asteroid exploration also serves an entirely practical purpose: “The more we find out about them, the better the prospect of being able one day to avert a possible collision.” Following a period of low-activity cruising, the probe’s course will be adjusted one last time in May 2011. From July 2011, a further two-and-a-half years' radio silence will be observed, and Rosetta, left entirely to its own resources, will fly close to the Jupiter orbit. Link-up in 2014 Finally, in January 2014, the probe will be reactivated and will, by October 2014, be only a few kilometres distant from Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This is where the dream of so many scientists becomes reality. Having deposited its precious lander cargo on the comet’s surface, Rosetta will continue to orbit Churyumov-Gerasimenko and together they will spend the next seventeen months flying towards the Sun. Rosetta was built by an international consortium led by Astrium. The lander probe was developed in Cologne under the aegis of the DLR, Germany’s space agency, with contributions from ESA and research centres in Austria, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Great Britain. The comet explorer carries ten scientific instruments. Their job is to draw out the secrets of the comet’s chemical and physical composition and reveal its magnetic and electrical properties. Using a specially designed camera, the lander will take pictures in the macro and micro ranges and send all the data thus acquired back to Earth, via Rosetta. “This will be our first ever chance to be there, at first hand, so to speak, as a comet comes to life,” Schwehm goes on to explain. When Churyumov-Gerasimenko gets to within about 500 million kilometres of the Sun, the frozen gases that envelop it will evaporate and a trail of dust will be blown back over hundreds of thousands of kilometres. When illuminated by the Sun, this characteristic comet tail then becomes visible from Earth. In the course of the mission, the processes at work within the cometary nucleus will be studied and measured more precisely than has ever before been possible, for earlier probes simply flew past their targets. “As we will be accompanying Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two years, until the comet reaches the point closest to the Sun and travels away from it, we can at long last hope to acquire new knowledge about comets. We are confident we will come a step nearer to understanding the origins and formation of our solar system and the emergence of life on Earth.” More information on the Rosetta launch can be found on : http://www.esa.int/rosetta. More on ESA Science Programme at : http://www.esa.int/science

  13. Bacterial niche-specific genome expansion is coupled with highly frequent gene disruptions in deep-sea sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2011-12-21

    The complexity and dynamics of microbial metagenomes may be evaluated by genome size, gene duplication and the disruption rate between lineages. In this study, we pyrosequenced the metagenomes of microbes obtained from the brine and sediment of a deep-sea brine pool in the Red Sea to explore the possible genomic adaptations of the microbes in response to environmental changes. The microbes from the brine and sediments (both surface and deep layers) of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool had similar communities whereas the effective genome size varied from 7.4 Mb in the brine to more than 9 Mb in the sediment. This genome expansion in the sediment samples was due to gene duplication as evidenced by enrichment of the homologs. The duplicated genes were highly disrupted, on average by 47.6% and 70% for the surface and deep layers of the Atlantis II Deep sediment samples, respectively. The disruptive effects appeared to be mainly due to point mutations and frameshifts. In contrast, the homologs from the Atlantis II Deep brine sample were highly conserved and they maintained relatively small copy numbers. Likely, the adaptation of the microbes in the sediments was coupled with pseudogenizations and possibly functional diversifications of the paralogs in the expanded genomes. The maintenance of the pseudogenes in the large genomes is discussed. © 2011 Wang et al.

  14. Modelling high Arctic deep permafrost temperature sensitivity in Northeast Greenland based on experimental and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Laura Helene; Zhang, Wenxin; Hollesen, Jørgen; Cable, Stefanie; Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne; Jansson, Per-Erik; Elberling, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost affected areas in Greenland are expected to experience a marked temperature increase within decades. Most studies have considered near-surface permafrost sensitivity, whereas permafrost temperatures below the depths of zero annual amplitude is less studied despite being closely related to changes in near-surface conditions, such as changes in active layer thermal properties, soil moisture and snow depth. In this study, we measured the sensitivity of thermal conductivity (TC) to gravimetric water content (GWC) in frozen and thawed permafrost sediments from fine-sandy and gravelly deltaic and fine-sandy alluvial deposits in the Zackenberg valley, NE Greenland. We further calibrated a coupled heat and water transfer model, the "CoupModel", for one central delta sediment site with average snow depth and further forced it with meteorology from a nearby delta sediment site with a topographic snow accumulation. With the calibrated model, we simulated deep permafrost thermal dynamics in four 20-year scenarios with changes in surface temperature and active layer (AL) soil moisture: a) 3 °C warming and AL water table at 0.5 m depth; b) 3 °C warming and AL water table at 0.1 m depth; c) 6 °C warming and AL water table at 0.5 m depth and d) 6 °C warming and AL water table at 0.1 m depth. Our results indicate that frozen sediments have higher TC than thawed sediments. All sediments show a positive linear relation between TC and soil moisture when frozen, and a logarithmic one when thawed. Gravelly delta sediments were highly sensitive, but never reached above 12 % GWC, indicating a field effect of water retention capacity. Alluvial sediments are less sensitive to soil moisture than deltaic (fine and coarse) sediments, indicating the importance of unfrozen water in frozen sediment. The deltaic site with snow accumulation had 1 °C higher mean annual ground temperature than the average snow depth site. Permafrost temperature at the depth of 18 m increased with 1

  15. Charged particle production in high Q{sup 2} deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x{sub p}, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q{sup 2} in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100 < Q{sup 2} < 20 000 GeV{sup 2}. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher Q{sup 2} and to the full range of x{sub p}. The results are compared with e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process. (orig.)

  16. ) A Feasibility Study for High Resolution 3D Seismic In The Deep Offshore Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, C.; Hope, R.; Mila, F.; Maurel, L.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Exploration 3D seismic in the Deep Offshore Nigeria is typically acquired with 4000m-6000m cable length at 6-8 depth and with flip-flop shooting, providing a shot point interval of 50m. the average resulting frequency content is typically between 10-60hz which is adequate for exploration interpretation. It has become common in the last few years. E.g. in Angola and the Gulf of Mexico, to re-acquire High Resolution 3D seismic, after a discovery, to improve definition of turbidite systems and accuracy of reservoir geometry for optimized delineation drilling. This feasibility study which was carried out in three different steps was due to the question on whether HR-Seismic should be acquired over TotalFinaElf AKPO discovery for optimized delineation drilling

  17. Deep-hole and high-lying particle states in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1985-01-01

    Our present knowledge on single-particle strength functions from one nucleon transfer reactions is reviewed. Results on deeply-bound neutron hole states in the Sn and Pb region are discussed with emphasis on the investigation of a very large excitation energy range. The first measurements on the γ-decay of deeply-bound hole states in the Sn isotopes are reported. High energy neutron and proton stripping reactions are used to study the particle response function. These reactions are particularly well suited to the study of high-spin outer subshells. For the proton states, the behaviour of the 1hsub(11/2) and 1isub(13/2) strength distributions, as a function of deformation in the Sm region, is discussed. Strong transitions to high-lying neutron states are observed in the sup(112,116,118,120,122,124)Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. The empirical systematics for both proton and neutron particle strength distributions will be compared to the predictions from the quasi particle-phonon and the single-particle vibration coupling nuclear models

  18. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velazquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  19. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936-8377, PR/USA (Puerto Rico); Aldalbahi, A. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  20. pH-sensitive K+ channel TREK-1 is a novel target in pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter; Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Rapedius, Markus

    2016-01-01

    H-regulated channels that conduct a background K(+) current, which is involved in setting the plasma membrane potential (Vm). Some members of the K2P superfamily were reported as crucial players in driving tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate pH-regulated K(+) currents in PDAC cells...... as critical player in setting Vm. We assessed a possible role of TREK-1 in PDAC progression using cell proliferation and migration assays and observed similar trends with attenuated proliferation/migration rates in acidic (pH7.4) conditions. Notably, BL1249 inhibited both PDAC cell...

  1. Structure and Stability of High-Pressure Dolomite with Implications for the Earth's Deep Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomatova, N. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is subducted into the mantle primarily in the form of metasomatically calcium-enriched basaltic rock, calcified serpentinites and carbonaceous ooze. The fate of these carbonates in subduction zones is not well understood. End-member CaMg(CO3)2 dolomite typically breaks down into two carbonates at 2-7 GPa, which may further decompose to oxides and CO2-bearing fluid. However, high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments have recently shown that the presence of iron may be sufficient to stabilize dolomite I to high pressures, allowing the transformation to dolomite II at 17 GPa and subsequently to dolomite III at 35 GPa [1][2]. Such phases may be a principal host for deeply subducted carbon. The structure and equation of state of these high-pressure phases is debated and the effect of varying concentrations of iron is unknown, creating a need for theoretical calculations. Here we compare calculated dolomite structures to experimentally observed phases. Using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) interfaced with a genetic algorithm that predicts crystal structures (USPEX), a monoclinic phase with space group 5 ("dolomite sg5") was found for pure end-member dolomite. Dolomite sg5 has a lower energy than reported dolomite structures and an equation of state that resembles that of dolomite III. It is possible that dolomite sg5 is not achieved experimentally due to a large energy barrier and a correspondingly large required volume drop, resulting in the transformation to metastable dolomite II. Due to the complex energy landscape for candidate high-pressure dolomite structures, it is likely that several competing polymorphs exist. Determining the behavior of high-pressure Ca-Mg-Fe(-Mn) dolomite phases in subduction environments is critical for our understanding of the Earth's deep carbon cycle and supercell calculations with Fe substitution are in progress. [1] Mao, Z., Armentrout, M., Rainey, E., Manning, C. E., Dera, P., Prakapenka, V. B., and Kavner, A

  2. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Pinedo, P.; Aguero, A.; Simon, I.; Torres, C.; Robles, B.; Smith, G.M.; Little, R.; Watkings, B.; Brice, A.; Jaen, J.A.; Coronado, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a

  3. Transferring Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning efficient image representations is at the core of the scene classification task of remote sensing imagery. The existing methods for solving the scene classification task, based on either feature coding approaches with low-level hand-engineered features or unsupervised feature learning, can only generate mid-level image features with limited representative ability, which essentially prevents them from achieving better performance. Recently, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs, which are hierarchical architectures trained on large-scale datasets, have shown astounding performance in object recognition and detection. However, it is still not clear how to use these deep convolutional neural networks for high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS scene classification. In this paper, we investigate how to transfer features from these successfully pre-trained CNNs for HRRS scene classification. We propose two scenarios for generating image features via extracting CNN features from different layers. In the first scenario, the activation vectors extracted from fully-connected layers are regarded as the final image features; in the second scenario, we extract dense features from the last convolutional layer at multiple scales and then encode the dense features into global image features through commonly used feature coding approaches. Extensive experiments on two public scene classification datasets demonstrate that the image features obtained by the two proposed scenarios, even with a simple linear classifier, can result in remarkable performance and improve the state-of-the-art by a significant margin. The results reveal that the features from pre-trained CNNs generalize well to HRRS datasets and are more expressive than the low- and mid-level features. Moreover, we tentatively combine features extracted from different CNN models for better performance.

  4. Maximization of Transuranic Deep-Burn in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, K. S.; Hong, S. G.; Shim, H. J.; Jo, C. K.; Lee, S. W.

    2008-03-01

    An optimization study of a single-pass transuranic (TRU) deep burn (DB) has been performed for a block-type modular helium reactor (MHR) proposed. A high-burnup TRU feed vector from light water reactors is considered. For three dimensional equilibrium cores, the performance analysis is done by using the Monte Carlo code McCARD. The core optimization is performed from the viewpoints of the core configuration, fuel management, TRISO fuel specification, and neutron spectrum. With regard to core configuration, two annular cores are investigated in terms of the neutron economy. A conventional radial shuffling scheme of fuel blocks is compared with an axial-only block-shuffling strategy in terms of the fuel bum up and core power distributions. The impact of the kernel size of the TRISO fuel is evaluated, and a diluted kernel, instead of a conventional concentrated kernel, is introduced to maximize the TRU burnup by reducing the self-shielding effects of the TRISO particles. In addition, it is shown that the core power distribution can be effectively controlled by a zoning of the packing fraction of the TRISO fuels. We also have shown that a long-cycle DB-MHR core can be designed by using a two- or three-batch fuel-reloading scheme, at the expense of only a marginal decrease of the TRU discharge bum up. Preliminary safety characteristics of a DBMHR core have been investigated in terms of the temperature coefficients and effective delayed neutron fraction. It has been found that, depending on the fuel management scheme and fuel specifications, the TRU burnup in an optimized DB-MHR core can be over 60% in a single-pass irradiation campaign. In addition, the equilibrium cycle mass balance analyses were also performed for 12 fuel cycles and the impact of TRU deep-bum on the repository was evaluated as well. Additionally, an SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) fed with DB-MHR spent fuel were designed and characterized

  5. Ka-Band High-Rate Telemetry System Upgrade for the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, Remi; Bernardo, Abner; Bowen, James; Britcliffe, Michael; Bucknam, Neil; Link, Christopher; Long, Ezra; Manalo, Leslie; O'Dea, James A.; Rochblatt, David; hide

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high data rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data is presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  6. High levels of natural radioactivity in biota from deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a preliminary communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmasson, Sabine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SESURE BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur mer Cedex (France)], E-mail: sabine.charmasson@irsn.fr; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie [Ifremer Centre de Brest, Departement Etudes des Ecosystemes Profonds, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Le Faouder, Antoine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SESURE BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur mer Cedex (France); Agarande, Michele [IRSN/DEI/STEME, Bt501, Bois des Rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Loyen, Jeanne [IRSN/DEI/STEME, 31-35 Rue de l' Ecluse, 78116 Le Vesinet Cedex (France); Desbruyeres, Daniel [Ifremer Centre de Brest, Departement Etudes des Ecosystemes Profonds, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane (France)

    2009-06-15

    Hydrothermal deep-sea vent fauna is naturally exposed to a peculiar environment enriched in potentially toxic species such as sulphides, heavy metals and natural radionuclides. It is now well established that some of the organisms present in such an environment accumulate metals during their lifespan. Though only few radionuclide measurements are available, it seems likely that hydrothermal vent communities are exposed to high natural radiation doses. Various archived biological samples collected on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1996, 2001 and 2002 were analysed by ICP-MS in order to determine their uranium contents ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 234}U). In addition {sup 210}Po-Pb were determined in 2 samples collected in 2002. Vent organisms are characterized by high U, and Po-Pb levels compared to what is generally encountered in organisms from outside hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Though the number of data is low, the results reveal various trends in relation to the site, the location within the mixing zone and/or the organisms' trophic regime.

  7. A fuel performance analysis for a 450 MWth deep burn-high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Jo, Chang Keun; Jun, Ji Su; Cho, Moon Sung; Venneri, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have checked, through a fuel performance analysis, if a 450 MW th high temperature reactor was safe for the deep burn of a TRU fuel. → During a core heat-up event, the fuel temperature was below 1600 deg. C and the maximum gas pressure in the void of coated fuel particle was about 90 MPa. → At elevated temperatures of the accident event, the failure fraction of coated fuel particles resulted from the mechanical failure and the thermal decomposition of the SiC barrier was 3.30 x 10 -3 . - Abstract: A performance analysis for a 450 MW th deep burn-high temperature reactor (DB-HTR) fuel was performed using COPA, a fuel performance analysis code of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The code computes gas pressure buildup in the void volume of a tri-isotropic coated fuel particle (TRISO), temperature distribution in a DB-HTR fuel, thermo-mechanical stress in a coated fuel particle (CFP), failure fractions of a batch of CFPs, and fission product (FP) releases into the coolant. The 350 μm DB-HTR kernel is composed of 30% UO 2 + 70% (5% NpO 2 + 95% PuO 1.8 ) mixed with 0.6 moles of silicon carbide (SiC) per mole of heavy metal. The DB-HTR is operated at the constant temperature and power of 858 deg. C and 39.02 mW per CFP for 1395 effective full power days (EFPD) and is subjected to a core heat-up event for 250 h during which the maximum coolant temperature reaches 1548.70 deg. C. Within the normal operating temperature, the fuel showed good thermal and mechanical integrity. At elevated temperatures of the accident event, the failure fraction of CFPs resulted from the mechanical failure (MF) and the thermal decomposition (TD) of the SiC barrier is 3.30 x 10 -3 .

  8. Irreversible magnetization deep in the vortex-liquid state of a 2D superconductor at high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniv, T; Zhuravlev, V; Wosnitza, J; Hagel, J

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable phenomenon of weak magnetization hysteresis loops, observed recently deep in the vortex-liquid state of a nearly two-dimensional (2D) superconductor at low temperatures and high magnetic fields, is shown to reflect the existence of an unusual vortex-liquid state, consisting of collectively pinned crystallites of easily sliding vortex chains. (letter to the editor)

  9. Terrain and subsurface influences on runoff generation in a steep, deep, highly weathered system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, J. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of runoff generation in regions characterized by deep, highly weathered soils is incomplete, despite the prevalence occupation of these landscapes worldwide. To address this, we instrumented a first-order watershed in the Piedmont of South Carolina, USA, a region that extends east of the Appalachians from Maryland to Alabama, and home to some of the most rapid population growth in the country. Although regionally the relief is modest, the landscape is often highly dissected and local slopes can be steep and highly varied. The typical soils of the region are kaolinite dominated ultisols, with hydrologic properties controlled by argillic Bt horizons, often with >50% clay-size fraction. The humid subtropical climate creates relatively consistent precipitation intra-annually and seasonally variable energy availability. Consequently, the mixed deciduous and coniferous tree cover creates a strong evapotranspiration-mediated hydrologic dynamic. While moist soils and extended stream networks are typical from late fall through spring, relatively dry soils and contracting stream networks emerge in the summer and early fall. Here, we seek to elucidate the relative influence of the vertical soil and spatial terrain structure of this region on watershed hillslope hydrology and subsequent runoff generation. We installed a network of nested, shallow groundwater wells and soil water content probes within an ephemeral to first-order watershed to continuously measure soil and groundwater dynamics across soil horizons and landscape position. We also recorded local precipitation and discharge from this watershed. Most landscape positions exhibited minimal water table response to precipitation throughout dry summer periods, with infrequently observed responses rarely coincident with streamflow generation. In contrast, during the wetter late fall through early spring period, streamflow was driven by the interaction between transient perched water tables and

  10. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...

  11. High Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation and Neural Rhythms in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Zack; Brontë-Stewart, Helen

    2015-12-01

    High frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). It effectively treats the cardinal motor signs of PD, including tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity. The most common neural target is the subthalamic nucleus, located within the basal ganglia, the region most acutely affected by PD pathology. Using chronically-implanted DBS electrodes, researchers have been able to record underlying neural rhythms from several nodes in the PD network as well as perturb it using DBS to measure the ensuing neural and behavioral effects, both acutely and over time. In this review, we provide an overview of the PD neural network, focusing on the pathophysiological signals that have been recorded from PD patients as well as the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of HF DBS. We then discuss evidence for the relationship between specific neural oscillations and symptoms of PD, including the aberrant relationships potentially underlying functional connectivity in PD as well as the use of different frequencies of stimulation to more specifically target certain symptoms. Finally, we briefly describe several current areas of investigation and how the ability to record neural data in ecologically-valid settings may allow researchers to explore the relationship between brain and behavior in an unprecedented manner, culminating in the future automation of neurostimulation therapy for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  12. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  13. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  14. A poor sealing Scenario for Deep disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetjens, E.

    2005-01-01

    Especially for geological disposal options in clay, the safety of the repository relies chiefly on the performance of the host formation as the main barrier. Understandably, scenarios in which this clay barrier is somehow bypassed earn great concern in PA (Performance Assessment) studies. The Poor Sealing Scenario is one of those scenarios that have been recently studied by the PA section of the Waste and Disposal department in the framework of the Belgian programme on deep disposal of high-level radwaste in Boom Clay. This scenario hypothesises that at least one disposal gallery and an access shaft have been poorly sealed off, providing a preferential pathway for RNs (radionuclides). The scenario further assumes a severe climate change, which would invert the presently downward hydraulic gradient, such that the potential impact would be maximal. The main objective is assessing the contribution from two transport processes to the overall radionuclide migration from a spent fuel repository towards the Neogene aquifer. The processes considered are advective transport through the poorly sealed repository and diffusive transport through the host formation. In addition, we would like to identify the most influential parameters with respect to repository design and performance

  15. High resolution deep-sea stable isotopes: do Early Eocene hyperthermals share a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Lourens, Lucas J.; Zachos, James C.; Sluijs, Appy

    2013-04-01

    During the Early Eocene, the Earth experienced a prolonged warming trend (55-50 Ma), punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, (PETM) is the most extreme, followed by the ETM2 (Elmo) and the ETM3 ("X-event"). Along with these events, a number of less pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions, termed A to L by Cramer et al (2003), occurred throughout the Paleogene up to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The drastic increase in temperature during the hyperthermals is associated with the release of large amounts of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Several hypotheses have been proposed to determine the sources and mechanisms of these carbon inputs, in particular the dissociation of marine gas hydrates. However, what still remains unclear is whether or not these events share a common source. To address this question we compare the quantitative relationship between high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope records from benthic foraminiferal tests. A similar correspondence between changes in the carbon cycle and global temperature among the events, regardless of their magnitudes, would imply a similarity in their origins. Following Stap et al. 2010, we present the results of the comparison between our data and previously published data, using deep-sea material to extend the record to the I1-I2 events.

  16. Deep Learning Based Oil Palm Tree Detection and Counting for High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm trees are important economic crops in Malaysia and other tropical areas. The number of oil palm trees in a plantation area is important information for predicting the yield of palm oil, monitoring the growing situation of palm trees and maximizing their productivity, etc. In this paper, we propose a deep learning based framework for oil palm tree detection and counting using high-resolution remote sensing images for Malaysia. Unlike previous palm tree detection studies, the trees in our study area are more crowded and their crowns often overlap. We use a number of manually interpreted samples to train and optimize the convolutional neural network (CNN, and predict labels for all the samples in an image dataset collected through the sliding window technique. Then, we merge the predicted palm coordinates corresponding to the same palm tree into one palm coordinate and obtain the final palm tree detection results. Based on our proposed method, more than 96% of the oil palm trees in our study area can be detected correctly when compared with the manually interpreted ground truth, and this is higher than the accuracies of the other three tree detection methods used in this study.

  17. The strategic plan for the deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic plan for the deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory; 3) in situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed, it is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provides the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre- selected areas, comparison among pre- selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, in which the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository will be completed. (author)

  18. Agreement between ccNexfin CO-trek cardiac output and intermittent cold-bolus pulmonary thermodilution in a prospective multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperna Weiland, Nicolaas H.; de Wever, Jim W.; van Duivenvoorde, Yoni; Boer, Christa; Mitrev, Ludmil; Muntazar, Muhammad; Patel, Kinjal; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    The ccNexfin system uses the CO-trek algorithm to analyse a non-invasively obtained arterial pressure waveform and calculate cardiac output (NEXCO). It remains matter of debate whether NEXCO can replace invasive, pulmonary artery catheter derived, cold-bolus pulmonary thermodilution cardiac output

  19. Radiological consequences of drilling intrusion into a deep repository for high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, D.; McEwen, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of maximum annual individual doses to personnel for given set of scenarios associated with intrusion by drilling into a deep repository for high level waste (HLW) and recovery to the surface of contaminated material. Geological and engineering judgment has been used to formulate the manner of this intrusion and the parameters which would determine the resulting doses to field workers and to others who might be involved subsequently in procedures carried out in a geotechnical laboratory. Calculations have been performed to quantify the magnitudes of doses resulting from drilling into the HLW spent fuel matrix, the bentonite buffer and the adjacent rock. Doses have been calculated in the basis of the potential for external irradiation, inhalation of suspended contamination, and inadvertent ingestion of small amounts of contaminated material. The results show that intrusion doses into spent fuel within a few decades of disposal could be very high, in the range about 10 to 100 Sv. At this stage all three exposure pathways make a significant contribution to the total dose. Beyond about 100 y, as 137 Cs decays away, the contribution from external irradiation falls off sharply. However the doses from ingestion and inhalation have only fallen by about a factor of 5 after 10 3 y, and the total dose still in the range from about 2 to 25 Sv. Apart form the direct consequences of intrusion discussed above, drilling might influence safety in other ways. Thus, a borehole might modify the groundwater flow system around the waste, and provide a direct permeable flow path to the near surface; it might results in the introduction of drilling fluids which modify groundwater chemistry; it might results in the early failure of a fuel canister, leading to earlier release to groundwater; or, in the extreme, some combination of all three. (au)

  20. Deep Neural Network Emulation of a High-Order, WENO-Limited, Space-Time Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. R.; Hall, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been used to emulate a number of processes in atmospheric models, including radiation and even so-called super-parameterization of moist convection. In each scenario, the DNN provides a good representation of the process even for inputs that have not been encountered before. More notably, they provide an emulation at a fraction of the cost of the original routine, giving speed-ups of 30× and even up to 200× compared to the runtime costs of the original routines. However, to our knowledge there has not been an investigation into using DNNs to emulate the dynamics. The most likely reason for this is that dynamics operators are typically both linear and low cost, meaning they cannot be sped up by a non-linear DNN emulation. However, there exist high-cost non-linear space-time dynamics operators that significantly reduce the number of parallel data transfers necessary to complete an atmospheric simulation. The WENO-limited Finite-Volume method with ADER-DT time integration is a prime example of this - needing only two parallel communications per large, fully limited time step. However, it comes at a high cost in terms of computation, which is why many would hesitate to use it. This talk investigates DNN emulation of the WENO-limited space-time finite-volume reconstruction procedure - the most expensive portion of this method, which densely clusters a large amount of non-linear computation. Different training techniques and network architectures are tested, and the accuracy and speed-up of each is given.

  1. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  2. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use...

  3. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  4. Numerical simulations of highly buoyant flows in the Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina deep geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Giorgio; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Colucci, Francesca; Fischer, Thomas; Magri, Fabien

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal heat is a viable source of energy and its environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions is significantly lower than conventional fossil fuels. However, nowadays its utilization is inconsistent with the enormous amount of energy available underneath the surface of the earth. This is mainly due to the uncertainties associated with it, as for example the lack of appropriate computational tools, necessary to perform effective analyses. The aim of the present study is to build an accurate 3D numerical model, to simulate the exploitation process of the deep geothermal reservoir of Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina (central Italy), and to compare results and performances of parallel simulations performed with TOUGH2 (Pruess et al. 1999), FEFLOW (Diersch 2014) and the open source software OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al. 2012). Detailed geological, structural and hydrogeological data, available for the selected area since early 70s, show that Castel Giorgio - Torre Alfina is a potential geothermal reservoir with high thermal characteristics (120 ° C - 150 ° C) and fluids such as pressurized water and gas, mainly CO2, hosted in a carbonate formation. Our two steps simulations firstly recreate the undisturbed natural state of the considered system and then perform the predictive analysis of the industrial exploitation process. The three adopted software showed a strong numerical simulations accuracy, which has been verified by comparing the simulated and measured temperature and pressure values of the geothermal wells in the area. The results of our simulations have demonstrated the sustainability of the investigated geothermal field for the development of a 5 MW pilot plant with total fluids reinjection in the same original formation. From the thermal point of view, a very efficient buoyant circulation inside the geothermal system has been observed, thus allowing the reservoir to support the hypothesis of a 50 years production time with a flow rate of 1050 t

  5. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei

    2009-05-01

    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  6. High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eWhitmer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is marked by excessive synchronous activity in the beta (8-35 Hz band throughout the cortico-basal ganglia network. The optimal location of high frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS within the subthalamic nucleus (STN region and the location of maximal beta hypersynchrony are currently matters of debate. Additionally, the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony in functionally connected regions of motor cortex is unknown and of great interest. Scalp EEG studies demonstrated that stimulation of the STN can activate motor cortex antidromically, but the spatial specificity of this effect has not been examined. The present study examined the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony within the cortico-basal ganglia network in patients with PD. We measured local field potentials dorsal to and within the STN of PD patients, and additionally in the motor cortex in a subset of these patients. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to guide the placement of subdural cortical surface electrodes over the DTI-identified origin of the hyperdirect pathway between motor cortex and the STN. The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN. The degree of attenuation was monotonic with increased DBS voltages in both locations, but this voltage-dependent effect was greater in the central STN than dorsal to the STN (p < 0.05. Cortical signals over the estimated origin of the hyperdirect pathway also demonstrated attenuation of beta hypersynchrony during DBS dorsal to or within STN, whereas signals from non-specific regions of motor cortex were not attenuated. The spatially specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchrony in the functionally connected sensorimotor network.

  7. An Improved High-Sensitivity Airborne Transient Electromagnetic Sensor for Deep Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shudong; Guo, Shuxu; Wang, Haofeng; He, Miao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Dong; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-17

    The investigation depth of transient electromagnetic sensors can be effectively increased by reducing the system noise, which is mainly composed of sensor internal noise, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental noise, etc. A high-sensitivity airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor with low sensor internal noise and good shielding effectiveness is of great importance for deep penetration. In this article, the design and optimization of such an AEM sensor is described in detail. To reduce sensor internal noise, a noise model with both a damping resistor and a preamplifier is established and analyzed. The results indicate that a sensor with a large diameter, low resonant frequency, and low sampling rate will have lower sensor internal noise. To improve the electromagnetic compatibility of the sensor, an electromagnetic shielding model for a central-tapped coil is established and discussed in detail. Previous studies have shown that unclosed shields with multiple layers and center grounding can effectively suppress EMI and eddy currents. According to these studies, an improved differential AEM sensor is constructed with a diameter, resultant effective area, resonant frequency, and normalized equivalent input noise of 1.1 m, 114 m², 35.6 kHz, and 13.3 nV/m², respectively. The accuracy of the noise model and the shielding effectiveness of the sensor have been verified experimentally. The results show a good agreement between calculated and measured results for the sensor internal noise. Additionally, over 20 dB shielding effectiveness is achieved in a complex electromagnetic environment. All of these results show a great improvement in sensor internal noise and shielding effectiveness.

  8. Deep Nitrate Deficit Observed in the Highly Oxygenated East/Japan Sea and Its Possible Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Nam Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence of denitrification on the continental slopes of the Ulleung Basin (UB and the Eastern Japan Basin (EJB near the Tatar Strait (TtS in the East/Japan Sea (EJS, despite its high water column dissolved oxygen concentrations. Some nutrient concentration data deviate significantly from the fitted regression line of nitrate (N vs. phosphate (P in deep waters, indicating a loss of nitrate in the region. The EJS has a lower N/P ratio (ca. 12.4 below 300 dbar than a traditional Redfield ratio (16. The N/P ratio and oxygen concentration are substantially lower at several locations whose depths are close to the sediment-water interface, near TtS (500 - 1100 dbar and in UB (1100 - 2200 dbar. The decreased nitrate concentration is smaller than the expected nitrate level (a low N/P ratio of < 12.4, and a secondary nitrite peak near the bottom of these two regions: taken collectively, both indicate the presence of denitrification in the bottom layer. It is speculated that active re-mineralization and denitrification may occur simultaneously along the rich organic matter bottom layer on the slope environment. Denitrification rates are estimated at ~3 - 33 μmol N m-2 d-1. Current estimates do not support the previous idea of basin-wide denitrification in EJS, although the N/P ratio is low like in other hypoxic/anoxic seas. A better understanding of the denitrification process is necessary for predicting future changes of nitrogen cycle in the well-oxygenated EJS considering the decadal-scale physical and biogeochemical changes that have occurred.

