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Sample records for deep tissue injuries

  1. Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.

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    Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-10-01

    Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries.

  2. Use of silicone materials to simulate tissue biomechanics as related to deep tissue injury.

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    Sparks, Jessica L; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Kasting, Krysten E; Long, Benjamin; Tanaka, Martin L; Sanger, Phillip A; Schnell, Karen; Conner-Kerr, Teresa A

    2015-02-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is caused by prolonged mechanical loading that disrupts blood flow and metabolic clearance. A patient simulator that mimics the biomechanical aspects of DTI initiation, stress and strain in deep muscle tissue, would be potentially useful as a training tool for pressure-relief techniques and testing platform for pressure-mitigating products. As a step toward this goal, this study evaluates the ability of silicone materials to mimic the distribution of stress in muscle tissue under concentrated loading. To quantify the mechanical properties of candidate silicone materials, unconfined compression experiments were conducted on 3 silicone formulations (Ecoflex 0030, Ecoflex 0010, and Dragon Skin; Smooth-On, Inc, Easton, Pennsylvania). Results were fit to an Ogden hyperelastic material model, and the resulting shear moduli (G) were compared with published values for biological tissues. Indentation tests were then conducted on Ecoflex 0030 and porcine muscle to investigate silicone's ability to mimic the nonuniform stress distribution muscle demonstrates under concentrated loading. Finite element models were created to quantify stresses throughout tissue depth. Finally, a preliminary patient simulator prototype was constructed, and both deep and superficial "tissue" pressures were recorded to examine stress distribution. Indentation tests showed similar stress distribution trends in muscle and Ecoflex 0030, but stress magnitudes were higher in Ecoflex 0030 than in porcine muscle. All 3 silicone formulations demonstrated shear moduli within the range of published values for biological tissue. For the experimental conditions reported in this work, Ecoflex 0030 exhibited greater stiffness than porcine muscle. Indentation tests and the prototype patient simulator trial demonstrated similar trends with high pressures closest to the bony prominence with decreasing magnitude toward the interfacial surface. Qualitatively, silicone mimicked the phenomenon

  3. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

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    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  4. Risk factors for a pressure-related deep tissue injury: a theoretical model.

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    Gefen, Amit

    2007-06-01

    Pressure-related deep tissue injury is the term recommended by the United States National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel to describe a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcers, characterized by the presence of necrotic tissue under intact skin, and associated with prolonged compression of muscle tissue under bony prominences. In this study, a theoretical model was used to determine the relative contributions of the backrest inclination angle during prolonged wheelchair sitting, the muscle tissue stiffness and curvature of the ischial tuberosities (ITs) to the risk for injury in the gluteus muscles that pad the IT bones during sitting. The model is based on Hertz's theory for analysis of contact pressures between a rigid half-sphere (bone) and an elastic half-space (muscle). Hertz's theory is coupled with an injury threshold and damage law for muscle-both obtained in previous studies in rats. The simulation outputs the time-dependent bone-muscle contact pressures and the injured area in the gluteus. We calculated the full-size (asymptotic) injured area in the gluteus and the time for injury onset for different sitting angles alpha (90-150 degrees), muscle tissue long-term shear moduli G (250-1,200 Pa) and bone diameters D (8-18 mm). We then evaluated the sensitivity of model results to variations in these parameters, in order to determine how injury predictions are affected. In reclined sitting (alpha=150 degrees) the full-size injured area was approximately 2.1-fold smaller and the time for injury onset was approximately 1.3-fold longer compared with erect sitting (alpha=90 degrees). For greater G the full-size injured area was smaller but the time for injury onset was shorter, e.g., increasing G from 250 to 1200 Pa decreased the full-size injured area approximately 2.5-fold, but shortened the time for injury onset 6.2-fold. For smaller D the time for injury onset dropped, e.g., decreased approximately 1.5-fold when D decreased from 18 to 8 mm

  5. Oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling in skeletal muscle in pressure-induced deep tissue injury.

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    Sin, Thomas K; Pei, Xiao M; Teng, Bee T; Tam, Eric W; Yung, Benjamin Y; Siu, Parco M

    2013-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of pressure-induced deep tissue injury are largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling mechanism in skeletal muscle are involved in deep tissue injury. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subject to an experimental protocol to induce deep tissue injury. Two compression cycles with a static pressure of 100 mmHg was applied to an area of 1.5 cm(2) over the mid-tibialis region of right limb of the rats. The left uncompressed limb served as intra-animal control. Muscle tissues underneath compression region were collected for examination. Our analyses indicated that pathohistological characteristics including rounding contour of myofibres and extensive nuclei accumulation were apparently shown in compressed muscles. The elevation of 8OHdG immunopositively stained nuclei indicated the presence of oxidative DNA damage. Increase in oxidative stress was revealed by showing significant elevation of 4HNE and decreases in mRNA abundance of SOD1, catalase and GPx, and protein content of SOD2 in compressed muscles relative to control muscles. Increase in nitrosative stress was demonstrated by significant elevation of nitrotyrosine and NOS2 mRNA content. The activation of tumor suppressor p53 signalling was indicated by the remarkable increases in protein contents of total p53 and serine-15 phosphorylated p53. The transcript expression of the DNA-repairing enzyme, Rad23A, was significantly suppressed in compressed muscles. Our time-course study indicated that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling were maintained in muscles receiving increasing amount of compression cycles and post-compression time. Furthermore, resveratrol was found to attenuate the histological damage, oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling in response to prolonged moderate compression. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that

  6. Modelling the effect of repositioning on the evolution of skeletal muscle damage in deep tissue injury.

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    Demol, Jan; Deun, Dorien Van; Haex, Bart; Oosterwyck, Hans Van; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2013-04-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a localized area of tissue necrosis that originates in the subcutaneous layers under an intact skin and tends to develop when soft tissue is compressed for a prolonged period of time. In clinical practice, DTI is particularly common in bedridden patients and remains a serious issue in todays health care. Repositioning is generally considered to be an effective preventive measure of pressure ulcers. However, limited experimental research and no computational studies have been undertaken on this method. In this study, a methodology was developed to evaluate the influence of different repositioning intervals on the location, size and severity of DTI in bedridden patients. The spatiotemporal evolution of compressive stresses and skeletal muscle viability during the first 48 h of DTI onset was simulated for repositioning schemes in which a patient is turned every 2, 3, 4 or 6 h. The model was able to reproduce important experimental findings, including the morphology and location of DTI in human patients as well as the discrepancy between the internal tissue loads and the contact pressure at the interface with the environment. In addition, the model indicated that the severity and size of DTI were reduced by shortening the repositioning intervals. In conclusion, the computational framework presented in this study provides a promising modelling approach that can help to objectively select the appropriate repositioning scheme that is effective and efficient in the prevention of DTI.

  7. Pressure Combined with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induces Deep Tissue Injury via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Pressure Ulcer Model.

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    Cui, Fei-Fei; Pan, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hao-Huang; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Hong-Xue; Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Chang, Hao-Teng; Jiang, Li-Ping

    2016-02-25

    Pressure ulcer is a complex and significant health problem in long-term bedridden patients, and there is currently no effective treatment or efficient prevention method. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis contributing to the deep injury of pressure ulcers are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Akt/GSK3β signaling in pressure ulcers. A model of pressure-induced deep tissue injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was established. Rats were treated with 2-h compression and subsequent 0.5-h release for various cycles. After recovery, the tissue in the compressed regions was collected for further analysis. The compressed muscle tissues showed clear cellular degenerative features. First, the expression levels of ER stress proteins GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 were generally increased compared to those in the control. Phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β were upregulated in the beginning of muscle compression, and immediately significantly decreased at the initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in compressed muscles tissue. These data show that ER stress may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of cell degeneration after pressure ulcers and that the Akt/GSK3β signal pathway may play an important role in deep tissue injury induced by pressure and ischemia/reperfusion.

  8. Effects of Biowastes Released by Mechanically Damaged Muscle Cells on the Propagation of Deep Tissue Injury: A Multiphysics Study.

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    Yao, Yifei; Da Ong, Lucas Xian; Li, Xiaotong; Wan, Kinlun; Mak, Arthur F T

    2017-03-01

    Deep tissue injuries occur in muscle tissues around bony prominences under mechanical loading leading to severe pressure ulcers. Tissue compression can potentially compromise lymphatic transport and cause accumulation of metabolic biowastes, which may cause further cell damage under continuous mechanical loading. In this study, we hypothesized that biowastes released by mechanically damaged muscle cells could be toxic to the surrounding muscle cells and could compromise the capability of the surrounding muscle cells to withstand further mechanical loadings. In vitro, we applied prolonged low compressive stress (PLCS) and short-term high compressive stress to myoblasts to cause cell damage and collected the biowastes released by the damaged cells under the respective loading scenarios. In silico, we used COMSOL to simulate the compressive stress distribution and the diffusion of biowastes in a semi-3D buttock finite element model. In vitro results showed that biowastes collected from cells damaged under PLCS were more toxic and could compromise the capability of normal myoblasts to resist compressive damage. In silico results showed that higher biowastes diffusion coefficient, higher biowastes release rate, lower biowastes tolerance threshold and earlier timeline of releasing biowastes would cause faster propagation of tissue damage. This study highlighted the importance of biowastes in the development of deep tissue injury to clinical pressure ulcers under prolonged skeletal compression.

  9. Stress analyses coupled with damage laws to determine biomechanical risk factors for deep tissue injury during sitting.

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    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Gefen, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcer that onsets in muscle tissue overlying bony prominences and progresses unnoticeably to more superficial tissues. To minimize DTI, the efficacy of wheelchair cushions should be evaluated not only based on their performance in redistributing interface pressures but also according to their effects on stress concentrations in deep tissues, particularly muscles. However, a standard bioengineering approach for such analyses is missing in literature. The goals of this study were to develop an algorithm to couple finite element (FE) modeling of the buttocks with an injury threshold for skeletal muscle and with a damage-stiffening law for injured muscle tissue, from previous animal experiments, to predict DTI onset and progression for different patient anatomies and wheelchair cushions. The algorithm was also employed for identifying intrinsic (anatomical) biomechanical risk factors for DTI onset. A set of three-dimensional FE models of seated human buttocks was developed, representing different severities of pathoanatomical changes observed in chronically sitting patients: muscle atrophy and "flattening" of the ischial tuberosity (IT). These models were then tested with cushions of different stiffnesses representing products available on the market and semirigid supports. Outcome measures were the percentage of damaged muscle tissue volumes after 90 min and 110 min of simulated continuous immobilized sitting as well as muscle injury rates post-60 min, -90 min, and -110 min of continuous sitting. Damaged muscle volumes grew exponentially with the level of muscle atrophy. For example, simulation of a subject with 70% muscle atrophy sitting on a soft cushion showed damage to 33% of the muscle volume after 90 min of immobilized sitting, whereas a comparable simulation with a nonatrophied muscle yielded only 0.4% damaged tissue volume. The rates of DTI progression also increased substantially with

  10. Assessment of nurses' knowledge and practice in prevention and management of deep tissue injury and stage I pressure ulcer.

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    Aydin, Arzu Karadağ; Karadağ, Ayise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to determine nurses' knowledge and usual practice in prevention and management of deep tissue injury (DTI) and stage I pressure ulcers (PUs). The study was conducted in neurology, orthopedics, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, and intensive care units of 3 hospitals located in Ankara, Turkey. These units were selected because they care for patients at risk for developing PUs. The sample comprised 243 nurses. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with wound care experts to measure nurses' knowledge and practice for preventing DTI and stage I PUs. The questionnaire form was provided to nurses who consented to participate in the study; the nurses completed the forms in the presence of the investigator. The mean score of correct answers was 48.85±11.99 of 100. Significant correlations were found between the percentage of correct answers and level of nursing education, previous experience with PU management, and participation in in-service training programs. The nurses in this study tended to lack sufficient knowledge regarding prevention and management of DTI and stage I PUs.

  11. Ultrasound to Detect Pressure-related Deep Tissue Injuries in Adults Admitted via the Emergency Department: A Prospective, Descriptive, Pilot Study.

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    Scheiner, Jonathan; Farid, Karen; Raden, Mark; Demisse, Seleshi

    2017-03-01

    Stage 4 pressure ulcers (PUs) start with tissue death at the level of the bone, also known as deep tissue injury (DTI). Studies have shown the appearance of DTI on the skin is delayed for several days after the original pressure-related injury to the deep soft tissues. Studies also suggest DTI can be seen using ultrasound (US) technology. A prospective, descriptive, correlational pilot study was conducted to evaluate the use of US technology to detect DTI in the soft tissues that are not visible on the skin upon hospital admission. Study participants included a convenience sample of 33 persons at risk for PUs (ie, Braden score study. US scans identified pressure necrosis at 2 levels: bone (54 positive [US+]) and subcutaneous (SC); 79 US+, respectively). US+ bone sites resulted in 5 PUs appearing 6 to 7 days post-admission (sensitivity = 100%, specificity 84.7%, positive predictive value 10%, and negative predictive value 100%), indicating all DTI that later became purple skin DTI were detected by the US. US+ SC sites, located immediately under the skin, yielded 5 PUs appearing on day 2 after admission (sensitivity 100%, specificity 74.8%, positive predictive value 6.3%, and negative predictive value 100%). The participants with PU occurrence in both bone and SC groups had low Braden scores (bone group mean = 13.25, SC group mean = 11.2). Study patients who were positive for PU also had >4 SFRFs. Creatinine phosphokinase, calcium, and myoglobin levels were inconsistent and did not correlate with US+ scans. These observations warrant larger studies to confirm findings and optimize the validity of US screening for DTI in select populations, which may help improve protocols of care and PU admission documentation. The preliminary results suggest inclusion of the Braden Scale score and known PU risk factors may improve the positive predictive value of this test.

  12. Deep tissue injury in development of pressure ulcers: a decrease of inflammasome activation and changes in human skin morphology in response to aging and mechanical load.

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    Olivera Stojadinovic

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms leading to pressure ulcer development are scarce in spite of high mortality of patients. Development of pressure ulcers that is initially observed as deep tissue injury is multifactorial. We postulate that biomechanical forces and inflammasome activation, together with ischemia and aging, may play a role in pressure ulcer development. To test this we used a newly-developed bio-mechanical model in which ischemic young and aged human skin was subjected to a constant physiological compressive stress (load of 300 kPa (determined by pressure plate analyses of a person in a reclining position for 0.5-4 hours. Collagen orientation was assessed using polarized light, whereas inflammasome proteins were quantified by immunoblotting. Loaded skin showed marked changes in morphology and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression. Sub-epidermal separations and altered orientation of collagen fibers were observed in aged skin at earlier time points. Aged skin showed significant decreases in the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins. Loading did not alter NLRP3 inflammasome proteins expression in aged skin, whereas it significantly increased their levels in young skin. We conclude that aging contributes to rapid morphological changes and decrease in inflammasome proteins in response to tissue damage, suggesting that a decline in the innate inflammatory response in elderly skin could contribute to pressure ulcer pathogenesis. Observed morphological changes suggest that tissue damage upon loading may not be entirely preventable. Furthermore, newly developed model described here may be very useful in understanding the mechanisms of deep tissue injury that may lead towards development of pressure ulcers.