  9. North Atlantic Deep Water formation inhibits high Arctic contamination by continental perfluorooctane sulfonate discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Zhang, Yanxu; Dassuncao, Clifton; Lohmann, Rainer; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2017-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an aliphatic fluorinated compound with eight carbon atoms that is extremely persistent in the environment and can adversely affect human and ecological health. The stability, low reactivity, and high water solubility of PFOS combined with the North American phaseout in production around the year 2000 make it a potentially useful new tracer for ocean circulation. Here we characterize processes affecting the lifetime and accumulation of PFOS in the North Atlantic Ocean and transport to sensitive Arctic regions by developing a 3-D simulation within the MITgcm. The model captures variability in measurements across biogeographical provinces (R2 = 0.90, p = 0.01). In 2015, the North Atlantic PFOS reservoir was equivalent to 60% of cumulative inputs from the North American and European continents (1400 Mg). Cumulative inputs to the Arctic accounted for 30% of continental discharges, while the remaining 10% was transported to the tropical Atlantic and other regions. PFOS concentrations declined rapidly after 2002 in the surface mixed layer (half-life: 1-2 years) but are still increasing below 1000 m depth. During peak production years (1980-2000), plumes of PFOS-enriched seawater were transported to the sub-Arctic in energetic surface ocean currents. However, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and deep ocean transport returned a substantial fraction of this northward transport (20%, 530 Mg) to southern latitudes and reduced cumulative inputs to the Arctic (730 Mg) by 70%. Weakened AMOC due to climate change is thus likely to increase the magnitude of persistent bioaccumulative pollutants entering the Arctic Ocean.

  10. An Improved High-Sensitivity Airborne Transient Electromagnetic Sensor for Deep Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shudong; Guo, Shuxu; Wang, Haofeng; He, Miao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Dong; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The investigation depth of transient electromagnetic sensors can be effectively increased by reducing the system noise, which is mainly composed of sensor internal noise, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental noise, etc. A high-sensitivity airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor with low sensor internal noise and good shielding effectiveness is of great importance for deep penetration. In this article, the design and optimization of such an AEM sensor is described in detail. To reduce sensor internal noise, a noise model with both a damping resistor and a preamplifier is established and analyzed. The results indicate that a sensor with a large diameter, low resonant frequency, and low sampling rate will have lower sensor internal noise. To improve the electromagnetic compatibility of the sensor, an electromagnetic shielding model for a central-tapped coil is established and discussed in detail. Previous studies have shown that unclosed shields with multiple layers and center grounding can effectively suppress EMI and eddy currents. According to these studies, an improved differential AEM sensor is constructed with a diameter, resultant effective area, resonant frequency, and normalized equivalent input noise of 1.1 m, 114 m2, 35.6 kHz, and 13.3 nV/m2, respectively. The accuracy of the noise model and the shielding effectiveness of the sensor have been verified experimentally. The results show a good agreement between calculated and measured results for the sensor internal noise. Additionally, over 20 dB shielding effectiveness is achieved in a complex electromagnetic environment. All of these results show a great improvement in sensor internal noise and shielding effectiveness. PMID:28106718

  11. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion of high purity copper as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Maité; Rodríguez Martín, A.; Farina Silvia, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pure copper with oxygen content below 5 ppm (to minimize segregation at grain boundaries) and doped with phosphorus (to increase creep resistance) is the chosen material for the corrosion-resistant barrier of the High Level Radioactive 2 Wastecontainers in the Swedish and Finnish repository models. These models include the construction of the repository below the water table, which is a reducing environment in which copper has excellent resistance to general and localized corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. The aim of this work is contribute to determine the durability of the material, given that deep geological repositories of HLW are designed to ensure the protection of the environment for periods of hundreds of thousands years. As a first step in a more general analysis the effects of chloride, one of the main aggressive species of corrosion, are evaluated. To this purpose corrosion potential was determined and anodic polarization curves were performed in deaerated solutions varying the chloride concentration between 0.01 and 1M and the temperature between 30 and 90°C. Several electrochemical techniques were used: the evolution of corrosion potential was measured, anodic polarization curves were obtained and electrochemical impedance tests were performed. The analysis was complemented with microscopic observations of the type of corrosive attack, as well as determinations of the eventual corrosion products formed using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDS). Results show that the corrosion potential decreases with the increase of temperature and with the increase of chloride concentration. A correlation of the corrosion potential as a function of temperature and chloride concentration was obtained, with the purpose of making predictions in variable conditions.The current density increases both with temperature and with chloride concentration. A pitting potential is observed in certain conditions. (author)

  13. An Improved High-Sensitivity Airborne Transient Electromagnetic Sensor for Deep Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation depth of transient electromagnetic sensors can be effectively increased by reducing the system noise, which is mainly composed of sensor internal noise, electromagnetic interference (EMI, and environmental noise, etc. A high-sensitivity airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM sensor with low sensor internal noise and good shielding effectiveness is of great importance for deep penetration. In this article, the design and optimization of such an AEM sensor is described in detail. To reduce sensor internal noise, a noise model with both a damping resistor and a preamplifier is established and analyzed. The results indicate that a sensor with a large diameter, low resonant frequency, and low sampling rate will have lower sensor internal noise. To improve the electromagnetic compatibility of the sensor, an electromagnetic shielding model for a central-tapped coil is established and discussed in detail. Previous studies have shown that unclosed shields with multiple layers and center grounding can effectively suppress EMI and eddy currents. According to these studies, an improved differential AEM sensor is constructed with a diameter, resultant effective area, resonant frequency, and normalized equivalent input noise of 1.1 m, 114 m2, 35.6 kHz, and 13.3 nV/m2, respectively. The accuracy of the noise model and the shielding effectiveness of the sensor have been verified experimentally. The results show a good agreement between calculated and measured results for the sensor internal noise. Additionally, over 20 dB shielding effectiveness is achieved in a complex electromagnetic environment. All of these results show a great improvement in sensor internal noise and shielding effectiveness.

  14. High efficacy with deep nurse-administered propofol sedation for advanced gastroenterologic endoscopic procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Whereas data on moderate nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) efficacy and safety for standard endoscopy is abundant, few reports on the use of deep sedation by endoscopy nurses during advanced endoscopy, such as Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP......) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) are available and potential benefits or hazards remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of intermittent deep sedation with propofol for a large cohort of advanced endoscopies and to provide data on the safety. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All available...... data from patients sedated with intermittent deep NAPS for ERCP, EUS or double balloon enteroscopy (DBE, since the method was implemented in May 2007 through December 2012 were included for evaluation in a retrospective case-control design. RESULTS: Data from 1899 patients undergoing 1899 procedures...

  15. Conduit vessel blood flow during the trek to Mount Everest base camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Valerie; Nault, Patrice; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Forbes, Thomas L

    2011-12-01

    Hemodynamic changes in response to the hypoxic environment of high altitude are vascular bed-specific. The aim of the present study was to investigate diameter and blood flow changes in conduit vessels in response to hypobaric hypoxia. Eleven healthy subjects ascending Mount Everest to base camp participated in this study. Vessel diameter and blood velocity for brachial, carotid, common femoral, superficial femoral, and deep femoral arteries were measured by portable Doppler ultrasound. Blood flow was calculated from these values. Measurements were taken at sea level, at increasing altitudes on ascent to base camp (1310 m, 3470 m, 5330 m), and repeated on descent to lower altitude (1310 m). For all vessels except carotids, both vessel diameter and blood flow decreased between sea level and initial ascent to altitude, with subsequent persistence of these decreased values; there was no further significant change with continued ascent to higher altitude. Blood flow for all arteries (except carotids) increased significantly on descent to lower altitude, with an associated nonsignificant increase in velocity and decrease in diameter. This study showed that there is vasoconstriction of limb conduit vessels at altitude, which persists upon descent to lower altitude. Blood flow in these vessels also decreases with initial exposure to high altitude, yet increases when returning to lower altitude, reflecting variations in blood velocity. Carotid arteries responded differently to the stimulus of hypobaria than limb conduit vessels; there was no change in diameter seen on ascent or descent, but there was a progressive decrease in blood flow on ascent, with no change on subsequent descent. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2016-01-01

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mat...

  17. The nexus of spirituality and outdoor environmental education: Exploring participants' stories from the TorahTrek Guides Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman-Singer, Samuel Chaim

    There is currently a strong call from outdoor environmental educators to explore the relevance of spirituality in their domain. In this study I use participant observation, as well as other qualitative methods to understand the experiences of participants in the TorahTrek Guides Track, a Jewish wilderness spirituality program. Analysis reveals that antecedent conditions have a large influence on the constructed spiritual meaning of each participant. Themes of community, connectedness, practice, and service are common among all the participants. A dynamic tension is present between time spent on solos and time spent with the group. Participants also report that variations in the physical environment affect their experiences. I consider the implications of these findings for spiritual educators, outdoor environmental educators, and unaffiliated practitioners.

  18. Prediction of pressure between packers of staged fracturing pipe strings in high-pressure deep wells and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing to the deteriorated load conditions of working string and packers caused by annular pressure drop between packers during the staged stimulation of high-pressure deep well, one 2D temperature field transient prediction model for borehole under injecting conditions which considers such influences as friction heat, convection heat exchange was set up, based on energy conservation principle and borehole heat transfer theory. By means of analyzing the influences of borehole temperature and pressure changes on the annular volume between packers, and in combination with borehole temperature transient prediction model, annular fluid PVT equations of state, radial deformation model of tubing and formation transient seepage equation, a typical high-pressure deep well inter-packer annular pressure prediction model was established. Taking a high-pressure gas well in Tarim Oilfield for example, the inter-packer annular pressure prediction was conducted, on which, the mechanical analysis on packers and working strings was carried out. The analysis results show that although the pipe string is safe in the viewpoint of conventional design methods, it is still susceptible to failure after the annular pressure drop between packers was taken into consideration. Such factor should be fully considered in the design of staged stimulation pipe strings, and this prediction model provides new thoughts for the optimal design of high-pressure deep well staged stimulation pipe strings.

  19. Dimethylurea/citric acid as a highly efficient deep eutectic solvent for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, 76169, Iran e-mail: hkhabazzadeh@uk.ac.ir. MS received 27 October 2013; revised 13 January 2014; accepted 17 January 2014. Abstract. Dimethylurea/citric acid deep eutectic solvent was used as a dual catalyst and a green reaction medium for ...

  20. Criteria for admission of odontogenic infections at high risk of deep neck space infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, N; Cloutier, L; Khaldoun, E; Bois, E; Chirat, M; Salvan, D

    2015-11-01

    Many patients with odontogenic infections are hospitalised because of the risk of deep neck space infection. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors allowing more reliable selection of patients requiring hospitalisation for both specialists and emergency physicians. This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 97 patients hospitalised for odontogenic infection in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of Centre hospitalier Sud Francilien, Île-de-France, from January 2008 to June 2012. The majority of patients presented with dental abscess (66 patients; 68%). Nineteen patients (20%) presented with deep neck space infection. The frequency of deep neck space infection was significantly higher in patients with mandibular odontogenic infection (16/55 patients (29%) than in those with maxillary odontogenic infection (3/42 (7%); P ≤ 0.009). The incidence of deep neck space infection was significantly higher in patients with dental abscess (17/66, (26%) than in those without dental abscess (2/31 (6%); P ≤ 0.03). In addition to the well-known classical criteria (fever, neck swelling, dyspnoea, dysphagia, trismus, leukocytosis, elevated C reactive protein (CRP)), the criteria for admission for odontogenic infection should include mandibular odontogenic infection and/or the presence of dental abscess. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at z< 1.5 (473 objects) and Lyα at 2.9 deep and 25.5 mag for deep fields, and the completeness remains ≳ 20% up to 28-29 mag and ≈ 27 mag, respectively. We used the determined redshifts to test continuum color selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with

  2. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  3. “To boldly go where no series has gone before”. Star Trek - The Original Series in Italia: il linguaggio della tecno-scienza, il doppiaggio, il fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay consists of a critical analysis of the Italian dubbing of Star Trek. The Original Series (1966-1969, which was partially translated and shown on Italian television between 1979 and 1981. The study of the dubbing is approached considering translation as a complex cultural phenomenon (drawing on studies such as Even-Zohar and Venuti's, and using the case of Star Trek also as an example of broader phenomena and dynamics, namely the presence of American science fiction series on Italian television, and the difficult relationship in Italy between humanistic and scientific cultures (here, Pierpaolo Antonello's contributions are the milestones, to which the essay attributes the noticeable simplification and flattening the techno-scientific language undergoes during translation in the Star Trek episodes considered. This general tendency to simplify (and even remove technical and scientific terminology in the Italian version can be explained by two main factors: the idea that Italian viewers are less well educated scientifically than Americans, and limited investment (in terms of both financial and professional resources, on the part of the TV channel and dubbing company (TMC and ADC. Both these aspects reveal a perception of a television series as merely a commodity product, typical of the years preceding the current new golden age of American series, but still not unknown in contemporary Italy (as has been shown in other cases, by studies such those by Buonomo, Izzo and Scarpino, and Ranzato. The analysis of the Italian dubbing of Star Trek in the present essay is accompanied by a preliminary overview of the translation and airing of American science fiction series in Italy between the 1950s and the 1970s, and by a survey of the fortunes of these series across different media over the same period. Star Trek, at the center of one the biggest and most profitable contemporary cultural franchises, and one of the most well organized fandoms

  4. Field-reversed bubble in deep plasma channels for high quality electron acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, A; Tueckmantel, T; Thomas, J; Yu, I; Kostyukov, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We study hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime. Contrary to the uniform plasma case, the laser forms no optical shock and no etching at the front. This increases the effective bubble phase velocity and energy gain. The longitudinal field has a plateau that allows for mono-energetic acceleration. We observe as low as 10−3 r.m.s. relative witness beam energy uncertainty in each cross-section and 0.3% total energy spread. By varying plasma density profile inside a deep channel, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths. Bubble scaling laws for the deep channel are derived. Ultra-short pancake-like laser pulses lead to the highest energies of accelerated electrons per Joule of laser pulse energy.

  5. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  6. Highstand vs. lowstand turbidite system growth in the Makran active margin: Imprints of high-frequency external controls on sediment delivery mechanisms to deep water systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourget, J.; Zaragosi, S.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, S.; Ducassou, E.; Prins, M.A.; Garlan, T.; Lanfumey, V.; Schneider, J. L.; Rouillard, P.; Giraudeau, J.

    2010-01-01

    Late Quaternary turbidite system growth along the Makran convergent margin is investigated through a set of deep-sea cores from upper slope and piggy-back basins to deep basin plain settings. High-resolution stratigraphy in these various depositional environments permits reconstruction of the

  7. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields C. H. Ishwara ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sources above a flux density limit of ∼4 mJy. In addition to the published deep observations of the LBDS field at 327, 610, 1412, 1462 and 4860 MHz, we used the. WENSS catalog at 325 MHz and the NVSS and FIRST catalogs at 1400 MHz to obtain the spectral index of sources found at 150 MHz. A total of 639 sources out ...

  8. 3D Simulations of Deep Directional Electromagnetic Tools in High-angle and Horizontal Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Puzyrev, Vladimir; Torres-Verdin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The first author acknowledges the RISE Horizon 2020 European Project GEAGAM (644202) for the travel support and the Repsol-BSC Research Center for funding. All numerical tests were performed on the MareNostrum supercomputer of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. We also acknowledge the University of Texas at Austin’s Research Consortium on Formation Evaluation. A new generation of deep directional electromagnetic imaging tools is being adopted by the industry to enhance the efficiency ...

  9. Development of a Universal Canister for Disposal of High-Level Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gomberg, Steve [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Some of the wastes that must be managed have been identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister-based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfer, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. Development of specifications for the universal canister system will consider the regulatory requirements that apply to storage, transportation, and disposal of the capsules, as well as operational requirements and limits that could affect the design of the canister (e.g., deep borehole diameter). In addition, there are risks and technical challenges that need to be recognized and addressed as Universal Canister system specifications are developed. This paper provides an approach to developing specifications for such a canister system that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE’s Used Fuel Disposition Campaign's Deep Borehole Field Test and compatible with planned storage of potential borehole-candidate wastes.

  10. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  11. On modelling of shear fracture in deep drawing of a high-strength dual-phase sheet steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bonk, C.; Peshekhodov, I.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents application of fracture behaviour characterisation results of a dual-phase sheet steel DP600 to an FEA of its deep-drawing for shear fracture prediction. The characterisation results were obtained with the help of a characterisation method based on a tensile test on a novel butterfly specimen and published previously by the authors. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate that characterisation method on a deep-drawing process. Based on the previous results of the authors, the fracture behaviour is modelled here with the help of the modified Mohr-Coloumb fracture model. The obtained FEA results reveal that shear fracture of the studied material is predicted too early by the used MMC fracture model. A novel adjustment of the model is proposed yielding infinitely high fracture strains at strongly pressure-superimposed stress states. As it is often the case in the state-of-the-art fracture characterisation of high-strenght sheet steels, such stress states were not tested during the previously performed fracture characterisation but occur during the studied deep drawing process. With the help of the adjusted MMC fracture model, it is possible to predict the crack initiation moment very accurately and the crack initiation location sufficiently accurately.

  12. Rational Design and Characterization of Heteroleptic Phosphorescent Complexes for Highly Efficient Deep-Red Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guomeng; Li, Ping; Zhuang, Xuming; Ye, Kaiqi; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2017-04-05

    Two new deep-red iridium(III) complexes, (fpiq) 2 Ir(dipba) (fIr1) and (f 2 piq) 2 Ir(dipba) (dfIr2), comprising two cyclometaling ligands of fluorophenyl-isoquinoline derivatives (fpiq and f 2 piq) and a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ancillary ligand of N,N'-diisopropylbenzamidinate (dipba) are designed, synthesized, and characterized. Given the unique four-membered Ir-N-C-N backbone built by the metal center and the ancillary ligand, both phosphors achieve significant improvement for their comprehensive optoelectronic characteristics. Density function theory (DFT) calculations and electrochemical measurements support the genuine pure red phosphorescent emission of fIr1 and dfIr2 based on their clearly distinct electron density distributions of the HOMO/LUMO orbitals compared with other red-emitting Ir(III) derivatives. Both new phosphors show deep-red emission with λ max values in the region of 650-660 nm with high PLQYs and short excited-state lifetimes. The phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) based on fIr1 and dfIr2 realize deep-red EL with the stable CIE x,y coordinates of (0.70, 0.30) and (0.69, 0.31), the peak EQE/PE values of 15.4%/9.3 lm W -1 and 16.7%/10.4 lm W -1 , respectively, which maintain such high levels as 10.6%/3.5 lm W -1 and 10.8%/3.6 lm W -1 at the practical luminance of 1000 cd m -2 . They are the highest EL values reported for the OLEDs with such deep-red CIE coordinates.

  13. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  14. The Livermore Brain: Massive Deep Learning Networks Enabled by High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Barry Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The proliferation of inexpensive sensor technologies like the ubiquitous digital image sensors has resulted in the collection and sharing of vast amounts of unsorted and unexploited raw data. Companies and governments who are able to collect and make sense of large datasets to help them make better decisions more rapidly will have a competitive advantage in the information era. Machine Learning technologies play a critical role for automating the data understanding process; however, to be maximally effective, useful intermediate representations of the data are required. These representations or “features” are transformations of the raw data into a form where patterns are more easily recognized. Recent breakthroughs in Deep Learning have made it possible to learn these features from large amounts of labeled data. The focus of this project is to develop and extend Deep Learning algorithms for learning features from vast amounts of unlabeled data and to develop the HPC neural network training platform to support the training of massive network models. This LDRD project succeeded in developing new unsupervised feature learning algorithms for images and video and created a scalable neural network training toolkit for HPC. Additionally, this LDRD helped create the world’s largest freely-available image and video dataset supporting open multimedia research and used this dataset for training our deep neural networks. This research helped LLNL capture several work-for-others (WFO) projects, attract new talent, and establish collaborations with leading academic and commercial partners. Finally, this project demonstrated the successful training of the largest unsupervised image neural network using HPC resources and helped establish LLNL leadership at the intersection of Machine Learning and HPC research.

  15. Deep ice and salty oceans of icy worlds, how high pressures influence their thermodynamics and provide constrains on extraterrestrial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Abramson, E.

    2017-12-01

    As in Earth arctic and Antarctic regions, suspected extraterrestrial deep oceans in icy worlds (i.e. icy moons and water-rich exoplanets) chemistry and thermodynamic state will strongly depend on their equilibrium with H2O ice and present solutes. Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salt species are currently the main suspected ionic solutes to be present in deep oceans based on remote sensing, magnetic field measurements, cryovolcanism ice grains chemical analysis and chondritic material aqueous alteration chemical models. Unlike on our planet, deep extraterrestrial ocean might also be interacting at depth with high pressure ices (e.g. III, V, VI, VI, X) which have different behavior compared to ice Ih. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres differ significantly from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. High pressure in-situ measurements using diamond anvil cell apparatus were operated both at the University of washington and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on aqueous systems phase diagrams with Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 species, salt incorporation in high pressure ices and density inversions between the solid and the fluids. These results suggest a more complex picture of the interior structure, dynamic and chemical evolution of large icy worlds hydrospheres when solutes are taken into account, compared to current models mainly using pure water. Based on our in-situ experimental measurements, we propose the existence of new liquid environments at greater depths and the possibility of solid state transport of solute through the high pressure ices

  16. Turn up the lights: Deep-sea in situ application of a high-speed, high-resolution sCMOS camera to observe marine bioluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. T.; Gruber, D. F.; Sparks, J. S.; Vasan, G.; Roman, C.; Pieribone, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Observing and measuring marine bioluminescence presents unique challenges in situ. Technology is the greatest limiting factor in this endeavor, with sensitivity, speed and resolution constraining the imaging tools available to researchers. State-of-the-art microscopy cameras offer to bridge this gap. An ultra-low-light, scientific complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (sCMOS) camera was outfitted for in-situ imaging of marine bioluminescence. This system was deployed on multiple deep-sea platforms (manned submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and towed body) in three oceanic regions (Western Tropical Pacific, Eastern Equatorial Pacific, and Northwestern Atlantic) to depths up to 2500m. Using light stimulation, bioluminescent responses were recorded at high frame rates and in high resolution, offering unprecedented low-light imagery of deep-sea bioluminescence in situ. The kinematics and physiology of light production in several zooplankton groups is presented, and luminescent responses at different depths are quantified as intensity vs. time.

  17. Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor - TRU Utilization and Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of our historical and ongoing efforts: • We have a long history of R and Ds supporting DB-HTRs. Our R and Ds carry V and V and are consistent with ongoing benchmark efforts. • We are looking at DB-HTR configurations based on HTTR block and GA block (NGNP). Both offer advantages. • MAs as a Fuel lead to the designs of Ultra-Long Life VHTRs, which may be focused on Deep Burn or autonomy (not HLW management). • Our role in the Deep Burn Project R and D package was focused on 3D optimization and related software development. • Scenario studies towards an Environmentally Benign Sustainable and Secure Energy Source (integration of DB-HTRs within a fuel cycle) demonstrate advantages of DB-HTRs. • Advanced sensing and 3D mapping are of importance to DB-HTRs. • Fission product management in HTRs is a viable supplementary option in addition to their potential TRU management role in advanced fuel cycle scenarios

  18. High seismic attenuation at a mid-ocean ridge reveals the distribution of deep melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Zachary C; Abers, Geoffrey A

    2017-05-01

    At most mid-ocean ridges, a wide region of decompression melting must be reconciled with a narrow neovolcanic zone and the establishment of full oceanic crustal thickness close to the rift axis. Two competing paradigms have been proposed to explain melt focusing: narrow mantle upwelling due to dynamic effects related to in situ melt or wide mantle upwelling with lateral melt transport in inclined channels. Measurements of seismic attenuation provide a tool for identifying and characterizing the presence of melt and thermal heterogeneity in the upper mantle. We use a unique data set of teleseismic body waves recorded on the Cascadia Initiative's Amphibious Array to simultaneously measure seismic attenuation and velocity across an entire oceanic microplate. We observe maximal differential attenuation and the largest delays ([Formula: see text] s and δ T S ~ 2 s) in a narrow zone seismic quality factor ( Q s ≤ 25) is among the lowest observed worldwide. Models harnessing experimentally derived anelastic scaling relationships require a 150-km-deep subridge region containing up to 2% in situ melt. The low viscosity and low density associated with this deep, narrow melt column provide the conditions for dynamic mantle upwelling, explaining a suite of geophysical observations at ridges, including electrical conductivity and shear velocity anomalies.

  19. High risk of deep vein thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters in lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Pan-Pan; Bi, Xi-Wen; Sun, Peng; Lin, Tong-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are widely used in cancer patients. Although PICC is a convenient tool, its use is associated with an obvious increase in the incidence of venous thrombosis. The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis associated with the use of PICCs in cancer patients are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PICC-associated thrombosis in lymphoma compared with its incidences in other types of cancer. A total of 8028 adult cancer patients inserted with PICC between June 2007 and June 2015 were included in this study. A total of 249 of the 8028 included patients (3.1%) inserted with PICC developed upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (PICC-UEDVT). Patients with lymphoma were more likely to have PICC-UEDVT than those with other types of malignancies (7.1% vs. 2.80%; P PICC (OR: 3.849, 95% CI: 2.334–6.347). Patients with lymphoma may be more predisposed to developing PICC-UEDVT than those with other types of malignancies. Identifying the mechanism underlying the relationship between PICC-UEDVT and lymphoma requires further study. PMID:27078849

  20. A Study on the Fracture Control of Rock Bolts in High Ground Pressure Roadways of Deep Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the frequent fractures of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines, this paper analyzes the mechanism of fractures and concludes that high ground pressure and material de-fects are main reasons for the fracture of rock bolts. The basic idea of fracture control of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines is to increase the yield load and the limit load of rock bolt materials and reduce the actual load of rock bolts. There are four ways of controlling rock bolt fracture: increasing the rock bolt diameter, strengthening bolt materials, weakening support rigidity and the implementation of double supporting. With the roadway support of the 2302 working face of a coal mine as the project background, this paper carries out a study on the effect of two schemes, increasing the rock bolt diameter and the double supporting technique through methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and so on. It determines the most reasonable diam-eter of rock bolts and the best delay distance of secondary support. Practices indicate that rock bolt fracture can be effectively controlled through the double supporting technique, which strengthens the roof and two sides through the first supporting technique and strengthens side angles through the secondary supporting technique.

  1. Estimating trans-seasonal variability in water column biomass for a highly migratory, deep diving predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D O'Toole

    Full Text Available The deployment of animal-borne electronic tags is revolutionizing our understanding of how pelagic species respond to their environment by providing in situ oceanographic information such as temperature, salinity, and light measurements. These tags, deployed on pelagic animals, provide data that can be used to study the ecological context of their foraging behaviour and surrounding environment. Satellite-derived measures of ocean colour reveal temporal and spatial variability of surface chlorophyll-a (a useful proxy for phytoplankton distribution. However, this information can be patchy in space and time resulting in poor correspondence with marine animal behaviour. Alternatively, light data collected by animal-borne tag sensors can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a distribution. Here, we use light level and depth data to generate a phytoplankton index that matches daily seal movements. Time-depth-light recorders (TDLRs were deployed on 89 southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina over a period of 6 years (1999-2005. TDLR data were used to calculate integrated light attenuation of the top 250 m of the water column (LA(250, which provided an index of phytoplankton density at the daily scale that was concurrent with the movement and behaviour of seals throughout their entire foraging trip. These index values were consistent with typical seasonal chl-a patterns as measured from 8-daySea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs images. The availability of data recorded by the TDLRs was far greater than concurrent remotely sensed chl-a at higher latitudes and during winter months. Improving the spatial and temporal availability of phytoplankton information concurrent with animal behaviour has ecological implications for understanding the movement of deep diving predators in relation to lower trophic levels in the Southern Ocean. Light attenuation profiles recorded by animal-borne electronic tags can be used more broadly and routinely to estimate

  2. Modeling Highly Buoyant Flows in the Castel Giorgio: Torre Alfina Deep Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Volpi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Castel Giorgio-Torre Alfina (CG-TA, central Italy is a geothermal reservoir whose fluids are hosted in a carbonate formation at temperatures ranging between 120°C and 210°C. Data from deep wells suggest the existence of convective flow. We present the 3D numerical model of the CG-TA to simulate the undisturbed natural geothermal field and investigate the impacts of the exploitation process. The open source finite-element code OpenGeoSys is applied to solve the coupled systems of partial differential equations. The commercial software FEFLOW® is also used as additional numerical constraint. Calculated pressure and temperature have been calibrated against data from geothermal wells. The flow field displays multicellular convective patterns that cover the entire geothermal reservoir. The resulting thermal plumes protrude vertically over 3 km at Darcy velocity of about 7⁎10-8 m/s. The analysis of the exploitation process demonstrated the sustainability of a geothermal doublet for the development of a 5 MW pilot plant. The buoyant circulation within the geothermal system allows the reservoir to sustain a 50-year production at a flow rate of 1050 t/h. The distance of 2 km, between the production and reinjection wells, is sufficient to prevent any thermal breakthrough within the estimated operational lifetime. OGS and FELFOW results are qualitatively very similar with differences in peak velocities and temperatures. The case study provides valuable guidelines for future exploitation of the CG-TA deep geothermal reservoir.

  3. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  4. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, C.L.

    2007-09-17

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called 'equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/{mu}Pa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/{radical}(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with

  5. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called ''equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model'' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/μPa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/√(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with exemplary results for

  6. A spectral nodal method for the solution of the Sn equations in x,y geometry for highly absorbing deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is an attempt to improve the accuracy of transport nodal methods applied to deep penetration transport problems in x, y-geometry. The resulting nodal method uses the Spectral Green's Function (SGF) scheme for solving the one-dimensional transverse-integrated S N exponential nodal equations with no spatial truncation error. Based on the physics of deep penetration problems, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by approximate exponential shape functions. We show in numerical calculation that the SGF-Exponential Nodal (SGF-Exp N) method is much more accurate than other transport nodal methods for coarse-mesh deep penetration problems, specially in highly absorbing media. (author)

  7. Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at High Q2 with Longitudinally Polarised Lepton Beams at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive e\\pmp single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of \\surds = 319GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 333.7 pb-1 shared between two lepton beam charges and two longitudinal lepton polarisation modes. The differential cross sections are measured in the range of negative fourmomentum transfer squared, Q2, between 60 and 50 000GeV2, and Bjorken x between 0.0008 and 0.65. The measurements are combined with earlier published unpolarised H1 data to improve statistical precision and used to determine the structure function xF_3^gammaZ. A measurement of the neutral current parity violating structure function F_2^gammaZ is presented for the first time. The polarisation dependence of the charged current total cross section is also measured. The new measurements are well described by a next-to-leading order QCD fit based on all published H1 inclusi...

  8. KS0 production at high Q2 in deep inelastic ep scattering at H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Tabasco, Julia Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    The production of K S 0 mesons is studied using deep-inelastic scattering events (DIS) recorded with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The measurements are performed in the phase space defined by the four-momentum transfer squared of the photon, 145 GeV 2 2 . The differential production cross sections of the K S 0 meson are presented as function of the kinematic variables Q 2 and x, the transverse momentum p T and the pseudorapidity η of the particle in laboratory frame, and as function of the momentum fraction x p BF and transverse momentum p T BF in the Breit Frame. Moreover, the K S 0 production rate is compared to the production of charged particles and to the production of DIS events in the same region of phase space. The data are compared to theoretical predictions, based on leading order Monte Carlo programs with matched parton showers. The Monte Carlo models are also used for studies of the flavour contribution to the K S 0 production and parton density function dependence. (orig.)

  9. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  10. Evaluation of high-perimeter electrode designs for deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Bryan; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, complications including infections and mis-programing following surgical replacement of the battery-powered implantable pulse generator adversely impact the safety profile of this therapy. We sought to decrease power consumption and extend battery life by modifying the electrode geometry to increase stimulation efficiency. The specific goal of this study was to determine whether electrode contact perimeter or area had a greater effect on increasing stimulation efficiency. Approach. Finite-element method (FEM) models of eight prototype electrode designs were used to calculate the electrode access resistance, and the FEM models were coupled with cable models of passing axons to quantify stimulation efficiency. We also measured in vitro the electrical properties of the prototype electrode designs and measured in vivo the stimulation efficiency following acute implantation in anesthetized cats. Main results. Area had a greater effect than perimeter on altering the electrode access resistance; electrode (access or dynamic) resistance alone did not predict stimulation efficiency because efficiency was dependent on the shape of the potential distribution in the tissue; and, quantitative assessment of stimulation efficiency required consideration of the effects of the electrode-tissue interface impedance. Significance. These results advance understanding of the features of electrode geometry that are important for designing the next generation of efficient DBS electrodes.