  13. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

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    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  14. Fluorescence diagnosis in tissue injury

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    Maciel, Vitória H.; Ferreira, Juliana; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2009-06-01

    Background and Objectives: The paper aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the fluorescence spectroscopy in the detection of UV-induced skin change of Wistar rats. Study Design/ Materials and Methods: In a group male Wistar rats, the skin damage was produced by an UV-C lamp, periodically monitored using the laser-induced fluorescence, until complete healing process. After determining a characteristic emission band present in the fluorescence spectra of the induced injuries, the amplitude band monitoring allowed the follow up on the injury and the recovery. Results: We observed the appearance of two new emission bands more evident at the injury spectra when compared to the spectrums from normal non-exposed tissue. Following such spectral bands was possible to observe the establishment and recovery. Conclusions: The fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique in distinguishing between normal and UV induced skin change helping the evaluation of changes which are irreversible cancer tissue characteristics.

  15. Shaping field for deep tissue microscopy

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    Colon, J.; Lim, H.

    2015-05-01

    Information capacity of a lossless image-forming system is a conserved property determined by two imaging parameters - the resolution and the field of view (FOV). Adaptive optics improves the former by manipulating the phase, or wavefront, in the pupil plane. Here we describe a homologous approach, namely adaptive field microscopy, which aims to enhance the FOV by controlling the phase, or defocus, in the focal plane. In deep tissue imaging, the useful FOV can be severely limited if the region of interest is buried in a thick sample and not perpendicular to the optic axis. One must acquire many z-scans and reconstruct by post-processing, which exposes tissue to excessive radiation and is also time consuming. We demonstrate the effective FOV can be substantially enhanced by dynamic control of the image plane. Specifically, the tilt of the image plane is continuously adjusted in situ to match the oblique orientation of the sample plane within tissue. The utility of adaptive field microscopy is tested for imaging tissue with non-planar morphology. Ocular tissue of small animals was imaged by two-photon excited fluorescence. Our results show that adaptive field microscopy can utilize the full FOV. The freedom to adjust the image plane to account for the geometrical variations of sample could be extremely useful for 3D biological imaging. Furthermore, it could facilitate rapid surveillance of cellular features within deep tissue while avoiding photo damages, making it suitable for in vivo imaging.

  16. Deep undercooling of tissue water and winter hardiness limitations in timberline flora.

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    Becwar, M R; Rajashekar, C; Bristow, K J; Burke, M J

    1981-07-01

    Deep undercooled tissue water, which froze near -40 C, was found in winter collected stem and leaf tissue of the dominant timberline tree species of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry) Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), and in numerous other woody species in and below the subalpine vegetation zone. Previous work on numerous woody plants indicates that deep undercooling in xylem makes probable a -40 C winter hardiness limit in stem tissue. Visual injury determinations and electrolyte loss measurements on stem tissue revealed injury near -40 C associated with the freezing of the deep undercooled stem tissue water. These results suggest that the winter hardiness limit of this woody flora is near -40 C. The relevance of deep undercooling in relation to timberline, the upper elevational limit of the subalpine forest, is discussed.

  17. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

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    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M. [Neuroimaging Inst., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  18. Optical spectroscopy for the detection of ischemic tissue injury

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    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Fitzgerald, Jason [Sacramento, CA; Troppmann, Christoph [Sacramento, CA; Michalopoulou, Andromachi [Athens, GR

    2009-09-08

    An optical method and apparatus is utilized to quantify ischemic tissue and/or organ injury. Such a method and apparatus is non-invasive, non-traumatic, portable, and can make measurements in a matter of seconds. Moreover, such a method and apparatus can be realized through optical fiber probes, making it possible to take measurements of target organs deep within a patient's body. Such a technology provides a means of detecting and quantifying tissue injury in its early stages, before it is clinically apparent and before irreversible damage has occurred.

  19. 坏死组织对深二度烧伤创面进行性加深的影响%Effect of necrotic tissue on progressive injury in deep partial thickness burn wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆树良; 向军; 青春; 金曙雯; 廖镇江; 史济湘

    2002-01-01

    目的 为探讨深二度烧伤创面坏死组织持续存在对创面组织进行性损害的影响。方法 将7例施行削痂手术的深Ⅱ度烧伤患者创面分为手术前、手术后、和坏死组织存在的未手术创面,并分别获取创面组织标本,测定创面组织释放IL-8、EGF、bFGF、PDGF-AB水平以及观察组织形态学变化。结果 7例未手术创面组织在体外组织培养中释放IL-8水平较削痂手术后创面水平有明显升高(P<0.001);同时,未手术创面EGF、bFGF、PDGF-AB水平与其配对的削痂手术后创面比较均呈明显降低(P<0.05-<0.005)。局部组织形态学观察亦显示,坏死组织存在的未手术创面除有大量中性粒细胞浸润外,坏死范围较手术前扩大,残留的少量皮肤附件因炎症扩大而消失,而削痂后创面的炎性反应较未手术和手术前有明显减轻,无坏死范围的进一步扩大,甚至可见新生肉芽形成和部分表皮修复。结论 创面坏死组织持续存在不仅是创面愈合过程的抑制因素,而且还可能因炎症反应加强或持续存在而导致创面进一步加深,使创面愈合更为延迟。削痂手术作为一种去除坏死组织的主动手段,对促进创面愈合有积极意义。%Objective To evaluate the influence of necrotic tissue on progressive injury in deep partial thickness burn wounds.Methods Tissue specimens were cultured both for estimation of IL-8, EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB and histopathological examination, from the pre-operation, post-operation, and non-operation wounds from seven patients with deep partial thickness burn.Results In seven specimens from the non-operation group, IL-8 release increased compared with those in the post-operation group (P<0.001), while the levels of EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB release were lower than those in the post-operation group. Histopathological examination revealed that in the non-operation group, the degree of neutrophil

  20. Overuse, tissue fatigue, and injuries.

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    Murgia, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Research has provided abundant evidence that overtraining is associated with fatigue and subsequent injury. For many years, it has been axiomatic that the vast majority of dance injuries are the result of overuse, and that dancers frequently persist in movement activities in the presence of microscopic injury--i.e., "dance through" injuries. While it is well-established fact that rest and adequate nutrition are vital components of training and conditioning, for various reasons it remains problematic for dancers to assimilate these requirements into their daily regimen. This review article provides some physiologically and biomechanically based information about the causes, inter-relationships, and consequences of these fundamental premises in dance science.

  1. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  2. Oxygen radicals, inflammation, and tissue injury.

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    Ward, P A; Warren, J S; Johnson, K J

    1988-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions often result in the activation and recruitment of phagocytic cells (e.g., neutrophils and/or tissue macrophages) whose products result in injury to the tissue. In killing of endothelial cells by activated neutrophils as well as in lung injury produced by either activated neutrophils or activated macrophages there is evidence that H2O2 and iron play a role. HO. may be a key oxygen product related to the process of injury. Endothelial cells in some vascular compartments may be susceptible to neutrophil mediated injury in a manner that is independent of oxygen radicals. On the basis of in vitro observations, a synergy exits between platelets and neutrophils, resulting in enhanced oxygen radical formation by the latter. Finally, the cytokines, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, released from macrophages have both direct stimulatory effects on oxygen radical formation in neutrophils and can "prime" macrophages for enhanced oxygen radical responses to other agonists. Cytokines may also alter endothelial cells rendering them more susceptible to oxygen radical mediated injury by neutrophils. This suggests a complex network of interactions between phagocytic cells and peptide mediators, the result of which is acute, oxygen radical mediated tissue injury.

  3. AT2 Receptor and Tissue Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namsolleck, Pawel; Recarti, Chiara; Foulquier, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of tissue injuries in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The detrimental actions of the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in hypertension and vascular injury, myocardial infarction and brain ischemia are well...... and often opposing those of the AT1R. These include anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-apoptosis and neuroregeneration that can counterbalance pathological processes and enable recovery from disease. The recent development of novel, small-molecule AT2R agonists offers a therapeutic potential in humans...

  4. 间歇性渐变压力模式对大鼠后肢深部组织损伤的影响%The effects of intermittent pressure on deep tissue injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兴民; 姬忠良; 段俊峰; 麦艳婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察间歇性渐变压力模式及持续性压力模式作用大鼠胫骨前肌所引发的灌注障碍及肌纤维损伤程度,从而探讨间歇性渐变压力模式在防治深部组织损伤中的相关机制.方法 共选取10~12周龄SD大鼠20只,采用随机数字表法将其分为实验组及对照组.实验组大鼠胫骨前肌部位给予间歇性渐变压力(压力范围8.0 ~ 21.3 kPa)作用,对照组相同部位则给予持续性压力(压力范围为13.3 kPa)作用,每施压2h则间歇0.5h(为1个周期).于施压3个周期后观察各组大鼠受压部位皮肤及肌肉大体情况,同时采用激光多普勒血流灌注成像系统检测2组大鼠后肢受压点皮肤血液灌注情况;观察完毕后切开皮肤,采用相同方法重复检测2组大鼠胫骨前肌受压点30 min内的动态血液灌注情况;最后于2组大鼠胫骨前肌受压部位取材,进行磷钨酸苏木素染色(PTAH)以观察肌肉损伤情况.结果 待3个周期施压结束后,发现治疗组大鼠受压部位皮肤血流及肌肉灌注情况均显著优于对照组,组间差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).随着时间推移,实验组及对照组受压部位血流速度均有增加趋势,并以实验组的增加幅度较显著,与对照组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).对2组大鼠PTAH染色结果比较后发现,实验组大鼠受压部位肌肉损伤程度明显轻于对照组(P<0.05).结论 与持续性压力模式比较,间歇性渐变压力作用能明显减轻压力诱发的组织缺血缺氧及肌组织压力性损伤,对防治深部组织损伤具有重要意义.%Objective To compare the impacts of sustained and intermittent gradient pressure on perfusion disorders and myofiber injuries and to explore the mechanism by which intermittent gradient pressure helps treat deep tissue injury (DTI). Methods Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats 10-12 weeks old were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group.The tibialis

  5. Deep tissue imaging by enhanced photon collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Crosignani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a two-photon fluorescence microscope capable of imaging up to 4mm in turbid media with micron resolution. The key feature of this instrument is the innovative detector, capable of collecting emission photons from a wider surface area of the sample than detectors in traditional two-photon microscopes. This detection scheme is extremely efficient in the collection of emitted photons scattered by turbid media which allows eight fold increase in the imaging depth when compared with conventional two-photon microscopes. Furthermore, this system also has in-depth fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM imaging capability which increases image contrast. The detection scheme captures emission light in a transmission configuration, making it extremely efficient for the detection of second harmonic generation (SHG signals, which is generally forward propagating. Here we present imaging experiments of tissue phantoms and in vivo and ex vivo biological tissue performed with this microscope.

  6. Infrared multiphoton microscopy: subcellular-resolved deep tissue imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, V.; Alexander, S.; Heupel, W.M.; Hirschberg, M.; Hoffman, R.M.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is the method of choice for investigating cells and cellular functions in deep tissue sections and organs. Here we present the setup and applications of infrared-(IR-)MPM using excitation wavelengths above 1080 nm. IR-MPM enables the use of red fluorophores and

  7. Operational morbidity analysis of soft tissue injuries during Operation TELIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, J; Hodgetts, T; Russell, R

    2007-12-01

    Soft tissue injury accounted for one in five of all presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) during Operation TELIC (UK forces in Iraq) from March 2003 to November 2006. This ranks soft tissue complaints as the most frequent cause of attendance to a deployed field hospital ED. This paper analyses the injury patterns, together with implications for future clinical practice and operational planning to prevent injury, optimise patient care and maximize force regeneration.

  8. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  9. Physical Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Injury from Penetrating Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    2008; 64(6):1420-1426. 18. Gryth D, Rocksen D, Persson JK, Arborelius UP, Drobin D, Bursell J, Olsson LG, Kjellstrom BT. Severe lung contusion and...elastic tissues such as lungs and muscle, where the tissue tends to spring back into place with little damage from temporary stretch, most tissue...in a study comparing penetrating thoracic wounds caused by stab injuries to those caused by gunshot injuries, the occurrence of lung

  10. Properdin in complement activation and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Allison M; Nilsson, Bo; Song, Wen-Chao

    2013-12-15

    The plasma protein properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation. Although regarded as an initiator of the alternative pathway of complement activation at the time of its discovery more than a half century ago, the role and mechanism of action of properdin in the complement cascade has undergone significant conceptual evolution since then. Despite the long history of research on properdin, however, new insight and unexpected findings on the role of properdin in complement activation, pathogen infection and host tissue injury are still being revealed by ongoing investigations. In this article, we provide a brief review on recent studies that shed new light on properdin biology, focusing on the following three topics: (1) its role as a pattern recognition molecule to direct and trigger complement activation, (2) its context-dependent requirement in complement activation on foreign and host cell surfaces, and (3) its involvement in alternative pathway complement-mediated immune disorders and considerations of properdin as a potential therapeutic target in human diseases.

  11. Tissue tears in the white matter after lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat: relevance to human brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D I; Raghupathi, R; Saatman, K E; Meaney, D; McIntosh, T K

    2000-02-01

    A characteristic feature of severe diffuse axonal injury in man is radiological evidence of the "shearing injury triad" represented by lesions, sometimes haemorrhagic, in the corpus callosum, deep white matter and the rostral brain stem. With the exception of studies carried out on the non-human primate, such lesions have not been replicated to date in the multiple and diverse rodent laboratory models of traumatic brain injury. The present report describes tissue tears in the white matter, particularly in the fimbria of Sprague-Dawley rats killed 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 days after lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.4 atm). The lesions were most easily seen at 24 h when they appeared as foci of tissue rarefaction in which there were a few polymorphonuclear leucocytes. At the margins of these lesions, large amounts of accumulated amyloid precursor protein (APP) were found in axonal swellings and bulbs. By 1 week post-injury, there was macrophage infiltration with marked astrocytosis and early scar formation. This lesion is considered to be due to severe deformation of white matter and this is the first time that it has been identified reproducibly in a rodent model of head injury under controlled conditions.