  11. Feasibility of high level radioactive waste disposal in deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the past ten years, an international program has been conducted to investigate the concept feasibility for disposing of spent nuclear fuel waste in deep ocean sediments. These studies by the Seabed Working Group were coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Penetrators have been considered as the primary method of waste emplacement. This required emphasis on studies of the nature of the plastic sediments which would form the primary barrier to the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Site qualification guidelines, included criteria for tectonic and sedimentary stability over periods of at least 10 5 years. Using these guidelines two potential areas were identified: one in the Madeira Abyssal Plain; and one in the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain, both in the North Atlantic. The sediment barrier properties are quite different in terms of dominant mineralogy (carbonates in MAP, and silicous clays in SNAP). The MAP is dominated by thick wide-spread turbidites, but SNAP is dominated by thin discontinuous turbidites

  12. Very High Resolution Tree Cover Mapping for Continental United States using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Kalia, S.; Li, S.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Saatchi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in input land cover estimates contribute to a significant bias in modeled above gound biomass (AGB) and carbon estimates from satellite-derived data. The resolution of most currently used passive remote sensing products is not sufficient to capture tree canopy cover of less than ca. 10-20 percent, limiting their utility to estimate canopy cover and AGB for trees outside of forest land. In our study, we created a first of its kind Continental United States (CONUS) tree cover map at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the 2010-2012 epoch using the USDA NAIP imagery to address the present uncertainties in AGB estimates. The process involves different tasks including data acquisition/ingestion to pre-processing and running a state-of-art encoder-decoder based deep convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for automatically generating a tree/non-tree map for almost a quarter million scenes. The entire processing chain including generation of the largest open source existing aerial/satellite image training database was performed at the NEX supercomputing and storage facility. We believe the resulting forest cover product will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon and ecological monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in derived products.

  13. Standard high-resolution pelvic MRI vs. low-resolution pelvic MRI in the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardapane, Arnaldo; Lorusso, Filomenamila; Ferrante, Annunziata; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe [University Hospital ' ' Policlinico' ' of Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Bari (Italy); Scioscia, Marco [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Negrar, Verona (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    To compare the capabilities of standard pelvic MRI with low-resolution pelvic MRI using fast breath-hold sequences to evaluate deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Sixty-eight consecutive women with suspected DIE were studied with pelvic MRI. A double-acquisition protocol was carried out in each case. High-resolution (HR)-MRI consisted of axial, sagittal, and coronal TSE T2W images, axial TSE T1W, and axial THRIVE. Low-resolution (LR)-MRI was acquired using fast single shot (SSH) T2 and T1 images. Two radiologists with 10 and 2 years of experience reviewed HR and LR images in two separate sessions. The presence of endometriotic lesions of the uterosacral ligament (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), pouch of Douglas (POD), and rectal wall was noted. The accuracies of LR-MRI and HR-MRI were compared with the laparoscopic and histopathological findings. Average acquisition times were 24 minutes for HR-MRI and 7 minutes for LR-MRI. The more experienced radiologist achieved higher accuracy with both HR-MRI and LR-MRI. The values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy did not significantly change between HR and LR images or interobserver agreement for all of the considered anatomic sites. LR-MRI performs as well as HR-MRI and is a valuable tool for the detection of deep endometriosis extension. (orig.)

  14. Standard high-resolution pelvic MRI vs. low-resolution pelvic MRI in the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardapane, Arnaldo; Lorusso, Filomenamila; Ferrante, Annunziata; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Scioscia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the capabilities of standard pelvic MRI with low-resolution pelvic MRI using fast breath-hold sequences to evaluate deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Sixty-eight consecutive women with suspected DIE were studied with pelvic MRI. A double-acquisition protocol was carried out in each case. High-resolution (HR)-MRI consisted of axial, sagittal, and coronal TSE T2W images, axial TSE T1W, and axial THRIVE. Low-resolution (LR)-MRI was acquired using fast single shot (SSH) T2 and T1 images. Two radiologists with 10 and 2 years of experience reviewed HR and LR images in two separate sessions. The presence of endometriotic lesions of the uterosacral ligament (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), pouch of Douglas (POD), and rectal wall was noted. The accuracies of LR-MRI and HR-MRI were compared with the laparoscopic and histopathological findings. Average acquisition times were 24 minutes for HR-MRI and 7 minutes for LR-MRI. The more experienced radiologist achieved higher accuracy with both HR-MRI and LR-MRI. The values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy did not significantly change between HR and LR images or interobserver agreement for all of the considered anatomic sites. LR-MRI performs as well as HR-MRI and is a valuable tool for the detection of deep endometriosis extension. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of low-energy and high-frequency femtosecond laser for the construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and reliability of a low-energy femtosecond laser with a high repetition rate for construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae. Methods: This was a prospective laboratory investigation. Twenty-five human corneal buttons were femtosecond laser cut to create thick anterior lamellae (diameter, 10mm; thickness, 500µm. The laser cuts were made using an LDV® femtosecond laser in a Ziemer® anterior chamber. To obtain a better edge, the lamellae were trephined with an 8mm trephine (Katena®. The central corneal thickness and the anterior lamellae were measured using a Mitutoyo® thickness gauge with an accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The central thickness of the 25 corneas ranged from 500 to 705µm (mean, 584 ± 51µm. The thickness of the anterior lamellae ranged from 420 to 480µm (mean, 455 ± 12.7µm. The anterior lamellae diameters were 7.90 ± 0.1mm, and all laser cuts were round. The lamellar interfaces appeared regular by surgical microscopy. There were no cases of inter-lamellar adhesion. Conclusion: The LDV® femtosecond laser appears to be a safe and reliable instrument for cutting deep anterior lamellae from donor corneoscleral buttons. Minimal variation in donor lamellar depth with the laser will be useful for creating donor corneal tissue for deeper anterior lamellar keratoplasty or endothelial keratoplasty surgery or both from a single donor cornea.

  16. Development of an assessment methodology for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste into deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Stanners, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical study concerning the option of disposal of vitrified high activity waste (HAW) into deep ocean sediments. The development of a preliminary methodology is presented which concerns the assessment of the possible effects of a release of radioactivity on the ecosystem and eventually on man. As the long-term hazard is considered basically to be due to transuranic elements (and daughter products) the period studied for the assessment is from 10 3 to 10 6 years. A simple ecosystem model is developed so that the transfer of activity between different compartments of the systems, e.g. the sediment column, sediment-water interface, deep sea water column, can be estimated. A critical pathway analysis is made for an imaginary critical group in order to complete the assessment. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken using the computed minimum-maximum credible values for the different parameters used in the calculations in order to obtain a minimum-maximum dose range for a critical group. (Auth.)

  17. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mennecart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  18. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  19. Probing the oxidation state of iron in the deep mantle using high P,T Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, C. A.; Kupenko, I.; Sinmyo, R.; Cerantola, V.; Potapkin, V.; Chumakov, A. I.; Kantor, A.; Rüffer, R.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The bulk of the Earth's interior is not directly accessible, yet redox processes occurring deep within drive many of the events observed at its surface. Laboratory studies of the relevant minerals at the appropriate pressure and temperature conditions have been pivotal in advancing our understanding of the Earth's interior. Iron plays an important role because it is the only major element with multiple electronic configurations (oxidation and spin state); however most of our knowledge regarding the oxidation state of iron in deep mantle phases is based on measurements of samples quenched from high temperature and sometimes also from high pressure. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been a key player in such studies and results on quenched samples have shown that the oxidation state of iron varies considerably through the mantle, from predominantly ferrous iron in upper mantle and transition zone phases to roughly 50% ferric iron in silicate perovskite (bridgmanite) due to the strong affinity of ferric iron for that phase in the presence of trivalent aluminium. Mössbauer measurements at pressures and temperatures along the geotherm are impractical using conventional radioactive sources due to their low brightness and the extremely limited possibilities for focusing in a laboratory setting. To address these limitations, we have developed an energy domain Synchrotron Mössbauer Source (SMS) on beamline ID18 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility that enables rapid collection of high quality energy domain Mössbauer spectra, and coupled with a portable double-sided laser heating system, SMS spectra can be collected on iron-containing mantle phases at pressures and temperatures up to those near the Earth's core in only a few hours (or less). The presentation will showcase recent results documenting in situ determination of iron oxidation state in lower mantle phases and discuss their implications for redox sensitive processes taking place throughout the Earth

  20. Deep sampling of the Palomero maize transcriptome by a high throughput strategy of pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Arreguín, Julio C; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Jiménez-Moraila, Beatriz; Martínez, Octavio; Vielle-Calzada, Jean Philippe; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2009-07-06

    In-depth sequencing analysis has not been able to determine the overall complexity of transcriptional activity of a plant organ or tissue sample. In some cases, deep parallel sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), although not yet optimized for the sequencing of cDNAs, has represented an efficient procedure for validating gene prediction and estimating overall gene coverage. This approach could be very valuable for complex plant genomes. In addition, little emphasis has been given to efforts aiming at an estimation of the overall transcriptional universe found in a multicellular organism at a specific developmental stage. To explore, in depth, the transcriptional diversity in an ancient maize landrace, we developed a protocol to optimize the sequencing of cDNAs and performed 4 consecutive GS20-454 pyrosequencing runs of a cDNA library obtained from 2 week-old Palomero Toluqueño maize plants. The protocol reported here allowed obtaining over 90% of informative sequences. These GS20-454 runs generated over 1.5 Million reads, representing the largest amount of sequences reported from a single plant cDNA library. A collection of 367,391 quality-filtered reads (30.09 Mb) from a single run was sufficient to identify transcripts corresponding to 34% of public maize ESTs databases; total sequences generated after 4 filtered runs increased this coverage to 50%. Comparisons of all 1.5 Million reads to the Maize Assembled Genomic Islands (MAGIs) provided evidence for the transcriptional activity of 11% of MAGIs. We estimate that 5.67% (86,069 sequences) do not align with public ESTs or annotated genes, potentially representing new maize transcripts. Following the assembly of 74.4% of the reads in 65,493 contigs, real-time PCR of selected genes confirmed a predicted correlation between the abundance of GS20-454 sequences and corresponding levels of gene expression. A protocol was developed that significantly increases the number, length and quality of cDNA reads using

  1. Deep sampling of the Palomero maize transcriptome by a high throughput strategy of pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Estrella Luis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth sequencing analysis has not been able to determine the overall complexity of transcriptional activity of a plant organ or tissue sample. In some cases, deep parallel sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs, although not yet optimized for the sequencing of cDNAs, has represented an efficient procedure for validating gene prediction and estimating overall gene coverage. This approach could be very valuable for complex plant genomes. In addition, little emphasis has been given to efforts aiming at an estimation of the overall transcriptional universe found in a multicellular organism at a specific developmental stage. Results To explore, in depth, the transcriptional diversity in an ancient maize landrace, we developed a protocol to optimize the sequencing of cDNAs and performed 4 consecutive GS20–454 pyrosequencing runs of a cDNA library obtained from 2 week-old Palomero Toluqueño maize plants. The protocol reported here allowed obtaining over 90% of informative sequences. These GS20–454 runs generated over 1.5 Million reads, representing the largest amount of sequences reported from a single plant cDNA library. A collection of 367,391 quality-filtered reads (30.09 Mb from a single run was sufficient to identify transcripts corresponding to 34% of public maize ESTs databases; total sequences generated after 4 filtered runs increased this coverage to 50%. Comparisons of all 1.5 Million reads to the Maize Assembled Genomic Islands (MAGIs provided evidence for the transcriptional activity of 11% of MAGIs. We estimate that 5.67% (86,069 sequences do not align with public ESTs or annotated genes, potentially representing new maize transcripts. Following the assembly of 74.4% of the reads in 65,493 contigs, real-time PCR of selected genes confirmed a predicted correlation between the abundance of GS20–454 sequences and corresponding levels of gene expression. Conclusion A protocol was developed that significantly

  2. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  3. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  4. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  5. High pressure mafic granulites from the Mercara Suture Zone, southern India : Implications for deep subduction and subsequent exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenganodiyil, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mercara Suture Zone in southern India, marked by steep gravity gradients along with electrical anomalies coincides the geologicaly marked transition zone in which the Coorg Block in Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) is accreted to the Western Dharwar craton (WDC). The timing of high grade metamorphism as constrained from metamorphic overgrowths in zircons is ca. 3.0 Ga might marks the suturing event between the Western Dharwar Craton and the Coorg Block. Mafic granulites found as enclaves, bands or boudins within metaigneous and metasedimenatry rock suites along the Mercara suture and associated crustal blocks. These are medium to coarse grained rocks predominantly consisting of garnet, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase and quartz. Minor amounts of magnetite, rutile and ilmenite are also present as accessory phases. The available mineral assemblages and their reaction textues points towards the initial subduction, crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation, followed by cooling and retrogression of the terrain. The geothermobarometric computations based on phase equiliria modeling by pseudosections indicates high grade metamorphism at granulite facies conditions; substantiates the collisional mechanism invloved. Major and trace element chemistry of mafic granulites are suggestive that these rocks are essentially tholeiitic and are characterised by low silica, comparatively low alumina, high iron, high FeO/MgO ratio's. These signatures are also typical of subduction-related intraoceanic tholeiitic arc basalt. The high-density carbonic (1.15 g/cm3) fluids from these rocks is in conjunction with the mineral thermobarometry of the terrain and suggest deep subduction and subsequent exhumation.

  6. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  7. Solid waste management in Indian Himalayan tourists' treks: a case study in and around the Valley of Flowers and Hemkund Sahib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyal, Jagdish C.; Jain, Arun P.; Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S.

    2003-01-01

    Solid waste generation in sensitive tourist areas of the Indian Himalayan region is approaching that of some metro cities of the country. The present study showed ∼288 g waste generation visitor -1 day -1 compared with the nation-wide average of 350 g capita -1 day -1 . About 29 metric tonnes (MT) solid waste is generated along a distance of about 19-km trek (a stretch of land or distance between two or more places covered by a walk) during a 4-month tourist season every year. Treks and trek stalls are the two major places where the visitors generate solid waste. Waste estimated from stalls accounted for about 51% by weight of the total waste generation in the trekking region. The native villagers generally construct stalls every year to meet the requirement of visitors going to Valley of Flowers (VOF) and Hemkund Sahib. The average annual results of 2 years (or equivalent to the average of one, 4-month tourist season for the region) showed non-biodegradable waste (NBW) to be 96.3% by weight whereas biodegradable waste (BW) amounted to merely 3.7%. From management point of view of the government, 96% NBW could easily be reused and recycled. Nevertheless, the need is to manage this waste by bringing it from the trekking areas to the road head (Govind Ghat) first and then to transport it to adjacent recycling centers. Cold drink glass bottles (68%), plastic (26%) and metal (2%) were the major items contributing to non-biodegradable waste. The remaining organic waste could be used as feedstock for composting. A well coordinated effort of public participation is necessary at all the levels for managing waste. There is a need to educate the visitors to instill in them the habit of considering discarded waste as potentially valuable and manageable

  8. Solid waste management in Indian Himalayan tourists' treks: a case study in and around the Valley of Flowers and Hemkund Sahib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyal, Jagdish C; Jain, Arun P; Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S

    2003-01-01

    Solid waste generation in sensitive tourist areas of the Indian Himalayan region is approaching that of some metro cities of the country. The present study showed approximately 288 g waste generation visitor(-1) day(-1) compared with the nation-wide average of 350 g capita(-1) day(-1). About 29 metric tonnes (MT) solid waste is generated along a distance of about 19-km trek (a stretch of land or distance between two or more places covered by a walk) during a 4-month tourist season every year. Treks and trek stalls are the two major places where the visitors generate solid waste. Waste estimated from stalls accounted for about 51% by weight of the total waste generation in the trekking region. The native villagers generally construct stalls every year to meet the requirement of visitors going to Valley of Flowers (VOF) and Hemkund Sahib. The average annual results of 2 years (or equivalent to the average of one, 4-month tourist season for the region) showed non-biodegradable waste (NBW) to be 96.3% by weight whereas biodegradable waste (BW) amounted to merely 3.7%. From management point of view of the government, 96% NBW could easily be reused and recycled. Nevertheless, the need is to manage this waste by bringing it from the trekking areas to the road head (Govind Ghat) first and then to transport it to adjacent recycling centers. Cold drink glass bottles (68%), plastic (26%) and metal (2%) were the major items contributing to non-biodegradable waste. The remaining organic waste could be used as feedstock for composting. A well coordinated effort of public participation is necessary at all the levels for managing waste. There is a need to educate the visitors to instill in them the habit of considering discarded waste as potentially valuable and manageable.

  9. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  10. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  11. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  12. High Efficiency and Power Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this program, Freedom Photonics will design an innovative compact, diode laser pumped solid state laser to achieve specifications listed by the program. High...

  13. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  14. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  15. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in

  16. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  17. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields C. H. Ishwara ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Most of the radio galaxies with z > 3 have been found using the red-shift spectral index correlation. We have started a programme with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to exploit this correlation at flux density levels about 100 times deeper than the known high-redshift radio galaxies, with an aim to ...

  18. Offline High pH Reversed-Phase Peptide Fractionation for Deep Phosphoproteome Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    peptide mixtures based on high pH (basic) reversed-phase chromatography prior to phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides are separated on a C18 reversed-phase column under basic conditions and fractions collected in timed intervals followed by concatenation of the fractions...

  19. A Methodology to analyze the biosphere in the assessment of deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overall R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with the Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropriate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and practical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better practical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methodology. This methodology is widely based on an international working group on ''Reference Biospheres'', part of the BIOMOVS II Project. Specific software developments have been carried out in collaboration with Qunti Sci Itd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. (Author)

  20. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system. (paper)

  1. Highly similar prokaryotic communities of sunken wood at shallow and deep-sea sites across the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carmen; Zbinden, Magali; Pailleret, Marie; Gaill, Françoise; Lebaron, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    With an increased appreciation of the frequency of their occurrence, large organic falls such as sunken wood and whale carcasses have become important to consider in the ecology of the oceans. Organic-rich deep-sea falls may play a major role in the dispersal and evolution of chemoautotrophic communities at the ocean floor, and chemosynthetic symbiotic, free-living, and attached microorganisms may drive the primary production at these communities. However, little is known about the microbiota thriving in and around organic falls. Our aim was to investigate and compare free-living and attached communities of bacteria and archaea from artificially immersed and naturally sunken wood logs with varying characteristics at several sites in the deep sea and in shallow water to address basic questions on the microbial ecology of sunken wood. Multivariate indirect ordination analyses of capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting profiles demonstrated high similarity of bacterial and archaeal assemblages present in timbers and logs situated at geographically distant sites and at different depths of immersion. This similarity implies that wood falls harbor a specialized microbiota as observed in other ecosystems when the same environmental conditions reoccur. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations combined with multivariate direct gradient analysis of Bacteria CE-SSCP profiles demonstrate that type of wood (hard vs. softwood), and time of immersion are important in structuring sunken wood bacterial communities. Archaeal populations were present only in samples with substantial signs of decay, which were also more similar in their bacterial assemblages, providing indirect evidence of temporal succession in the microbial communities that develop in and around wood falls.

  2. nDPI: Open-Source High-Speed Deep Packet Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deri, Luca; Martinelli, Maurizio; Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Network traffic analysis was traditionally limited to packet header, because the transport protocol and application ports were usually sufficient to identify the application protocol. With the advent of port-independent, peer-to-peer, and encrypted protocols, the task of identifying application p...... validated in various monitoring projects ranging from Linux kernel protocol classification, to analysis of 10 Gbit traffic, reporting both high protocol detection accuracy and efficiency....

  3. Charged particle production in high Q.sup.2./sup. deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaron, F.D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Reimer, Petr; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 654, - (2007), s. 148-159 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 1P05LA259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : H1 experiment * ep scattering * cross section * quantum chromodynamics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.189, year : 2007

  4. Calculation of intensity of high energy muon groups observed deep underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilov, Y. N.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of narrow muon groups observed in Kolar Gold Field (KGF) at the depth of 3375 m.w.e. was calculated in terms of quark-gluon strings model for high energy hadron - air nuclei interactions by the method of direct modeling of nuclear cascade in the air and muon propagation in the ground for normal primary cosmic ray composition. The calculated intensity has been found to be approx. 10 to the 4 times less than one observed experimentally.

  5. Detection of lower limb deep venous thrombosis in asymptomatic high risk patients using a new radiolabelled thrombus specific agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, S.P.; Rahman, T.; Boyd S.J. [George Hospital, Sydney (Australia)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis is a serious consequence of major orthopaedic surgery and non invasive screening with either venous ultrasound or impedance plethysmography is unreliable for detecting or excluding DVT in this group. A new method of thrombus detection has been devised using Tc-99m labelled inhibited recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The accuracy of scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical in asymptomatic high risk patients was evaluated using venography as the gold standard. 36 consecutive asymptomatic high risk patients (17 total hip, 19 total knee replacements) underwent both a contrast venogram on the operated leg and scintigraphic scan 7 days following operation. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 4 hours post injection. For the purpose of this analysis, each venogram was divided into a proximal and a distal segment. Venograms were interpreted as being positive, negative or uninterpretable in each segment. Similar analysis of the scintigraphic scans was performed except that all segments were considered to be of diagnostic quality. 57 segments were able to be analysed. Of the 13 thrombosed segments (1 proximal, 12 calf), 12 had positive scans; in the 44 non thrombosed segments, 40 had negative scans. Thus in detecting lower limb thrombosis, scanning had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91%. Scintigraphic scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical permits accurate detection of thrombus in high risk patients.

  6. Deep Dive Topic: State of understanding of capsule modeling in context of high-foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The work is summarized from several perspectives: 1D simulation perspective: Post-shot models agree with yield data to within a factor of ~2 at low implosion velocities, but the models diverge from the data as the velocity and convergence ratio increase. 2D simulation perspective: Integrated hohlraum-capsule post-shot models agree with primary data for most implosions, but overpredict yield and DSR for a few of the highest velocity implosions. High-resolution 3D post-shot capsule-only modeling captures much of the delivered performance of the one shot currently simulated.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  8. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  9. SPRAYED CLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEEP REPOSITORY OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hausmannová

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sealing barrier will play very important role in the Czech disposal concept of high level radioactive waste. It follows Swedish SKB3 design where granitic rock environment will host the repository. Swelling clay based materials as the most favorable for sealing purposes were selected. Such clays must fulfill certain requirements (e.g. on swelling properties, hydraulic conductivity or plasticity and must be stable for thousands of years. Better sealing behavior is obtained when the clay is compacted. Technology of the seal construction can vary according to its target dry density. Very high dry density is needed for buffer (sealing around entire canister with radioactive waste. Less strict requirements are on material backfilling the access galleries. It allows compaction to lower dry density than in case of buffer. One of potential technology for backfilling is to compact clay layers in most of the gallery profile by common compaction machines (rollers etc. and to spray clay into the uppermost part afterwards. The paper introduces the research works on sprayed clay technology performed at the Centre of Experimental Geotechnics of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Large scale in situ demonstration of filling of short drift in the Josef Gallery is also mentioned.

  10. Neutrons in a highly diffusive medium a new propulsion tool for deep space exploration?

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1998-01-01

    The recently completed TARC Experiment at the CERN-PS has shown how it is possible to confine neutrons by diffusion in a limited volume of a highly transparent medium for very long times (tens of milliseconds), with correspondingly very long diffusive paths (> 60 m neutron path ÒwoundÓ within a ~ 60 cm effective radius). Assume an empty cavity is introduced inside the previous volume of diffusing medium. The inner walls of the cavity are covered with a thin layer of highly fissionable material, which acts as a neutron multiplying source. This configuration, called Òn-HohlraumÓ, is reminiscent of a classic black-body radiator, with the exception that now neutrons rather than photons are propagated. The flux can be sufficiently enhanced as to permit to reach criticality with a ~ 1 mm thick Americium deposit, corresponding to a mere 1100 atomic layers. Such a layer is so thin that the Fission Fragments (FF) exit freely into the cavity. The energy carried by FF can be recovered directly, thus making use of th...

  11. Development of Deep Penetration Welding Technology with High Brightness Laser under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Seiji; Yohei, Abe; Mizutani, Masami; Kawahito, Yousuke

    The authors have developed a new chamber for laser welding under the low vacuum conditions achieved by using rotary pumps. High-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding was performed on Type 304 stainless steel or A5052 aluminium alloy plate at the powers of 10, 16 and 26 kW at various welding speeds under low vacuum. The sound welds of more than 50 and 70 mm in penetration depth could be produced in Type 304 at the pressure of 0.1 kPa, the speed of 0.3 m/min and the power of 16 kW and 26 kW, respectively. Similar penetration was achieved in A 5052 aluminum alloy. Welding phenomena under low vacuum were also understood by observing the behavior of a keyhole inlet, a molten pool, melt flows and a plume ejected from a keyhole through high speed video cameras. Low interaction between a laser beam and a plume under low vacuum was confirmed by using probe laser beam method.

  12. Sensitivity of on-resistance and threshold voltage to buffer-related deep level defects in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M; Allerman, Andrew A; Baca, Albert G; Sanchez, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of deep levels defects located in highly resistive GaN:C buffers on the on-resistance (R ON ) and threshold voltage (V th ) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) power devices was studied by a combined photocapacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (C-DLOS) and photoconductance deep level optical spectroscopy (G-DLOS) methodology as a function of electrical stress. Two carbon-related deep levels at 1.8 and 2.85 eV below the conduction band energy minimum were identified from C-DLOS measurements under the gate electrode. It was found that buffer-related defects under the gate shifted V th positively by approximately 10%, corresponding to a net areal density of occupied defects of 8 × 10 12 cm −2 . The effect of on-state drain stress and off-state gate stress on buffer deep level occupancy and R ON was also investigated via G-DLOS. It was found that the same carbon-related deep levels observed under the gate were also active in the access region. Off-state gate stress produced significantly more trapping and degradation of R ON (∼140%) compared to on-state drain stress (∼75%). Greater sensitivity of R ON to gate stress was explained by a more sharply peaked lateral distribution of occupied deep levels between the gate and drain compared to drain stress. The overall greater sensitivity of R ON compared to V th to buffer defects suggests that electron trapping is significantly greater in the access region compared to under the gate, likely due to the larger electric fields in the latter region. (invited paper)

  13. Interconnect effects in deep submicron implementation of high performance arithmetic architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrian, Pedram; Jullien, Graham A.; Ahmadi, Majid

    2003-12-01

    The conventional trend in algorithm implementation has been the reliance on advancements in process technology in order to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for high-speed processors, and computational systems. As current device technology approaches sub-100nm minimum device size, not only does the device geometry decrease, but switching times, and operating voltages also scale down. These gains come at the expense of increased layout complexity, and a greater susceptibility to parasitic effects in the interconnections. In this paper we will briefly overview the challenges that digital designers will have to face in the imminent future, and will provide suggestions on algorithmic measures which may be taken in order to overcome some of these obstacles. To illustrate our point, we will present an analysis of a digital multiplication algorithm, which is predicted to outperform current schemes, for future technologies.

  14. Evidence for Deep Regulatory Similarities in Early Developmental Programs across Highly Diverged Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md. Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like “long germband” development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250–350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as “training data” to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary

  15. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  16. Deep reversible storage. Safety options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This large document aims at presenting safety options which have been adopted for the current design status (notably for the installation architecture), elements of description of envisaged technical solutions and exploitation principles which are required for the control of risks (either internal or external) and uncertainties on a long term which could lead to radiological consequences for the project of storage of nuclear wastes in a deep geological formation. After a presentation of the context and of input data, this report discusses the principle of a modular construction and then discusses the safety approach. One part deals with risk analysis for surface installations and aims at showing how internal risks (handling, fire) and external risks (earthquake, plane crash) are taken into account in terms of design choices, processes and control measures. Another part deals with risk analysis for underground installations during the reversible exploitation phase (the considered risks are about the same as in the previous part). The next part addresses risk analysis after closing, and tries to describe how the location, storage construction elements and its architecture ensure a passive safety. Uncertainty management is presented in relationship with envisaged technical solutions and scientific knowledge advances. Additional elements (detailed study, researches and experimentations) for the establishment of the future creation authorization request are identified all along the report

  17. Metrology study of high precision mm parts made by the deep x-ray lithography (LIGA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, Olaf; Meyer, Pascal; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Microcomponents are increasingly applied in industrial products, e.g. smallest gears, springs or the watch industry. Apart from their small dimensions, such components are characterized by a high contour accuracy. Industry requires the tolerances to be in the µm range. Measurement of lateral dimensions in the mm range with submicrometer accuracy and precision, however, results in high requirements on measurement technology. The relevance of this problem is illustrated by the fact that the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) has launched the Collaborative Research Center 1159 on 'New Strategies of Measurement and Inspection for the Production of Microsystems and Nanostructures'. The Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik, Karlsruhe (Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe), produces microstructures by means of the LIG(A) technique (German acronym for lithography, electrodeposition, molding). Presently, a coordinate measurement machine equipped with an optical fiber probe to measure these microstructures is being tested. This paper will particularly focus on the precision and accuracy of the machine. The rules of measurement system analysis will be applied for this purpose. Following the elimination of the systematic error, reproducibility of deep-etch x-ray lithography will be highlighted using the LIGA production of gold gears as an example

  18. Methodology for assessing the risk from the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Ortiz, N.R.; Runkle, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, has recently completed the development of a risk assessment methodology for use in assessing the post-closure, long-term risk from the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. Briefly, this methodology consists of: (1) techniques for selecting and screening scenarios, (2) models for use in simulating the physical processes and estimating the consequences associated with the occurrence of these scenarios, (3) probabilistic and statistical techniques for use in risk estimates and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, (4) a procedure for utilizing these models and techniques to arrive at estimates of consequences and risk. The methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical site containing a bedded salt formation as the host medium for the waste repository. In this demonstration analysis, consequences resulting from the occurrence of several hypothetical scenarios were determined. These consequences were expressed in terms of radionuclide discharges to the biosphere and health effects resulting from these discharges. Health effects were expressed in terms of the probability of an individual developing a latent cancer. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the model input variables which are most important in influencing variation in predicted discharges and health effects. The result of the analysis was compared with the requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency Standard for high-level waste disposal

  19. High energy deep inelastic scattering in perturbative quantum chromodynamics; Diffusion profondement inelastique a grande energie en chromodynamique quantique perturbative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, S.

    1996-09-17

    In this PhD thesis, we deal with high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering in Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, two main topics are emphasized: The first one deals with dynamics based on perturbative renormalization group, and on perturbative Regge approaches. We discuss the applicability of these predictions, the possibility of distinguishing them in the HERA experiments, and their unification. We prove that the perturbative Regge dynamic can be successfully applied to describe the HERA data. Different observables are proposed for distinguishing these two approaches. We show that these two predictions can be unified in a system of equations. In the second one, unitarization and saturation problems in high energy QCD are discussed. In the multi-Regge approach, equivalent to the integrable one-dimensional XXX Heisenberg spin chain, we develop methods in order to solve this system, based on the Functional Bethe Ansatz. In the dipole model context, we propose a new formulation of unitarity and saturation effects, using Wilson loops. (author). 120 refs.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of high electron mobility InAs/AlSb deep quantum well structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan; Wang Guowei; Xu Yingqiang; Xing Junliang; Xiang Wei; Tang Bao; Zhu Yan; Ren Zhengwei; He Zhenhong; Niu Zhichuan [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-07-07

    InAs/AlSb deep quantum well (QW) structures with high electron mobility were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. AlSb and Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer layers were grown to accommodate the lattice mismatch (7%) between the InAs/AlSb QW active region and GaAs substrate. Transmission electron microscopy shows abrupt interface and atomic force microscopy measurements display smooth surface morphology. Growth conditions of AlSb and Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer were optimized. Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb is better than AlSb as a buffer layer as indicated. The sample with optimal Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer layer shows a smooth surface morphology with root-mean-square roughness of 6.67 A. The electron mobility has reached as high as 27 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs with a sheet density of 4.54 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature.