  12. Effect of Paeonol on LC3 expression of liver tissues in mice with liver injury induced by deep partial thickness burns wound%丹皮酚对烫伤诱导小鼠肝损伤肝组织自噬蛋白LC3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄红兵; 王晓彬; 王希; 甘学文

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丹皮酚对烫伤诱导小鼠肝损伤肝组织自噬蛋白LC3表达的影响。方法小鼠随机分为空白组、模型组和丹皮酚组,用90℃热水建立烫伤模型,丹皮酚组小鼠在建模前1 h用丹皮酚溶液(60 mg· kg-1)灌胃。观察建模后第2,6,12,24 h小鼠血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶( ALT)与血清天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶( AST)水平变化及肝组织LC3表达情况。结果丹皮酚可有效降低小鼠血清ALT、AST水平,与模型组比较差异有统计学意义,同时可以使肝组织LC3表达增加(均P<0.05)。结论丹皮酚通过增加自噬蛋白LC3表达对深Ⅱ度烫伤诱导的肝损伤具有保护作用。%Objective To explore the effect of Paeonol on LC 3 expre-ssion of liver tissues in mice with liver injury induced by deep partial thickness burns wound .Methods Mice were randomly divided into con-trol group, model group and Paeonol group .The deep partial thickness burns wound model was made by 90 ℃ water , and the Paeonol group were intragastric administration treatment of Paeonol solution ( 60 mg· kg-1 ).The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ) in the serum were respectively measured and LC3 expression of liver tissue was observed between 2 h,6 h,12 h,24 h after model established .Results The levels of ALT and AST in the serum of Paeonol group reduced obviously .Compared Paeonol group with model group , the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05 ) . Meanwhile , Paeonol could induce LC 3 expression of liver tissues .The effects of high -dosage group and medium - dosage group were especially conspicuous .Conclusion Paeonol has better protective effect on liver injury induced with deep Partial thickness burns wound , the mechanism of which is mainly related with inducing LC 3 expression and inhibiting apoptosis of the liver cells .

  13. Cellular and Tissue Injury During Nonfreezing Cold Injury and Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Injuries - Rewarming Damages. 3 Biological, Angiological and Clinical Aspects. In "Disaster Medicine, Volume 3" (R. Frey and P. Safar, Ed.). Springer- Verlag...Kulka, J.P. Vasomotor microcirculatory insufficiency: observation of nonfreezing cold injury of the mouse ear. Angiology 12, 491-506 (1961). 38

  14. Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, John S; Yeh, Alexander J; Neofytou, Evgenios; Kim, Sanghoek; Tanabe, Yuji; Patlolla, Bhagat; Beygui, Ramin E; Poon, Ada S Y

    2014-06-03

    The ability to implant electronic systems in the human body has led to many medical advances. Progress in semiconductor technology paved the way for devices at the scale of a millimeter or less ("microimplants"), but the miniaturization of the power source remains challenging. Although wireless powering has been demonstrated, energy transfer beyond superficial depths in tissue has so far been limited by large coils (at least a centimeter in diameter) unsuitable for a microimplant. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome by a method, termed midfield powering, to create a high-energy density region deep in tissue inside of which the power-harvesting structure can be made extremely small. Unlike conventional near-field (inductively coupled) coils, for which coupling is limited by exponential field decay, a patterned metal plate is used to induce spatially confined and adaptive energy transport through propagating modes in tissue. We use this method to power a microimplant (2 mm, 70 mg) capable of closed-chest wireless control of the heart that is orders of magnitude smaller than conventional pacemakers. With exposure levels below human safety thresholds, milliwatt levels of power can be transferred to a deep-tissue (>5 cm) microimplant for both complex electronic function and physiological stimulation. The approach developed here should enable new generations of implantable systems that can be integrated into the body at minimal cost and risk.

  15. How to use PRICE treatment for soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cormac

    2016-08-24

    Rationale and key points This article assists nurses to use the acronym PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation) to guide the treatment of patients with uncomplicated soft tissue injuries to their upper or lower limbs. » Treatment of soft tissue injuries to limbs is important to reduce complications following injury, alleviate pain and ensure normal limb function is restored promptly. » Nurses should have an understanding of the rationale and evidence base supporting PRICE treatment of soft tissue injuries. » Providing accurate information to patients and carers about the management of soft tissue injuries and anticipated recovery time is an important aspect of treatment. » Further research is required to develop best practice in the treatment of soft tissue injuries. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when managing patients with soft tissue injuries to upper or lower limbs. 2. Positive elements of your current practice and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio.

  16. Soft Tissue Injuries in Hungarian and Austrian Clinical Diagnostic Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarasi-Nuber Katalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to providing first aid, primary treating doctors are required to describe and register injuries acquired in accidents and assaults. They should do this with the highest possible accuracy, as this official document is often the only documentary evidence of soft tissue injuries in case a lawsuit is filed later. Characteristics of injuries may disappear faster with the healing process of the soft tissue, making it impossible for forensic experts to deduce the weapon involved. Consequently, terminological accuracy is a prerequisite for the appropriate reconstruction of the type and severity of injuries. This study aims at analysing reports on soft tissue injuries in Hungary and Austria from the terminological point of view. It is meant to reveal inaccuracies in the use of noun phrases impairing objective and accurate forensic assessment.

  17. [Application of skin and soft tissue expansion in treatment of burn injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N Z; Shen, Z Y; Ma, C X

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the application of skin and soft tissue expansion in the treatment of deformity due to extensive severe burn injury and repair of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound. From 1988, 83 cases of application of skin and soft tissue expansion were reported. In those patients with deformity due to severe burn of large area and with whole nasal defect, soft tissue expander was used under the forehead skin graft and venter frontalis, followed by reconstruction of nose with the expanded vascularized skin flap and carved cartilago costalis as nasal frame. In patients of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound, skin and soft tissue expansion were used to repair the wound simultaneously with scalp burn alopecia, anesthetics and antibiotics injected into the extracapsular space of the expander in case of pain and infection. All of the cases were successfully treated with little pain and minimized infection. Skin and soft tissue expansion in a safe and reliable measure in the treatment of deformity due to extensive severe burn injury and repair of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound.

  18. The optimal duration and delay of first aid treatment for deep partial thickness burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttle, Leila; Kempf, Margit; Liu, Pei-Yun; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-08-01

    Using our porcine model of deep dermal partial thickness burn injury, various durations (10min, 20min, 30min or 1h) and delays (immediate, 10min, 1h, 3h) of 15 degrees C running water first aid were applied to burns and compared to untreated controls. The subdermal temperatures were monitored during the treatment and wounds observed weekly for 6 weeks, for re-epithelialisation, wound surface area and cosmetic appearance. At 6 weeks after the burn, tissue biopsies were taken of the scar for histological analysis. Results showed that immediate application of cold running water for 20min duration is associated with an improvement in re-epithelialisation over the first 2 weeks post-burn and decreased scar tissue at 6 weeks. First aid application of cold water for as little as 10min duration or up to 1h delay still provides benefit.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity in leiomyomas of deep soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Brunetti, Marta; Agostini, Antonio; Andersen, Hege Kilen; Lobmaier, Ingvild; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2017-07-25

    Leiomyoma of deep soft tissue is a rare type of benign smooth muscle tumor that mostly occurs in the retroperitoneum or abdominal cavity of women, and about which very little genetic information exists. In the present study, eight leiomyomas of deep soft tissue were genetically analyzed. G-banding showed that three tumors carried rearrangements of the long arm of chromosome 12, three others had 8q rearrangements, the 7th tumor had deletion of the long arm of chromosome 7, del(7)(q22), and the 8th had aberrations of chromosome bands 3q21~23 and 11q21~22. The target genes of the 12q and 8q aberrations were HMGA2 and PLAG1, respectively. In the leiomyomas with 12q rearrangements, both HMGA2 and PLAG1 were expressed whereas in the tumors with 8q aberrations, only PLAG1 was expressed. In the cases without 12q or 8q aberrations, the expression of HMGA2 was very low and PLAG1 was expressed only in the case with del(7)(q22). All eight leiomyomas of deep soft tissue expressed MED12 but none of them had mutation in exon 2 of that gene. In two tumors with 12q rearrangements, RPSAP52 on 12q14.3 was fused with non-coding RNA (accession number XR_944195) from 14q32.2 or ZFP36L1 from14q24.1. In a tumor with inv(12), exon 3 of HMGA2 was fused to a sequence in intron 1 of the CRADD gene from 12q22. The present data together with those of our two previous studies in which the fusions KAT6B-KANSL1 and EWSR1-PBX3 were described in two retroperitoneal leiomyomas carrying a t(10;17)(q22;q21) and a t(9;22)(q33;q12) translocation, respectively, show that leiomyomas of deep soft tissue are genetically heterogenous but have marked similarities to uterine leiomyomas.

  20. Influence of ethanol and morphine on pain perception evoked by deep tissue injury A influência do etanol e da morfina sobre a percepção dolorosa provocada por injúria tecidual profunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hauber Gameiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and morphine on nociceptive behavioral responses evoked by the injection of formalin into the temporomandibular joint region of rats (the TMJ formalin test. In experiment 1, animals were given an ethanol solution (6.5% or tap water to drink for 4 and 10 days, before the procedure for TMJ pain. In the group treated for 4 days, significant analgesia was observed in the TMJ formalin test, whereas the group treated for 10 days did not show this effect, revealing the development of tolerance to ethanol antinociceptive effects. In experiment 2, animals were submitted to chronic regimen of ethanol (6.5% for 10 days and the control group was given tap water to drink. After this period, morphine (10 mg/kg i.p. was administrated 30 minutes before the TMJ formalin test. Morphine had the same analgesic effect in both groups, showing that the treatment with ethanol was not able to alter the analgesic potency of morphine. The results showed that ethanol can affect nociceptive behavioral responses related to pain from deep tissues, like the TMJ, and the absence of interaction between ethanol and morphine suggest that ethanol-induced analgesia was mediated by nonopiate mechanisms.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do etanol e da morfina sobre as respostas comportamentais nociceptivas provocadas pelo teste da formalina na ATM de ratos (Teste da formalina na ATM. No experimento 1, os animais receberam uma solução de etanol 6,5 % ou água comum para beber durante 4 e 10 dias, antes da realização do teste da formalina na ATM. No grupo tratado por 4 dias, observou-se analgesia significativa ao teste da formalina, enquanto que no grupo tratado por 10 dias esse efeito não ocorreu, demonstrando o desenvolvimento de tolerância aos efeitos antinociceptivos do etanol. No experimento 2, os animais foram submetidos ao regime crônico de etanol (6,5% por 10 dias e o grupo controle recebeu água comum

  1. Bioluminescence-activated deep-tissue photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi Rang; Kim, Seonghoon; Choi, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung Yong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Homin; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Koh, Gou Young; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Optical energy can trigger a variety of photochemical processes useful for therapies. Owing to the shallow penetration of light in tissues, however, the clinical applications of light-activated therapies have been limited. Bioluminescence resonant energy transfer (BRET) may provide a new way of inducing photochemical activation. Here, we show that efficient bioluminescence energy-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) of macroscopic tumors and metastases in deep tissue. For monolayer cell culture in vitro incubated with Chlorin e6, BRET energy of about 1 nJ per cell generated as strong cytotoxicity as red laser light irradiation at 2.2 mW/cm(2) for 180 s. Regional delivery of bioluminescence agents via draining lymphatic vessels killed tumor cells spread to the sentinel and secondary lymph nodes, reduced distant metastases in the lung and improved animal survival. Our results show the promising potential of novel bioluminescence-activated PDT.

  2. Quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction improves accuracy in deep tissue structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastanduno, Michael A; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-10-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is emerging as a potentially powerful imaging tool with multiple applications. Image reconstruction for PAI has been relatively limited because of limited or no modeling of light delivery to deep tissues. This work demonstrates a numerical approach to quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction that minimizes depth and spectrally derived artifacts. We present the first time-domain quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm that models optical sources through acoustic data to create quantitative images of absorption coefficients. We demonstrate quantitative accuracy of less than 5% error in large 3 cm diameter 2D geometries with multiple targets and within 22% error in the largest size quantitative photoacoustic studies to date (6cm diameter). We extend the algorithm to spectral data, reconstructing 6 varying chromophores to within 17% of the true values. This quantitiative PA tomography method was able to improve considerably on filtered-back projection from the standpoint of image quality, absolute, and relative quantification in all our simulation geometries. We characterize the effects of time step size, initial guess, and source configuration on final accuracy. This work could help to generate accurate quantitative images from both endogenous absorbers and exogenous photoacoustic dyes in both preclinical and clinical work, thereby increasing the information content obtained especially from deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging studies.

  3. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  4. Combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic system for deep tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Jankovic, Ladislav; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    A combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging system is presented that is capable of deep tissue imaging. The system consists of a modified clinical ultrasound array system and tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The system is designed for noninvasive detection of sentinel lymph nodes and guidance of needle biopsies for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer patients. Using a fraction of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit, photoacoustic imaging of methylene blue achieved penetration depths of greater than 5 cm in chicken breast tissue. Photoacoustic imaging sensitivity was measured by varying the concentration of methylene blue dye placed at a depth of 3 cm within surrounding chicken breast tissue. Signal-to-noise ratio, noise equivalent sensitivity, and axial spatial resolution were quantified versus depth based on in vivo and chicken breast tissue experiments. The system has been demonstrated in vivo for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in rats following intradermal injection of methylene blue. These results highlight the clinical potential of photoacoustic image-guided identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  5. Management of facial soft tissue injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconez, Henry C; Buseman, Jason L; Cunningham, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Pediatric facial trauma can present a challenge to even the more experienced plastic surgeon. Injuries to the head and neck may involve bone and soft tissues with an assortment of specialized organs and tissue elements involved. Because of the active nature of children, facial soft tissue injuries can be diverse and extensive as well as some of the more common injuries a plastic surgeon is asked to treat. In 2007, approximately 800,000 patients younger than 15 years presented to emergency departments around the country with significant open wounds of the head that required treatment.In this review, we present the different types and regions of pediatric soft tissue facial trauma, as well as treatment options and goals of plastic surgery wound management. Special aspects, such as bite wounds, burns, pediatric analgesia, and antibiotic therapy, are also discussed.

  6. TREATMENT OF SOFT TISSUE INJURY BY PUNCTURING CLEFT-POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yunxiang; Chen Guizhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture of "Xi" (Cleft)-points in treatment of soft tissue injury. Methods: 335 cases of soft tissue injury patients were divided into Cleft-point group (264 cases) and Ashipoint group (control group, 71 cases) randomly. In Cleft-point group, the 16 Cleft-points were used in combination with Ahshi points. In control group, only local Ahshi-points were punctured. The treatment was conducted once every day, with 5 sessions being a therapeutic course. After 2 courses of treatment, the therapeutic effect was analyzed.Results: Results showed that the therapeutic effect of cleft-point group was significantly better than that of control group (P<0.05), particularly in treatment of acute soft tissue. Conclusion: Cleft-point acupuncture has a better therapeutic effect in treatment of soft tissue injury in comparison with Ashi-point.

  7. Progesterone-independent avidin induction in chick tissues caused by tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H A; Kulomaa, M S; Tuohimaa, P J

    1979-04-01

    Progesterone was administered to oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks, or inflammation in the abdominal cavity was caused by intestine and liver injury or intraperitoneal actinomycin D administration. Local injury to the pectoral muscle was also carried out. Chicks were killed 24--26 h after the treatment and the biotin-binding egg white protein, avidin, was assayed in a number of tissues using a [14C]biotin-binding method and radioimmunoassay. Ovalbumin was also assayed with a radioimmunoassay. Avidin was not found in the tissues of control chicks. Progesterone induced avidin only in the oviducts of oestrogen-treated chicks. After intestine and liver injury avidin was found, however, in all the tissues of oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks studied except for the brain. The concentrations were highest in the oviduct, lung, intestine and bursa of Fabricius. Actinomycin D (200 microgram/kg) caused ascites and subcutaneous oedema in 40--60% of the chicks, and avidin was found only in the tissues of these inflamed animals. Avidin production caused by the local muscular injury was restricted to the injured area. Tissue injury and inflammation did not induce ovalbumin in any tissue. The study shows that avidin can be induced besides the oviduct also in non-oviductal chick tissues, and it is proposed that there are both progesterone-dependent and -independent avidin induction mechanisms.

  8. Multimode fibres: a pathway towards deep-tissue fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a pivotal platform for imaging in the life sciences. In recent years, the overwhelming success of its different modalities has been accompanied by various efforts to carry out imaging deeper inside living tissues. A key challenge of these efforts is to overcome scattering and absorption of light in such environments. Multiple strategies (e.g. multi-photon, wavefront correction techniques) extended the penetration depth to the current state-of-the-art of about 1000μm at the resolution of approximately 1μm. The only viable strategy for imaging deeper than this is by employing a fibre bundle based endoscope. However, such devices lack resolution and have a significant footprint (1mm in diameter), which prohibits their use in studies involving tissues deep in live animals. We have recently demonstrated a radically new approach that delivers the light in/out of place of interest through an extremely thin (tens of microns in diameter) cylindrical glass tube called a multimode optical fibre (MMF). Not only is this type of delivery much less invasive compared to fibre bundle technology, it also enables higher resolution and has the ability to image at any plane behind the fibre without any auxiliary optics. The two most important limitations of this exciting technology are (i) the lack of bending flexibility and (ii) high demands on computational power, making the performance of such systems slow. We will discuss how to overcome these limitations.

  9. Complement and Immunoregulation in Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    transplantation, sepsis , and cardiovascular interventions. Ischemia induces local cellular changes such as membrane perturbation, cytoskeletal...intestinal epithelial cells Several reports have provided evidence that acute inflammatory conditions including sepsis and endotoxemia can stimulate...that detects complement precursor C3 and fragments of C3 including c3a, c3b and c3c. Intestinal tissue sections from sham-operated mice displayed

  10. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwer, Ronald W H; Sluiter, Arja A; Balesar, Rawien A; Baaijen, Johannes C; de Witt Hamer, Philip C; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-07-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by resection (interruption of the circulation) and aggravated by the preparation of slices (severed neuronal and glial processes and blood vessels) reflect the reaction of human brain tissue to severe injury. We investigated this process using immunocytochemical markers, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Essential features were rapid shrinkage of neurons, loss of neuronal marker expression and proliferation of reactive cells that expressed Nestin and Vimentin. Also, microglia generally responded strongly, whereas the response of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes appeared to be more variable. Importantly, some reactive cells also expressed both microglia and astrocytic markers, thus confounding their origin. Comparison with post-mortem human brain tissue obtained at rapid autopsies suggested that the reactive process is not a consequence of epilepsy. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  11. OCT-based in vivo tissue injury mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Tissue injury mapping (TIM) is developed by using a non-invasive in vivo optical coherence tomography to generate optical attenuation coefficient and microvascular map of the injured tissue. Using TIM, the infarct region development in mouse cerebral cortex during stroke is visualized. Moreover, we demonstrate the in vivo human facial skin structure and microvasculature during an acne lesion development. The results indicate that TIM may help in the study and the treatment of various diseases by providing high resolution images of tissue structural and microvascular changes.

  12. Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical) Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury A compound commonly found in household laundry detergents may help preserve muscle tissue after a severe injury, according to research ...

  13. The Field of Tissue Injury in the Lung and Airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiling, Katrina; Ryan, John; Brody, Jerome S.; Spira, Avrum

    2009-01-01

    The concept of field cancerization was first introduced over six decades ago in the setting of oral cancer. Later, field cancerization involving histologic and molecular changes of neoplasms and adjacent tissue began to be characterized in smokers with or without lung cancer. Investigators also described a diffuse, non-neoplastic field of molecular injury throughout the respiratory tract that is attributable to cigarette smoking and susceptibility to smoking-induced lung disease. The potential molecular origins of field cancerization and the field of injury following cigarette smoke exposure in lung and airway epithelia are critical to understanding the impact of the field of injury on clinical diagnostics and therapeutics for smoking-induced lung disease. PMID:19138985

  14. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor relates to fibrin degradation in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Reduced concentration of tissue factor pathway inhibitor is a risk factor for development of deep venous thrombosis, whereas elevated concentrations of tissue factor pathway inhibitor are observed in patients with acute myocardial infarction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Presently, we...... studied the association between inflammation, endothelial cell perturbation, fibrin degradation and the concentration of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in patients suspected for acute deep venous thrombosis. We determined the tissue factor pathway inhibitor -33T/C polymorphism, free and total tissue...... factor pathway inhibitor, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and D-Dimer in 160 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with a tentative diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis was identified in 57 patients (18 distal and 39 proximal). The distribution of the tissue...

  15. Soft tissue coverage of war extremity injuries: the use of pedicle flap transfers in a combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Laurent; Gaillard, Christophe; Pellet, Nicolas; Bertani, Antoine; Rigal, Sylvain; Rongiéras, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    Definitive management of extremity injuries including soft tissue coverage is seldom achieved in battlefield medical treatment facilities due to limited resources and operational constraints. The purpose of this study was to analyse the French Army Medical Service experience performing such reconstructive surgery in a Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in Afghanistan. A clinical study was performed in the KaIA (Kabul International Airport) CSH from July 2012 to January 2013. During this period 23 Afghan patients treated for soft tissue coverage of combat-related extremity injuries were included. They totalled 28 extremity injuries including 18 blast trauma (BT) and ten non blast trauma (NBT). Overall, 35 extremity pedicled flaps were performed. There were 26 fasciocutaneous flaps, eight muscle flaps and one composite flap. Soft tissue coverage was achieved on all patients reviewed with a mean follow-up of 59 days. Five postoperative complications occurred including two deep infections, one partial flap necrosis and two flap failures, without difference according to injury mechanism. Reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue defect can be achieved in CSHs for local nationals. Pedicle flap transfers provide simple and safe coverage for war extremity injuries in this challenging environment whatever the injury mechanism.

  16. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VIII. Soft Tissue Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on soft tissue injuries is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Six units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the skin; (2) patient assessment for soft-tissue injuries; (3) pathophysiology and management of soft tissue injuries;…

  17. The Field of Tissue Injury in the Lung and Airway

    OpenAIRE

    Steiling, Katrina; Ryan, John; Brody, Jerome S.; Spira, Avrum

    2008-01-01

    The concept of field cancerization was first introduced over six decades ago in the setting of oral cancer. Later, field cancerization involving histologic and molecular changes of neoplasms and adjacent tissue began to be characterized in smokers with or without lung cancer. Investigators also described a diffuse, non-neoplastic field of molecular injury throughout the respiratory tract that is attributable to cigarette smoking and susceptibility to smoking-induced lung disease. The potentia...

  18. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  19. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases-related hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Fu-Kui Zhang; Xiao-Ning Wu; Tai-Ling Wang; Ji-Dong Jia; Bao-En Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic injury is rarely associated with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD).We report,here,a case of a middle-aged woman with UCTD-related hepatic injury,including its case history,clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,treatment and its short-term effect.The patient was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of fatigue,anorexia,low-grade fever and skin rashes.She had a past history of left knee joint replacement.Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of serum transaminase,IgG and globulin,accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate,eosinophilia and a high titer of antinuclear antibodies (1:320).Imaging studies showed interstitial pneumonitis and hydropericardium.Liver biopsy showed the features which were consistent with those of connective tissue diseases-related polyangitis.After treatment with a low-dose of oral prednisone,both symptoms and laboratory findings were significantly improved.UCTD-related hepatic injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with abnormal liver function tests.Lowdose prednisone may effectively improve both symptoms and laboratory tests.

  20. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  1. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  2. The thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julianna

    Therapeutic ultrasound is used in clinics around the world to treat ailments such as uterine fibroids, kidney stones, and plantar fasciitis. While many of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound are elicited by hyperthermia, bubbles can also interact with tissue to produce beneficial effects. For example, bubbles are used in boiling histotripsy to de-bulk tissue and are used in shock wave lithotripsy to break kidney stones. However, the same bubbles that break the kidney stones also damage the kidney, which is why bubble damage is a concern in every ultrasound application including fetal imaging. Whether the aim is to emulsify a tumor or image a fetus, understanding the thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by bubbles in an ultrasound field is important for all ultrasound applications and was the goal of this dissertation. One specific application of therapeutic ultrasound, known as boiling histotripsy, uses shock wave heating to explosively expand a millimeter-size boiling bubble at the transducer focus and fractionate bulk tissue. Yet it was unclear how the millimeter-size boiling or vapor bubble broke down the tissue into its submicron components. In this dissertation, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that ultrasonic atomization, or the emission of fine droplets from an acoustically excited liquid film, is the mechanism by which the millimeter-size boiling bubble in boiling histotripsy fractionates tissue into its submicron components. Using high speed photography, we showed that tissue can behave as a liquid such that a miniature acoustic fountain forms and atomization occurs within a millimeter-size cavity that approximates the boiling or vapor bubble produced by boiling histotripsy. The end result of tissue atomization was a hole in the tissue surface. After showing that tissue can be eroded by atomization, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the tissue properties that influence atomization. The results indicated that highly

  3. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  4. APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF TIBIALIS ANTERIOR MUSCLE IN EVALUATION OF RAT DEEP TISSUE INJURY UNDER TWO PRESSURE TYPES%三维重建胫骨前肌在评估两种压力模式对大鼠深部组织损伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佳华; 王维平; 刘江辉; 黄勇; 郑光辉; 王淮玲; 王洁

    2011-01-01

    experimental group than in control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion 3D reconstruction is an effective method to quantitatively evaluate pathological changes inside the integrity tissue and can provide the visual basis for the mechanical property distributed in the loaded muscle. Intermittent gradient pressure can reduce deep tissue injury.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, diabetes mellitus, and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liu; Xie, Hong; Liu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Unfolded and misfolded protein accumulation interferes with the ER function and triggers ER stress response. Thus, ER stress response, also called unfolded protein response (UPR), is an adaptive process that controls the protein amount in the ER lumen and the downstream protein demand. In normal conditions, the role of ER stress is to maintain ER homeostasis, restore ER function, and protect stressed cells from apoptosis, by coordinating gene expression, protein synthesis, and accelerating protein degradation through several molecular pathways. However, prolonged ER stress response plays a paradoxical role, which leads to cell damage, apoptosis, and concomitant tissue injuries. A number of tissue alterations are involved with diabetes mellitus progress and its comorbidities via ER stress. However, certain pharmacological agents affecting ER stress have been identified. In this review, we summarized the relationship between ER stress and insulin resistance development. Moreover, we aim to explain how ER stress influences type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. In addition, we reviewed the literature on ER stress and UPR in three kinds of tissue injuries induced by T2DM. Finally, a retrospective analysis of the effects of anti-diabetes medications on ER stress is presented.

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury and NADPH Oxidase: A Deep Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Angeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI represents one of the major causes of mortality and disability in the world. TBI is characterized by primary damage resulting from the mechanical forces applied to the head as a direct result of the trauma and by the subsequent secondary injury due to a complex cascade of biochemical events that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the genesis of the delayed harmful effects contributing to permanent damage. NADPH oxidases (Nox, ubiquitary membrane multisubunit enzymes whose unique function is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been shown to be a major source of ROS in the brain and to be involved in several neurological diseases. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Nox is upregulated after TBI, suggesting Nox critical role in the onset and development of this pathology. In this review, we summarize the current evidence about the role of Nox enzymes in the pathophysiology of TBI.

  7. Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts recruited to the upper dermis appear beneath regenerating epidermis after deep dermal burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryo; Takami, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Shimazaki, Syuji

    2007-01-01

    Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts migrating to sites of tissue repair after injury may not only be locally recruited but could also be recruited from the bone marrow. However, the characteristics and functional roles, if any, of these cells in wound healing are poorly understood. Here, we show unequivocally that bone marrow-derived fibroblasts do contribute to deep dermal burn wound healing. Bone-marrow stromal cells were collected from femurs of male Lewis rats, cultured for a week, and then the adherent cells were labeled with the fluorescent marker PKH-26. These cells stained positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and prolyl 4-hydroxylase, but did not express RM-4 (a macrophage marker), CD34, or cytokeratin, characteristic of myofibroblastic differentiation. When injected intravenously into Lewis rats, they homed to the bone marrow. Five days after transplantation, a deep dermal burn was made on the back of the rat, and biopsies were taken 7, 10, and 14 days later. PKH-positive cells were not found at day 7, but by day 10, they were easily detected mainly in the upper dermis close beneath the regenerating epidermis. These PKH-positive cells still stained for alpha-SMA and prolyl 4-hydroxylase, but not RM4. Thus, it is suggested that myofibroblasts originating in the bone marrow contribute not only to promotion of granulation but also enhancement of dermal-epidermal interaction after thermal injury.

  8. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca+2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca+2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  9. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  10. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  11. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  12. [Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vinícius Trindade Gomes da; Iglesio, Ricardo; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Siqueira, Mario Gilberto; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O risco de trombose venosa profunda encontra-se aumentado em doentes vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico, mas a profilaxia da trombose venosa profunda se confronta com o possível risco de piora de lesões hemorrágicas relacionados ao traumatismo cranioencefálico. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão crítica do tema e propomos um protocolo de profilaxia para estes doentes.Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, e Scielo de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2014 com a expressão de busca âÄúdeep venous thrombosis and prophylaxis and traumatic brain injuryâÄù. Foram encontrados 44 artigos usando os termos MeSH definidos. Destes foram selecionados 23 artigos, usando como critérios: publicação em inglês ou português, fase aguda do traumatismo cranioencefálico moderado e grave, profilaxia mecânica não invasiva ou química.Resultados: O traumatismo cranioencefálico é um fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. A chance de trombose venosa profunda é 2,59 vezes maior em doentes com traumatismo cranioencefálico. A prevalência de trombose venosa profunda e embolia pulmonar em doentes que sofreram traumatismo cranioencefálico é de 20%, podendo atingir 30% dos doentes em alguns estudos.Discussão e Conclusão: As diversas formas de traumatismo de forma isolada constituem fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Ensaios clínicos são necessários para estabelecer a eficácia da profilaxia e o melhor momento de iniciar medicação para trombose venosa profunda em doentes com traumatismo craniencefálico.