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of high electron mobility InAs/AlSb deep quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Wang Guowei; Xu Yingqiang; Xing Junliang; Xiang Wei; Tang Bao; Zhu Yan; Ren Zhengwei; He Zhenhong; Niu Zhichuan

    2013-01-01

    InAs/AlSb deep quantum well (QW) structures with high electron mobility were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. AlSb and Al 0.75 Ga 0.25 Sb buffer layers were grown to accommodate the lattice mismatch (7%) between the InAs/AlSb QW active region and GaAs substrate. Transmission electron microscopy shows abrupt interface and atomic force microscopy measurements display smooth surface morphology. Growth conditions of AlSb and Al 0.75 Ga 0.25 Sb buffer were optimized. Al 0.75 Ga 0.25 Sb is better than AlSb as a buffer layer as indicated. The sample with optimal Al 0.75 Ga 0.25 Sb buffer layer shows a smooth surface morphology with root-mean-square roughness of 6.67 Å. The electron mobility has reached as high as 27 000 cm 2 /Vs with a sheet density of 4.54 × 10 11 /cm 2 at room temperature

  2. Three-photon luminescence of gold nanorods and its applications for high contrast tissue and deep in vivo brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Xi, Wang; Cai, Fuhong; Zhao, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhengping; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents for bio-imaging applications. Here we studied multi-photon luminescence (MPL) of gold nanorods (GNRs), under the excitation of femtosecond (fs) lasers. GNRs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules have high chemical and optical stability, and can be used as multi-photon luminescent nanoprobes for deep in vivo imaging of live animals. We have found that the depth of in vivo imaging is dependent upon the transmission and focal capability of the excitation light interacting with the GNRs. Our study focused on the comparison of MPL from GNRs with two different aspect ratios, as well as their ex vivo and in vivo imaging effects under 760 nm and 1000 nm excitation, respectively. Both of these wavelengths were located at an optically transparent window of biological tissue (700-1000 nm). PEGylated GNRs, which were intravenously injected into mice via the tail vein and accumulated in major organs and tumor tissue, showed high image contrast due to distinct three-photon luminescence (3PL) signals upon irradiation of a 1000 nm fs laser. Concerning in vivo mouse brain imaging, the 3PL imaging depth of GNRs under 1000 nm fs excitation could reach 600 μm, which was approximately 170 μm deeper than the two-photon luminescence (2PL) imaging depth of GNRs with a fs excitation of 760 nm.

  3. Deep tissue penetration of nanoparticles using pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dong Gil; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Jeon, Sangmin; Um, Wooram; Son, Sejin; Park, Jae Hyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-11-01

    Recently, ultrasound (US)-based drug delivery strategies have received attention to improve enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect-based passive targeting efficiency of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo conditions. Among the US treatment techniques, pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) have specialized for improving tissue penetration of various macromolecules and nanoparticles without irreversible tissue damages. In this study, we have demonstrated that pHIFU could be utilized to improve tissue penetration of fluorescent dye-labeled glycol chitosan nanoparticles (FCNPs) in femoral tissue of mice. pHIFU could improve blood flow of the targeted-blood vessel in femoral tissue. In addition, tissue penetration of FCNPs was specifically increased 5.7-, 8- and 9.3-folds than that of non-treated (0 W pHIFU) femoral tissue, when the femoral tissue was treated with 10, 20 and 50 W of pHIFU, respectively. However, tissue penetration of FCNPs was significantly reduced after 3 h post-pHIFU treatment (50 W). Because overdose (50 W) of pHIFU led to irreversible tissue damages, including the edema and chapped red blood cells. These overall results support that pHIFU treatment can enhance the extravasation and tissue penetration of FCNPs as well as induce irreversible tissue damages. We expect that our results can provide advantages to optimize pHIFU-mediated delivery strategy of nanoparticles for further clinical applications.

  4. High-resolution investigation of reflections from a deep mantle slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Lina; Thomas, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Subduction zones form dominant tectonic features on the Earth and it is clear that there is significant three-dimensional structure and complexity within them. Tomographic inversions for P- and S-wave seismic velocities in the Earth's mantle suggest that in several places, subducted oceanic lithosphere descends through the mantle transition zone and penetrates into the lower mantle. But tomography is not able to make a statement concerning structural differences within the slab and its behavior with depth. The main objective of this study is to investigate the geometry, physical parameters and structural differences of subducted slabs by closely investigating seismic P-wave arrivals that reflect off the base of the slab (e.g. the polarity, amplitude, frequency and waveforms of the reflected waves). We are focusing primarily on the Cocos plate that is subducted beneath the Caribbean, since previous migration results show reflections in the slab region from a reflector at the base of the subducted lithosphere. Yet, at that time, a high-resolution investigation of physical parameters was not possible. This is done now by using South American earthquakes recorded by North American networks (e.g. USArray and California broadband seismometers). The data cover a period from 1991-2009 with a minimum magnitude of 5.9 Mw and depths below 100 km. The great circle paths of the source-receiver combinations used here do not intersect the slab and serve as reference. We are looking for reflections from the slab region that would arrive at the stations with different backazimuth. These arrivals can be observed in slowness-backazimuth diagrams as stacked energy of waves traveling out of plane. Information on slowness, backazimuth and travel time is used to backtrack the wave to its reflection point and can be compared to the results of previous migration results and tomography studies. In addition, beamforming for the observed slowness and backazimuth of the out of plane

  5. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Miller

    Full Text Available Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS, the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S and mitochondrial control region (MtC to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  6. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen J; Rowden, Ashley A; Williams, Alan; Häussermann, Vreni

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons) rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S) and mitochondrial control region (MtC) to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m) even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  7. A Study of Highly Qualified Science Teachers' Career Trajectory in the Deep, Rural South: Examining a Link between Deprofessionalization and Teacher Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Georgia W.; Tippins, Deborah; Oliver, J. Steve

    2013-01-01

    Science teacher retention, attrition, and migration continue to perplex educational scholars, political entities, as well as the general public. This study utilized an interpretive methodological design to generate assertions regarding career choice made by highly qualified science teachers in the deep, rural South through analysis of documents,…

  8. Complete genome sequence of the highly Mn(II) tolerant Staphylococcus sp. AntiMn-1 isolated from deep-sea sediment in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Lin, Danqiu; Jing, Xiaohuan; Zhu, Sidong; Yang, Jifang; Chen, Jigang

    2018-01-20

    Staphylococcus sp. AntiMn-1 is a deep-sea bacterium inhabiting seafloor sediment in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) that is highly tolerant to Mn(II) and displays efficient Mn(II) oxidation. Herein, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  10. High Rate Tellecommunications for Mars Planetary and Proximity Ranges and other Deep-Space Missions-A, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space vehicles for deep space exploration rely on microwave and millimeter wave links for communication with earth stations. As the mission of space probes expands,...

  11. Interpretation of deep directional resistivity measurements acquired in high-angle and horizontal wells using 3D inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Vladimir; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Calo, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The interpretation of resistivity measurements acquired in high-angle and horizontal wells is a critical technical problem in formation evaluation. We develop an efficient parallel 3D inversion method to estimate the spatial distribution of electrical resistivity in the neighborhood of a well from deep directional electromagnetic induction measurements. The methodology places no restriction on the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity around arbitrary well trajectories. The fast forward modelling of triaxial induction measurements performed with multiple transmitter-receiver configurations employs a parallel direct solver. The inversion uses a preconditioned gradient-based method whose accuracy is improved using the Wolfe conditions to estimate optimal step lengths at each iteration. The large transmitter-receiver offsets, used in the latest generation of commercial directional resistivity tools, improve the depth of investigation to over thirty meters from the wellbore. Several challenging synthetic examples confirm the feasibility of the full 3D inversion-based interpretations for these distances, hence enabling the integration of resistivity measurements with seismic amplitude data to improve the forecast of the petrophysical and fluid properties. Employing parallel direct solvers for the triaxial induction problems allows for large reductions in computational effort, thereby opening the possibility to invert multiposition 3D data in practical CPU times.

  12. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  13. Span-to-depth ratio effect on shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete deep beams using ANN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Uday; Kute, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The paper predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams. It studies the effect of clear span-to-overall depth ratio on shear capacity of steel fiber high-strength deep beams using artificial neural network (ANN8). The three-layered model has eight input nodes which represent width, effective depth, volume fraction, fiber aspect ratio and shear span-to-depth ratio, longitudinal steel, compressive strength of concrete, and clear span-to-overall depth ratio. The model predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber deep beams to be reasonably good when compared with the results of proposed equations by researchers as well as the results obtained by neural network (ANN7) which is developed for seven inputs excluding span-to-depth ratio. The developed neural network ANN8 proves the versatility of artificial neural networks to establish the relations between various parameters affecting complex behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams and costly experimental processes.

  14. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  15. Differentiation of deep subcortical infarction using high-resolution vessel wall MR imaging of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Sunwoo, Leonard; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Hee Joon

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) of middle cerebral artery (MCA), and to compare HR-VWI findings between striatocapsular infarction (SC-I) and lenticulostriate infarction (LS-I). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. From July 2009 to February 2012, 145 consecutive patients with deep subcortical infarctions (SC-I, n = 81; LS-I, n = 64) who underwent HR-VWI were included in this study. The degree of MCA stenosis and the characteristics of MCA plaque (presence, eccentricity, location, extent, T2-high signal intensity [T2-HSI], and plaque enhancement) were analyzed, and compared between SC-I and LS-I, using Fisher's exact test. Stenosis was more severe in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.040). MCA plaque was more frequent in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.028), having larger plaque extent (p = 0.001), more T2-HSI (p = 0.001), and more plaque enhancement (p = 0.002). The eccentricity and location of the plaque showed no significant difference between the two groups.Both SC-I and LS-I have similar HR-VWI findings of the MCA plaque, but SC-I had more frequent, larger plaques with greater T2-HSI and enhancement. This suggests that HR-VWI may have a promising role in assisting the differentiation of underlying pathophysiological mechanism between SC-I and LS-I

  16. Highly sensitive avoidance plays a key role in sensory adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ogino

    Full Text Available The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there. To examine the sensitivity of the vent-endemic worm Paralvinella hessleri to low pH and oxidative stress, we determined the concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide that induced avoidance behavior of this worm, and compared these concentrations to those obtained for related species inhabiting intertidal zones, Thelepus sp. The concentrations of the chemicals that induced avoidance behavior of P. hessleri were 10-100 times lower than those for Thelepus sp. To identify the receptors for these chemicals, chemical avoidance tests were performed with the addition of ruthenium red, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP channels. This treatment suppressed the chemical avoidance behavior of P. hessleri, which suggests that TRP channels are involved in the chemical avoidance behavior of this species. Our results revealed for the first time hypersensitive detection systems for acid and for oxidative stress in the vent-endemic worm P. hessleri, possibly mediated by TRP channels, suggesting that such sensory systems may have facilitated the adaptation of this organism to harsh vent environments.

  17. Differentiation of deep subcortical infarction using high-resolution vessel wall MR imaging of middle cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Sunwoo, Leonard; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) of middle cerebral artery (MCA), and to compare HR-VWI findings between striatocapsular infarction (SC-I) and lenticulostriate infarction (LS-I). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. From July 2009 to February 2012, 145 consecutive patients with deep subcortical infarctions (SC-I, n = 81; LS-I, n = 64) who underwent HR-VWI were included in this study. The degree of MCA stenosis and the characteristics of MCA plaque (presence, eccentricity, location, extent, T2-high signal intensity [T2-HSI], and plaque enhancement) were analyzed, and compared between SC-I and LS-I, using Fisher's exact test. Stenosis was more severe in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.040). MCA plaque was more frequent in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.028), having larger plaque extent (p = 0.001), more T2-HSI (p = 0.001), and more plaque enhancement (p = 0.002). The eccentricity and location of the plaque showed no significant difference between the two groups.Both SC-I and LS-I have similar HR-VWI findings of the MCA plaque, but SC-I had more frequent, larger plaques with greater T2-HSI and enhancement. This suggests that HR-VWI may have a promising role in assisting the differentiation of underlying pathophysiological mechanism between SC-I and LS-I.

  18. Dual-wavelength photo-Hall effect spectroscopy of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe with negative differential photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiienko, A.; Grill, R.; Moravec, P.; Korcsmáros, G.; Rejhon, M.; Pekárek, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Šedivý, L.; Vasylchenko, I.

    2018-04-01

    Photo-Hall effect spectroscopy was used in the study of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe. The monochromator excitation in the photon energy range 0.65-1.77 eV was complemented by a laser diode high-intensity excitation at selected photon energies. A single sample characterized by multiple unusual features like negative differential photoconductivity and anomalous depression of electron mobility was chosen for the detailed study involving measurements at both the steady and dynamic regimes. We revealed that the Hall mobility and photoconductivity can be both enhanced and suppressed by an additional illumination at certain photon energies. The anomalous mobility decrease was explained by an excitation of the inhomogeneously distributed deep level at the energy Ev + 1.0 eV, thus enhancing potential non-uniformities. The appearance of negative differential photoconductivity was interpreted by an intensified electron occupancy of that level by a direct valence band-to-level excitation. Modified Shockley-Read-Hall theory was used for fitting experimental results by a model comprising five deep levels. Properties of the deep levels and their impact on the device performance were deduced.

  19. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a ”standard,” UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge

  20. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  1. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  2. High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping at A Deep-Sea Methane Seep Field with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarke, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of research indicates that points of seafloor gas emission, known as cold-seeps, are a common feature along many continental margins. Results from recent exploration efforts show that benthic environments at cold-seeps are characterized by extensive authigenic carbonate crusts and complex chemosynthetic communities. The seafloor morphology and geophysical properties of these locations are heterogeneous and relatively complex due to the three-dimensional structure created by carbonate buildups and dense bivalve beds. Seeps are often found clustered and the spatial extent of associated seafloor crusts and beds can reach multiple square kilometers. Here, the results of a 1.25 km2 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) survey of a deep-sea methane seep field with 13 vents, at a nominal depth of 1400 m, located near Veatch Canyon on the US Atlantic margin are presented. Multibeam sonar, sidescan sonar, and a sub bottom profiler on the AUV were used to make high-resolution observations of seafloor bathymetry (resolution 1m2) as well as water column, seafloor, and subsurface acoustic backscatter intensity. Additionally, a downward oriented camera was used to collect seafloor imagery coincident with acoustic observations at select locations. Acoustic results indicated the location of discrete gas plumes as well as a continuous area of elevated seafloor roughness and backscatter intensity consistent with the presence of large scale authigenic rock outcrops and extensive mussel beds, which were visually confirmed with camera imagery. Additionally, a linear area of particularly elevated seafloor roughness and acoustic backscatter intensity that lies sub-parallel to an adjacent ridge was interpreted to be controlled by underlying geologic processes such as soft sediment faulting. Automated analysis of camera imagery and coincident acoustic backscatter and bathymetry data as well as derivative metrics (e.g. slope and rugosity) was used to segment and classify bed

  3. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  4. Study of the earth's deep interior and crystallography. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    History of the study of the Earth's deep interior was reviewed. In order to understand Earth's deep interior from the view point of materials science, X-ray diffraction under high pressure and high temperature played very important role. Use of synchrotron radiation dramatically advanced this experimental technique and it is now possible to make precise X-ray study under the P-T conditions corresponding even to the center of the Earth. In order to clarify the behavior of light elements such as hydrogen, however, studies using neutron diffraction are also required. A new neutron beam line dedicated for high-pressure science is constructed at J-PARC and is now ready for use. (author)

  5. On modelling of shear fracture in deep drawing of a high-strength dual-phase sheet steel

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bonk, C.; Peshekhodov, I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents application of fracture behaviour characterisation results of a dual-phase sheet steel DP600 to an FEA of its deep-drawing for shear fracture prediction. The characterisation results were obtained with the help of a characterisation method based on a tensile test on a novel butterfly specimen and published previously by the authors. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate that characterisation method on a deep-drawing process. Based on the previous results of the author...

  6. Analytical investigation of high temperature 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system feasibility in methane hydrate recovery and deep ocean power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) model was developed. • Hydrate bed methane dissociation model was integrated with the SOFC model. • SOFC operated steadily for 120 days at high pressure deep ocean environment. • Burning some of the dissociated gas for SMR heat leads to more net methane produced. • Higher SOFC fuel utilization produces higher integrated system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane hydrates are potential valuable energy resources. However, finding an efficient method for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments is still a challenge. New challenges arise from increasing environmental protection. This is due in part to the technical difficulties involved in the efficient dissociation of methane hydrates at high pressures. In this study, a new approach is proposed to produce valuable products of: 1. Net methane gas recovery from the methane hydrate sediment, and 2. Deep ocean power generation. We have taken the first steps toward utilization of a fuel cell system in methane gas recovery from deep ocean hydrate sediments. An integrated high pressure and high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) system is analyzed for this application and the recoverable amount of methane from deep ocean sediments is measured. System analysis is accomplished for two major cases regarding system performance: 1. Energy for SMR is provided by the burning part of the methane gas dissociated from the hydrate sediment. 2. Energy for SMR is provided through heat exchange with fuel cell effluent gases. We found that the total production of methane gas is higher in the first case compared to the second case. The net power generated by the fuel cell system is estimated for all cases. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of integrated electrochemical devices to accomplish energy efficient dissociation of methane hydrate gases in deep ocean sediments. Concepts for use of electrochemical devices

  7. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2006-05-01

    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development

  8. Deep Mutational Scans as a Guide to Engineering High Affinity T Cell Receptor Interactions with Peptide-bound Major Histocompatibility Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel T.; Wang, Ningyan; Riley, Timothy P.; Anderson, Scott D.; Singh, Nishant K.; Procko, Erik; Baker, Brian M.; Kranz, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are often engineered to have higher affinity for their ligands to achieve therapeutic benefit. For example, many studies have used phage or yeast display libraries of mutants within complementarity-determining regions to affinity mature antibodies and T cell receptors (TCRs). However, these approaches do not allow rapid assessment or evolution across the entire interface. By combining directed evolution with deep sequencing, it is now possible to generate sequence fitness landscapes that survey the impact of every amino acid substitution across the entire protein-protein interface. Here we used the results of deep mutational scans of a TCR-peptide-MHC interaction to guide mutational strategies. The approach yielded stable TCRs with affinity increases of >200-fold. The substitutions with the greatest enrichments based on the deep sequencing were validated to have higher affinity and could be combined to yield additional improvements. We also conducted in silico binding analyses for every substitution to compare them with the fitness landscape. Computational modeling did not effectively predict the impacts of mutations distal to the interface and did not account for yeast display results that depended on combinations of affinity and protein stability. However, computation accurately predicted affinity changes for mutations within or near the interface, highlighting the complementary strengths of computational modeling and yeast surface display coupled with deep mutational scanning for engineering high affinity TCRs. PMID:27681597

  9. Coordinated motility of cyanobacteria favor mat formation, photosynthesis and carbon burial in low-oxygen, high-sulfur shallow sinkholes of Lake Huron; whereas deep-water aphotic sinkholes are analogs of deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, B. A.; McMillan, A. C.; Long, S. A.; Snider, M. J.; Weinke, A. D.; Dick, G.; Ruberg, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial life in submerged sinkhole ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes is relatively understudied in comparison to seeps and vents of the deep-sea. We studied the filamentous benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes. Measured speed of individual filaments ranged from 50 µm minute-1 or 15 body lengths minute-1 to 215 µm minute-1 or 70 body lengths minute-1 - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon the mat in intact sediemnt cores were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling plankton debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats where life operates across sharp redox gradients. Analogous cyanobacterial motility in the shallow seas during Earth's early history, may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring carbon burial. We are now eagerly mapping and exploring life in deep-water aphotic sinkholes of

  10. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  11. Improvement in bronchodilation following deep inspiration after a course of high-dose oral prednisone in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, Annelies M.; Sont, Jacob K.; van Klink, Rik H. C. J.; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchodilation following deep inspiration is usually impaired in patients with asthma. This might be due to changes in airway mechanics in the presence of inflammation or structural changes within the airways. Although inhaled corticosteroid treatment has been shown to improve airway

  12. Measurement of high-Q2 deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Kooijman, P.

    2006-01-01

    The cross sections for charged and neutral current deep inelastic scattering in e+p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam have been measured using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 23.8 pb−1 at , are given for both

  13. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  14. Final deposition of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this

  15. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Measurement of high-Q2 charged current cross sections in e+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenberg, J.

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 . Single differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy have been measured for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 , as well as the double differential reduced cross section d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 in the kinematic range 280 GeV 2 2 2 and 0.008 - p charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to dσ/dQ 2 . (orig.)

  17. High-resolution AUV mapping and sampling of a deep hydrocarbon plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Thomas, H.; Rienecker, E.; Nelson, R.; Cummings, S.

    2010-12-01

    During NOAA cruise GU-10-02 on the Ship Gordon Gunter, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Dorado was deployed to map and sample a deep (900-1200 m) volume centered approximately seven nautical miles southwest of the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. Dorado was equipped to detect optical and chemical signals of hydrocarbons and to acquire targeted samples. The primary sensor reading used for hydrocarbon detection was colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence (CF). On June 2 and 3, ship cast and subsequent AUV surveys detected elevated CF in a layer between 1100 and 1200 m depth. While the deep volume was mapped in a series of parallel vertical sections, the AUV ran a peak-capture algorithm to target sample acquisition at layer signal peaks. Samples returned by ship CTD/CF rosette sampling and by AUV were preliminarily examined at sea, and they exhibited odor and fluorometric signal consistent with oil. More definitive and detailed results on these samples are forthcoming from shore-based laboratory analyses. During post-cruise analysis, all of the CF data were analyzed to objectively define and map the deep plume feature. Specifically, the maximum expected background CF over the depth range 1000-1200 m was extrapolated from a linear relationship between depth and maximum CF over the depth range 200 to 1000 m. Values exceeding the maximum expected background in the depth range 1000-1200 m were interpreted as signal from a hydrocarbon-enriched plume. Using this definition we examine relationships between CF and other AUV measurements within the plume, illustrate the three-dimensional structure of the plume boundary region that was mapped, describe small-scale layering on isopycnals, and examine short-term variations in plume depth, intensity and hydrographic relationships. Three-dimensional representation of part of a deep hydrocarbon plume mapped and sampled by AUV on June 2-3, 2010.

  18. A measurement of the nucleon structure function from muon-carbon deep inelastic scattering at high Q/sup 2/

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, D; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bozzo, M; Brun, R; Cvach, J; Dobrowolski, T; Fadeev, N G; Feltesse, J; Frabetti, P L; Gennow, H; Golutvin, I A; Goossens, M; Heiman, G; Jamnik, D; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisselev, V S; Klein, M; Kopp, R; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kukhtin, V V; Maillard, J; Malasoma, J M; Meyer-Berkhout, U; Milsztajn, A; Monari, L; Navach, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Piemontese, L; Pilcher, J E; Renardy, J F; Sacquin, Yu; Savin, I A; Schinzel, D; Smadja, G; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Teichert, K M; Tirler, R; Verrecchia, P; Vesztergombi, G; Virchaux, M; Volodko, A G; Voss, R; Zácek, J; Zupancic, Crtomir

    1981-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering cross sections have been measured with the CERN SPS muon beam at incident energies of 120 and 200 GeV. Approximately 10000 events at each energy used to obtain the structure function F/sub 2/(x, Q/sup 2/) in the kinematic region 0.3

  19. Highly Simple Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction of Manganese in Vegetable Samples Prior to Its ICP-OES Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Altundağ, Hüseyin; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, simple and sensitive extraction methods for selective determination of manganese have been successfully developed. The methods were based on solubilization of manganese in deep eutectic solvent medium. Three deep eutectic solvents with choline chloride (vitamin B4) and tartaric/oxalic/citric acids have been prepared. Extraction parameters were optimized with using standard reference material (1573a tomato leaves). The quantitative recovery values were obtained with 1.25 g/L sample to deep eutectic solvent (DES) volume, at 95 °C for 2 h. The limit of detection was found as 0.50, 0.34, and 1.23 μg/L for DES/tartaric, DES/oxalic, and DES/citric acid, respectively. At optimum conditions, the analytical signal was linear for the range of 10-3000 μg/L for all studied DESs with the correlation coefficient >0.99. The extraction methods were applied to different real samples such as basil herb, spinach, dill, and cucumber barks. The known amount of manganese was spiked to samples, and good recovery results were obtained.

  20. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. volume 7: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume contains a review of the laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments. In addition, it discusses the data selected for the radiological assessment, on the basis of both field and laboratory studies

  1. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 6: Deep-sea biology, biological processes and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Hargrave, B.T.; Roe, H.S.J.; Sibuet, M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the biological description of selected sites, the means by which radionuclides could result in human exposure via seafood pathways, and the doses likely to be received by, and effects on, the deep-sea fauna

  2. Deep sequencing of HPV E6/E7 genes reveals loss of genotypic diversity and gain of clonal dominance in high-grade intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen-Gunther, Jane; Wang, Yufeng; Lai, Zhao; Poage, Graham M; Perez, Luis; Huang, Tim H M

    2017-03-14

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the carcinogen of almost all invasive cervical cancer and a major cause of oral and other anogenital malignancies. HPV genotyping by dideoxy (Sanger) sequencing is currently the reference method of choice for clinical diagnostics. However, for samples with multiple HPV infections, genotype identification is singular and occasionally imprecise or indeterminable due to overlapping chromatograms. Our aim was to explore and compare HPV metagenomes in abnormal cervical cytology by deep sequencing for correlation with disease states. Low- and high-grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and HSIL) cytology samples were DNA extracted for PCR-amplification of the HPV E6/E7 genes. HPV+ samples were sequenced by dideoxy and deep methods. Deep sequencing revealed ~60% of all samples (n = 72) were multi-HPV infected. Among LSIL samples (n = 43), 27 different genotypes were found. The 3 dominant (most abundant) genotypes were: HPV-39, 11/43 (26%); -16, 9/43 (21%); and -35, 4/43 (9%). Among HSIL (n = 29), 17 HPV genotypes were identified; the 3 dominant genotypes were: HPV-16, 21/29 (72%); -35, 4/29 (14%); and -39, 3/29 (10%). Phylogenetically, type-specific E6/E7 genetic distances correlated with carcinogenic potential. Species diversity analysis between LSIL and HSIL revealed loss of HPV diversity and domination by HPV-16 in HSIL samples. Deep sequencing resolves HPV genotype composition within multi-infected cervical cytology. Biodiversity analysis reveals loss of diversity and gain of dominance by carcinogenic genotypes in high-grade cytology. Metagenomic profiles may therefore serve as a biomarker of disease severity and a population surveillance tool for emerging genotypes.

  3. A reconsideration on deep sea bed disposal of high level radiological wastes. A post-Fukushima reflection on sustainable nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a common issue among all nuclear developing countries. However, this becomes especially a hard issue for sustainable nuclear energy in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. In this paper, the difficulty of realizing underground HLW disposal in Japanese islands is first discussed from socio-political aspects. Then, revival of old idea of deep seabed disposal of HLW in Pacific Ocean is proposed as an alternative way of HLW disposal. Although this old idea had been abandoned in the past for the reason that it would violate London Convention which prohibits dumping radioactive wastes in public sea, the author will stress the merit of seabed disposal of HLW deep in Pacific Ocean not only from the view point of more safe and ultimate way of disposing HLWs (both vitrified and spent fuel) than by underground disposal, but also the emergence of new marine project by synergetic collaboration of rare-earth resource exploration from the deep sea floor in Pacific Ocean. (author)

  4. Deep subduction of Organic Carbon Related to Jurassic Ridge-Hydrothermal Biosphere; case study from the Besshi mine in the Sanbagawa high P/T rocks, in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.; Ando, Y.; Sano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In order to know the fate of an organic carbon in deep subduction zone, we have observed the Sanbagawa eclogite (Tonaru eclogite) accompanying cupper-iron sulfides (so called Besshi mine type Cu-Fe sulfides). The sulfides are considered as precipitates related to the Jurassic ridge-hydrothermal alteration. In the eclogite, Cu-Fe sulfides contain silicate with graphite along cracks. The rims of the sulfides are replaces as Fe-Cu oxides. It is considered that the graphites were on the sulfide and along the interstitial domain such as cracks then rim of the oxides were overgrown. The graphite crystallization temperature calibrated using laser Raman peak shift, is estimated lower than 300 oC. It is obviously lower than that of the metamorphic temperature of the eclogite 550-600 oC. It clearly suggests that graphite was probably from the micro-bacteria with Cu-Fe sulfides in the hydrothermal zone in the Mid-oceanic ridge system. It is well known that the Cu-Fe oxides were formed in high P/T Sanbagawa metamorphism. Therefore overgrowth of the oxides on the studied sulfide-graphite association were in deep subduction zone. In summary, the Jurassic ridge-hydrothermal alteration provides bacteria cluster, and subsequently the organic carbon would be recycled down deep in the mantle via subduction zone.

  5. Detection of deep-level defects and reduced carrier concentration in Mg-ion-implanted GaN before high-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Masamichi; Yokota, Naoshige; Uetake, Kei

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental results for the detection of deep-level defects in GaN after Mg ion implantation before high-temperature annealing. The n-type GaN samples were grown on GaN free-standing substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Mg ions were implanted at 50 keV with a small dosage of 1.5×1011 cm-2, which did not change the conduction type of the n-GaN. By depositing Al2O3 and a Ni/Au electrode onto the implanted n-GaN, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes were fabricated and tested. The measured capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics showed a particular behavior with a plateau region and a region with an anomalously steep slope. Fitting to the experimental C-V curves by simulation showed the existence of deep-level defects and a reduction of the carrier concentration near the GaN surface. By annealing at 800oC, the density of the deep-level defects was reduced and the carrier concentration partially recovered.

  6. Detection of deep-level defects and reduced carrier concentration in Mg-ion-implanted GaN before high-temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Akazawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental results for the detection of deep-level defects in GaN after Mg ion implantation before high-temperature annealing. The n-type GaN samples were grown on GaN free-standing substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Mg ions were implanted at 50 keV with a small dosage of 1.5×1011 cm-2, which did not change the conduction type of the n-GaN. By depositing Al2O3 and a Ni/Au electrode onto the implanted n-GaN, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS diodes were fabricated and tested. The measured capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics showed a particular behavior with a plateau region and a region with an anomalously steep slope. Fitting to the experimental C–V curves by simulation showed the existence of deep-level defects and a reduction of the carrier concentration near the GaN surface. By annealing at 800oC, the density of the deep-level defects was reduced and the carrier concentration partially recovered.

  7. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.; Katz, U.F.; Mari, S.M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, C.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Norman, D.J.P.; O'Mara, J.A.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, S.S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R.R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J.A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P.B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajac, J.; Kotanski, A.; Przybycien, M.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J.K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasinski, M.; Gilkinson, D.J.; Glasman, C.; Goettlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Koepke, L.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Loewe, M.; Lueke, D.; Manczak, O.; Ng, J.S.T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared Q 2 above 400GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 are presented. From the Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be M W =76±16±13 GeV

  8. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100

  9. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q{sup 2} deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100

  10. Single-mode pumped high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fiber taper for high-power deep-blue supercontinuum sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion control with axially nonuniform photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) permits supercontinuum (SC) generation into the deep-blue from an ytterbium pump laser. In this Letter, we exploit the full degrees of freedom afforded by PCFs to fabricate a fiber with longitudinally increasing air-fill fr...

  11. Construction of System for Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) - Development of Multi-depth, High-temperature/pressure resistance seismometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high quality system for seismic observation in deep boreholes, the installation process at the NIIT site, and the data sharing plan for this observation were explained. The key points of the development were high temperature resistance (150 degrees Celsius), high pressure resistance (30 MPa), and a high dynamic/wide frequency range seismometer which allows for observation of micro-tremor to strong motions as well as a cascade-connection-type borehole seismometer, which allows multiple probes to be set at several depths in a single borehole. The developed system consists of broadband (0.1-50 Hz) and high dynamic range (up to 1000 gal) seismometer with electronic parts on the ground and only the pendulum part in the borehole (it became a servo-type seismometer). Durability and maintenance may be issues in the future. (author)

  12. Optimization of structure parameters for highly efficient AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ramit Kumar; Chatterjee, Vijay; Singh, Sumitra; Islam, Sk Masiul; Pal, Suchandan

    2017-12-01

    The efficiency of any LEDs critically depends on its base structure. In this paper, we have reported the dependence of active layer structure on the performance of AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) having emission wavelength at 265 nm which is very crucial for DNA manipulation of most of the water borne harmful pathogens. Advanced device simulations have been performed for the deep UV-LEDs by using SiLENSE module of the SimuLED software tool. We have optimized the number of quantum well, quantum well thickness, aluminum content in electron blocking layer (EBL) and the aluminum content in the barrier region. We have observed that optimization of structural properties plays a crucial role in improving the internal quantum efficiency leading to improvement of overall efficiency of the LEDs. The internal quantum efficiency of the UVsbnd LED having an emission wavelength of 265 nm reaches up to 55% when the number of quantum well is fixed to five and each well has a thickness in the order of 1.8 nm with aluminum content as 95% and 62% in EBL and barrier region respectively.

  13. Roof Type Selection Based on Patch-Based Classification Using Deep Learning for High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, T.; Fraundorfer, F.; Azimi, S.; Marmanis, D.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-05-01

    3D building reconstruction from remote sensing image data from satellites is still an active research topic and very valuable for 3D city modelling. The roof model is the most important component to reconstruct the Level of Details 2 (LoD2) for a building in 3D modelling. While the general solution for roof modelling relies on the detailed cues (such as lines, corners and planes) extracted from a Digital Surface Model (DSM), the correct detection of the roof type and its modelling can fail due to low quality of the DSM generated by dense stereo matching. To reduce dependencies of roof modelling on DSMs, the pansharpened satellite images as a rich resource of information are used in addition. In this paper, two strategies are employed for roof type classification. In the first one, building roof types are classified in a state-of-the-art supervised pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) framework. In the second strategy, deep features from deep layers of different pre-trained CNN model are extracted and then an RBF kernel using SVM is employed to classify the building roof type. Based on roof complexity of the scene, a roof library including seven types of roofs is defined. A new semi-automatic method is proposed to generate training and test patches of each roof type in the library. Using the pre-trained CNN model does not only decrease the computation time for training significantly but also increases the classification accuracy.

  14. ROOF TYPE SELECTION BASED ON PATCH-BASED CLASSIFICATION USING DEEP LEARNING FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Partovi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D building reconstruction from remote sensing image data from satellites is still an active research topic and very valuable for 3D city modelling. The roof model is the most important component to reconstruct the Level of Details 2 (LoD2 for a building in 3D modelling. While the general solution for roof modelling relies on the detailed cues (such as lines, corners and planes extracted from a Digital Surface Model (DSM, the correct detection of the roof type and its modelling can fail due to low quality of the DSM generated by dense stereo matching. To reduce dependencies of roof modelling on DSMs, the pansharpened satellite images as a rich resource of information are used in addition. In this paper, two strategies are employed for roof type classification. In the first one, building roof types are classified in a state-of-the-art supervised pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN framework. In the second strategy, deep features from deep layers of different pre-trained CNN model are extracted and then an RBF kernel using SVM is employed to classify the building roof type. Based on roof complexity of the scene, a roof library including seven types of roofs is defined. A new semi-automatic method is proposed to generate training and test patches of each roof type in the library. Using the pre-trained CNN model does not only decrease the computation time for training significantly but also increases the classification accuracy.

  15. High-resolution deep sequencing reveals biodiversity, population structure, and persistence of HIV-1 quasispecies within host ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing provides the basis for analysis of biodiversity of taxonomically similar organisms in an environment. While extensively applied to microbiome studies, population genetics studies of viruses are limited. To define the scope of HIV-1 population biodiversity within infected individuals, a suite of phylogenetic and population genetic algorithms was applied to HIV-1 envelope hypervariable domain 3 (Env V3 within peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a group of perinatally HIV-1 subtype B infected, therapy-naïve children. Results Biodiversity of HIV-1 Env V3 quasispecies ranged from about 70 to 270 unique sequence clusters across individuals. Viral population structure was organized into a limited number of clusters that included the dominant variants combined with multiple clusters of low frequency variants. Next generation viral quasispecies evolved from low frequency variants at earlier time points through multiple non-synonymous changes in lineages within the evolutionary landscape. Minor V3 variants detected as long as four years after infection co-localized in phylogenetic reconstructions with early transmitting viruses or with subsequent plasma virus circulating two years later. Conclusions Deep sequencing defines HIV-1 population complexity and structure, reveals the ebb and flow of dominant and rare viral variants in the host ecosystem, and identifies an evolutionary record of low-frequency cell-associated viral V3 variants that persist for years. Bioinformatics pipeline developed for HIV-1 can be applied for biodiversity studies of virome populations in human, animal, or plant ecosystems.

  16. High resolution optical spectroscopy in isotopically-pure Si using radioactive isotopes: towards a re-evaluation of deep centres

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Deep centres in silicon have been studied in great detail over the last 50 years and much progress has been made in the understanding and control of impurities in this material. Much of this effort has been focussed on the problems of metallic impurities such as Fe, Ag, Cu and Au. These are impurities that diffuse quickly into the crystal and hamper device performance. Although the understanding of these impurity centres in Si is widely thought to be "solved" recent experiments with isotopically-pure Si are disproving long-held results and are opening up new perspectives on the constitutent nature of deep centres in Si. In particular, there is new evidence to show that the family of Cu, Ag and Au may all show essentially the same behaviour by forming a cluster of $\\textbf{any four atoms}$ of these elements. This has been established for Cu and Ag through the use of different stable isotopes in the preparation of samples, but the case of Au remains unproven since there is only one stable Au isotope. In this pr...

  17. High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Paula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel found in association with large faunal communities living in chemosynthetic environments at the bottom of the sea floor near the Azores Islands. Investigation of the exceptional physiological reactions that vent mussels have adopted in their habitat, including responses to environmental microbes, remains a difficult challenge for deep-sea biologists. In an attempt to reveal genes potentially involved in the deep-sea mussel innate immunity we carried out a high-throughput sequence analysis of freshly collected B. azoricus transcriptome using gills tissues as the primary source of immune transcripts given its strategic role in filtering the surrounding waterborne potentially infectious microorganisms. Additionally, a substantial EST data set was produced and from which a comprehensive collection of genes coding for putative proteins was organized in a dedicated database, "DeepSeaVent" the first deep-sea vent animal transcriptome database based on the 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results A normalized cDNA library from gills tissue was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 778,996 sequencing reads. Assembly of the high quality reads resulted in 75,407 contigs of which 3,071 were singletons. A total of 39,425 transcripts were conceptually translated into amino-sequences of which 22,023 matched known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 15,839 revealed conserved protein domains through InterPro functional classification and 9,584 were assigned with Gene Ontology terms. Queries conducted within the database enabled the identification of genes putatively involved in immune and inflammatory reactions which had not been previously evidenced in the vent mussel. Their physical counterpart was confirmed by semi-quantitative quantitative Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR and their RNA transcription level by quantitative PCR (q

  18. Unique low-molecular-weight lignin with high purity extracted from wood by deep eutectic solvents (DES): a source of lignin for valorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Ma, Ruoshui; Quintero, Melissa; Guo, Mond; Geleynse, Scott; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wolcott, Michael; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a new method of applying Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) for extracting lignin from woody biomass with high yield and high purity. DES mixtures prepared from Choline Chloride (ChCl) and four hydrogen-bond donors–acetic acid, lactic acid, levulinic acid and glycerol–were evaluated for treatment of hardwood (poplar) and softwood (D. fir). It was found that these DES treatments can selectively extract a significant amount of lignin from wood with high yields: 78% from poplar and 58% from D. fir. The extracted lignin has high purity (95%) with unique structural properties. We discover that DES can selectively cleave ether linkages in wood lignin and facilitate lignin removal from wood. The mechanism of DES cleavage of ether bonds between phenylpropane units was investigated. The results from this study demonstrate that DES is a promising solvent for wood delignification and the production of a new source of lignin with promising potential applications.

  19. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) - Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes Through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Function: Monitor global change and thunderstorm processes through observations of Earth's high-latitude lightning. This instrument will combine long-lived sampling of individual thunderstorms with long-term observations of lightning at high latitudes: How is global change affecting thunderstorm patterns; How do high-latitude thunderstorms differ from low-latitude? Why is the Gateway the optimal facility for this instrument / research: Expected DSG (Deep Space Gateway) orbits will provide nearly continuous viewing of the Earth's high latitudes (50 degrees latitude and poleward); These regions are not well covered by existing lightning mappers (e.g., Lightning Imaging Sensor / LIS, or Geostationary Lightning Mapper / GLM); Polar, Molniya, Tundra, etc. Earth orbits have significant drawbacks related to continuous coverage and/or stable FOVs (Fields of View).

  20. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    drying, but no change in mineral soil carbon pools attributable to changing precipitation. Measured changes in nitrogen and other element pools suggested that long term immobilization of elements with chronic drying would lead to reduced growth, but that deep rooting access to the key base cations would moderate such effects by providing a source of minerals to be cycled in near surface soils. Cumulative changes in canopy foliar production were evident over time showing sustained or even increased production with chronic drying. This unexpected response is hypothesized to result from the retention of nutrients in highly-rooted surface horizons made available for plant uptake during spring mineralization.

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  2. Measurement of Inclusive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at High Q$^{2}$ and Determination of the Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q^2>150 GeV^2 with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q^2 and of the transverse energy E_T of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of alpha_s(M_Z) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1193+/-0.0014(exp.)^{+0.0047}_{-0.0030}(th.)+/-0.0016(pdf).

  3. High risk of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis but not of stroke in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Obel, Niels; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with GPA at a Danish tertiary care center during 1993-2011 were identified (n = 180). Each patient was matched...... with 19 population controls (n = 3,420). Information on hospitalizations for stroke, PE, and DVT was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register. The occurrence of vascular events in the GPA cohort was compared with that in the control group by calculation of incidence rate ratios (IRRs). RESULTS......: The median duration of followup was 7.2 years (interquartile range 3.1-11.7 years) in the GPA cohort. Within the first 2 years following the diagnosis of vasculitis, the incidences of PE and DVT were substantially increased among the patients (IRR 25.7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.9-96] for PE and IRR...

  4. Highly efficient and simplified phosphorescence white organic light-emitting diodes based on synthesized deep-blue host and orange emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja Ryong; Lee, Seok Jae; Hyung, Gun Woo; Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Dong Hyung [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kum Hee [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The authors have demonstrated a highly efficient and stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED), which has been achieved by doping only one orange phosphorescent emitter, Bis(5-benzoyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridinato-C,N)iridium(III) acetylacetonate into an appropriate deep blue phosphorescent host, 4,4'-bis(4-(triphenylsilyl)phenyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl as an emitting layer (EML). The WOLED has been achieved by effective confinement of triplet excitons to emit a warm white color. The optimized WOLED, with a simple structure as a hole transporting layer-EML-electron transporting layer, showed a maximum luminous efficiency of 22.38 cd/A, a maximum power efficiency of 12.01 lm/W, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.32%, and CIEx,y coordinates of (0.38,0.42) at 500 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. - Highlights: • Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) • Single emitting layer consists of synthesized deep blue host and orange emitter • The WOLED with high EL efficiencies due to efficient triplet exciton confinement.

  5. D-dimer is not elevated in asymptomatic high altitude climbers after descent to 5340 m: the Mount Everest Deep Venous Thrombosis Study (Ev-DVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafren, Ken; Feldman, Joanne; Becker, Robert J; Williams, Sarah R; Weiss, Eric A; Deloughery, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the prevalence of elevated D-dimer, a marker for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), in asymptomatic high altitude climbers. On-site personnel enrolled a convenience sample of climbers at Mt. Everest Base Camp (Nepal), elevation 5340 m (17,500 ft), during a single spring climbing season. Subjects were enrolled after descent to base camp from higher elevation. The subjects completed a questionnaire to evaluate their risk factors for DVT. We then performed a D-dimer test in asymptomatic individuals. If the D-dimer test was negative, DVT was considered ruled out. Ultrasound was available to perform lower-extremity compression ultrasounds to evaluate for DVT in case the D-dimer was positive. We enrolled 76 high altitude climbers. None had a positive D-dimer test. The absence of positive D-dimer tests suggests a low prevalence of DVT in asymptomatic high altitude climbers.

  6. Le rôle majeur du canal potassique TREK-1 dans la protection neuronale induite par les oméga-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heurteaux Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional interest of polyunsaturated fatty acids from omega-3, that are mainly present in vegetal and fish oils is now validated by the scientific community. Their beneficial effects have first been reported in coronary heart diseases. Many neurological and chronic diseases are often related to deficiencies in omega-3 and omega-6 and their derivatives. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from omega-3 family are essential to brain growth and neuronal preserving (foetuses, children, old people as well as visual and cognitive functions. They are recently considered as factors of improvement in some mental diseases. Today, polyunsaturated fatty acids could play a key role in the prevention and/or or the treatment of cerebral diseases. With the development of in vitro and in vivo experimental models, it is now possible to demonstrate the omega-3-induced neuronal protection against major pathologies such as epileptic seizures and cerebral ischemia. The molecular mechanism of neuronal protection induced by omega-3 is now clarified. The omega-3 target would be a potassium channel, TREK-1, which belongs to the new family of 2-P domain potassium channels (K-2P. The discovery of the physiopathological role of these K-2P channels can represent an important therapeutical challenge not only in cerebrovascular diseases, but also in psychiatry.

  7. Precise Measurement of Γ (K+ ->e+ ν) / Γ (K+ ->μ+ ν) and Search for New Physics by the TREK-E36 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tongtong

    2017-09-01

    The J-PARC TREK-E36 experiment will provide a precise measurement of the ratio of decay widths RK = Γ (K+ ->e+ ν) / Γ (K+ ->μ+ ν) to test lepton universality. RK is very precisely predicted by the Standard Model (SM) with the uncertainty of 4 ×10-4 and a deviation from the prediction would very clearly indicate the existence of New Physics beyond the SM. Additionally, the experiment intends to search for visible decay modes of A' ->e+e- in K+ decays. The existence of an A ' is well motivated by dark matter observations and gμ-2 anomaly, as well as the proton radius puzzle. In the E36 experiment, a K+ beam was stopped by a scintillating fiber target, and charged decay products were momentum analyzed and tracked by a 12-sector superconducting toroidal magnet spectrometer and multi-wire proportional chambers combined with a photon calorimeter with a large solid angle (75% of 4 π) and 3 different particle identification systems. In this talk, the status of the data analysis is presented. This work has been supported by the U.S. DOE Award DE-SC0013941.

  8. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  9. Application of a vanishing, quasi-sigma, vertical coordinate for simulation of high-speed, deep currents over the Sigsbee Escarpment in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; Morey, Steven L.; Martin, Paul J.; O'Brien, James J.; Cooper, Cortis

    Recent observations over the Sigsbee Escarpment in the Gulf of Mexico have revealed extremely energetic deep currents (near 1 m s -1), which are trapped along the escarpment. Both scientific interest and engineering needs demand dynamical understanding of these extreme events, and can benefit from a numerical model designed to complement observational and theoretical investigations in this region of complicated topography. The primary objective of this study is to develop a modeling methodology capable of simulating these physical processes and apply the model to the Sigsbee Escarpment region. The very steep slope of the Sigsbee Escarpment (0.05-0.1) limits the application of ocean models with traditional terrain-following (sigma) vertical coordinates, which may represent the very complicated topography in the region adequately, can result in large truncation errors during calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient. A new vertical coordinate system, termed a vanishing quasi-sigma coordinate, is implemented in the Navy Coastal Ocean Model for application to the Sigsbee Escarpment region. Vertical coordinate surfaces for this grid have noticeably gentler slopes than a traditional sigma grid, while still following the terrain near the ocean bottom. The new vertical grid is tested with a suite of numerical experiments and compared to a classical sigma-layer model. The numerical error is substantially reduced in the model with the new vertical grid. A one-year, realistic, numerical simulation is performed to simulate strong, deep currents over the Escarpment using a very-high-resolution nested modeling approach. The model results are analyzed to demonstrate that the deep-ocean currents in the simulation replicate the prominent dynamical features of the observed intense currents in the region.

  10. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  11. Microbial Diversity Associated with High Temperature Sulfide Deposits Along the East Pacific Rise Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Hoek, J.; Banta, A. B.; von Damm, K.; Reysenbach, A.

    2002-12-01

    In January 2002, hydrothermal chimneys were collected using DSV Alvin from active vents from 9° 17N to 9° 50N and 20° 49N to 20° 50N. Hydrothermal fluids were collected for end member chemistry prior to collecting the sulfide deposits. Chimney samples were sub-sectioned, separating surface and associated biofilm samples from inner chimney samples. Microbial diversity of sub-samples was assessed using culture-dependent and culturing-independent small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA-based techniques. Initial bacterial diversity assessments using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) support the global prevalence of epsilon Proteobacteria associated with deep-sea sulfide structures. These are closely related to the sulfur-reducing isolate Nautilia lithotrophica. The biofilm communities varied in complexity with one sample containing several 16S rRNA sequences (phylotypes, OTU's) of alpha, epsilon, and gamma Proteobacteria while others contained a single phylotype of epsilon Proteobacteria. One proteobacterial phylotype was present in all but one of the surface samples, and this sample contained unique alpha and epsilon proteobacterial sequences. The inner chimney samples lacked the most common epsilon proteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences. Enrichment culturing was restricted to selecting for thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing Bacteria. The widespread distribution of Persephonella spp. was confirmed, and novel enrichments of a sheathed and as yet unidentified chemolithotroph were obtained.

  12. Inclusive deep inelastic scattering at high Q{sup 2} with longitudinally polarised lepton beams at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    Inclusive e{sup {+-}}p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=319 GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 333.7 pb{sup -1} shared between two lepton beam charges and two longitudinal lepton polarisation modes. The differential cross sections are measured in the range of negative four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, between 60 and 50000 GeV{sup 2}, and Bjorken x between 0.0008 and 0.65. The measurements are combined with earlier published unpolarised H1 data to improve statistical precision and used to determine the structure function xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3}. A measurement of the neutral current parity violating structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 2} is presented for the first time. The polarisation dependence of the charged current total cross section is also measured. The new measurements are well described by a next-to-leading order QCD fit based on all published H1 inclusive cross section data which are used to extract the parton distribution functions of the proton.

  13. The pressure is all in your head: A cilia-driven high-pressure pump in the head of a deep-sea animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Katija, Kakani; Shelley, Michael; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Motile cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures on the cell surface that can sense and propel the extracellular fluid environment. In many ciliated systems found in nature, such as the mammalian airways and marine sponges, the organization and collective behavior of the cilia favors the pumping of fluids at low pressures and high volumes. We recently discovered an alternate design located in the head of a deep-sea animal called Larvacean. Here, cilia morphology, kinematics and flow indicate a role in maintaining the hydrostatic skeleton of the animal by generating a high-pressure flow. We describe our empirical and computational approaches toward understanding the design principles and dynamic range of this newly discovered pumping mechanism. In ongoing work, we further explore the fluid dynamic constraints on the morphological diversity of cilia and the resulting categories of fluid transport functions.

  14. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jianchang

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we report the growth of high-quality AlN film using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Three layers of middle-temperature (MT) AlN were introduced during the high-temperature (HT) AlN growth. During the MT-AlN layer growth, aluminum and nitrogen sources were closed for 6 seconds after every 5-nm MT-AlN, while H2 carrier gas was always on. The threading dislocation density in an AlN epi-layer on a sapphire substrate was reduced by almost half. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes were further fabricated based on the AlN/sapphire template. At 20 mA driving current, the emitted peak wavelength is 284.5 nm and the light output power exceeds 3 mW.

  15. Effects of two different high-fidelity DNA polymerases on genetic analysis of the cyanobacterial community structure in a subtropical deep freshwater reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen, Zhuo; Liu, Jingwen; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2017-01-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate the community structure and diversity of microalgae has largely replaced the previous morphological methods that were routinely carried out by microscopy. Different DNA polymerases can lead to bias in PCR amplification and affect the downstream community...... and diversity analysis. In this study, two clone libraries were constructed with two different DNA polymerases, Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase and exTaq polymerase, to compare the differences in their capability to accurately reflect the cyanobacterial community structure and diversity in a subtropical deep......-fidelity DNA polymerase. It is noteworthy that so far Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase was the first time to be employed in the genetic analysis of cyanobacterial community. And it is for the first time that the cyanobacterial community structure in Dongzhen reservoir was analyzed using molecular methods...

  16. Enhancing the Adaptability of the Deep-Sea Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to High Pressure and Low Temperature by Experimental Evolution under H2O2Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhe; Jian, Huahua; Jin, Zheng; Xiao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT. In this study, using the wild-type (WT) strain of a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with an enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H 2 O 2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited better tolerance not only to H 2 O 2 stress but also to HHP and LT (20 MPa and 4°C, respectively). Whole-genome sequencing identified a deletion mutation in the oxyR gene, which encodes the transcription factor that controls the oxidative stress response. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the genes associated with oxidative stress defense, anaerobic respiration, DNA repair, and the synthesis of flagella and bacteriophage were differentially expressed in OE100 compared with the WT at 20 MPa and 4°C. Genetic analysis of oxyR and ccpA2 indicated that the OxyR-regulated cytochrome c peroxidase CcpA2 significantly contributed to the adaptation of WP3 to HHP and LT. Taken together, these results confirmed the inherent relationship between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of a benthic microorganism to HHP and LT. IMPORTANCE Oxidative stress exists in various niches, including the deep-sea ecosystem, which is an extreme environment with conditions of HHP and predominantly LT. Although previous studies have shown that HHP and LT induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT is lacking. In this work, using the deep-sea bacterium

  17. High-redshift AGN in the Chandra Deep Fields: the obscured fraction and space density of the sub-L* population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Yang, G.; Gilli, R.; Luo, B.; Vignali, C.; Xue, Y. Q.; Comastri, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Liu, T.; Paolillo, M.; Ranalli, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Volonteri, M.; Wang, J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the population of high-redshift (3 ≤ z active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected in the two deepest X-ray surveys, the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South and 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North. Their outstanding sensitivity and spectral characterization of faint sources allow us to focus on the sub-L* regime (logLX ≲ 44), poorly sampled by previous works using shallower data, and the obscured population. Taking fully into account the individual photometric-redshift probability distribution functions, the final sample consists of ≈102 X-ray-selected AGN at 3 ≤ z 23 is ∼0.6-0.8, once incompleteness effects are taken into account, with no strong dependence on redshift or luminosity. We derived the high-redshift AGN number counts down to F0.5-2 keV = 7 × 10-18 erg cm-2 s-1, extending previous results to fainter fluxes, especially at z > 4. We put the tightest constraints to date on the low-luminosity end of AGN luminosity function at high redshift. The space density, in particular, declines at z > 3 at all luminosities, with only a marginally steeper slope for low-luminosity AGN. By comparing the evolution of the AGN and galaxy densities, we suggest that such a decline at high luminosities is mainly driven by the underlying galaxy population, while at low luminosities there are hints of an intrinsic evolution of the parameters driving nuclear activity. Also, the black hole accretion rate density and star formation rate density, which are usually found to evolve similarly at z ≲ 3, appear to diverge at higher redshifts.

  18. Hydrologic functioning of the deep Critical Zone and contributions to streamflow in a high elevation catchment: testing of multiple conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Eastoe, C. J.; Minor, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    The composition of natural mountainous waters maintains important control over the water quality available to downstream users. Furthermore, the geochemical constituents of stream water in the mountainous catchments represent the result of the spatial and temporal evolution of critical zone structure and processes. A key problem is that high elevation catchments involve rugged terrain and are subject to extreme climate and landscape gradients; therefore, high density or high spatial resolution hydro-geochemical observations are rare. Despite such difficulties, the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (SCM-CZO), Tucson, AZ, generates long-term hydrogeochemical data for understanding not only hydrological processes and their seasonal characters, but also the geochemical impacts of such processes on streamflow chemical composition. Using existing instrumentation and hydrogeochemical observations from the last 9+ years (2009 through 2016 and an initial part of 2017), we employed a multi-tracer approach along with principal component analysis to identify water sources and their seasonal character. We used our results to inform hydrological process understanding (flow paths, residence times, and water sources) for our study site. Our results indicate that soil water is the largest contributor to streamflow, which is ephemeral in nature. Although a 3-dimensional mixing space involving precipitation, soil water, interflow, and deep groundwater end-members could explain most of the streamflow chemistry, geochemical complexity was observed to grow with catchment storage. In terms of processes and their seasonal character, we found soil water and interflow were the primary end-member contributors to streamflow in all seasons. Deep groundwater only contributes to streamflow at high catchment storage conditions, but it provides major ions such as Na, Mg, and Ca that are lacking in other water types. In this way, our results indicate that any future efforts aimed

  19. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  20. Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy...

  1. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.; Edwards, C.; Fortune, W.P.; Lewis, R.J.; Reba, R.C. (George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients.

  2. Anti-diabetic effect of balanced deep-sea water and its mode of action in high-fat diet induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Shin, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Eun; Shon, Yun Hee

    2013-10-29

    In this study, we investigated the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water to give a final hardness of 500-2000. Mice given an HFD with BDSW showed lowered fasting plasma glucose levels compared to HFD-fed mice. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW recovers the size of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and increases the secretion of insulin and glucagon in HFD-fed mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in glucogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation were suppressed, while those in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in mice fed HFD with BDSW. BDSW increased AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 pre- and mature adipocytes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles and livers of HFD-induced diabetic mice. BDSW stimulated phosphoinositol-3-kinase and AMPK pathway-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-diabetic agent, given its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by increasing glucose uptake.

  3. Effects of balanced deep-sea water on adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis in high-fat, diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Eun Ji; Shon, Yun Hee

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or HFD with or without BDSW with different hardness (500, 1000, or 2000) for 20 weeks. BDSW suppressed body weight gain in HFD-fed mice. Histopathologic assays of the fat and liver revealed that BDSW inhibited the increase in adipocyte size and improved severe liver steatosis in HFD-fed mice. BDSW suppressed the expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, lipolytic, and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and increased the expression of adipokines and β-oxidation genes in fat. In the liver, BDSW suppressed the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, and increased the expression of genes related to β-oxidation. Furthermore, BDSW improved the impaired phosphorylation of IRS-1, LKB1, AMPK, and mTOR in fat and liver tissues of HFD-fed mice. These results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-lipidemic agent, given its ability to suppress body weight gain and liver steatosis through the regulation of lipid metabolism by signal molecule activation. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Development of a High Performance, Low Profile Translation Table with Wire Feedthrough for a Deep Space CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NEAScout, a 6U cubesat and secondary payload on NASA's EM-1, will use an 85 sq m solar sail to travel to a near-earth asteroid at about 1 Astronomical Unit (about 1.5 x 10(exp 8) km) for observation and reconnaissance1. A combination of reaction wheels, reaction control system, and a slow rotisserie roll about the solar sail's normal axis were expected to handle attitude control and adjust for imperfections in the deployed sail during the 2.5-year mission. As the design for NEAScout matured, one of the critical design parameters, the offset in the center of mass and center of pressure (CP/CM offset), proved to be sub-optimal. After significant mission and control analysis, the CP/CM offset was accommodated by the addition of a new subsystem to NEAScout. This system, called the Active Mass Translator (AMT), would reside near the geometric center of NEAScout and adjust the CM by moving one portion of the flight system relative to the other. The AMT was given limited design space - 17 mm of the vehicle's assembly height-and was required to generate +/-8 cm by +/-2 cm translation to sub-millimeter accuracy. Furthermore, the design must accommodate a large wire bundle of small gage, single strand wire and coax cables fed through the center of the mechanism. The bend radius, bend resistance, and the exposure to deep space environment complicates the AMT design and operation and necessitated a unique design to mitigate risks of wire bundle damage, binding, and cold-welding during operation. This paper will outline the design constraints for the AMT, discuss the methods and reasoning for design, and identify the lessons learned through the designing, breadboarding and testing for the low-profile translation stages with wire feedthrough capability.

  5. High-Performance solar-blind flexible Deep-UV photodetectors based on quantum dots synthesized by femtosecond-laser ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Somak

    2018-03-31

    High-performance deep ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors operating at ambient conditions with < 280nm detection wavelengths are in high demand because of their potential applications in diverse fields. We demonstrate for the first time, high-performance flexible DUV photodetectors operating at ambient conditions based on quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by femtosecond-laser ablation in liquid (FLAL) technique. Our method is facile without complex chemical procedures, which allows large-scale cost-effective devices. This synthesis method is demonstrated to produce highly stable and reproducible ZnO QDs from zinc nitride target (Zn3N2) without any material degradation due to water and oxygen molecule species, allowing photodetectors operate at ambient conditions. Carbon-doped ZnO QD-based photodetector is capable of detecting efficiently in the DUV spectral region, down to 224nm, and exhibits high photo responsivity and stability. As fast response of DUV photodetector remains significant parameter for high-speed communication; we show fast-response QD-based DUV photodetector. Such surfactant-free synthesis by FLAL can lead to commercially available high-performance low-cost optoelectronic devices based on nanostructures for large scale applications.

  6. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, P; Heine, E; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art.

  7. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, P; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art

  8. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    the possible thermal side-effects of the excitation light moderate. These key results facilitate means to break through the general shallow depth limit of upconverting-nanoparticle-based fluorescence techniques, necessary for a range of biomedical applications, including diffuse optical imaging, photodynamic......We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...

  9. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  10. High-resolution δ13C record of fossil wood and bulk organic matter from a deep Oligocene lacustrine succession, Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, M.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Fyhn, M. B. W.; Korte, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution stable isotope record based on bulk organic matter (δ13Corg) and fossil wood (δ13Cwood) originating from Oligocene deep lacustrine sediments cored on the Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam. The sediments are exceptionally well preserved. They are thus excellently suited for a detailed stratigraphical analysis of the stable isotope record and as proxy for environmental and climatic changes within this period. The sediments were deposited in rapid subsiding, narrow and elongated fault-bound graben (Fyhn and Phach, 2015) and are represented by deep pelagic lacustrine organic-rich mud interrupted by numerous density-flow deposits (Hovikoski et al., 2016). The density-flow deposits contain abundant fragments of fossil wood. Therefore it was possible to obtain 262 coalified wood fragments together with 1063 bulk organic samples throughout the span of the core. This allowed to establish a high resolution stable C isotope record (δ13Corg and δ13Cwood). In addition 2464 handheld XRF determinations were carried out to further characterize the depositional environment (Rizzi et al., 2017). The organic carbon isotope trend from the 500 m core succession provides insight into the palaeoenvironmental changes of the lake during the Oligocene. Both, global and local factors control the δ13C variations. The aim of the study is to obtain pure global δ13Corg and δ13Cwood signals that would allow comparison of the studied sediments with coeval syn-rift successions in the South China Sea region and other parts of the world. [1] Fyhn and Phach (2015) Tectonics, 34(2): 290-312. [2] Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007. [3] Rizzi et al. (2017) EGU General Assembly Abstract EGU 2017-17584.