  13. Thermal injuries in the insensate deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap: case series and literature review on mechanisms of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enajat, Morteza; Rozen, Warren M; Audolfsson, Thorir; Acosta, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing use of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap, complications that are particularly rare (less than 1%) may start to become clinically relevant. During DIEP flap harvest, cutaneous nerves innervating the flap are necessarily sacrificed, resulting in reduced sensibility. This impaired sensibility prevents adequate thermoregulatory reflexes, like vasodilatation, sweating, and protective behaviors, leaving the reconstructed breast considerably more susceptible to thermal insult. We present four DIEP flap cases who sustained postoperative thermal injury to the reconstructed breast. All four cases were operated on between 2001 and 2008, over the course of 600 DIEP flaps in our unit (an incidence of 0.7%). The injuries occurred between 2 and 18 months after reconstruction. Two patients sustained thermal injury while sunbathing, one while staying in a warm environment, and one sustained the injury while taking a shower. No flap losses ensued, but these were not without morbidity. A literature review discusses other similar cases in the literature and describes the mechanisms for these findings. As a majority of patients will regain both fine-touch and heat sensation by 3 years postoperatively, it is pertinent that prophylactic measures be instituted during this period, such as the avoidance of sunbathing and the use of cooler shower temperatures for the first 3 years postoperatively. While performing sensory nerve coaptation is the gold standard for maximizing the success of sensory regeneration, this is not always sought and the 0.7% incidence of thermal injury we have encountered suggest the role for greater consideration of such injury. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  15. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation by tissue optical properties, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Predictions of the spectral variations of light fluence in tissue are challenging since the spatial distribution of optical properties in tissue cannot be resolved in high resolution or with high accuracy by current methods. Spectral corruption has fundamentally limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic methods and impeded the long sought-after goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical but still unattainable target for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. We discover a new principle underlying light fluence in tissues, which describes the wavelength dependence of light fluence as an affine function of a few reference base spectra, independently of the specific distribution of tissue optical properties. This finding enables the introd...

  16. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  17. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology. PMID:27358000

  18. Getting under the skin: the immunopathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes deep tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda; Thulin, Pontus; Low, Donald E; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes can cause a variety of diseases in immunocompetent individuals, from pharyngotonsillitis to life-threatening invasive diseases, such as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and rapidly progressing deep-tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing fasciitis is often seen in combination with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, which further increases morbidity and mortality. We review here the host-pathogen interactions in the tissue milieu and discuss the use of intravenous immunoglobulin as potential adjunctive therapy in these life-threatening infections.

  19. Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ke; Fiolka, Reto; Cui, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Optical microscopy has so far been restricted to superficial layers, leaving many important biological questions unanswered. Random scattering causes the ballistic focus, which is conventionally used for image formation, to decay exponentially with depth. Optical imaging beyond the ballistic regime has been demonstrated by hybrid techniques that combine light with the deeper penetration capability of sound waves. Deep inside highly scattering media, the sound focus dimensions restrict the imaging resolutions. Here we show that by iteratively focusing light into an ultrasound focus via phase conjugation, we can fundamentally overcome this resolution barrier in deep tissues and at the same time increase the focus to background ratio. We demonstrate fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime of light with a threefold improved resolution and a fivefold increase in contrast. This development opens up practical high resolution fluorescence imaging in deep tissues.

  20. Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Ke; Cui, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Optical microscopy has so far been restricted to superficial layers, leaving many important biological questions unanswered. Random scattering causes the ballistic focus, which is conventionally used for image formation, to decay exponentially with depth. Optical imaging beyond the ballistic regime has been demonstrated by hybrid techniques that combine light with the deeper penetration capability of sound waves. Deep inside highly scattering media, the sound focus dimensions restrict the imaging resolutions. Here we show that by iteratively focusing light into an ultrasound focus via phase conjugation, we can fundamentally overcome this resolution barrier in deep tissues and at the same time increase the focus to background ratio. We demonstrate fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime of light with a threefold improved resolution and a fivefold increase in contrast. This development opens up practical high resolution fluorescence imaging in deep tissues.

  1. Emerging peripheral receptor targets for deep-tissue craniofacial pain therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanar, R; Dessem, D

    2009-03-01

    While effective therapies are available for some types of craniofacial pain, treatments for deep-tissue craniofacial pain such as temporomandibular disorders are less efficacious. Several ion channels and receptors which are prominent in craniofacial nociceptive mechanisms have been identified on trigeminal primary afferent neurons. Many of these receptors and channels exhibit unusual distributions compared with extracranial regions. For example, expression of the ATP receptor P2X(3) is strongly implicated in nociception and is more abundant on trigeminal primary afferent neurons than analogous extracranial neurons, making them potentially productive targets specifically for craniofacial pain therapies. The initial part of this review therefore focuses on P2X(3) as a potential therapeutic target to treat deep-tissue craniofacial pain. In the trigeminal ganglion, P2X(3) receptors are often co-expressed with the nociceptive neuropeptides CGRP and SP. Therefore, we discuss the role of CGRP and SP in deep-tissue craniofacial pain and suggest that neuropeptide antagonists, which have shown promise for the treatment of migraine, may have wider therapeutic potential, including the treatment of deep-tissue craniofacial pain. P2X(3), TRPV1, and ASIC3 are often co-expressed in trigeminal neurons, implying the formation of functional complexes that allow craniofacial nociceptive neurons to respond synergistically to altered ATP and pH in pain. Future therapeutics for craniofacial pain thus might be more efficacious if targeted at combinations of P2X(3), CGRP, TRPV1, and ASIC3.

  2. Photodamage in deep tissue two-photon optical biopsy of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbosco, Luca; Zanini, Giulia; D'Amato, Elvira; Tessarolo, Francesco; Boi, Sebastiana; Bauer, Paolo; Haase, Albrecht; Antolini, Renzo

    2015-10-01

    Photodamage, induced by femtosecond laser radiation, was studied in thick samples of human skin tissue (healthy skin and neoplastic lesions). Photobleaching, photoionization, and thermomechanical damage effects were characterized comparatively. The laser power dependence of the damage rates allowed to connect macroscopic effects to underlying molecular processes. Optical effects were correlated to histopathological changes. Tissue alterations were found only from thermomechanical cavitation and limited to superficial layers of the epidermis. From the depth-dependencies of all damage thresholds a depth-dependent power-compensation scheme was defined allowing for damage-free deep tissue optical biopsy. Damage-induced luminescence pattern for different excitation powers and a corresponding threshold analysis.

  3. Stable microwave radiometry system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-02-01

    Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  4. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  5. Long-term allergen exposure induces adipose tissue inflammation and circulatory system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Su, Huey-Jen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to study whether allergen exposure can induce inflammation and lower the anti-inflammation levels in serum and in adipose tissues, and further develop cardiovascular injury. Our data showed that heart rate was significantly higher in the OVA-challenged mice compared to control mice. Moreover, there were higher expressions of pro-inflammation genes in the OVA-challenged mice in adipose tissues, and the expressions of anti-inflammation genes were lower. The levels of inflammation mediators were associated in serum and adipose tissues. The level of circulatory injury lactate dehydrogenase was significantly associated with the levels of E-selectin, resistin and adiponectin in the serum. The hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry stains indicated the OVA-challenged mice had higher levels of inflammation. In summary, the current study demonstrated allergen exposure can cause cardiovascular injury, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissues play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular injury.

  6. The influence of prior hamstring injury on lengthening muscle tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B; Thelen, Darryl G

    2010-08-26

    Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strain magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo deep tissue imaging using wavefront shaping optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, KyeoReh; Jang, Jaeduck; Lim, Jaeguyn; Jang, Wooyoung; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Multiple light scattering in tissue limits the penetration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Here, we present in-vivo OCT imaging of a live mouse using wavefront shaping to enhance the penetration depth. A digital micro-mirror device (DMD) was used in a spectral-domain OCT system for complex wavefront shaping of an incident beam which resulted in the optimal delivery of light energy into deep tissue. Ex-vivo imaging of chicken breasts and mouse ear tissues showed enhancements in the strength of the image signals and the penetration depth, and in-vivo imaging of the tail of a live mouse provided a multilayered structure inside the tissue, otherwise invisible in conventional OCT imaging. Signal enhancements by a factor of 3-7 were acquired for various experimental conditions and samples.

  8. Emerging Peripheral Receptor Targets for Deep-tissue Craniofacial Pain Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Ambalavanar, R.; Dessem, D

    2009-01-01

    While effective therapies are available for some types of craniofacial pain, treatments for deep-tissue craniofacial pain such as temporomandibular disorders are less efficacious. Several ion channels and receptors which are prominent in craniofacial nociceptive mechanisms have been identified on trigeminal primary afferent neurons. Many of these receptors and channels exhibit unusual distributions compared with extracranial regions. For example, expression of the ATP receptor P2X3 is strongl...

  9. The effect of keratinocytes on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin using deep dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Mathew; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2014-12-01

    Fibrosis affects most organs, it results in replacement of normal parenchymal tissue with collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which compromises tissue architecture and ultimately causes loss of function of the affected organ. Biochemical pathways that contribute to fibrosis have been extensively studied, but the role of biomechanical signaling in fibrosis is not clearly understood. In this study, we assessed the effect keratinocytes have on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin made with superficial or deep dermal fibroblasts in order to determine any biomaterial-mediated anti-fibrotic influences on tissue engineered skin. Tissue engineered skin with deep dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were found to be less stiff and contracted and had reduced number of myofibroblasts and lower expression of matrix crosslinking factors compared to matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. However, there were no such differences between tissue engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes and matrices with superficial fibroblasts alone. Also, tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes had smaller pores compared to those with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes; pore size of tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes were not different from those matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. A better understanding of biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin may prove beneficial in promoting normal wound healing over pathologic healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studying ultrafast laser parameters to deter self-focusing for deep tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers are a promising tool for precise and noninvasive tissue surgery. The high peak intensity of the pulses allows nonlinear interaction with tissue, causing three-dimensional confined ablation without thermal damage. However, deep tissue ablation has been limited to a few scattering lengths due to laser beam extinction. As pulse energies are increased to overcome attenuation, unwanted side effects can occur such as self-focusing, where the highly intense pulse alters the refractive index of the material, causing a lensing effect and long filaments of damage or complete beam collapse before the focus. Here, we examine laser parameters to overcome self-focusing for deep tissue ablation. Through imaging ablation voids with third harmonic generation, we show that increasing the pulse width from 200-fs to 2-ps reduces self-focusing induced focal plane shifting and avoids multiple filamentation altogether, resulting in deeper ablation without extended axial damage. Additionally, we simulate beam propagation for pulses of different central wavelengths, and show that longer wavelengths can ablate deeper because of decreased scattering in tissue and a subsequent reduction in self-focusing.

  11. Deep Tissue Microscopic Imaging of the Kidney with a Gradient-Index Lens System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Weiming

    2008-04-01

    Intravital microscopy using two-photon excitation is proven to be a valuable tool for studying the kidney and associated disease processes. However, routine performance of intravital kidney imaging is limited by the fact that fluorescence signal is attenuated by the tissue and at certain tissue depth lost its strength completely. For most of the animal tissues, this finite imaging depth is limited to a few hundred microns. Currently it is not possible to non-invasively image the kidney beyond the superficial tissue layers of the cortex. This has imposed significant limitations on the animal models one can use for imaging since structure such the glomerulus is typically located below the superficial layer of the cortex that can not be imaged using a conventional fluorescence microscope. Here we report the use of a needle-like lens system based on gradient-index (GRIN) microlenses capable of transferring high quality fluorescence images of the tissue through a regular microscope objective for deep tissue imaging of the kidney. By combining this GRIN lens system with a Zeiss LSM 510 NLO microscope, we are able to extend the imaging depth for kidney tissues far beyond the few hundred microns limit. This GRIN lens imaging system provides an alternative microendoscopic imaging tool that will enhance current intravital kidney imaging techniques for studying structural and functional properties of local tissues at locations below the superficial layers of the kidney.

  12. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  13. A Retrospective Review of Iatrogenic Skin and Soft Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Geun Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Even though the quality of medical and surgical care has improved remarkablyover time, iatrogenic injuries that require surgical treatment including injuries caused by castand elastic bandage pressure, extravasation, and dopamine-induced ischemia still frequentlyoccur. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence and analyze the distribution ofiatrogenic injuries referred to our department.Methods A retrospective clinical review was performed from April 2006 to November 2010. Intotal, 196 patients (116 females and 80 males were referred to the plastic surgery departmentfor the treatment of iatrogenic injuries. We analyzed the types and anatomic locations ofiatrogenic complications, along with therapeutic results.Results An extravasation injury (65 cases, 37.4% was the most common iatrogeniccomplication in our study sample, followed by splint-induced skin ulceration, dopamineinducednecrosis, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related wounds and elasticbandage-induced wounds. Among these, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-relatedcomplication incidence increased the most during the 5-year study period.Conclusions The awareness of the very common iatrogenic complications and its causes mayallow physicians to reduce their occurrence and allow for earlier detection and referral to aplastic surgeon. We believe this is the first study to analyze iatrogenic complications referredto a plastic surgery department in a hospital unit.

  14. A Retrospective Review of Iatrogenic Skin and Soft Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Geun Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEven though the quality of medical and surgical care has improved remarkably over time, iatrogenic injuries that require surgical treatment including injuries caused by cast and elastic bandage pressure, extravasation, and dopamine-induced ischemia still frequently occur. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence and analyze the distribution of iatrogenic injuries referred to our department.MethodsA retrospective clinical review was performed from April 2006 to November 2010. In total, 196 patients (116 females and 80 males were referred to the plastic surgery department for the treatment of iatrogenic injuries. We analyzed the types and anatomic locations of iatrogenic complications, along with therapeutic results.ResultsAn extravasation injury (65 cases, 37.4% was the most common iatrogenic complication in our study sample, followed by splint-induced skin ulceration, dopamine-induced necrosis, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related wounds and elastic bandage-induced wounds. Among these, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related complication incidence increased the most during the 5-year study period.ConclusionsThe awareness of the very common iatrogenic complications and its causes may allow physicians to reduce their occurrence and allow for earlier detection and referral to a plastic surgeon. We believe this is the first study to analyze iatrogenic complications referred to a plastic surgery department in a hospital unit.

  15. Development of an inhalable, stimuli-responsive particulate system for delivery to deep lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yasmine; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Tammam, Salma; Lamprecht, Alf; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Schmidt, Annette; Sollazzo, Silvio; Mathur, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer, the deadliest solid tumor among all types of cancer, remains difficult to treat. This is a result of unavoidable exposure to carcinogens, poor diagnosis, the lack of targeted drug delivery platforms and limitations associated with delivery of drug to deep lung tissues. Development of a non-invasive, patient-convenient formula for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics to cancer in deep lung tissue is the aim of this study. The formulation consisted of inhalable polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/maltodextrin (MD)-based microparticles (MPs) encapsulating chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with either drug only or drug and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Drug release from CS NPs was enhanced with the aid of MNPs by a factor of 1.7 in response to external magnetic field. Preferential toxicity by CS NPs was shown towards tumor cells (A549) in comparison to cultured fibroblasts (L929). The prepared spray freeze dried (SFD) powders for CS NPs and CS MNPs were of the same size at ∼6μm. They had a fine particle fraction (FPF≤5.2μm) of 40-42% w/w and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 5-6μm as determined by the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). SFD-MPs of CS MNPs possess higher MMAD due to the high density associated with encapsulated MNPs. The developed formulation demonstrates several capabilities including tissue targeting, controlled drug release, and the possible imaging and diagnostic values (due to its MNPs content) and therefore represents an improved therapeutic platform for drug delivery to cancer in deep lung tissue.