  11. Microbial plankton assemblages, composition and biomass, during two ice-free periods in a deep high mountain lake (Estany Redó, Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana HALAC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton composition and biomass were monitored for two ice-free periods in a deep oligotrophic high-mountain lake (Redó, Pyrenees. Phytoplankton dominated microbial biomass, while the relationship between total water-column-integrated autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 (an average of 4.4. Heterotrophic biomass was dominated by bacteria (an average of 47 %, but heterotrophic nanoflagellates and, to a lesser degree, ciliates occasionally constituted a sizeable proportion. In general, the microbial biomass ratios were 10:2:2:1 for PHY:BAC:HNF:CIL. About one hundred eukaryotic species were found, although most of them in low abundance and frequency. Phytoplankton biomass was dominated by flagellated chrysophytes and dinoflagellates (an average of 40 and 32% respectively; occasionally cryptophytes (in deep layers and chlorococcal chlorophytes (during the autumn mixing period were also significant. In the two years sampled, the maximum phytoplankton diversity was observed during the autumn mixing period. Heterotrophic flagellate biomass was dominated by chrysophytes (78% on average, but sporadically a non-identified species reached high abundances. Oligotrichs, (an average of 43% of total ciliate biomass dominated the ciliate community, still other groups (gymnostomatida and prostomatida were also significant. Bacteria biomass was largely homogeneous throughout the two periods, but size segregation was observed especially when the lake was stratified, with larger bacteria appearing in the upper layers. The highest planktonic microbial biomass occurred during the mixing periods, mainly during spring. But no clear relationships were found between the temporal distribution of bacteria, phytoplankton, heterotrophic flagellate and ciliate biomass.

  12. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  13. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...

  14. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is evalu......Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage...

  15. Deep learning applications in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    To describe the emerging applications of deep learning in ophthalmology. Recent studies have shown that various deep learning models are capable of detecting and diagnosing various diseases afflicting the posterior segment of the eye with high accuracy. Most of the initial studies have centered around detection of referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Deep learning has shown promising results in automated image analysis of fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images. Additional testing and research is required to clinically validate this technology.

  16. Distributed Deep Q-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hao Yi; Chavez, Kevin; Hong, Augustus

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed deep learning model to successfully learn control policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement learning. The model is based on the deep Q-network, a convolutional neural network trained with a variant of Q-learning. Its input is raw pixels and its output is a value function estimating future rewards from taking an action given a system state. To distribute the deep Q-network training, we adapt the DistBelief software framework to the conte...

  17. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  18. High-resolution of particle contacts via fluorophore exclusion in deep-imaging of jammed colloidal packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeyune-Nyombi, Eru; Morone, Flaviano; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Makse, Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structural properties of random packings of jammed colloids requires an unprecedented high-resolution determination of the contact network providing mechanical stability to the packing. Here, we address the determination of the contact network by a novel strategy based on fluorophore signal exclusion of quantum dot nanoparticles from the contact points. We use fluorescence labeling schemes on particles inspired by biology and biointerface science in conjunction with fluorophore exclusion at the contact region. The method provides high-resolution contact network data that allows us to measure structural properties of the colloidal packing near marginal stability. We determine scaling laws of force distributions, soft modes, correlation functions, coordination number and free volume that define the universality class of jammed colloidal packings and can be compared with theoretical predictions. The contact detection method opens up further experimental testing at the interface of jamming and glass physics.

  19. Modeling of deep buried structures in high-power devices based on proton beam induced charge microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmeck, M.; Balk, L.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.; Phang, J.; Khambadkone, A.; Niedernostheide, F.-J.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the possible application of ion beam induced charge (IBIC)-microscopy for the analysis of the electrical field distributions within the depletion regions of high-power devices is discussed. The application of a reverse bias voltage allows one to obtain information about the field distribution within the device under working conditions from IBIC measurements. Such data are useful in the design process of high-power devices because excessive fields within protection elements (e.g. field ring structures) can be avoided. Charge collection spectra taken under reverse voltages of more than 1 kV are discussed. The results have been compared with simulations of the IBIC-processes using the code MEDICI

  20. Shallow food for deep divers: Dynamic foraging behavior of male sperm whales in a high latitude habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teloni, Valeria; Johnson, M.P.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of female and immature sperm whales live at low latitudes and show a stereotypical diving and foraging behavior with dives lasting about 45 min to depths of between 400 and 1200 m. In comparison, physically mature male sperm whales migrate to high latitudes where little is known about...... epipelagic prey, is consistent with the hypothesis that male sperm whales may migrate to high latitudes to access a productive, multi-layered foraging habitat....... their foraging behavior and ecology. Here we use acoustic recording tags to study the diving and acoustic behavior of male sperm whales foraging off northern Norway. Sixty-five hours of tag data provide detailed information about the movements and sound repertoire of four male sperm whales performing 83 dives...

  1. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A.; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum—the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far. PMID:25991688

  2. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum-the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  4. Theoretical and experimental fundamentals of designing promising technological equipment to improve efficiency and environmental safety of highly viscous oil recovery from deep oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyev, V. A.; Nazarov, V. P.; Zhuravlev, V. Y.; Zhuykov, D. A.; Kubrikov, M. V.; Klokotov, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new technological equipment for the implementation of highly effective methods of recovering highly viscous oil from deep reservoirs is an important scientific and technical challenge. Thermal recovery methods are promising approaches to solving the problem. It is necessary to carry out theoretical and experimental research aimed at developing oil-well tubing (OWT) with composite heatinsulating coatings on the basis of basalt and glass fibers. We used the method of finite element analysis in Nastran software, which implements complex scientific and engineering calculations, including the calculation of the stress-strain state of mechanical systems, the solution of problems of heat transfer, the study of nonlinear static, the dynamic transient analysis of frequency characteristics, etc. As a result, we obtained a mathematical model of thermal conductivity which describes the steady-state temperature and changes in the fibrous highly porous material with the heat loss by Stefan-Boltzmann's radiation. It has been performed for the first time using the method of computer modeling in Nastran software environments. The results give grounds for further implementation of the real design of the OWT when implementing thermal methods for increasing the rates of oil production and mitigating environmental impacts.

  5. A high-pressure thermal gradient block for investigating microbial activity in multiple deep-sea samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH

    2003-01-01

    Details about the construction and use of a high-pressure thermal gradient block for the simultaneous incubation of multiple samples are presented. Most parts used are moderately priced off-the-shelf components that easily obtainable. In order to keep the pressure independent of thermal expansion...... range of temperatures and pressures and can easily be modified to accommodate different experiments, either biological or chemical. As an application, we present measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction rates in hydrothermal sediments from Guyamas Basin over a wide range of temperatures and pressures...

  6. Reservoir formation mechanism analysis and deep high-quality reservoir prediction in Yingcheng Formation in Longfengshan area of Songliao Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial gas flow was produced in several wells with recent years' exploration of Longfengshan area in Changling fault sag, the formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs still remained undefined. Here, the Yingcheng tight gas reservoirs of Longfengshan area are used as an example to characterize high-quality reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules. Based on the thin section, SEM, X-ray diffraction, computed tomography (CT scanning, burial history, constant-rate mercury penetration and physical properties testing, formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs were analyzed. Results show the following characteristics. First, the reservoir is dominated by chlorite and laumontite cements, and compaction is the most important factor to control reservoir physical properties. According to this, the reservoir can be divided into compacted tight sandstones, chlorite-cemented sandstones and laumontite-cemented sandstones. Second, the high-quality reservoirs are formed due to early extensive laumontite precipitation and the later dissolution of laumontite by organic acid. Meanwhile, it is found that the distribution of cementation and dissolution exhibits some regulations in sedimentary facies, and the distribution is mainly effected and controlled by the lake water and charging of fresh water. Besides, the distribution model of various types of sandstones was established. Studies over diagenesis and sedimentary facies reveal that the high-quality laumontite-cemented sandstones exist in the outside subaqueous fan-delta of the deep sag in Longfengshan area. These findings have been validated by recent exploration wells which obtained high industrial gas flow.

  7. Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Besmann, Theodore M.; Collins, Emory D.; Bell, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    The DB Program monthly highlights report for August 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/184, was distributed to program participants by email on September 17. This report discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis - (a) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Prismatic Design (Logos), (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Microfuel analysis for the DB HTR (INL, GA, Logos); (2) Spent Fuel Management - (a) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) repository behavior (UNLV), (b) Repository performance of TRISO fuel (UCB); (3) Fuel Cycle Integration of the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) - Synergy with other reactor fuel cycles (GA, Logos); (4) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR Fuel Qualification - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (5) HTR Spent Fuel Recycle - (a) TRU Kernel Development (ORNL), (b) Coating Development (ORNL), (c) Characterization Development and Support, (d) ZrC Properties and Handbook; and (6) HTR Fuel Recycle - (a) Graphite Recycle (ORNL), (b) Aqueous Reprocessing, (c) Pyrochemical Reprocessing METROX (metal recovery from oxide fuel) Process Development (ANL).

  8. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  9. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, K; Caklová, P; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J

    2013-02-01

    Phylogeny reconstruction based on multiple unlinked markers is often hampered by incongruent gene trees, especially in closely related species complexes with high degrees of hybridization and polyploidy. To investigate the particular strengths and limitations of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), low-copy nuclear and multicopy nuclear markers for elucidating the evolutionary history of such groups, we focus on Hieracium s.str., a predominantly apomictic genus combining the above-mentioned features. Sequences of the trnV-ndhC and trnT-trnL intergenic spacers were combined for phylogenetic analyses of cpDNA. Part of the highly variable gene for squalene synthase (sqs) was applied as a low-copy nuclear marker. Both gene trees were compared with previous results based on the multicopy external transcribed spacer (ETS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The power of the different markers to detect hybridization varied, but they largely agreed on particular hybrid and allopolyploid origins. The same crown groups of species were recognizable in each dataset, but basal relationships were strongly incongruent among cpDNA, sqs and ETS trees. The ETS tree was considered as the best approximation of the species tree. Both cpDNA and sqs trees showed basal polytomies as well as merging or splitting of species groups of non-hybrid taxa. These patterns can be best explained by a rapid diversification of the genus with ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting. A hypothetical scenario of Hieracium speciation based on all available (including non-molecular) evidence is depicted. Incorporation of seemingly contradictory information helped to better understand species origins and evolutionary patterns in this notoriously difficult agamic complex.

  10. 2D and 3D high resolution seismic imaging of shallow Solfatara crater in Campi Flegrei (Italy): new insights on deep hydrothermal fluid circulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landro, Grazia; Gammaldi, Sergio; Serlenga, Vincenzo; Amoroso, Ortensia; Russo, Guido; Festa, Gaetano; D'Auria, Luca; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    down to 14 m, with Vp<700m/s typical of poorly-consolidated tephra and affected by CO2 degassing; 2. An intermediate layer, deepening towards the mineralized liquid-saturated area (Fangaia), interpreted as permeable deposits saturated with condensed water; 3. A deep, confined high velocity anomaly associated with a CO2 reservoir. With the 2D profiles we can image up to around 70 m depth: the first 30 m are characterized by features and velocities comparable to those of the 3D profiles, deeper, between 40-60 m depth, were found two low velocity anomalies, that probably indicate a preferential via for fluid degassing. These features are expression of an area located between the Fangaia, which is water saturated and replenished from deep aquifers, and the main fumaroles that are the superficial relief of deep rising CO2 flux. So, the changes in the outgassing rate greatly affects the shallow hydrothermal system, which can be used as a near-surface "mirror" of fluid migration processes occurring at greater depths.

  11. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  12. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.

    2000-01-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  13. A Zero-Dimensional Organic Seesaw-Shaped Tin Bromide with Highly Efficient Strongly Stokes-Shifted Deep-Red Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chenkun [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Lin, Haoran [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Shi, Hongliang [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Tian, Yu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Pak, Chongin [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Shatruk, Michael [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Zhou, Yan [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Djurovich, Peter [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Du, Mao-Hua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division, Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems; Ma, Biwu [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2017-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization is reported of (C9NH20)2SnBr4, a novel organic metal halide hybrid with a zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which individual seesaw-shaped tin (II) bromide anions (SnBr42-) are co-crystallized with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations (C9NH20+). Upon photoexcitation, the bulk crystals exhibit a highly efficient broadband deep-red emission peaked at 695 nm, with a large Stokes shift of 332 nm and a high quantum efficiency of around 46 %. Furthermore, the unique photophysical properties of this hybrid material are attributed to two major factors: 1) the 0D structure allowing the bulk crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of individual SnBr42- species, and 2) the seesaw structure then enables a pronounced excited state structural deformation as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  14. Deep sequencing of HPV16 genomes: A new high-throughput tool for exploring the carcinogenicity and natural history of HPV16 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For unknown reasons, there is huge variability in risk conferred by different HPV types and, remarkably, strong differences even between closely related variant lineages within each type. HPV16 is a uniquely powerful carcinogenic type, causing approximately half of cervical cancer and most other HPV-related cancers. To permit the large-scale study of HPV genome variability and precancer/cancer, starting with HPV16 and cervical cancer, we developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS whole-genome method. We designed a custom HPV16 AmpliSeq™ panel that generated 47 overlapping amplicons covering 99% of the genome sequenced on the Ion Torrent Proton platform. After validating with Sanger, the current “gold standard” of sequencing, in 89 specimens with concordance of 99.9%, we used our NGS method and custom annotation pipeline to sequence 796 HPV16-positive exfoliated cervical cell specimens. The median completion rate per sample was 98.0%.Our method enabled us to discover novel SNPs, large contiguous deletions suggestive of viral integration (OR of 27.3, 95% CI 3.3–222, P=0.002, and the sensitive detection of variant lineage coinfections. This method represents an innovative high-throughput, ultra-deep coverage technique for HPV genomic sequencing, which, in turn, enables the investigation of the role of genetic variation in HPV epidemiology and carcinogenesis. Keywords: HPV16, HPV epidemiology, HPV genomics

  15. Deep sequencing of HPV16 genomes: A new high-throughput tool for exploring the carcinogenicity and natural history of HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F; Schiffman, Mark; Zhang, Xijun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yang, Qi; Chen, Zigui; Yu, Kai; Mitchell, Jason; Roberson, David; Bass, Sara; Burdette, Laurie; Machado, Moara; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Luke, Brian; Machiela, Mitchell J; Andersen, Mark; Osentoski, Matt; Laptewicz, Michael; Wacholder, Sholom; Feldman, Ashlie; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Yeager, Meredith; Burk, Robert D; Mirabello, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    For unknown reasons, there is huge variability in risk conferred by different HPV types and, remarkably, strong differences even between closely related variant lineages within each type. HPV16 is a uniquely powerful carcinogenic type, causing approximately half of cervical cancer and most other HPV-related cancers. To permit the large-scale study of HPV genome variability and precancer/cancer, starting with HPV16 and cervical cancer, we developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) whole-genome method. We designed a custom HPV16 AmpliSeq™ panel that generated 47 overlapping amplicons covering 99% of the genome sequenced on the Ion Torrent Proton platform. After validating with Sanger, the current "gold standard" of sequencing, in 89 specimens with concordance of 99.9%, we used our NGS method and custom annotation pipeline to sequence 796 HPV16-positive exfoliated cervical cell specimens. The median completion rate per sample was 98.0%. Our method enabled us to discover novel SNPs, large contiguous deletions suggestive of viral integration (OR of 27.3, 95% CI 3.3-222, P =0.002), and the sensitive detection of variant lineage coinfections. This method represents an innovative high-throughput, ultra-deep coverage technique for HPV genomic sequencing, which, in turn, enables the investigation of the role of genetic variation in HPV epidemiology and carcinogenesis.

  16. High silicon content silylating reagents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for extreme ultraviolet (13.5 nm) and deep ultraviolet (248 nm) microlithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Scharrer, E.; Kubiak, G. [and others

    1994-12-31

    Recent results in the use of disilanes as silylating reagents for near-surface imaging with deep-UV (248 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) lithography are reported. A relatively thin imaging layer of a photo-cross-linking resist is spun over a thicker layer of hard-baked resist that functions as a planarizing layer and antireflective coating. Photoinduced acid generation and subsequent heating crosslinks and renders exposed areas impermeable to an aminodisilane that reacts with the unexposed regions. Subsequent silylation and reactive ion etching afford a positive-tone image. The use of disilanes introduces a higher concentration of silicon into the polymer than is possible with silicon reagents that incorporate only one silicon atom per reactive site. The higher silicon content in the silylated polymer increases etching selectivity between exposed and unexposed regions and thereby increases the contrast. Additional improvements that help to minimize flow during silylation are also discussed, including the addition of bifunctional disilanes. We have resolved high aspect ratio, very high quality 0.20 {mu}m line and space patterns at 248 nm with a stepper having a numerical aperture (NA)= 0.53, and have resolved {<=} 0.15 {mu}m line and spaces at 13.5 nm.

  17. Changes in deep-sea carbonate-hosted microbial communities associated with high and low methane flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, D. H.; Steele, J. A.; Chadwick, G.; Mendoza, G. F.; Levin, L. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2012-12-01

    Methane seeps on continental shelves are rich in authigenic carbonates built of methane-derived carbon. These authigenic carbonates are home to micro- and macroscopic communities whose compositions are thus far poorly constrained but are known to broadly depend on local methane flux. The formation of authigenic carbonates is itself a result of microbial metabolic activity, as associations of anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediment subsurface increase both dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity in pore waters. This 1:1 increase in DIC and alkalinity promotes the precipitation of authigenic carbonates. In this study, we performed in situ manipulations to test the response of micro- and macrofaunal communities to a change in methane flux. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates from two locations at Hydrate Ridge, OR, USA (depth range 595-604 mbsl), were transplanted from "active" cold seep sites (high methane flux) to "inactive" background sites (low methane flux), and vise versa, for one year. Community diversity surveys using T-RFLP and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed how both bacterial and archaeal assemblages respond to this change in local environment, specifically demonstrating reproducible shifts in different ANME groups (ANME-1 vs. ANME-2). Animal assemblage composition also shifted during transplantation; gastropod representation increased (relative to control rocks) when substrates were moved from inactive to active sites and polychaete, crustacean and echinoderm representation increased when substrates were moved from active to inactive sites. Combined with organic and inorganic carbon δ13C measurements and mineralogy, this unique in situ experiment demonstrates that authigenic carbonates are viable habitats, hosting microbial and macrofaunal communities capable of responding to changes in external environment over relatively short time periods.

  18. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    Luciola is a large (one kilometer) "multi-aperture densified-pupil imaging interferometer", or "hypertelescope" employing many small apertures, rather than a few large ones, for obtaining direct snapshot images with a high information content. A diluted collector mirror, deployed in space as a flotilla of small mirrors, focuses a sky image which is exploited by several beam-combiner spaceships. Each contains a pupil densifier micro-lens array to avoid the diffractive spread and image attenuation caused by the small sub-apertures. The elucidation of hypertelescope imaging properties during the last decade has shown that many small apertures tend to be far more efficient, regarding the science yield, than a few large ones providing a comparable collecting area. For similar underlying physical reasons, radio-astronomy has also evolved in the direction of many-antenna systems such as the proposed Low Frequency Array having hundreds of thousands of individual receivers . With its high limiting magnitude, reaching the mv=30 limit of HST when 100 collectors of 25cm will match its collecting area, high-resolution direct imaging in multiple channels, broad spectral coverage from the 1200 Angstrom ultra-violet to the 20 micron infra-red, apodization, coronagraphic and spectroscopic capabilities, the proposed hypertelescope observatory addresses very broad and innovative science covering different areas of ESA s Cosmic Vision program. In the initial phase, a focal spacecraft covering the UV to near IR spectral range of EMCCD photon-counting cameras ( currently 200 to 1000nm), will image details on the surface of many stars, as well as their environment, including multiple stars and clusters. Spectra will be obtained for each resel. It will also image neutron star, black-hole and micro-quasar candidates, as well as active galactic nuclei, quasars, gravitational lenses, and other Cosmic Vision targets observable with the initial modest crowding limit. With subsequent upgrade

  19. The Deep Ritz method: A deep learning-based numerical algorithm for solving variational problems

    OpenAIRE

    E, Weinan; Yu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    We propose a deep learning based method, the Deep Ritz Method, for numerically solving variational problems, particularly the ones that arise from partial differential equations. The Deep Ritz method is naturally nonlinear, naturally adaptive and has the potential to work in rather high dimensions. The framework is quite simple and fits well with the stochastic gradient descent method used in deep learning. We illustrate the method on several problems including some eigenvalue problems.

  20. The ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project: An overview and the potential for high-resolution records of floods and droughts in the Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.; Waldmann, N.; Enzel, Y.; Ariztegui, D.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Dsddp Scientific Party

    2012-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records are essential for a detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Levant, which is tightly related to the origin, dispersal and evolution of modern human civilisations. Holocene and late Pleistocene sediments of the Dead Sea are unique archives of the climatic, environmental and tectonic history of the Levant and hence a focus of research. Therefore, during winter of 2010-11 an ICDP-drilling project in the Dead Sea (DSDDP) recovered approximately 720 metres of sediment cores from two deep and several short boreholes with the longest core located in the deepest part of the northern basin reaching 456 m below the lake-floor (at ~710 m below mean lake level). Based on initial geophysical and geochemical analyses of this core, we estimate the record to comprise ca the last 200 ka including the Zeelim (Holocene), Lisan (last Glacial) (Stein, 2001) and Samra (last Interglacial; Waldmann et al., 2009) formations and the later part of the penultimate Glacial (Amora Fm.; Torfstein et al., 2009). Magnetic susceptibility values strongly fluctuate during Interglacial periods, but remain constantly lower in Glacial intervals. Deposition of sediments in the Dead Sea basin is strongly related to precipitation (Enzel et al., 2008) favouring sedimentation of alternated detrital clay and authigenic aragonite during wetter intervals and evaporites (e.g., halite and gypsum) in times of increased aridity and lower lake stands. Detailed initial facies analyses focused on two intervals in the deep core: 1) the upper Lisan Formation from ca 17 to 15 ka BP, and 2) the upper Zeelim Formation from ca 4 to 2 ka BP. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, µXRF element scanning and thin section microscopy allow high-resolution analyses at sub-annual timescales. These combined micro-facies analyses demonstrate the great potential for depicting small-scale variability of climate and even single droughts or flood events. Enzel et al., 2008. Global and

  1. A deep-sea, high-speed, stereoscopic imaging system for in situ measurement of natural seep bubble and droplet characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2015-10-01

    Development, testing, and application of a deep-sea, high-speed, stereoscopic imaging system are presented. The new system is designed for field-ready deployment, focusing on measurement of the characteristics of natural seep bubbles and droplets with high-speed and high-resolution image capture. The stereo view configuration allows precise evaluation of the physical scale of the moving particles in image pairs. Two laboratory validation experiments (a continuous bubble chain and an airstone bubble plume) were carried out to test the calibration procedure, performance of image processing and bubble matching algorithms, three-dimensional viewing, and estimation of bubble size distribution and volumetric flow rate. The results showed that the stereo view was able to improve the individual bubble size measurement over the single-camera view by up to 90% in the two validation cases, with the single-camera being biased toward overestimation of the flow rate. We also present the first application of this imaging system in a study of natural gas seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. The high-speed images reveal the rigidity of the transparent bubble interface, indicating the presence of clathrate hydrate skins on the natural gas bubbles near the source (lowest measurement 1.3 m above the vent). We estimated the dominant bubble size at the seep site Sleeping Dragon in Mississippi Canyon block 118 to be in the range of 2-4 mm and the volumetric flow rate to be 0.2-0.3 L/min during our measurements from 17 to 21 July 2014.

  2. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  3. Identification of Hadronically-Decaying W Bosons and Top Quarks Using High-Level Features as Input to Boosted Decision Trees and Deep Neural Networks in ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The application of boosted decision trees and deep neural networks to the identification of hadronically-decaying W bosons and top quarks using high-level jet observables as inputs is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of both boosted decision trees and deep neural networks, the use of machine learning techniques is found to improve the background rejection with respect to simple reference single jet substructure and mass taggers. Linear correlations between the resulting classifiers and the substructure variables are also presented.

  4. Identification of Hadronically-Decaying W Boson Top Quarks Using High-Level Features as Input to Boosted Decision Trees and Deep Neural Networks in ATLAS at #sqrt{s} = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Tatsumi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The application of boosted decision trees and deep neural networks to the identification of hadronically-decaying W bosons and top quarks using high-level jet observables as inputs is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of both boosted decision trees and deep neural networks, the use of machine learning techniques is found to improve the background rejection with respect to simple reference single jet substructure and mass taggers. Linear correlations between the resulting classifiers and the substructure variables are also presented.

  5. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-frequency measurement of depressive severity in a patient treated for severe treatment-resistant depression with deep-brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, S; Busnello, J; Kochanski, R; Cohen, Y; Gibbons, R D

    2017-08-15

    Although there have been previous studies of deep-brain stimulation (DBS), we present, to our knowledge, the first example of high-frequency depressive severity measurement-based DBS treatment in particular and psychiatric treatment in general. Daily post-surgical e-mail prompts for a period of 6 months resulted in 93 administrations of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of depression severity (CAT-Depression Inventory or CAT-DI) via the internet. There was an average of 3.37 weekly measurements with an average separation of 2.12 days. No additional incentive was provided to the patient for completing the adaptive tests. The patient is a 55-year-old female with six psychiatric hospitalizations for depression, two suicide attempts, marginal response to eight electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments and 35 psychotropic medications. We report results after high-frequency stimulation of the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle. The CAT-DI was used for daily assessments before, during and after (remotely in response to an e-mail prompt) the DBS procedure. Two follow-up Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-Ds) were also collected. Response to treatment varied markedly, with a decrease from severe (>75) to mild (60), which is three times the size of the uncertainty level. Although the HAM-D scores decreased, they missed the more complete temporal pattern identified by CAT-DI daily monitoring. We demonstrated feasibility of daily depressive severity measurement at high levels of precision and compliance. Clinician ratings confirm the general pattern of treatment benefit, but mask the marked variability in mood and more marked periods of benefit and decline.

  7. A high resolution climatology of precipitation and deep convection over the Mediterranean region from operational satellite microwave data: development and application to the evaluation of model uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Claud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new precipitation and convection dataset for the Mediterranean Basin, derived from operational satellite microwave data is documented. The dataset is derived from diagnostics that rely on brightness temperatures measured since 1999 in the water vapour absorption line (183–191 GHz. The dataset consists of twice-daily (a.m. and p.m. and monthly maps of precipitation and convection occurrences on a 0.2° lat × 0.2° long grid for the area 25°–60° N, 10° W–50° E. The instruments used so far are the AMSU-B sensor on the NOAA-15 to -17 satellites, and the MHS sensor on the NOAA-18 and -19 and METOP-2 satellites, with precipitation and convection available separately for the different sensors. The slightly different radiometric characteristics of MHS compared to AMSU-B do not affect significantly the continuity of the dataset. Precipitation and convection data from different sensors on different satellites are remarkably consistent, with generally small biases between the instruments. When larger biases appear, they can be explained either by the drifts in the satellite orbit, scan asymmetry, or temporal aliasing from insufficiently resolving the diurnal cycle of precipitation and convection. After a description of climatological aspects of rain and deep convection occurrence, the interest of this dataset to evaluate model uncertainties for simulating a high-impact weather event and for climatic regional runs over this area is illustrated.

  8. The effect of deep vs. awake extubation on respiratory complications in high-risk children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S; Davies, Kylie; Hegarty, Mary; Erb, Thomas O; Habre, Walid

    2013-09-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal timing for tracheal extubation in children at increased risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events, particularly following adenotonsillectomy. To assess the occurrence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing elective adenotonsillectomy extubated under deep anaesthesia or when fully awake. Prospective, randomised controlled trial. Tertiary paediatric hospital. One hundred children (bronchospasm, persistent coughing, airway obstruction, desaturation children was associated with a greater incidence of persistent coughing (60 vs. 35%, P = 0.028), whereas the incidence of airway obstruction relieved by simple airway manoeuvres in children extubated while deeply anaesthetised was greater (26 vs. 8%, P = 0.03). There was no difference in the incidence of oxygen desaturation lasting more than 10 s. There was no difference in the overall incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events. Both extubation techniques may be used in high-risk children undergoing adenotonsillectomy provided that the child is monitored closely in the postoperative period. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000387224.

  9. Numerical Simulations of the 1 May 2012 Deep Convection Event over Cuba: Sensitivity to Cumulus and Microphysical Schemes in a High-Resolution Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandy G. Mayor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the sensitivity to cumulus and microphysics schemes, as represented in numerical simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in characterizing a deep convection event over the Cuban island on 1 May 2012. To this end, 30 experiments combining five cumulus and six microphysics schemes, in addition to two experiments in which the cumulus parameterization was turned off, are tested in order to choose the combination that represents the event precipitation more accurately. ERA Interim is used as lateral boundary condition data for the downscaling procedure. Results show that convective schemes are more important than microphysics schemes for determining the precipitation areas within a high-resolution domain simulation. Also, while one cumulus scheme captures the overall spatial convective structure of the event more accurately than others, it fails to capture the precipitation intensity. This apparent discrepancy leads to sensitivity related to the verification method used to rank the scheme combinations. This sensitivity is also observed in a comparison between parameterized and explicit cumulus formation when the Kain-Fritsch scheme was used. A loss of added value is also found when the Grell-Freitas cumulus scheme was activated at 1 km grid spacing.

  10. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  11. Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Y R; Li, S K; Rickard, M J F X

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the inclusion of deep breathing exercises in physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation confers any additional benefit in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients are treated once daily after elective open upper abdominal surgery. This study also compared postoperative outcomes following early and delayed mobilisation. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Single-centre study in a teaching hospital. Eighty-six high-risk patients undergoing elective open upper abdominal surgery. Three groups: early mobilisation (Group A), early mobilisation plus breathing exercises (Group B), and delayed mobilisation (mobilised from third postoperative day) plus breathing exercises (Group C). PPCs and postoperative outcomes [number of days until discharge from physiotherapy, physiotherapy input and length of stay (LOS)]. There was no significant difference in PPCs between Groups A and B. The LOS for Group A {mean 10.7 [standard deviation (SD) 5.0] days} was significantly shorter than the LOS for Groups B [mean 16.7 (SD 9.7) days] and C [mean 15.2 (SD 9.8) days; P=0.036]. The greatest difference was between Groups A and B (mean difference -5.93, 95% confidence interval -10.22 to -1.65; P=0.008). Group C had fewer smokers (26%) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0%) compared with Group B (53% and 14%, respectively). This may have led to fewer PPCs in Group C, but the difference was not significant. Despite Group C having fewer PPCs and less physiotherapy input, the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy and LOS were similar to Group B. The addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation did not further reduce PPCs compared with mobility alone. PPCs can be reduced with once-daily physiotherapy if the patients are mobilised to a moderate level of exertion. Delayed mobilisation tended to increase physiotherapy input and the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy

  12. Experimental evidence of deep electron and hole trapping levels in high fluence proton irradiated p-n Si junctions using optical charging spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pintilie, I; Botila, T; Petre, D

    2000-01-01

    Optical charging spectroscopy (OCS) is first time reported as applied to p-n junctions. The existence of one deep trapping level for electrons and two deep trapping levels for holes was put into evidence, using this method, in proton irradiated p/sup +/-n-n/sup +/ silicon structures. An analytical formula for the OCS discharging current for this type of structures was deduced. (19 refs).