  16. Detection of soft tissue densities from digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of conventional and deep learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotin, Sergei V.; Yin, Yin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.; Periaswamy, Senthil

    2016-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been used in screening mammography for many years and is likely to be utilized for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Higher detection performance is desirable as it may have an impact on radiologist's decisions and clinical outcomes. Recently the algorithms based on deep convolutional architectures have been shown to achieve state of the art performance in object classification and detection. Similarly, we trained a deep convolutional neural network directly on patches sampled from two-dimensional mammography and reconstructed DBT volumes and compared its performance to a conventional CAD algorithm that is based on computation and classification of hand-engineered features. The detection performance was evaluated on the independent test set of 344 DBT reconstructions (GE SenoClaire 3D, iterative reconstruction algorithm) containing 328 suspicious and 115 malignant soft tissue densities including masses and architectural distortions. Detection sensitivity was measured on a region of interest (ROI) basis at the rate of five detection marks per volume. Moving from conventional to deep learning approach resulted in increase of ROI sensitivity from 0:832 +/- 0:040 to 0:893 +/- 0:033 for suspicious ROIs; and from 0:852 +/- 0:065 to 0:930 +/- 0:046 for malignant ROIs. These results indicate the high utility of deep feature learning in the analysis of DBT data and high potential of the method for broader medical image analysis tasks.

  17. Letter to Editor: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliandro Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Chalidis et al: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. World J Surg Oncol 2007, 5:92.

  18. Avidin induction by tissue injury and inflammation in male and female chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H A; Kulomaa, M S; Tuohimaa, P J

    1979-01-01

    1. The occurrence and inducibility of the biotin-binding egg white protein (avidin) in the chicken is not restricted to the oviduct. 2. Inflammatory treatments (intestinal injury, actinomycin D) induced avidin in a number of tissues of young and adult hens and roosters, but not of female rats and mice. Highest avidin concentrations were found in the organs containing epithelial cells and serous membrane. 3. The expression of the avidin gene by tissue injury and inflammation suggests that avidin has a significant function in the injured and inflamed chicken tissues.

  19. Injury-Induced Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Vanessa L.; Martin, Rachel E.; Franklin, John L.; Hardy, Robert. W.; Messina, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are common findings in critical illness. Patients in the surgical ICU are frequently treated for this ‘critical illness diabetes’ with intensive insulin therapy, resulting in a substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality. Adipose tissue is an important insulin target tissue, but it is not known whether adipose tissue is affected by critical illness diabetes. In the present study, a rodent model of critical illness diabetes was used to determine whethe...

  20. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-06-14

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models.

  2. Three-dimensional flow contrast imaging of deep tissue using noncontact diffuse correlation tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope = 1.00, R{sup 2} = 1.00, and p < 10{sup −5} in simulation and regression slope ≥ 0.97, R{sup 2} ≥ 0.96, and p < 10{sup −3} in phantom. These results exhibit promise of our ncDCT technique for 3-D imaging of deep tissue blood flow heterogeneities.

  3. In vivo deep tissue fluorescence imaging of the murine small intestine and colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Viera; Dvornikov, Alexander; Aguilar, Jose S.; Stringari, Chiara; Edwards, Roberts; Mantulin, Williams; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Recently we described a novel technical approach with enhanced fluorescence detection capabilities in two-photon microscopy that achieves deep tissue imaging, while maintaining micron resolution. This technique was applied to in vivo imaging of murine small intestine and colon. Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), commonly presenting as Crohn's disease or Ulcerative Colitis, are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. We have developed a Giα2 gene knock out mouse IBD model that develops colitis and colon cancer. The challenge is to study the disease in the whole animal, while maintaining high resolution imaging at millimeter depth. In the Giα2-/- mice, we have been successful in imaging Lgr5-GFP positive stem cell reporters that are found in crypts of niche structures, as well as deeper structures, in the small intestine and colon at depths greater than 1mm. In parallel with these in vivo deep tissue imaging experiments, we have also pursued autofluorescence FLIM imaging of the colon and small intestine-at more shallow depths (roughly 160μm)- on commercial two photon microscopes with excellent structural correlation (in overlapping tissue regions) between the different technologies.

  4. Maxillofacial trauma with emphasis on soft-tissue injuries in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, H M; Rahman, N A; Rahman, R A; Nor, G M; Ai Idrus, S M; Ramli, R

    2007-09-01

    Soft-tissue injuries with or without facial bone involvement are the most common presentation following maxillofacial trauma. The objective of this study was to look at the distribution, pattern and type of soft-tissue injury in relation to aetiology. Records of patients over a period of 5 years (1998-2002), who sustained maxillofacial injuries and were treated at Kajang Hospital, a secondary referral hospital, were reviewed. Out of 313 patients with maxillofacial injuries, 295 patients sustained soft-tissue injuries. Males (79%) between 21 and 30 years old (34%) were the majority of patients. Road-traffic accident was the main cause of soft-tissue injuries (75%) with motorcycle accident being the most frequent (40%). The upper lips (23%) and the lower lips (18%) were the most common extraoral site involved, while the labial mucosa and sulcular areas, both accounting for 21%, were the most common intraoral sites. Stringent road-traffic regulations should be practiced in developing countries, as morbidity arising from road-traffic accidents poses a national economic and social problem.

  5. Identifying mitosis deep in tissue using dynamic light scattering fluctuation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2012-03-01

    In the cell cycle, mitosis is the most dramatic phase, especially in Telophase and Cytokinesis. For single cells and cell monolayer, there are precise microscopic studies of mitosis, while for 3-D tissue such as tumor spheroids the light signal is obscured by the high background of diffusely scattered light. Therefore, the mitosis phase cannot be detected deep inside 3-D tissue using conventional microscopic techniques. In this work, we detect mitosis in living tissue using Tissue Dynamic Imaging (TDI). We trace depth-gated dynamic speckles from a tumor spheroid (up to 1mm in diameter) using coherence-gated digital holography imaging. Frequency-versus-time spectrograms depend on specific types of perturbation such as cell shape change, membrane undulation and cell organelles movements. By using these spectral responses as functional finger prints, we can identify mitosis events from different voxels at a specified depth inside tumor spheroids. By performing B-scans of the tumor spheroid, we generate 3-D mitosis maps (or movies) for the entire tumor spheroids. We show that for healthy tumor spheroids, the mitosis events only happen within the proliferating shell. We also compare results when anti-cancer drugs are applied to arrest, release and synchronize mitosis. This shows the application of TDI for drug screening. The technique can identify and monitor complex motilities inside 3-D tissue with a strong potential for drug diagnosis and developmental biology studies.

  6. Energy-Looping Nanoparticles: Harnessing Excited-State Absorption for Deep-Tissue Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Elizabeth S; Tajon, Cheryl A; Bischof, Thomas S; Iafrati, Jillian; Fernandez-Bravo, Angel; Garfield, David J; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Maharbiz, Michel M; Sohal, Vikaas S; Schuck, P James; Cohen, Bruce E; Chan, Emory M

    2016-09-27

    Near infrared (NIR) microscopy enables noninvasive imaging in tissue, particularly in the NIR-II spectral range (1000-1400 nm) where attenuation due to tissue scattering and absorption is minimized. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals are promising deep-tissue imaging probes due to their photostable emission in the visible and NIR, but these materials are not efficiently excited at NIR-II wavelengths due to the dearth of lanthanide ground-state absorption transitions in this window. Here, we develop a class of lanthanide-doped imaging probes that harness an energy-looping mechanism that facilitates excitation at NIR-II wavelengths, such as 1064 nm, that are resonant with excited-state absorption transitions but not ground-state absorption. Using computational methods and combinatorial screening, we have identified Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles as efficient looping systems that emit at 800 nm under continuous-wave excitation at 1064 nm. Using this benign excitation with standard confocal microscopy, energy-looping nanoparticles (ELNPs) are imaged in cultured mammalian cells and through brain tissue without autofluorescence. The 1 mm imaging depths and 2 μm feature sizes are comparable to those demonstrated by state-of-the-art multiphoton techniques, illustrating that ELNPs are a promising class of NIR probes for high-fidelity visualization in cells and tissue.

  7. Electrophysiological characterization of spontaneous recovery in deep dorsal horn interneurons after incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, M M; Flynn, J R; Galea, M P; Callister, R; Callister, R J

    2015-09-01

    In the weeks and months following an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) significant spontaneous recovery of function occurs in the absence of any applied therapeutic intervention. The anatomical correlates of this spontaneous plasticity are well characterized, however, the functional changes that occur in spinal cord interneurons after injury are poorly understood. Here we use a T10 hemisection model of SCI in adult mice (9-10 wks old) combined with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology and a horizontal spinal cord slice preparation to examine changes in intrinsic membrane and synaptic properties of deep dorsal horn (DDH) interneurons. We made these measurements during short-term (4 wks) and long-term (10 wks) spontaneous recovery after SCI. Several important intrinsic membrane properties are altered in the short-term, but recover to values resembling those of uninjured controls in the longer term. AP discharge patterns are reorganized at both short-term and long-term recovery time points. This is matched by reorganization in the expression of voltage-activated potassium and calcium subthreshold-currents that shape AP discharge. Excitatory synaptic inputs onto DDH interneurons are significantly restructured in long-term SCI mice. Plots of sEPSC peak amplitude vs. rise times suggest considerable dendritic expansion or synaptic reorganization occurs especially during long-term recovery from SCI. Connectivity between descending dorsal column pathways and DDH interneurons is reduced in the short-term, but amplified in long-term recovery. Our results suggest considerable plasticity in both intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms occurs spontaneously in DDH interneurons following SCI and takes a minimum of 10 wks after the initial injury to stabilize.

  8. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show ...

  9. Erythropoietin-mediated tissue protection: reducing collateral damage from the primary injury response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brines, M; Cerami, A

    2008-11-01

    In its classic hormonal role, erythropoietin (EPO) is produced by the kidney and regulates the number of erythrocytes within the circulation to provide adequate tissue oxygenation. EPO also mediates other effects directed towards optimizing oxygen delivery to tissues, e.g. modulating regional blood flow and reducing blood loss by promoting thrombosis within damaged vessels. Over the past 15 years, many unexpected nonhaematopoietic functions of EPO have been identified. In these more recently appreciated nonhormonal roles, locally-produced EPO signals through a different receptor isoform and is a major molecular component of the injury response, in which it counteracts the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acutely, EPO prevents programmed cell death and reduces the development of secondary, pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced injury. Within a longer time frame, EPO provides trophic support to enable regeneration and healing. As the region immediately surrounding damage is typically relatively deficient in endogenous EPO, administration of recombinant EPO can provide increased tissue protection. However, effective use of EPO as therapy for tissue injury requires higher doses than for haematopoiesis, potentially triggering serious adverse effects. The identification of a tissue-protective receptor isoform has facilitated the engineering of nonhaematopoietic, tissue-protective EPO derivatives, e.g. carbamyl EPO, that avoid these complications. Recently, regions within the EPO molecule mediating tissue protection have been identified and this has enabled the development of potent tissue-protective peptides, including some mimicking EPO's tertiary structure but unrelated in primary sequence.

  10. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Braby, L A; Borak, T B; Lusby, T; Warner, D W; Perez-Nunez, D

    2015-10-01

    Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of yD (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with g rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h(-1). Measurements of yD for 200 MeV n(-1) carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%.

  11. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Babatunde Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5% were males and 41 (32.5 were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9% and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%. Assault contributed 16 (17.6% while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%. A total of 19 (15.1% patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7% patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4% patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6% patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8% cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3% cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7% cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0% received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0% received delayed closure under general anesthesia.

  12. Adipose Tissue Drives Response to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Murine Pressure Sore Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Madeleine J; Hong, Seok Jong; Fang, Robert C; Lanier, Steven T; Buck, Donald W; Nuñez, Jennifer M; Jia, Shengxian; Park, Eugene D; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2017-05-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of chronic wounds such as pressure sores and diabetic foot ulcers. The authors' laboratory has previously developed a cyclical murine ischemia-reperfusion injury model. The authors here use this model to determine factors underlying tissue response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cycles of ischemia-reperfusion that varied in number (one to four cycles) and duration of ischemia (1 to 2 hours). For each ischemia-reperfusion condition, the following variables were analyzed: (1) digital photographs for area of necrosis; (2) hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrate; and (3) expression of inflammatory markers by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, human adipocytes and fibroblasts were cultured in vitro under conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation, and expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Increases in both ischemia-reperfusion cycle number and ischemia duration correlated with increased areas of epithelial necrosis both grossly and histologically, and with an increase in cellularity and neutrophil density. This increased inflammatory infiltrate and a significant increase in the expression of proinflammatory markers (Hmox1, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was observed in adipose tissue subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury, but not in dermis. These results were mirrored in human adipose tissue. The authors further characterize a novel, reproducible murine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The results of their study indicate that adipose tissue is less tolerant of ischemia-reperfusion than dermal tissue. Rather than being an "innocent bystander," adipose tissue plays an active role in driving the inflammatory response to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  13. Segmenting Brain Tissues from Chinese Visible Human Dataset by Deep-Learned Features with Stacked Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryosection brain images in Chinese Visible Human (CVH dataset contain rich anatomical structure information of tissues because of its high resolution (e.g., 0.167 mm per pixel. Fast and accurate segmentation of these images into white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid plays a critical role in analyzing and measuring the anatomical structures of human brain. However, most existing automated segmentation methods are designed for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data, and they may not be applicable for cryosection images due to the imaging difference. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning-based CVH brain tissues segmentation method that uses stacked autoencoder (SAE to automatically learn the deep feature representations. Specifically, our model includes two successive parts where two three-layer SAEs take image patches as input to learn the complex anatomical feature representation, and then these features are sent to Softmax classifier for inferring the labels. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our method and showed that it outperformed four other classical brain tissue detection strategies. Furthermore, we reconstructed three-dimensional surfaces of these tissues, which show their potential in exploring the high-resolution anatomical structures of human brain.

  14. Segmenting Brain Tissues from Chinese Visible Human Dataset by Deep-Learned Features with Stacked Autoencoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangjun; Wang, Xuchu; Niu, Yanmin; Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Shao-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Cryosection brain images in Chinese Visible Human (CVH) dataset contain rich anatomical structure information of tissues because of its high resolution (e.g., 0.167 mm per pixel). Fast and accurate segmentation of these images into white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid plays a critical role in analyzing and measuring the anatomical structures of human brain. However, most existing automated segmentation methods are designed for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data, and they may not be applicable for cryosection images due to the imaging difference. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning-based CVH brain tissues segmentation method that uses stacked autoencoder (SAE) to automatically learn the deep feature representations. Specifically, our model includes two successive parts where two three-layer SAEs take image patches as input to learn the complex anatomical feature representation, and then these features are sent to Softmax classifier for inferring the labels. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our method and showed that it outperformed four other classical brain tissue detection strategies. Furthermore, we reconstructed three-dimensional surfaces of these tissues, which show their potential in exploring the high-resolution anatomical structures of human brain.