  13. Sudden loss of the deep brain stimulation effect with high impedance without macroscopic fracture: a case report and review of the published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang HJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hui-Jun Yang,1 Ji Young Yun,2 Young Eun Kim,3 Yong Hoon Lim,4 Han-Joon Kim,5 Sun Ha Paek,4 Beom S Jeon5 1Department of Neurology, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan, 2Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 5Department of Neurology and Movement Disorder Center, Parkinson’s Disease Study Group and Neuroscience Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The number of deep brain stimulation (DBS hardware complications has increased during the past decade. In cases of abnormally high lead impedance with no evidence of a macroscopic fracture, optimal treatment options have not yet been established. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a 12-year history of Parkinson’s disease who received bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS in March 2006. The patient showed good control of parkinsonism until December 24, 2010, when she awoke with abrupt worsening of parkinsonian symptoms. At telemetric testing, lead impedances were found at >2,000 Ω in all four leads on the left side. Fracture of a lead or an extension wire was suspected. However, radiological screening and palpation revealed no macroscopic fracture. In June 2011, the implantable pulse generator (IPG was changed under local anesthesia without any complications. Postoperatively, her parkinsonism immediately improved to the previous level, and the lead impedance readings by telemetry were also normalized. The disconnection of the neurostimulator connector block and the hybrid circuit board of the IPG was confirmed by destructive analysis. The present report illustrates that a staged approach that starts with simple IPG replacement can be an option for some cases of acute DBS effect loss with high impedance, when radiological findings are normal, thereby sparing the

  14. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  15. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VIII. Extended Lyman-α haloes around high-z star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Floriane; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Mitchell, Peter; Garel, Thibault; Verhamme, Anne; Blaizot, Jérémy; Hashimoto, Takuya; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Conseil, Simon; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Inami, Hanae; Contini, Thierry; Richard, Johan; Maseda, Michael; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα haloes around 145 individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3 ≤ z ≤ 6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field observed with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at ESO-VLT. Our sample consists of continuum-faint (- 15 ≥ MUV ≥ -22) Lyα emitters (LAEs). Using a 2D, two-component (continuum-like and halo) decomposition of Lyα emission assuming circular exponential distributions, we measure scale lengths and luminosities of Lyα haloes. We find that 80% of our objects having reliable Lyα halo measurements show Lyα emission that is significantly more extended than the UV continuum detected by HST (by a factor ≈4 to >20). The median exponential scale length of the Lyα haloes in our sample is ≈4.5 kpc with a few haloes exceeding 10 kpc. By comparing the maximal detected extent of the Lyα emission with the predicted dark matter halo virial radii of simulated galaxies, we show that the detected Lyα emission of our selected sample of Lyα emitters probes a significant portion of the cold circum-galactic medium of these galaxies (>50% in average). This result therefore shows that there must be significant HI reservoirs in the circum-galactic medium and reinforces the idea that Lyα haloes are ubiquitous around high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. Our characterization of the Lyα haloes indicates that the majority of the Lyα flux comes from the halo (≈65%) and that their scale lengths seem to be linked to the UV properties of the galaxies (sizes and magnitudes). We do not observe a significant Lyα halo size evolution with redshift, although our sample for z> 5 is very small. We also explore the diversity of the Lyα line profiles in our sample and we find that the Lyα lines cover a large range of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 118 to 512 km s-1. While the FWHM does not seem to be correlated to the Lyα scale length, most compact Lyα haloes and those that are not detected with high significance tend

  16. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  17. Pulsed cavitational therapy using high-frequency ultrasound for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis in an in vitro model of human blood clot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, G.; Mirault, T.; Arnal, B.; Boisson-Vidal, C.; Le Bonniec, B.; Gaussem, P.; Galloula, A.; Tanter, M.; Messas, E.; Pernot, M.

    2017-12-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis, can be reduced with early vein recanalization. Pulsed cavitational therapy (PCT) using ultrasound is a recent non-invasive approach. We propose to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency focused PCT for drug-free thrombolysis (thrombotripsy) in a realistic in vitro model of venous thrombosis. To reproduce venous thrombosis conditions, human whole blood was allowed to clot by stasis in silicone tubes (6 mm internal diameter) at a 30 cm H2O pressure, maintained during the whole experiment. We engineered an ultrasound device composed of dual 2.25 MHz transducers centered around a 6 MHz imaging probe. A therapeutic focus was generated at a 3.2 cm depth from the probe. Thrombotripsy was performed by longitudinally scanning the thrombus at three different speeds: 1 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 2 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 3 mm s-1 (n  =  12). Restored outflow was measured every three passages. Filters were placed to evaluate the debris size. Twenty-four occlusive thrombi, of 2.5 cm mean length and 4.4 kPa mean stiffness, were studied. Flow restoration was systematically obtained by nine subsequent passages (4.5 min maximum). By varying the device’s speed, we found an optimal speed of 1 mm s-1 to be efficient for effective recanalization with 90 s (three passages). Within 90 s, flow restoration was of 80, 62 and 74% at respectively 1, 2 and 3 mm s-1. For all groups, cavitation cloud drilled a 1.7 mm mean diameter channel throughout the clot. Debris analysis showed 92% of debris    200 µm.

  18. Communicating Low-Probability High-Consequence Risk, Uncertainty and Expert Confidence: Induced Seismicity of Deep Geothermal Energy and Shale Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Theresa A K; Stauffacher, Michael; Trutnevyte, Evelina

    2018-04-01

    Subsurface energy activities entail the risk of induced seismicity including low-probability high-consequence (LPHC) events. For designing respective risk communication, the scientific literature lacks empirical evidence of how the public reacts to different written risk communication formats about such LPHC events and to related uncertainty or expert confidence. This study presents findings from an online experiment (N = 590) that empirically tested the public's responses to risk communication about induced seismicity and to different technology frames, namely deep geothermal energy (DGE) and shale gas (between-subject design). Three incrementally different formats of written risk communication were tested: (i) qualitative, (ii) qualitative and quantitative, and (iii) qualitative and quantitative with risk comparison. Respondents found the latter two the easiest to understand, the most exact, and liked them the most. Adding uncertainty and expert confidence statements made the risk communication less clear, less easy to understand and increased concern. Above all, the technology for which risks are communicated and its acceptance mattered strongly: respondents in the shale gas condition found the identical risk communication less trustworthy and more concerning than in the DGE conditions. They also liked the risk communication overall less. For practitioners in DGE or shale gas projects, the study shows that the public would appreciate efforts in describing LPHC risks with numbers and optionally risk comparisons. However, there seems to be a trade-off between aiming for transparency by disclosing uncertainty and limited expert confidence, and thereby decreasing clarity and increasing concern in the view of the public. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  20. Distribution of PAHs and the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of PAHs and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. PAH compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority PAHs varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted PAHs, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in PAH degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with PAHs was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in PAH degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, PAHs and PAH-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may

  1. Combination of deep sea water andSesamum indicumleaf extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity through AMPK activation in visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Chung, Sunghyun; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, L I; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks. The mice in all three groups were allowed to freely access a HFD. Compared with the HFC group, the DSS group showed lower body weight gain and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin. Histological analyses of the epididymal white, retroperitoneal white and scapular brown adipose tissue of mice in the DSS group revealed that the adipocytes were markedly decreased in size compared with those in the HFC group. Moreover, DSS significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in mice epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, DSS upregulated the expression levels of lipolysis-associated mRNA, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and energy expenditure-associated mRNA, namely uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) in the epididymal adipose tissues. By contrast, DSS suppressed the expression of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) at the mRNA level. These results suggest that DSS is effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile.

  2. Combination of deep sea water and Sesamum indicum leaf extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity through AMPK activation in visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUAN, HAIDAN; CHUNG, SUNGHYUN; MA, QIANQIAN; YE, LI; PIAO, GUANGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks. The mice in all three groups were allowed to freely access a HFD. Compared with the HFC group, the DSS group showed lower body weight gain and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin. Histological analyses of the epididymal white, retroperitoneal white and scapular brown adipose tissue of mice in the DSS group revealed that the adipocytes were markedly decreased in size compared with those in the HFC group. Moreover, DSS significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in mice epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, DSS upregulated the expression levels of lipolysis-associated mRNA, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and energy expenditure-associated mRNA, namely uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) in the epididymal adipose tissues. By contrast, DSS suppressed the expression of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) at the mRNA level. These results suggest that DSS is effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile. PMID:26889265

  3. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  4. Deep-rooted “thick skinned” model for the High Atlas Mountains (Morocco. Implications for the seismic Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraud, M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous crustal models of the High Atlas suppose the existence of a mid-crustal detachment where all the surface thrusts merged and below which the lower crust was continuous. However, both seismic refraction data and gravity modeling detected a jump in crustal thickness between the High Atlas and the northern plains. Here we show that this rapid and vertical jump in the depth of Moho discontinuity suggests that a thrust fault may penetrate the lower crust and offset the Moho (deep-rooted “thick skinned” model. The distribution of Neogene and Quaternary volcanisms along and at the northern part of the High Atlas lineament can be related to the beginning of a partial continental subduction of the West African plate to the north underneath Moroccan microplate. Allowing from the complex problem of the plate boundary in the western zone of the Mediterranean, we propose to interpret the South-Atlasic fault zone as the actual northwestern boundary of the stable part of the African plate rather than the Azores-Gibraltar fault currently used.Los modelos geodinámicos existentes sobre la estructura profunda del alto Atlas suponen la existencia de un despegue medio-cortical donde convergen los cabalgamientos superficiales y bajo el cual la corteza inferior es continua. Los datos de sísmica de refracción y gravimetría, sin embargo, indican la existencia de una discontinuidad en el grosor de la corteza (profundidad del Moho bajo el Alto Atlas. En este artículo ponemos de manifiesto que este salto rápido en la profundidad del Moho puede ser causado por un cabalgamiento que penetra la corteza inferior, desplazando la base de la misma ("deeprooted thick skinned model". La distribución del volcanismo Neógeno y Cuaternario a lo largo de y al norte de la alineación del Alto Atlas pueden estar relacionados con el comienzo de una subducción continental parcial de la placa Africana occidental hacia el norte, bajo la microplaca marroquí. La expresi

  5. Hybrid deep drawing tool for lubricant free deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleaume, Christina; Mousavi, Ali; Brosius, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a concept for a hybrid deep drawing tool based on polymer concrete and first results from actual deep drawing tests using a prototype of the newly developed tool. The hybrid tool presented here has a defined macro-structure of the blankholder and drawing die as implemented before by Brosius et al. [1] in a steel tool for a lubricant free deep drawing process. The macro structure has a positive effect on the lubrication free deep drawing process, because it reduces the contact surface, increases the sheet's stability against wrinkling in the flange, reduces the necessary blank holder force and thereby the contact pressure, and offers a means to control the material flow [1]. The main objective in transferring this concept to a new hybrid tool from polymer concrete is an enhanced possibility to easily integrate other functional elements like temperature and pressure sensors, graphite inlays or roller bearings into the drawing die or blankholder. Since polymer concrete is cast in a cold exothermal process of no more than 60° Celsius, these elements are not subjected to high thermal loads and their positioning is relatively simple and precise. Polymer concrete moreover has good mechanical properties regarding compressive strength [2] and Young's modulus [3] and is therefore well suited for a deep drawing tool application.

  6. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Leer en español What Is Deep vein thrombosis ( ... life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  7. Deep-Sky Video Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A guide to using modern integrating video cameras for deep-sky viewing and imaging with the kinds of modest telescopes available commercially to amateur astronomers. It includes an introduction and a brief history of the technology and camera types. It examines the pros and cons of this unrefrigerated yet highly efficient technology

  8. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is an agent designed to make a classification system perform in some particular way, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, exploiting the parameters of the system to find...... the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...

  9. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  10. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu A.; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single

  11. High- and low-latitude forcing of the Nile River regime during the Holocene inferred from laminated sediments of the Nile deep-sea fan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, C.; Tjallingii, R.; Frank, M.; Lorenzen, J.; Reitz, A.; Brown, K.; Feseker, T.; Brückmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments deposited on deep-sea fans are an excellent geological archive to reconstruct past changes in fluvial discharge. Here we present a reconstruction of changes in the regime of the Nile River during the Holocene obtained using bulk elemental composition, grain-size analyses and radiogenic

  12. Do deep convolutional neural networks really need to be deep when applied for remote scene classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chang; Wang, Jie; Feng, Gang; Xu, Suhui; Wang, Shiqiang

    2017-10-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used to obtain high-level representation in various computer vision tasks. However, for remote scene classification, there are not sufficient images to train a very deep CNN from scratch. From two viewpoints of generalization power, we propose two promising kinds of deep CNNs for remote scenes and try to find whether deep CNNs need to be deep for remote scene classification. First, we transfer successful pretrained deep CNNs to remote scenes based on the theory that depth of CNNs brings the generalization power by learning available hypothesis for finite data samples. Second, according to the opposite viewpoint that generalization power of deep CNNs comes from massive memorization and shallow CNNs with enough neural nodes have perfect finite sample expressivity, we design a lightweight deep CNN (LDCNN) for remote scene classification. With five well-known pretrained deep CNNs, experimental results on two independent remote-sensing datasets demonstrate that transferred deep CNNs can achieve state-of-the-art results in an unsupervised setting. However, because of its shallow architecture, LDCNN cannot obtain satisfactory performance, regardless of whether in an unsupervised, semisupervised, or supervised setting. CNNs really need depth to obtain general features for remote scenes. This paper also provides baseline for applying deep CNNs to other remote sensing tasks.

  13. Interaction of Sea Breeze and Deep Convection over the Northeastern Adriatic Coast: An Analysis of Sensitivity Experiments Using a High-Resolution Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler-Poljak, Gabrijela; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Kvakić, Marko; Šariri, Kristina; Večenaj, Željko

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of a high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric model in the model reproduction of thermally induced local wind (i.e., sea breezes, SB) on the development of deep convection (Cb). The three chosen cases are simulated by the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model at three (nested) model domains, whereas the area of the interest is Istria (peninsula in the northeastern Adriatic). The sensitivity tests are accomplished by modifying (1) the model setup, (2) the model topography and (3) the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. The first set of simulations (over the three 1.5-day periods during summer) is conducted by modifying the model setup, i.e., microphysics and the boundary layer parameterizations. The same events are simulated with the modified topography where the mountain heights in Istria are reduced to 30% of their initial height. The SST distribution has two representations in the model: a constant SST field from the ECMWF skin temperature analysis and a varying SST field, which is provided by hourly geostationary satellite data. A comprehensive set of numerical experiments is statistically analyzed through several different approaches (i.e., the standard statistical measures, the spectral method and the image moment analysis). The overall model evaluation of each model setup revealed certain advantages of one model setup over the others. The numerical tests with the modified topography showed the influence of reducing the mountains heights on the pre-thunderstorm characteristics due to: (1) decrease of sensible heat flux and mid-tropospheric moisture and (2) change of slope-SB wind system. They consequently affect the evolution and dimensions of SBs and the features of the thunderstorm itself: timing, location and intensity (weaker storm). The implementation of the varying SST field in the model have an impact on the characteristics and dynamics of the SB and finally on the accuracy of Cb evolution

  14. A new small-bodied ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from a deep, high-energy Early Cretaceous river of the Australian–Antarctic rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael; Cleeland, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A new small-bodied ornithopod dinosaur, Diluvicursor pickeringi, gen. et sp. nov., is named from the lower Albian of the Eumeralla Formation in southeastern Australia and helps shed new light on the anatomy and diversity of Gondwanan ornithopods. Comprising an almost complete tail and partial lower right hindlimb, the holotype (NMV P221080) was deposited as a carcass or body-part in a log-filled scour near the base of a deep, high-energy river that incised a faunally rich, substantially forested riverine floodplain within the Australian–Antarctic rift graben. The deposit is termed the ‘Eric the Red West Sandstone.’ The holotype, interpreted as an older juvenile ∼1.2 m in total length, appears to have endured antemortem trauma to the pes. A referred, isolated posterior caudal vertebra (NMV P229456) from the holotype locality, suggests D. pickeringi grew to at least 2.3 m in length. D. pickeringi is characterised by 10 potential autapomorphies, among which dorsoventrally low neural arches and transversely broad caudal ribs on the anterior-most caudal vertebrae are a visually defining combination of features. These features suggest D. pickeringi had robust anterior caudal musculature and strong locomotor abilities. Another isolated anterior caudal vertebra (NMV P228342) from the same deposit, suggests that the fossil assemblage hosts at least two ornithopod taxa. D. pickeringi and two stratigraphically younger, indeterminate Eumeralla Formation ornithopods from Dinosaur Cove, NMV P185992/P185993 and NMV P186047, are closely related. However, the tail of D. pickeringi is far shorter than that of NMV P185992/P185993 and its pes more robust than that of NMV P186047. Preliminary cladistic analysis, utilising three existing datasets, failed to resolve D. pickeringi beyond a large polytomy of Ornithopoda. However, qualitative assessment of shared anatomical features suggest that the Eumeralla Formation ornithopods, South American Anabisetia saldiviai and

  15. A new small-bodied ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from a deep, high-energy Early Cretaceous river of the Australian-Antarctic rift system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herne, Matthew C; Tait, Alan M; Weisbecker, Vera; Hall, Michael; Nair, Jay P; Cleeland, Michael; Salisbury, Steven W

    2018-01-01

    A new small-bodied ornithopod dinosaur, Diluvicursor pickeringi , gen. et sp. nov., is named from the lower Albian of the Eumeralla Formation in southeastern Australia and helps shed new light on the anatomy and diversity of Gondwanan ornithopods. Comprising an almost complete tail and partial lower right hindlimb, the holotype (NMV P221080) was deposited as a carcass or body-part in a log-filled scour near the base of a deep, high-energy river that incised a faunally rich, substantially forested riverine floodplain within the Australian-Antarctic rift graben. The deposit is termed the 'Eric the Red West Sandstone.' The holotype, interpreted as an older juvenile ∼1.2 m in total length, appears to have endured antemortem trauma to the pes. A referred, isolated posterior caudal vertebra (NMV P229456) from the holotype locality, suggests D. pickeringi grew to at least 2.3 m in length. D. pickeringi is characterised by 10 potential autapomorphies, among which dorsoventrally low neural arches and transversely broad caudal ribs on the anterior-most caudal vertebrae are a visually defining combination of features. These features suggest D. pickeringi had robust anterior caudal musculature and strong locomotor abilities. Another isolated anterior caudal vertebra (NMV P228342) from the same deposit, suggests that the fossil assemblage hosts at least two ornithopod taxa. D. pickeringi and two stratigraphically younger, indeterminate Eumeralla Formation ornithopods from Dinosaur Cove, NMV P185992/P185993 and NMV P186047, are closely related. However, the tail of D. pickeringi is far shorter than that of NMV P185992/P185993 and its pes more robust than that of NMV P186047. Preliminary cladistic analysis, utilising three existing datasets, failed to resolve D. pickeringi beyond a large polytomy of Ornithopoda. However, qualitative assessment of shared anatomical features suggest that the Eumeralla Formation ornithopods, South American Anabisetia saldiviai and Gasparinisaura

  16. Deep inelastic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental situation of the deep inelastic scattering for electrons (muons) is reviewed. A brief history of experimentation highlights Mohr and Nicoll's 1932 experiment on electron-atom scattering and Hofstadter's 1950 experiment on electron-nucleus scattering. The phenomenology of electron-nucleon scattering carried out between 1960 and 1970 is described, with emphasis on the parton model, and scaling. Experiments at SLAC and FNAL since 1974 exhibit scaling violations. Three muon-nucleon scattering experiments at BFP, BCDMA, and EMA, currently producing new results in the high Q 2 domain suggest a rather flat behaviour of the structure function at fixed x as a function of Q 2 . It is seen that the structure measured in DIS can then be projected into a pure hadronic process to predict a cross section. Protonneutron difference, moment analysis, and Drell-Yan pairs are also considered

  17. Southwest Pacific deep water carbonate chemistry linked to high southern latitude climate and atmospheric CO2 during the Last Glacial Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katherine A.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; Hönisch, Bärbel; Elmore, Aurora C.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Rosenthal, Yair; Anderson, Robert F.

    2015-08-01

    A greater amount of CO2 was stored in the deep sea during glacial periods, likely via greater efficiency of the biologic pump and increased uptake by a more alkaline ocean. Reconstructing past variations in seawater carbonate ion concentration (a major component of alkalinity) enables quantification of the relative roles of different oceanic CO2 storage mechanisms and also places constraints on the timing, magnitude, and location of subsequent deep ocean ventilation. Here, we present a record of deep-water inorganic carbon chemistry since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ∼19-23 ka BP), derived from sediment core RR0503-83 raised from 1627 m in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty. The core site lies within the upper limit of southern-sourced Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), just below the lower boundary of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). We reconstruct past changes in bottom water inorganic carbon chemistry from the trace element and stable isotopic composition of calcite shells of the epibenthic foraminifer Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi. A record of ΔCO32-(ΔCO32- = [COCO32-] in situ - [CO32-] saturation) derived from the foraminiferal boron to calcium ratio (B/Ca) provides evidence for greater ice-age storage of respired CO2 and reveals abrupt deglacial shifts in [CO32-] in situ of up to 30 μmol/kg (5 times larger than the difference between average LGM and Holocene values). The rapidity of these changes suggests the influence of changing water mass structure and atmospheric circulation in addition to a decrease in CO2 content of interior waters.

  18. IBM Deep Learning Service

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Bishwaranjan; Boag, Scott; Doshi, Chandani; Dube, Parijat; Herta, Ben; Ishakian, Vatche; Jayaram, K. R.; Khalaf, Rania; Krishna, Avesh; Li, Yu Bo; Muthusamy, Vinod; Puri, Ruchir; Ren, Yufei; Rosenberg, Florian; Seelam, Seetharami R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning driven by large neural network models is overtaking traditional machine learning methods for understanding unstructured and perceptual data domains such as speech, text, and vision. At the same time, the "as-a-Service"-based business model on the cloud is fundamentally transforming the information technology industry. These two trends: deep learning, and "as-a-service" are colliding to give rise to a new business model for cognitive application delivery: deep learning as a servi...

  19. Deep cascade learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Enrique, Salvador; Hare, Jonathon; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficient training of deep neural networks in a bottom-up fashion using a layered structure. Our algorithm, which we refer to as Deep Cascade Learning, is motivated by the Cascade Correlation approach of Fahlman who introduced it in the context of perceptrons. We demonstrate our algorithm on networks of convolutional layers, though its applicability is more general. Such training of deep networks in a cascade, directly circumvents the well-know...

  20. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  1. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas; Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike; Treister, Ezequiel; Cobb, Bethany E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lira, Paulina; Murayama, Takashi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumikawa, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the ∼30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find ∼40,000 galaxies with R AB 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1σ scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that ∼20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  2. On the effect of deep-rolling and laser-peening on the stress-controlled low- and high-cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V at elevated temperatures up to 550?C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, IAltenberger, RKNalla, YSano LWagner, RO

    2012-04-01

    The effect of surface treatment on the stress/life fatigue behavior of a titanium Ti-6Al-4V turbine fan blade alloy is investigated in the regime of 102 to 106 cycles to failure under fully reversed stress-controlled isothermal push-pull loading between 25? and 550?C at a frequency of 5 Hz. Specifically, the fatigue behavior was examined in specimens in the deep-rolled and laser-shock peened surface conditions, and compared to results on samples in the untreated (machined and stress annealed) condition. Although the fatigue resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy declined with increasing test temperature regardless of surface condition, deep-rolling and laser-shock peening surface treatments were found to extend the fatigue lives by factors of more than 30 and 5-10, respectively, in the high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue regimes at temperatures as high as 550?C. At these temperatures, compressive residual stresses are essentially relaxed; however, it is the presence of near-surface work hardened layers, with a nanocystalline structure in the case of deep-rolling and dense dislocation tangles in the case of laser-shock peening, which remain fairly stable even after cycling at 450?-550?C, that provide the basis for the beneficial role of mechanical surface treatments on the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V at elevated temperatures.

  3. The non-exponential and non-Auger-like time dependence of non-equilibrium free carrier concentration decay in a semiconductor with two deep levels at high injection rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žasinas, E.; Vaitkus, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations of the system of equations which models the conduction band electron capture by two deep levels shows that at the initial stages after high injection the photocurrent decay must obey hyperbolic rather than exponential type of time dependence. Under certain conditions when one of the deep levels captures electrons much faster than another level then the photocurrent time dependence has two constituents one of them being a simple hyperbola and the other hyperbola raised to the power greater than one. Such a result of our example model demonstrates that the net recombination rate is not just a simple sum of two recombination rates provided by two different recombination centers. Therefore the commonly accepted practice to treat every recombination center as independent in the analysis of experimental data is not applicable in general

  4. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO{sub 2} of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassoumi, Malek, E-mail: malek.gassoumi@fsm.rnu.tn; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Gaquiere, Christophe [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie IEMN, Departement hyperfrequences et Semiconducteurs (France); Maaref, Hassen [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-07-15

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO{sub 2} passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO{sub 2} film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device.

  5. Formas particulares de comunicação em blogs nerd/geek: expressões linguísticas relacionadas às produções das franquias Star Wars e Star Trek

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Dillmann Nunes Bicca; Ana Paula de Araújo Cunha; Max de Lima Jahnke; Letícia da Silva Acunã Esteves

    2014-01-01

    Several blogs produced by members of nerd/geek youth cultural groups have disseminated linguistic expressions that take specific meanings for these ‘urban tribes’, orchestrating the processes by which their identities have been discursively produced. Within this perspective and based on discussions by the poststructuralist Cultural Studies and foregrounding blogs as spaces for knowledge production, the authors discuss how expressions from the film series Star Wars and Star Trek are employed i...

  6. Joint interpretation of high-precision tilt data and mining induced seismic events recorded underground in deep level gold mine in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Share, Pieter; Durrheim, Ray; Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Seismicity associated with deep-level mining has for long been a problem, leading to rockburst and other similar hazards. Several studies have been completed in an attempt to minimize the total amount of seismicity. In this study high resolution measurements of ground tilting in combination with seismic monitoring is used to observe how the rock mass responds to mining. A good correspondence between the coseismic and the aseismic tilt was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events, the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase. In an attempt to distinguish between the different mechanisms of tilting two types of events were recognized. The "fast" seismic events characterized with sharp increase of the tilt during the seismic rupture and "slow" seismic events characterized by creep type post seismic deformations. Tilt behaviour before and after a seismic event was also analysed. The fact that no recognizable aftertilt was observed for more of the "fast" seismic events means that there is no gradual release of stress and an associated continuous strain rate change afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a large seismic event causes a rapid change in the state of stress rather than a gradual change in the strain rate. The mechanism of the observed "slow" seismic events is more complicated. Although several explanations have been proposed, a suggestion for further work could be to investigate the presence of "slow" events in or after blasting time more closely. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emission network. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were

  7. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  8. Radiological assessment of the disposal of high level radioactive waste on or within the sediments of the deep ocean bed: v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, P.

    1987-11-01

    The contract report comprises a main report accompanied by three volumes detailing the probabilistic risk assessments carried out for each proposed mode of HLW emplacement. Following a section describing the methodology employed, the models developed for and used in the assessment are described. Aspects of design, testing and calibration are covered. The data employed are described in relation to components of the disposal system, giving sources and reasons for the distribution used. Uncertainties in model predictions are examined in relation to their origin. Detailed results are presented which illustrate the transport behaviour of radionuclides in deep ocean environments. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made for further research. (author)

  9. Deep levels in a-plane, high Mg-content Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guer, Emre [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatuerk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey); 205 Dreese Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Tabares, G.; Hierro, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica and ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arehart, A.; Ringel, S. A. [205 Dreese Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Chauveau, J. M. [CRHEA-CNRS, 06560 Valbonne (France); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, ParcValrose, 06102 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-12-15

    Deep level defects in n-type unintentionally doped a-plane Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire were fully characterized using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and related methods. Four compositions of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O were examined with x = 0.31, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.56 together with a control ZnO sample. DLOS measurements revealed the presence of five deep levels in each Mg-containing sample, having energy levels of E{sub c} - 1.4 eV, 2.1 eV, 2.6 V, and E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV. For all Mg compositions, the activation energies of the first three states were constant with respect to the conduction band edge, whereas the latter two revealed constant activation energies with respect to the valence band edge. In contrast to the ternary materials, only three levels, at E{sub c} - 2.1 eV, E{sub v} + 0.3 eV, and 0.6 eV, were observed for the ZnO control sample in this systematically grown series of samples. Substantially higher concentrations of the deep levels at E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and E{sub c} - 2.1 eV were observed in ZnO compared to the Mg alloyed samples. Moreover, there is a general invariance of trap concentration of the E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV levels on Mg content, while at least and order of magnitude dependency of the E{sub c} - 1.4 eV and E{sub c} - 2.6 eV levels in Mg alloyed samples.

  10. Deep Learning for ECG Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakillya, B.; Kazachenko, N.; Mikhailovsky, N.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of ECG classification is very high now due to many current medical applications where this problem can be stated. Currently, there are many machine learning (ML) solutions which can be used for analyzing and classifying ECG data. However, the main disadvantages of these ML results is use of heuristic hand-crafted or engineered features with shallow feature learning architectures. The problem relies in the possibility not to find most appropriate features which will give high classification accuracy in this ECG problem. One of the proposing solution is to use deep learning architectures where first layers of convolutional neurons behave as feature extractors and in the end some fully-connected (FCN) layers are used for making final decision about ECG classes. In this work the deep learning architecture with 1D convolutional layers and FCN layers for ECG classification is presented and some classification results are showed.

  11. Periodic arrays of deep nanopores made in silicon with reactive ion etching and deep UV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldering, L.A.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Setija, Irwan D.; Vos, Willem L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of periodic arrays of deep nanopores with high aspect ratios in crystalline silicon. The radii and pitches of the pores were defined in a chromium mask by means of deep UV scan and step technology. The pores were etched with a reactive ion etching process with SF6,

  12. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current cross sections in e{sup +}p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, J.

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. Single differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy have been measured for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}, as well as the double differential reduced cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} in the kinematic range 280 GeV{sup 2}deep inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}. (orig.)

  13. Deep video deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-11-25

    Motion blur from camera shake is a major problem in videos captured by hand-held devices. Unlike single-image deblurring, video-based approaches can take advantage of the abundant information that exists across neighboring frames. As a result the best performing methods rely on aligning nearby frames. However, aligning images is a computationally expensive and fragile procedure, and methods that aggregate information must therefore be able to identify which regions have been accurately aligned and which have not, a task which requires high level scene understanding. In this work, we introduce a deep learning solution to video deblurring, where a CNN is trained end-to-end to learn how to accumulate information across frames. To train this network, we collected a dataset of real videos recorded with a high framerate camera, which we use to generate synthetic motion blur for supervision. We show that the features learned from this dataset extend to deblurring motion blur that arises due to camera shake in a wide range of videos, and compare the quality of results to a number of other baselines.

  14. Deep Learning the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiwangi; Bard, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is an effective tool to map the structure of matter in the universe, and has been used for more than ten years as a probe of the nature of dark energy. Beyond the well-established two-point summary statistics, attention is now turning to methods that use the full statistical information available in the lensing observables, through analysis of the reconstructed shear field. This offers an opportunity to take advantage of powerful deep learning methods for image analysis. We present two early studies that demonstrate that deep learning can be used to characterise features in weak lensing convergence maps, and to identify the underlying cosmological model that produced them.We developed an unsupervised Denoising Convolutional Autoencoder model in order to learn an abstract representation directly from our data. This model uses a convolution-deconvolution architecture, which is fed with input data (corrupted with binomial noise to prevent over-fitting). Our model effectively trains itself to minimize the mean-squared error between the input and the output using gradient descent, resulting in a model which, theoretically, is broad enough to tackle other similarly structured problems. Using this model we were able to successfully reconstruct simulated convergence maps and identify the structures in them. We also determined which structures had the highest “importance” - i.e. which structures were most typical of the data. We note that the structures that had the highest importance in our reconstruction were around high mass concentrations, but were highly non-Gaussian.We also developed a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification of weak lensing convergence maps from two different simulated theoretical models. The CNN uses a softmax classifier which minimizes a binary cross-entropy loss between the estimated distribution and true distribution. In other words, given an unseen convergence map the trained CNN determines

  15. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Crop response to deep tillage - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Don, Axel; Hennings, Inga; Schmittmann, Oliver; Seidel, Sabine J.

    2017-04-01

    Subsoil, i.e. the soil layer below the topsoil, stores tremendous stocks of nutrients and can keep water even under drought conditions. Deep tillage may be a method to enhance the plant-availability of subsoil resources. However, in field trials, deep tillage effects on crop yields were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of crop yield response to subsoiling, deep ploughing and deep mixing of soil profiles. Our search resulted in 1530 yield comparisons following deep and conventional control tillage on 67 experimental cropping sites. The vast majority of the data derived from temperate latitudes, from trials conducted in the USA (679 observations) and Germany (630 observations). On average, crop yield response to deep tillage was slightly positive (6% increase). However, individual deep tillage effects were highly scattered including about 40% yield depressions after deep tillage. Deep tillage on soils with root restrictive layers increased crop yields about 20%, while soils containing >70% silt increased the risk of yield depressions following deep tillage. Generally, deep tillage effects increased with drought intensity indicating deep tillage as climate adaptation measure at certain sites. Our results suggest that deep tillage can facilitate the plant-availability of subsoil nutrients, which increases crop yields if (i) nutrients in the topsoil are growth limiting, and (ii) deep tillage does not come at the cost of impairing topsoil fertility. On sites with root restrictive soil layers, deep tillage can be an effective measure to mitigate drought stress and improve the resilience of crops. However, deep tillage should only be performed on soils with a stable structure, i.e. <70% silt content. We will discuss the contribution of deep tillage options to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production by facilitating the uptake of nutrients and water from the subsoil.

  17. Leakage current, capacitance hysteresis and deep traps in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/SiC high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Salah; Salem, Mohamed Mongi Ben; Fathallah, Olfa; Gassoumi, Malek; Gaquière, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-03-01

    Hysteresis phenomenon in the capacitance-voltage characteristics and leakage current under reverse-biased Schottky gate were investigated for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/SiC HEMT's with two different gate lengths. These phenomena were attributed to the electron tunneling through the surface, the bulk or/and the metal/AlGaN interface states. Using Capacitance DLTS, we have found that the deep trap responsible of these phenomena has activation energy of 0.74 eV. It was an extended defect in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Else, an electron trap (Ea=0.16 eV) was detected only in the transistor having the smaller gate length. The possible explanations of its origin will be established in this paper.

  18. Leakage current, capacitance hysteresis and deep traps in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/SiC high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadaoui, Salah; Salem, Mohamed Mongi Ben; Fathallah, Olfa; Gassoumi, Malek; Gaquière, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomenon in the capacitance–voltage characteristics and leakage current under reverse-biased Schottky gate were investigated for Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 N/GaN/SiC HEMT's with two different gate lengths. These phenomena were attributed to the electron tunneling through the surface, the bulk or/and the metal/AlGaN interface states. Using Capacitance DLTS, we have found that the deep trap responsible of these phenomena has activation energy of 0.74 eV. It was an extended defect in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Else, an electron trap (Ea=0.16 eV) was detected only in the transistor having the smaller gate length. The possible explanations of its origin will be established in this paper

  19. Control of two-dimensional growth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN-based MQWs for deep-UV LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihuang Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense and atomically flat AlN film with root-mean-square roughness value of 0.32 nm was grown on sapphire substrate at a relatively lower temperature by using a three-step epitaxy technique. On the basis of this AlN template, AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs with atomically flat hetero-interfaces were epitaxially grown to suppress nonradiative recombination by introducing In as a surfactant during simultaneous source supply. As a result, single intense- and narrow-peaked photoluminescence was obtained from the MQWs. Finally, the deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with well-behaved I-V characteristic and strong electroluminescence in the range of 256–312 nm were fabricated successfully.

  20. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alekseev, M G; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P.D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Hoppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joerg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kral, Z; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu. V; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Orlov, I; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rychter, A; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabeleski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH$_{3}$) targets are presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year $2010$ with the COMPASS spectrometer using a $160\\,\\mbox{GeV}/c$ muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about three the available statistics of the previously published data taken in the year $2007$. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  1. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon–proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3 targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with respect to the previously published data taken in the year 2007. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  2. High variability in spatial and temporal size-based trophodynamics of deep-sea fishes from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge elucidated by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William D. K.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Wigham, Ben D.; McGill, Rona A. R.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.

    2013-12-01

    Demersal fish play an important role in the deep-sea ecosystem by acting as a link to mobile food in the water column, consuming benthic fauna, breaking down large food parcels and dispersing organic matter over large areas. Poor diet resolution from stomach content analysis often impairs the ability to assess differences in inter- and intra-population trophodynamics and therefore understand resource partitioning among deep-sea fishes. Antimora rostrata (predator-scavenger), Coryphaenoides armatus (predator-scavenger), Coryphaenoides brevibarbis (predator) and Halosauropsis macrochir (predator) were collected from 3 stations on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in 2007 and 2009 to investigate trophic ecology using δ13C and δ15N. Variability in lipid-normalised δ13C (δ13Cn) and δ15N was explained by body length in all species but slope and significance of the isotope-length relationships varied both temporally and spatially. δ15N increases with length were observed in A. rostrata at all stations, C. brevibarbis and H. macrochir at one or more stations but were absent in C. armatus. δ13Cn increased with length in A. rostrata but the slope of δ13Cn-length relationships varied spatially and temporally in C. armatus and C. brevibarbis. The co-occurring δ13Cn and δ15N size-based trends in A. rostrata and H. macrochir suggested that size-based trends were a result of increasing trophic position. In C. armatus and C. brevibarbis the isotope-length trends were difficult to distinguish among trophic position increases, shifts in resource use i.e. benthic to pelagic or internal physiology. However, the overall strength, direction and significance of isotope-length trends varied temporally and spatially which suggested varying degrees of overlap in trophic ecology and feeding plasticity among these species.

  3. Applications of Deep Learning in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Vieira, Armando; Putin, Evgeny; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-05-02

    Increases in throughput and installed base of biomedical research equipment led to a massive accumulation of -omics data known to be highly variable, high-dimensional, and sourced from multiple often incompatible data platforms. While this data may be useful for biomarker identification and drug discovery, the bulk of it remains underutilized. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are efficient algorithms based on the use of compositional layers of neurons, with advantages well matched to the challenges -omics data presents. While achieving state-of-the-art results and even surpassing human accuracy in many challenging tasks, the adoption of deep learning in biomedicine has been comparatively slow. Here, we discuss key features of deep learning that may give this approach an edge over other machine learning methods. We then consider limitations and review a number of applications of deep learning in biomedical studies demonstrating proof of concept and practical utility.

  4. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  5. Deep Space Atomic Clock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) project will develop a small, low mass atomic clock based on mercury-ion trap technology and demonstrate it in space providing the...

  6. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  7. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  8. DeepFlavour in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.

  9. Pathogenesis of deep endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Stephan; Koninckx, Philippe; Brosens, Ivo

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiology of (deep) endometriosis is still unclear. As originally suggested by Cullen, change the definition "deeper than 5 mm" to "adenomyosis externa." With the discovery of the old European literature on uterine bleeding in 5%-10% of the neonates and histologic evidence that the bleeding represents decidual shedding, it is postulated/hypothesized that endometrial stem/progenitor cells, implanted in the pelvic cavity after birth, may be at the origin of adolescent and even the occasionally premenarcheal pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis in the adolescent is characterized by angiogenic and hemorrhagic peritoneal and ovarian lesions. The development of deep endometriosis at a later age suggests that deep infiltrating endometriosis is a delayed stage of endometriosis. Another hypothesis is that the endometriotic cell has undergone genetic or epigenetic changes and those specific changes determine the development into deep endometriosis. This is compatible with the hereditary aspects, and with the clonality of deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis. It explains the predisposition and an eventual causal effect by dioxin or radiation. Specific genetic/epigenetic changes could explain the various expressions and thus typical, cystic, and deep endometriosis become three different diseases. Subtle lesions are not a disease until epi(genetic) changes occur. A classification should reflect that deep endometriosis is a specific disease. In conclusion the pathophysiology of deep endometriosis remains debated and the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as the role of genetics and epigenetics in the process, still needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  11. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  12. Mathematics of Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Rene; Bruna, Joan; Giryes, Raja; Soatto, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the performance of recognition systems due to the introduction of deep architectures for representation learning and classification. However, the mathematical reasons for this success remain elusive. This tutorial will review recent work that aims to provide a mathematical justification for several properties of deep networks, such as global optimality, geometric stability, and invariance of the learned representations.

  13. Formas particulares de comunicação em blogs nerd/geek: expressões linguísticas relacionadas às produções das franquias Star Wars e Star Trek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dillmann Nunes Bicca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos blogs produzidos por integrantes de grupos culturais juvenis nerd/geek têm posto em circulação expressões linguísticas que assumem significados particulares para essas ‘tribos urbanas’, orquestrando os processos por meio dos quais suas identidades têm sido discursivamente produzidas. Nesta perspectiva, partindo das discussões promovidas pelos estudos culturais de vertente pós-estruturalista, e compreendendo os blogs como espaços de produção de saber, atentamos para os modos como expressões advindas das séries de filmes Star Wars e Star Trek são requeridas nos blogs para criar modos particulares de comunicação nerd/geek. Para desenvolver as análises, selecionamos sete blogs disponíveis na Internet, dentre um conjunto de 97 examinados nos meses de setembro e outubro de 2013. Excertos retirados dos blogs foram discutidos a partir do conceito de representação cultural, indicando que expressões, tais como ‘padawan’, ‘que a força esteja com vocês’ e ‘vida longa e prospera’, designam, respectivamente, sujeitos aprendizes e formas de despedida em situações nas quais um grande desafio está por ser assumido.

  14. The Capodimonte Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    information possible in selected viewing directions, assuming that what they find there is representative for the Universe as a whole. This is the philosophy behind the so-called "deep-field" projects that subject small areas of the sky to intensive observations with different telescopes and methods. The astronomers determine the properties of the objects seen, as well as their distances and are then able to obtain a map of the space within the corresponding cone-of-view (the "pencil beam"). Recent, successful examples of this technique are the "Hubble Deep Field" (cf. ESO PR Photo 26/98 ) and the "Chandra Deep Field" ( ESO PR 05/01 ). In this context, the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) is a pilot research project, now underway at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) in Napoli (Italy). It is a multi-colour imaging survey performed with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel (8k x 8k) digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The scientific goal of the OACDF is to provide an important database for subsequent extragalactic, galactic and planetary studies. It will allow the astronomers at OAC - who are involved in the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) project - to gain insight into the processing (and use) of the large data flow from a camera similar to, but four times smaller than the OmegaCam wide-field camera that will be installed at the VST. The field selection for the OACDF was based on the following criteria: * There must be no stars brighter than about 9th magnitude in the field, in order to avoid saturation of the CCD detector and effects from straylight in the telescope and camera. No Solar System planets should be near the field during the observations; * It must be located far from the Milky Way plane (at high galactic latitude) in order to reduce the number of galactic stars seen in this direction; * It must be located in the southern sky in order to optimize observing conditions (in

  15. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  16. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-28

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  17. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kwasnitschka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor, and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS. The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  18. Nonsurgical correction of a severe anterior deep overbite accompanied by a gummy smile and posterior scissor bite using a miniscrew-assisted straight-wire technique in an adult high-angle case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Jie-Ni; Liu, Da-Wei; Lei, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In the present report, we describe the successful use of miniscrews to achieve vertical control in combination with the conventional sliding MBT™ straight-wire technique for the treatment of a 26-year-old Chinese woman with a very high mandibular plane angle, deep overbite, retrognathic mandible with backward rotation, prognathic maxilla, and gummy smile. The patient exhibited skeletal Class II malocclusion. Orthodontic miniscrews were placed in the maxillary anterior and posterior segments to provide rigid anchorage and vertical control through intrusion of the incisors and molars. Intrusion and torque control of the maxillary incisors relieved the deep overbite and corrected the gummy smile, while intrusion of the maxillary molars aided in counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular plane, which consequently resulted in an improved facial profile. After 3.5 years of retention, we observed a stable, well-aligned dentition with ideal intercuspation and more harmonious facial contours. Thus, we were able to achieve a satisfactory occlusion, a significantly improved facial profile, and an attractive smile for this patient. The findings from this case suggest that nonsurgical correction using miniscrew anchorage is an effective approach for camouflage treatment of high-angle cases with skeletal Class II malocclusion.

  19. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  20. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system – combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardinael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia  ×  nigra and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil – leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation – and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha−1 yr−1 down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha−1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to

  1. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system - combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Guenet, Bertrand; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Dupraz, Christian; Cozzi, Thomas; Chenu, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC) inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia × nigra) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil - leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation - and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha-1 yr-1) down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha-1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to store large amounts of carbon, especially at depth. Deep

  2. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection – Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ackerman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze does not exceed 20–30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present; these conditions are encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 (Fridlind et al., 2015 of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and −43 °C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature with profiling radar measurements of Ze and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions, the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 g m-3 with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMDeq of 200–300 μm. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMDeq than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about −10 °C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett–Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of the production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice-multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal diameter

  3. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2006-05-01

    Africa represents one of the true frontiers for systematic deep seismic reflection profiling of the type pioneered by COCORP, LITHOPROBE, BIRPS, DEKORP, and ECORS in the northern hemisphere. However, there have been a number of notable individual surveys that have sampled key components of the African lithosphere, and several systematic regional geophysical initiatives which suggest African is fertile ground for future efforts. Among the latter are the KRISP refraction/wide-angle program to probe the East African Rift system in the 1990's, the Kaapvaal Experiment to image the deep lithosphere with passive techniques and most recently the EAGLE active/passive experiments in the Afar. Examples of true multichannel deep reflection surveys to delineate crustal structure include the transects of the Limpopo Belt, a Neoarchean mobile zone that sutures the Kaapval and Zimbabwe cratons, deep oil prospecting surveys in the Nosop basin of southern Botswana that reveal dramatic basement reflectors off the NW margin of the Kaapvaal craton, and most recently deep vibroseis surveys within the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a crustal stack of tectonic slivers as well as tectonic shingling of the upper mantle. The passive margin of western Africa, with its strategic oil resources, has been a target of several deep studies using marine seismic surveys, including the PROBE initiative of the late 1980's and more recent deep surveys offshore Angola. Reprocessing of lines from oil exploration grids reveal Proterozoic mid-lower crustal features offshore of Ghana. Among the potentially rich targets for future surveys in Africa are the West African and Congo cratons and their suturing Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) mobile belts. This suite of cratonic lithosphere elements is largely largely untouched by modern high resolution seismic methodologies. New initiatives such as LEGENDS ( targeting the East African Orogen) and exploitation of existing oil industry seismic data for deep information

  4. Measurement of inclusive jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at high Q{sup 2} and determination of the strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} > 150 GeV{sup 2} with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q{sup 2} and of the transverse energy E{sub T} of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1193{+-}0.0014(exp.){sup +0.0047}{sub -0.0030}(th.){+-}0.0016(pdf). (orig.)

  5. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup -}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q{sup 2} and x are measured in the kinematic region y < 0.9 and Q{sup 2} > 185GeV{sup 2} for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb{sup -1} taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF{sub 3} and xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} are determined by combining the e{sup -}p results presented in this paper with previously measured e{sup +}p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A{sup -} is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Inst., Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is presented at positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beams. The single-differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The reduced cross-section {sigma} is presented in the kinematic range 200

  7. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-08-15

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross-section {sigma} were measured in the kinematic region Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9, where Q{sup 2} is the four-momentum transfer squared, x the Bjorken scaling variable, and y the inelasticity of the interaction. The measurements were performed separately for positively and negatively polarised positron beams. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The structure functions F{sub 3} and F{sup {gamma}Z}{sub 3} were determined by combining the e{sup +}p results presented in this paper with previously published e{sup -}p neutral current results. The asymmetry parameter A{sup +} is used to demonstrate the parity violation predicted in electroweak interactions. The measurements are well described by the predictions of the Standard Model.

  8. K{sub S}{sup 0} production at high Q{sup 2} in deep inelastic ep scattering at H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Tabasco, Julia Elizabeth

    2010-12-15

    The production of K{sub S}{sup 0} mesons is studied using deep-inelastic scattering events (DIS) recorded with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The measurements are performed in the phase space defined by the four-momentum transfer squared of the photon, 145 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2}. The differential production cross sections of the K{sub S}{sup 0} meson are presented as function of the kinematic variables Q{sup 2} and x, the transverse momentum p{sub T} and the pseudorapidity {eta} of the particle in laboratory frame, and as function of the momentum fraction x{sub p}{sup BF} and transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup BF} in the Breit Frame. Moreover, the K{sub S}{sup 0} production rate is compared to the production of charged particles and to the production of DIS events in the same region of phase space. The data are compared to theoretical predictions, based on leading order Monte Carlo programs with matched parton showers. The Monte Carlo models are also used for studies of the flavour contribution to the K{sub S}{sup 0} production and parton density function dependence. (orig.)

  9. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  10. Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shoko; Yamada, Kiho; Hirano, Akira; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Ito, Masahiro; Morishima, Naoki; Aosaki, Ko; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-08-01

    To replace mercury lamps with AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs, a simple and low-cost package with increased light extraction efficiency (LEE) is indispensable. Therefore, resin encapsulation is considered to be a key technology. However, the photochemical reactions induced by DUV light cause serious problems, and conventional resins cannot be used. In the former part of this study, a comparison of a silicone resin and fluorine polymers was carried out in terms of their suitability for encapsulation, and we concluded that only one of the fluorine polymers can be used for encapsulation. In the latter part, the endurance of encapsulation using the selected fluorine polymer was investigated, and we confirmed that the selected fluorine polymer can guarantee a lifetime of over 6,000 h at a wavelength of 265 nm. Furthermore, a 3 × 4 array module of encapsulated dies on a simple AlN submount was fabricated, demonstrating the possibility of W/cm2-class lighting.

  11. One-shot deep-UV pulsed-laser-induced photomodification of hollow metal nanoparticles for high-density data storage on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dehui; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Wang, Lon A; Chen, Yung-Pin

    2010-01-26

    In this paper, we report a new optical data storage method: photomodification of hollow gold nanoparticle (HGN) monolayers induced by one-shot deep-ultraviolet (DUV) KrF laser recording. As far as we are aware, this study is the first to apply HGNs in optical data storage and also the first to use a recording light source for the metal nanoparticles (NPs) that is not a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. The short wavelength of the recording DUV laser improved the optical resolution dramatically. We prepared HGNs exhibiting two absorbance regions: an SPR peak in the near-infrared (NIR) region and an intrinsic material extinction in the DUV region. A single pulse from a KrF laser heated the HGNs and transformed them from hollow structures to smaller solid spheres. This change in morphology for the HGNs was accompanied by a significant blue shift of the SPR peak. Employing this approach, we demonstrated its patterning ability with a resolving power of a half-micrometer (using a phase mask) and developed a readout method (using a blue-ray laser microscope). Moreover, we prepared large-area, uniform patterns of monolayer HGNs on various substrates (glass slides, silicon wafers, flexible plates). If this spectral recording technique could be applied onto thin flexible tapes, the recorded data density would increase significantly relative to that of current rigid discs (e.g., compact discs).

  12. Synthesis of ultrasmall CsPbBr3 nanoclusters and their transformation to highly deep-blue-emitting nanoribbons at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yibing; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Longfei; Han, Wenqian; Wu, Guanhong; Yang, Dong; Dong, Angang

    2017-11-16

    Discretely sized semiconductor clusters have attracted considerable attention due to their intriguing optical properties and self-assembly behaviors. While lead halide perovskite nanostructures have been recently intensively explored, few studies have addressed perovskite clusters and their self-assembled superstructures. Here, we report the room-temperature synthesis of sub-2 nm CsPbBr 3 clusters and present strong evidence that these ultrasmall perovskite species, obtained under a wide range of reaction conditions, possess a specific size, with optical properties and self-assembly characteristics resembling those of well-known II-VI semiconductor magic-sized clusters. Unlike conventional CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals, the as-synthesized CsPbBr 3 nanoclusters spontaneously self-assemble into a hexagonally packed columnar mesophase in solution, which can be further converted to single-crystalline CsPbBr 3 quantum nanoribbons with bright deep-blue emission at room temperature. Such a conversion of CsPbBr 3 nanoclusters to nanoribbons is found to be driven by a ligand-destabilization-induced crystallization and mesophase transition process. Our study will facilitate the investigation of perovskite nanoclusters and offer new possibilities in the low-temperature synthesis of anisotropic perovskite nanostructures.

  13. Deep learning in TMVA Benchmarking Benchmarking TMVA DNN Integration of a Deep Autoencoder

    CERN Document Server

    Huwiler, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The TMVA library in ROOT is dedicated to multivariate analysis, and in partic- ular oers numerous machine learning algorithms in a standardized framework. It is widely used in High Energy Physics for data analysis, mainly to perform regression and classication. To keep up to date with the state of the art in deep learning, a new deep learning module was being developed this summer, oering deep neural net- work, convolutional neural network, and autoencoder. TMVA did not have yet any autoencoder method, and the present project consists in implementing the TMVA autoencoder class based on the deep learning module. It also includes some bench- marking performed on the actual deep neural network implementation, in comparison to the Keras framework with Tensorflow and Theano backend.

  14. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  15. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  16. Deep Overbite Dan Cara Penanggulangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rofiah Nasution

    2008-01-01

    Masalah deep overbite dan seluruh dimensi vertikal harus dipertimbangkan pada setiap perawatan maloklusi. Deep overbite merupakan keadaan pada relasi sentrik di mana terdapat jarak vertikal yang besar antara kedua insisal insisivus rahang atas dan bawah dengan hubungan oklusal posterior yang normal. Berdasarkan etiologi deep overbite dapat dibedakan atas dua bagian besar yaitu deep overbite dentoalveolar (melibatkan gigi dan tulang alveolar) dan deep overbite skeletal (melibatkan gigi, tulang...

  17. Text feature extraction based on deep learning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Sun, Xiao; Sun, Yunlei; Gao, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Selection of text feature item is a basic and important matter for text mining and information retrieval. Traditional methods of feature extraction require handcrafted features. To hand-design, an effective feature is a lengthy process, but aiming at new applications, deep learning enables to acquire new effective feature representation from training data. As a new feature extraction method, deep learning has made achievements in text mining. The major difference between deep learning and conventional methods is that deep learning automatically learns features from big data, instead of adopting handcrafted features, which mainly depends on priori knowledge of designers and is highly impossible to take the advantage of big data. Deep learning can automatically learn feature representation from big data, including millions of parameters. This thesis outlines the common methods used in text feature extraction first, and then expands frequently used deep learning methods in text feature extraction and its applications, and forecasts the application of deep learning in feature extraction.

  18. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  19. Anomaly and defects characterization by I-V and current deep level transient spectroscopy of Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/SiC high electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Salah; Ben Salem, Mohamed Mongi; Gassoumi, Malek; Maaref, Hassen; Gaquière, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we report static electric drain-source current-voltage measurements for different gate voltages and at different temperatures, performed on Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/SiC high electron-mobility transistors (HEMT). The results show the presence of kink and collapse effects. We have demonstrated that these effects are significant in the temperature range varying from 150 to 400 K with a maximum around 300 K. This parasitic effect was correlated with the presence of deep levels in our transistor. Indeed, we have noticed the presence of two electron traps named A1 and A2, and one hole trap named H1; their respective activation energies, which are determined using current deep level transient spectroscopy (CDLTS), are, respectively, 0.56, 0.82, and 0.75 eV. Traps H1 and A1 are shown to be extended defects in the Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructure; they are supposed to be the origin of the kink and collapse effects. However, the punctual defect A2 seems to be located either in the free gate-drain surface, in the metal/AlGaN interface, or in the AlGaN/GaN interface.

  20. High origin of the deep femoral artery: a case report and literature review Origem alta da artéria femoral profunda: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arterial variations of the femoral triangle are rarely reported in the literature. In the present article, we have reported a case of high origin of the deep femoral artery, which was originating just lower to the inguinal ligament. It was also observed that the lateral circumflex femoral artery arose directly from the femoral artery instead from the deep femoral artery. We have discussed the anatomy, embryological basis, and clinical implications of these variations along with relevant literature review. The importance of knowledge about these variations in therapeutic and diagnostic interventions is discussed.Variações arteriais no triângulo femoral têm sido pouco relatadas na literatura. No presente artigo, relatou-se um caso de origem alta da artéria femoral profunda, que estava se originando pouco abaixo do ligamento inguinal. Também foi observado que a artéria femoral circunflexa originava-se diretamente da artéria femoral, ao invés de ser originada da artéria femoral profunda. Discutiu-se sobre anatomia, base embriológica e implicações clínicas dessas variações junto com uma revisão da literatura pertinente. A importância do conhecimento sobre essas variações no quadro das intervenções diagnósticas e terapêuticas é discutida.

  1. A preliminary study on the long-term geologic stability for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Geology of the Korean peninsula could be grouped by 7 rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses, metasedimentary rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, porous and massive volcanic rocks. The plutonic rock type is the largest rock groups occupying about 35.2% over the peninsula. Tectonic movement could be classified as four great stages as Precambrian, Songnim, Daebo and Bulkuksa even though the ambiguous of prior Songnim. It would be supposed to deep relationship between tectonic movement, orogeny and magmatism. And also, the magmatism within the peninsula could be divided into 5 stages such as 1st stage of Precambrian(>570Ma), 2nd stage of late Paleozoic(>250Ma), 3rd stage of early to mid Mesozoic(200-300Ma), 4th stage of late Mesozoic(135-60Ma) and 5th stage of post early Tertiary(50Ma>). In the seismicities, the peninsula has some characteristics that of the intra-plate seismic characteristics located at south eastern part of the Eurasian plate apart from the boundary of the Pacific and Philippine plate. Eurasian plate is under the two stress direction acting eastward stresses induced the collision of Indo- Australlian plate and westward stresses due to the subduction of due the Pacific and Philippine plate. For the purpose of the quantitative analysis for the safety assessment of HLW disposal, it would be desired to have the long range approach concept for the characterization of FEPs such as upper stated including climate, sae level change, uplift and subsidence, erosion and sedimentation. 38 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  2. High Ice Water Content at Low Radar Reflectivity near Deep Convection. Part I ; Consistency of In Situ and Remote-Sensing Observations with Stratiform Rain Column Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.; Williams, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Occurrences of jet engine power loss and damage have been associated with flight through fully glaciated deep convection at -10 to -50 degrees Centigrade. Power loss events commonly occur during flight through radar reflectivity (Zeta (sub e)) less than 20-30 decibels relative to Zeta (dBZ - radar returns) and no more than moderate turbulence, often overlying moderate to heavy rain near the surface. During 2010-2012, Airbus carried out flight tests seeking to characterize the highest ice water content (IWC) in such low-radar-reflectivity regions of large, cold-topped storm systems in the vicinity of Cayenne, Darwin, and Santiago. Within the highest IWC regions encountered, at typical sampling elevations (circa 11 kilometers), the measured ice size distributions exhibit a notably narrow concentration of mass over area-equivalent diameters of 100-500 micrometers. Given substantial and poorly quantified measurement uncertainties, here we evaluate the consistency of the Airbus in situ measurements with ground-based profiling radar observations obtained under quasi-steady, heavy stratiform rain conditions in one of the Airbus-sampled locations. We find that profiler-observed radar reflectivities and mean Doppler velocities at Airbus sampling temperatures are generally consistent with those calculated from in situ size-distribution measurements. We also find that column simulations using the in situ size distributions as an upper boundary condition are generally consistent with observed profiles of radar reflectivity (Ze), mean Doppler velocity (MDV), and retrieved rain rate. The results of these consistency checks motivate an examination of the microphysical pathways that could be responsible for the observed size-distribution features in Ackerman et al. (2015).

  3. Development of a High-Performance, Low-Profile Translation Table with Wire Feedthrough for a Deep Space CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NEAScout, a 6U cubesat and secondary payload on NASA's EM-1, will use an 85 sq m solar sail to travel to a near-earth asteroid at about 1 Astronomical Unit (about 1.5 x 10(exp 8) km) for observation and reconnaissance1. A combination of reaction wheels, reaction control system, and a slow rotisserie roll about the solar sail's normal axis were expected to handle attitude control and adjust for imperfections in the deployed sail during the 2.5-year mission. As the design for NEAScout matured, one of the critical design parameters, the offset in the center of mass and center of pressure (CP/CM offset), proved to be sub-optimal. After significant mission and control analysis, the CP/CM offset was accommodated by the addition of a new subsystem to NEAScout. This system, called the Active Mass Translator (AMT), would reside near the geometric center of NEAScout and adjust the CM by moving one portion of the flight system relative to the other. The AMT was given limited design space - 17 mm of the vehicle's assembly height-and was required to generate +/-8 cm by +/-2 cm translation to sub-millimeter accuracy. Furthermore, the design must accommodate a large wire bundle of small gage, single strand wire and coax cables fed through the center of the mechanism. The bend radius, bend resistance, and the exposure to deep space environment complicates the AMT design and operation and necessitated a unique design to mitigate risks of wire bundle damage, binding, and cold-welding during operation. This paper will outline the design constraints for the AMT, discuss the methods and reasoning for design, and identify the lessons learned through the designing, breadboarding and testing for the low-profile translation stages with wire feedthrough capability.

  4. Deep Learning from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the stateof-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently......, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural...... networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels...

  5. Holography as deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen-Cong; Shu, Fu-Wen

    Quantum many-body problem with exponentially large degrees of freedom can be reduced to a tractable computational form by neural network method [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355 (2017) 602, arXiv:1606.02318.] The power of deep neural network (DNN) based on deep learning is clarified by mapping it to renormalization group (RG), which may shed lights on holographic principle by identifying a sequence of RG transformations to the AdS geometry. In this paper, we show that any network which reflects RG process has intrinsic hyperbolic geometry, and discuss the structure of entanglement encoded in the graph of DNN. We find the entanglement structure of DNN is of Ryu-Takayanagi form. Based on these facts, we argue that the emergence of holographic gravitational theory is related to deep learning process of the quantum-field theory.

  6. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Raman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageability on writing in Turkish. Nonword spelling is abolished. A similar pattern of errors is observed in English. BRB is the first report of acquired dysgraphia in a truly transparent writing system. We argue that deep dysgraphia results from damage to the mappings that are common to both languages between word meanings and orthographic representations.

  7. News on Deep Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, John C.; Dearborn, Davis S. P.; Eggleton, Peter P.

    2008-04-01

    We briefly summarize the abundant observational evidence for the need of a ``deep mixing'' mechanism in first-ascent red-giant stars, and probably in AGB stars as well. By the term ``deep mixing'' we mean some mixing mechanism which operates in the radiative zone below the convective envelope, and which transports material from the convective region to hotter regions, near the top of the hydrogen shell, where nuclear burning may take place. We then discuss a recent discovery of deep-mixing caused by the burning of 3He following first dredge-up in low-mass stars. This is expected to be a thermohaline process and preliminary calculations show that it has many of the properties required to explain the observations.

  8. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  9. Deep Learning Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rivenson, Yair; Gorocs, Zoltan; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with rem...

  10. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  11. Glacial and tectonic influence on terrestrial organic carbon delivery to high latitude deep marine systems: IODP Site U1417, Surveyor Fan, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Ridgway, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial and tectonic processes on active margins are intrinsically coupled to the transport of sediment and associated organic carbon (OC). Glaciation/deglaciation and the formation of ice sheets can alter the quantity and composition of OC delivered to the marine environment. Over geologic time scales (>1 Ma), exhumation and mass wasting of sedimentary rock from uplifted accretionary wedges inject recycled OC (e.g. kerogen), along with modern OC into the marine environment. The sedimentary record of glacial and tectonic processes along the southern Alaska margin is particularly well preserved at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1417. Lithofacies of Site U1417 can be divided into 3 sedimentary packages that we interpret as linked to the onset of tidewater glaciation along, and tectonic convergence of the Yakutat Terrane with, the continental margin of northwestern Canada and southern Alaska. Based on previous studies linking the development of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and the movement of the Yakutat Terrane to the development of the Surveyor Fan System, we hypothesize biogeochemical variations in the deposited sediments as a result of changing provenance. Preservation of terrest