  15. Therapeutic effectiveness of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization for soft tissue injury: mechanisms and practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun; Lee, Joohyung

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanism and effects of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), along with guidelines for its practical application. IASTM refers to a technique that uses instruments to remove scar tissues from injured soft tissues and facilitate healing process through formation of new extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. Recently, frequent use of this instrument has increased in the fields of sports rehabilitation and athlete training. Some experimental studies and case reports have reported that IASTM can significantly improve soft tissue function and range of motion following sports injury, while also reducing pain. Based on the previous studies, it is thought that IASTM can help shorten the rehabilitation period and time to return to sports among athletes and ordinary people who have suffered sports injuries. However, few experimental studies of the mechanisms and effects of IASTM have examined, while case reports have accounted for the majority of articles. In the future, the scientific basis of IASTM and its reliability should be provided through well-designed experimental studies on humans. Moreover, IASTM studies that have mostly focused on tendons need to broaden their scope toward other soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments.

  16. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S.; Melo, Luis G.; Hart, Melanie L.; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Pratt, Richard E.; Dzau, Victor J.

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  17. Tissue Mechanics and Its Relationship to Athletic Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Marion J. L.

    Three types of dense fibrous connective tissue are described: articular cartilage; tendon; and ligament; and the characteristics of each are related to its function. Articular cartilage is the smooth covering over the surface of bone at joints, and is comprised of up to 80 percent water. This smooth covering serves to decrease the friction between…

  18. Centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence microscopic imaging with high signal-to-noise ratio and picomole sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Bingbing; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; DSouza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Tang, Liping; Yuan, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic imaging in centimeter-deep tissue has been highly sought-after for many years because much interesting in vivo micro-information, such as microcirculation, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis, may deeply locate in tissue. In this study, for the first time this goal has been achieved in 3-centimeter deep tissue with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and picomole sensitivity under radiation safety thresholds. These results are demonstrated not only in tissue-mimic phantoms but also in actual tissues, such as porcine muscle, ex vivo mouse liver, ex vivo spleen, and in vivo mouse tissue. These results are achieved based on three unique technologies: excellent near infrared ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) contrast agents, a sensitive USF imaging system, and an effective correlation method. Multiplex USF fluorescence imaging is also achieved. It is useful to simultaneously image multiple targets and observe their interactions. This work opens the door for future studies of centimeter...

  19. Effects of cefodizime on chemokines of liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; KAN Quan-cheng; YU Zu-jiang; LI Ling; PAN Xue

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatic inflammation is characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes as a consequence of increased recruitment from the blood and retention within the tissue at sites of infection. CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) mRNA has been detected in both inflamed and normal liver tissues and is strongly upregulated in the injured liver tissues in a murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cefodizime on CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.Methods The murine model of immunological hepatic injury was induced by Bacillus Calmette Guerin and Lipoposaccharide. The mice with immunological hepatic injury were randomly assigned to the model group, the cefodizime group and the ceftriaxone group. The three groups were continuously given agents for seven days and CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissue was determined and contrasted with the control group treated by normal saline. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to assay CXCL16 mRNA levels in liver tissues.Results The expressions of CXCL16 mRNA were significantly higher in the model group and the ceftriaxone group than in the control group and the cefodizime group (P <0.05), indicating the mice in the model group and the ceftriaxone group were immunodeficient. There was no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the control group and the cefodizime group. Similarly, no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the model group and the ceftriaxone group was detected (P >0.05).Conclusion Cefodizime effectively reduces the infiltration of lymphocytes into liver tissues and alleviates the liver damage by decreasing CXCL16 mRNA in liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.

  20. Experimental study on tissue phantoms to understand the effect of injury and suturing on human skin mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Flynn, Zachary; Lackey, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries. In the literature, phenomenological two-dimensional computational skin models have been developed to study the mechanics of wound closure. Additionally, the effect of skin pre-stress (due to the natural tension of the skin) on wound closure mechanics has been studied. However, in most of these analyses, idealistic two-dimensional skin geometries, materials and loads have been assumed, which are far from reality, and would clearly generate inaccurate quantitative results. In this work, for the first time, a biofidelic human skin tissue phantom was developed using a two-part silicone material. A wound was created on the phantom material and sutures were placed to close the wound. Uniaxial mechanical tests were carried out on the phantom specimens to study the effect of varying wound size, quantity, suture and pre-stress on the mechanical behavior of human skin. Also, the average mechanical behavior of the human skin surrogate was characterized using hyperelastic material models, in the presence of a wound and sutures. To date, such a robust experimental study on the effect of injury and sutures on human skin mechanics has not been attempted. The results of this novel investigation will provide important guidelines for surgical planning and validation of results from computational models in the future.

  1. Deep learning for tissue microarray image-based outcome prediction in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Dmitrii; Turkki, Riku; Haglund, Caj; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in computer vision enable increasingly accurate automated pattern classification. In the current study we evaluate whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be trained to predict disease outcome in patients with colorectal cancer based on images of tumor tissue microarray samples. We compare the prognostic accuracy of CNN features extracted from the whole, unsegmented tissue microarray spot image, with that of CNN features extracted from the epithelial and non-epithelial compartments, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of visually assessed histologic grade is used as a reference. The image data set consists of digitized hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained tissue microarray samples obtained from 180 patients with colorectal cancer. The patient samples represent a variety of histological grades, have data available on a series of clinicopathological variables including long-term outcome and ground truth annotations performed by experts. The CNN features extracted from images of the epithelial tissue compartment significantly predicted outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08; CI95% 1.04-4.16; area under the curve (AUC) 0.66) in a test set of 60 patients, as compared to the CNN features extracted from unsegmented images (HR 1.67; CI95% 0.84-3.31, AUC 0.57) and visually assessed histologic grade (HR 1.96; CI95% 0.99-3.88, AUC 0.61). As a conclusion, a deep-learning classifier can be trained to predict outcome of colorectal cancer based on images of H and E stained tissue microarray samples and the CNN features extracted from the epithelial compartment only resulted in a prognostic discrimination comparable to that of visually determined histologic grade.

  2. Noninvasive imaging analysis of biological tissue associated with laser thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Jen; Yu, De-Yi; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Ho, Kuang-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to use a noninvasive tomographic imaging technique with high spatial resolution to characterize and monitor biological tissue responses associated with laser thermal injury. Optical doppler tomography (ODT) combines laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high resolution tomographic velocity and structural images of static and moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. A SurgiLase XJ150 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser using a continuous mode of 3 watts (W) was used to create first, second or third degree burns on anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Additional parameters for laser thermal injury were assessed as well. The rationale for using ODT in the evaluation of laser thermal injury offers a means of constructing a high resolution tomographic image of the structure and perfusion of laser damaged skin. In the velocity images, the blood flow is coded at 1300 μm/s and 0 velocity, 1000 μm/s and 0 velocity, 700 μm/s and 0 velocity adjacent to the first, second, and third degree injuries, respectively. ODT produces exceptional spatial resolution while having a non-invasive way of measurement, therefore, ODT is an accurate measuring method for high-resolution fluid flow velocity and structural images for biological tissue with laser thermal injury. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FAT EMBOLISM SYNDROME WITHOUT OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE OF BONE OR SOFT TISSUE INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome (FES, without evidence of bone or soft tissue injury is uncommon, and in absence of validated diagnostic criteria, its diagnosis is mainly dependent on treating clinician, who should have high index of suspicion. Treatment is predominantly supportive, and apart from some mortality, recovery is generally seen. Present article is a case report of a boy who suffered blunt injury due to fall from height, had no objective evidence of bone or soft tissue injury, but diagnosed as a case of fat embolism syndrome, using Gurd-Wilson and Schonfeld’s criteria, treated by pulmonary support and aggressive resuscitation, but he died after 4 days of admission to hospital.

  4. Fiber-based tissue identification for electrode placement in deep brain stimulation neurosurgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Damon T.; Lapointe, Nicolas; Goetz, Laurent; Parent, Martin; Prudhomme, Michel; Cantin, Léo.; Galstian, Tigran; Messaddeq, Younès.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation's effectiveness relies on the ability of the stimulating electrode to be properly placed within a specific target area of the brain. Optical guidance techniques that can increase the accuracy of the procedure, without causing any additional harm, are therefore of great interest. We have designed a cheap optical fiber-based device that is small enough to be placed within commercially available DBS stimulating electrodes' hollow cores and that is capable of sensing biological information from the surrounding tissue, using low power white light. With this probe we have shown the ability to distinguish white and grey matter as well as blood vessels, in vitro, in human brain samples and in vivo, in rats. We have also repeated the in vitro procedure with the probe inserted in a DBS stimulating electrode and found the results were in good agreement. We are currently validating a second fiber optic device, with micro-optical components, that will result in label free, molecular level sensing capabilities, using CARS spectroscopy. The final objective will be to use this data in real time, during deep brain stimulation neurosurgery, to increase the safety and accuracy of the procedure.

  5. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  6. A Three-Photon Active Organic Fluorophore for Deep Tissue Ratiometric Imaging of Intracellular Divalent Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Divya Susan; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; He, Tingchao; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Anees, Palapuravan; Mathew, Jomon; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Kang, Yuejun; Stuparu, Mihaiela Corina; Sun, Handong; Zhao, Yanli; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2016-05-20

    Deep tissue bioimaging with three-photon (3P) excitation using near-infrared (NIR) light in the second IR window (1.0-1.4 μm) could provide high resolution images with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we report a photostable and nontoxic 3P excitable donor-π-acceptor system (GMP) having 3P cross-section (σ3 ) of 1.78×10(-80)  cm(6)  s(2)  photon(-2) and action cross-section (σ3 η3 ) of 2.31×10(-81)  cm(6)  s(2)  photon(-2) , which provides ratiometric fluorescence response with divalent zinc ions in aqueous conditions. The probe signals the Zn(2+) binding at 530 and 600 nm, respectively, upon 1150 nm excitation with enhanced σ3 of 1.85×10(-80)  cm(6)  s(2)  photon(-2) and σ3 η3 of 3.33×10(-81)  cm(6)  s(2)  photon(-2) . The application of this probe is demonstrated for ratiometric 3P imaging of Zn(2+) in vitro using HuH-7 cell lines. Furthermore, the Zn(2+) concentration in rat hippocampal slices was imaged at 1150 nm excitation after incubation with GMP, illustrating its potential as a 3P ratiometric probe for deep tissue Zn(2+) ion imaging.

  7. Tissue at risk in the deep middle cerebral artery territory is critical to stroke outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Samson, Yves [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Colliot, Olivier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Valabregue, Romain [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Crozier, Sophie [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); Dormont, Didier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lehericy, Stephane [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke patients is explained by the increased rate of recanalization, which limits infarct growth. However, the efficacy could also be explained by the protection of specific sites of the brain. Here, we investigate where is this outcome-related tissue at risk using voxel-based analysis. We included 68 acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on the admission MRI performed within 6 h of symptoms onset (H6) and 16 controls. MCA recanalization was assessed using the magnetic resonance angiography performed at day 1 (D1). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes were analyzed using a voxel-based method between patients vs. controls group at admission (H6) in non-recanalized vs. recanalized and in 3-month poor vs. good outcome patients at D1. Complete or partial MCA recanalization was observed in 52 of 68 patients. Good outcome at 3 months occurred in 40 patients (59%). In non-recanalized patients, ADC was decreased in the deep MCA and watershed arterial territory (the lenticular nucleus, internal capsule, and the overlying periventricular white matter). This decrease was not observed in recanalized patients at D1 or patients at H6. Fiber tracking suggested that the area is crossed by the cortico-spinal, cerebellar, and intra-hemispheric association tracts. Finally, this area almost co-localized with the area associated with poor outcome. A clinically relevant area of tissue at risk may occur in patients with MCA infarcts at the level of deep white matter fiber tracts. These findings suggest that neuroprotection research should be refocused on white matter. (orig.)

  8. FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AND PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF MUSCLE TISSUE INJURIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosav Joksimović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available activities which more often cause injuries of muscles. On account of “generousness” of the muscle tissue and according to the knowledge of complete regeneration of the muscle tissue without any complications, process of curing demands the knowledge and great pratical experience. The aim of this work is to show the most common localisations and sorts of injuries and also the methods of curing and rehabilitation of football players inferiority of fast returning to the sport fields and achieving high results.Materials and methods: this work included 1537 football players with injuries of muscle tissues, who have been treated in outpatient clinics of Football Club “Red Star” from Belgrade and Football Club “Berane” from Berane for two years. All of the patients were male, divided into two groups – under 18 and over 18 years – the seniors. The patients were chosen from their clubs by the same criteria. Results: among 1184 patients in the outpatient clinic of the Football Club “Red Star”, 614 (51.81% had light injuries, 488 (41.29% had medium injuries and 82 patients (6.9% had heavy injuries. In the same time, in the outpatients clinic of FC “Berane” 353 were overseen, 177 (50.1% had light injuries 140 (39.6% had medium injuries and 36 (10.3% were heavily injured. Comparing the sorts of injuries in both clubs, we found the contusion injuries without hematoma in 582 (37.8%, the contusion injuries with hematoma in 279 (19.5% patients, the distensional injuries in (29.2% patients, partial ruptures in 125 (8.1%, the total ruptures (2.3% and painful cramps in 133 (60.2% patients. The injuries were during trainings 612 (39.8%, during the game (on the field 962 (60.2% of injuries. Mainly, the injuries were localised in the area of the upper knee 997 (63.5%, lower knee 332 (22.6%, pelric and abdominal area 96 (8.2%, chest injuries 80 (5.2% and in the area of the head and 56 (3.6%. After intensive treatment, immediately after injuries

  9. Preparation of asiaticoside-loaded coaxially electrospinning nanofibers and their effect on deep partial-thickness burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Du, Lina; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-10-01

    Sodium alginate and chitosan were in favor of wound healing. However, the two polymers were not compatible in one formulation due to the electrostatic interaction. Coaxially electrospinning technology could make two or more noneletrospun polymers to be electrospun in independent core and shell layer. Asiaticoside-loaded coaxially electrospinning nanofibers of alginate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (alginate/PVA/chitosan) were prepared and evaluated. Morphologies and microstructure of nanofibers were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Drug release in vitro of coaxial nanofibers was also evaluated. Deep partial-thickness burn injury were established and used to evaluate the improved healing effect of asiaticoside-loaded coaxial nanofibers. Drug-loaded coaxial nanofibers prepared with the optimized formulations and technologies had the obvious core-shell structure. Coaxial nanofibers showed faster drug release profiles in vitro and this facilitated wound healing. Its healing effect on rats with deep partial-thickness burn injury was also significant based on morphology, wound healing ratio, and pathological sections. Positive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and down regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) also validated the improved effect of wound healing. In general, the asiaticoside-loaded coaxial nanofibers had obvious core-shell structure with smooth surface and uniform diameter. Its healing effect on deep partial-thickness burn injury of rats was obvious. Asiaticoside-loaded coaxial nanofibers provide a novel promising option for treatment of deep partial-thickness burn injury.

  10. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  11. Development of A Novel Murine Model of Combined Radiation and Peripheral Tissue Trauma Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonic, Vlado; Jackson, Isabel L; Ganga, Gurung; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2017-02-01

    Detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear bomb in an urban setting would result in >1 million casualties, the majority of which would present with combined injuries. Combined injuries, such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure, trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) and death, with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary involvement playing crucial roles. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined injuries, peripheral tissue trauma (TBX animal model) combined with total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (TBI/BM5) to investigate if peripheral tissue trauma contributes to reduced survival. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to TBX10%, irradiation (TBI/BM5), or combined injuries (TBX10% + TBI/BM5). Experiments were conducted to evaluate mortality at day 7 after TBI/BM5. Serial euthanasia was performed at day 1, 3 and 6 or 7 after TBI/BM5 to evaluate the time course of pathophysiologic processes in combined injuries. Functional tests were performed to assess pulmonary function and GI motility. Postmortem samples of lungs and jejunum were collected to assess tissue damage. Results indicated higher lethality and shorter survival in the TBX10% +T BI/BM5 group than in the TBX10% or TBI/BM5 groups (day 1 vs. day 7 and 6, respectively). TBI/BM5 alone had no effects on the lungs but significantly impaired GI function at day 6. As expected, in the animals that received severe trauma (TBX10%), we observed impairment in lung function and delay in GI transit in the first 3 days, effects that decreased at later time points. Trauma combined with radiation (TBX10% + TBI/BM5) significantly augmented impairment of the lung and GI function in comparison to TBX10% and TBI/BM5 groups at 24 h. Histologic evaluation indicated that combined injuries caused greater tissue damage in the intestines in TBX10% + TBI/BM5 group when compared to other groups. We describe here the first combined tissue trauma

  12. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jong-Keon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate the results of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in patients with open wounds in the foot and ankle region. Materials and methods Using a NPWT device, 16 patients were prospectively treated for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle. Mean patient age was 32.8 years (range, 3–67 years. All patients had suffered an acute trauma, due to a traffic accident, a fall, or a crush injury, and all had wounds with underlying tendon or bone exposure. Necrotic tissues were debrided before applying NPWT. Dressings were changed every 3 or 4 days and treatment was continued for 18.4 days on average (range, 11–29 days. Results Exposed tendons and bone were successfully covered with healthy granulation tissue in all cases except one. The sizes of soft tissue defects reduced from 56.4 cm2 to 42.9 cm2 after NPWT (mean decrease of 24%. In 15 of the 16 cases, coverage with granulation tissue was achieved and followed by a skin graft. A free flap was needed to cover exposed bone and tendon in one case. No major complication occurred that was directly attributable to treatment. In terms of minor complications, two patients suffered scar contracture of grafted skin. Conclusion NPWT was found to facilitate the rapid formation of healthy granulation tissue on open wounds in the foot and ankle region, and thus, to shorten healing time and minimize secondary soft tissue defect coverage procedures.

  14. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  15. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akassoglou, K; Kombrinck, K W; Degen, J L; Strickland, S

    2000-05-29

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin and can trigger the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. In the nervous system, under noninflammatory conditions, tPA contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death, probably through degradation of laminin. To evaluate the contribution of extracellular proteolysis in inflammatory neuronal degeneration, we performed sciatic nerve injury in mice. Proteolytic activity was increased in the nerve after injury, and this activity was primarily because of Schwann cell-produced tPA. To identify whether tPA release after nerve damage played a beneficial or deleterious role, we crushed the sciatic nerve of mice deficient for tPA. Axonal demyelination was exacerbated in the absence of tPA or plasminogen, indicating that tPA has a protective role in nerve injury, and that this protective effect is due to its proteolytic action on plasminogen. Axonal damage was correlated with increased fibrin(ogen) deposition, suggesting that this protein might play a role in neuronal injury. Consistent with this idea, the increased axonal degeneration phenotype in tPA- or plasminogen-deficient mice was ameliorated by genetic or pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, identifying fibrin as the plasmin substrate in the nervous system under inflammatory axonal damage. This study shows that fibrin deposition exacerbates axonal injury, and that induction of an extracellular proteolytic cascade is a beneficial response of the tissue to remove fibrin. tPA/plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis may be a widespread protective mechanism in neuroinflammatory pathologies.

  16. Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathoul, Amit P.; Laufer, Jan; Ogunlade, Olumide; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Zhang, Edward; Johnson, Peter; Pizzey, Arnold R.; Philip, Brian; Marafioti, Teresa; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Pedley, R. Barbara; Pule, Martin A.; Beard, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging allows absorption-based high-resolution spectroscopic in vivo imaging at a depth beyond that of optical microscopy. Until recently, photoacoustic imaging has largely been restricted to visualizing the vasculature through endogenous haemoglobin contrast, with most non-vascularized tissues remaining invisible unless exogenous contrast agents are administered. Genetically encodable photoacoustic contrast is attractive as it allows selective labelling of cells, permitting studies of, for example, specific genetic expression, cell growth or more complex biological behaviours in vivo. In this study we report a novel photoacoustic imaging scanner and a tyrosinase-based reporter system that causes human cell lines to synthesize the absorbing pigment eumelanin, thus providing strong photoacoustic contrast. Detailed three-dimensional images of xenografts formed of tyrosinase-expressing cells implanted in mice are obtained in vivo to depths approaching 10 mm with a spatial resolution below 100 μm. This scheme is a powerful tool for studying cellular and genetic processes in deep mammalian tissues.

  17. Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yong Qing Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil on soft tissue injury (swelling. Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation. The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury.

  18. Tissues Use Resident Dendritic Cells and Macrophages to Maintain Homeostasis and to Regain Homeostasis upon Tissue Injury: The Immunoregulatory Role of Changing Tissue Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Lech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tissues harbor resident mononuclear phagocytes, that is, dendritic cells and macrophages. A classification that sufficiently covers their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity during homeostasis and disease does not yet exist because cell culture-based phenotypes often do not match those found in vivo. The plasticity of mononuclear phagocytes becomes obvious during dynamic or complex disease processes. Different data interpretation also originates from different conceptual perspectives. An immune-centric view assumes that a particular priming of phagocytes then causes a particular type of pathology in target tissues, conceptually similar to antigen-specific T-cell priming. A tissue-centric view assumes that changing tissue microenvironments shape the phenotypes of their resident and infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes to fulfill the tissue's need to maintain or regain homeostasis. Here we discuss the latter concept, for example, why different organs host different types of mononuclear phagocytes during homeostasis. We further discuss how injuries alter tissue environments and how this primes mononuclear phagocytes to enforce this particular environment, for example, to support host defense and pathogen clearance, to support the resolution of inflammation, to support epithelial and mesenchymal healing, and to support the resolution of fibrosis to the smallest possible scar. Thus, organ- and disease phase-specific microenvironments determine macrophage and dendritic cell heterogeneity in a temporal and spatial manner, which assures their support to maintain and regain homeostasis in whatever condition. Mononuclear phagocytes contributions to tissue pathologies relate to their central roles in orchestrating all stages of host defense and wound healing, which often become maladaptive processes, especially in sterile and/or diffuse tissue injuries.

  19. Role of endogenous Schwann cells in tissue repair after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xin Zhang; Fengfa Huang; Mary Gates; Eric G. Holmberg

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells are glial cells of peripheral nervous system, responsible for axonal myelination and ensheathing, as well as tissue repair following a peripheral nervous system injury. They are one of several cell types that are widely studied and most commonly used for cell transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, due to their intrinsic characteristics including the ability to secrete a variety of neurotrophic factors. This mini review summarizes the recent findings of endogenous Schwann cells after spinal cord injury and discusses their role in tissue repair and axonal regeneration. After spinal cord injury, numerous endogenous Schwann cells migrate into the lesion site from the nerve roots, involving in the construction of newly formed repaired tissue and axonal myelination. These invading Schwann cells also can move a long distance away from the injury site both rostrally and caudally. In addition, Schwann cells can be induced to migrate by minimal insults (such as scar ablation) within the spinal cord and integrate with astrocytes under certain circumstances. More importantly, the host Schwann cells can be induced to migrate into spinal cord by transplantation of different cell types, such as exogenous Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells. Migration of endogenous Schwann cells following spinal cord injury is a common natural phenomenon found both in animal and human, and the myelination by Schwann cells has been examined effective in signal conduction electrophysiologically. Therefore, if the inherent properties of endogenous Schwann cells could be developed and utilized, it would offer a new avenue for the restoration of injured spinal cord.

  20. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  1. Statins in nephrotic syndrome: a new weapon against tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Nostro, Lorena; Crascì, Eleonora; Barillà, Antonio; Cosentini, Vincenzo; Aloisi, Carmela; Sofi, Tito; Campo, Susanna; Frisina, Nicola

    2005-11-01

    The nephrotic syndrome is characterized by metabolic disorders leading to an increase in circulating lipoproteins levels. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in this case may depend on a reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins catabolism and on an increase in hepatic synthesis of Apo B-containing lipoproteins. These alterations are the starting point of a self-maintaining mechanism, which can accelerate the progression of chronic renal failure. Indeed, hyperlipidemia can affect renal function, increase proteinuria and speed glomerulosclerosis, thus determining a higher risk of progression to dialysis. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis from mevalonate and its inhibitors, or statins, can therefore interfere with the above-mentioned consequences of hyperlipidemia. Statins are already well known for their effectiveness on primary cardiovascular prevention, which cannot be explained only through their hypolipemic effect. As far as kidney diseases are concerned, statin therapy has been shown to prevent creatinine clearance decline and to slow renal function loss, particularly in case of proteinuria, and its favorable effect may depend only partially on the attenuation of hyperlipidemia. Statins may therefore confer tissue protection through lipid-independent mechanisms, which can be triggered by other mediators, such as angiotensin receptor blockers. Possible pathways for the protective action of statins, other than any hypocholesterolemic effect, are: cellular apoptosis/proliferation balance, inflammatory cytokines production, and signal transduction regulation. Statins also play a role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. In this study, we would like to provide scientific evidences for the pleiotropic effects of statins, which could be the starting point for the

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for delayed onset muscle soreness and closed soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M; Best, T M; Babul, S; Taunton, J; Lepawsky, M

    2005-10-19

    Soft tissue injuries (including muscle damage after unaccustomed exercise) are common and are often associated with athletic activity. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere. To assess the benefits and harms of HBOT for treating soft tissue injury, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We searched the following in July 2004: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DORCTIHM and reference lists from relevant articles. Relevant journals were handsearched and researchers in the field contacted. Randomised trials comparing the effect on closed soft tissue injury (including DOMS) of therapeutic regimens which include HBOT with those that exclude HBOT (with or without sham therapy). Four reviewers independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Most of the data presented in the review were extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Nine small trials involving 219 participants were included. Two trials compared HBOT versus sham therapy on acute closed soft tissue injuries (ankle sprain and medial collateral knee ligament injury respectively). The other seven trials examined the effect of HBOT on DOMS following eccentric exercise in unconditioned volunteers. All 32 participants of the ankle sprain trial returned to their normal activities. There were no significant differences between the two groups in time to recovery, functional outcomes, pain, or swelling. There was no difference between the two groups in knee function scores in the second acute injury trial; however, intention-to-treat analysis was not possible for this trial. Pooling of data from the seven DOMS trials showed significantly and consistently higher pain at 48 and 72 hours in the HBOT group (mean difference in pain score at 48 hours [0 to 10 worst pain] 0.88, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.67, P = 0.03) in trials where HBOT was started immediately. There were no differences between the two groups in longer

  3. Does Overexertion Correlate with Increased Injury? Determining the Relationship between Training Load and Soft Tissue Injury in NFL Players using Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan Tianran; Rambhia, Sagar; Sheehan, Joe; Salata, Michael Jonathan; Voos, James Everett

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The development of injury prevention strategies is important in maximizing athlete health and safety. Increased training loads have been associated with increased odds of injury in collision sports during all phases of training. To date, the relationship between training load and injury has not been investigated in NFL players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury utilizing wearable GPS technology. Methods: Player workloads were assessed during training sessions during the preseason and regular season using GPS and triaxial accelerometer from 2014-2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season and were divided into ligamentous and myotendinous injuries. Player workload during the week of injury and mean weekly workload in the 4 weeks prior to injury were determined for each soft tissue injury. These variables were also determined in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize player workload for injuries and controls. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury. Results: Data was obtained over 2 NFL seasons from 2014-2016. A total of 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. 62/136 (45%) of injuries were sustained during the preseason. Ankle sprains were the most common type of ligamentous injury (60%) while hamstring strains were the most common type of myotendinous injury (49%). 100 injuries that had a set of GPS data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in player workload during the week of injury compared to uninjured individuals (193.6, 95% CI 104.6-282.5 versus 101.2, 95% CI 27.7-174.8, p = .0038). Injured players were associated with a 110% increase in training load during the week of injury compared to uninjured players, who were associated with a 73% increase (p = .032

  4. Protective effects of acupuncture on brain tissue following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshan Wang; Fuguo Ma; Huailong Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with cerebrovascular disease, by means of the neuroendocrine system, acupuncture supports the transformation of a local pathological status into a physiological status. Recently, great progress has been made in studying the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. OBJECTIVE: To summarize research advances in the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and cerebral protection", we retrieved articles from the PubMed database published between January 1991 and June 1994. Meanwhile, we searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure with the same terms. Altogether, 114 articles and their results were analyzed. Inclusive criteria: studies that were closely related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury, or studies, whose contents were in the same study field and were published recently, or in the authorized journals. Exclusive criteria: repetitive studies. LITERATURE EVALUATION: Thirty articles that related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury were included. Among them, 7 were clinical studies, and the remaining 23 articles were animal experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: ① Animal experimental studies have demonstrated that acupuncture improves brain blood perfusion and brain electrical activity, influences pathomorphological and ultramicrostructural changes in ischemic brain tissue, is beneficial in maintaining the stability of intracellular and extracellular ions, resists free radical injury and lipid peroxidation, and influences cytokine, neurotransmitter, brain cell signal transduction, and apoptosis-regulating genes. ② Clinical studies have demonstrated that acupuncture not only promotes nutritional supply to local brain tissue in patients with cerebral

  5. Spreading epidural hematoma and deep subcutaneous edema: indirect MRI signs of posterior ligamentous complex injury in thoracolumbar burst fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na Ra [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Ja-Young; Myung, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chang, Bong-Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Sung Gyu [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a spreading epidural hematoma (SEH) and deep subcutaneous edema (DSE) as indirect signs of posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injuries on MR imaging of thoracolumbar burst fractures. We retrospectively reviewed spinal MR images of 43 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures: 17 patients with PLC injuries (study group) and 26 without PLC injuries (control group). An SEH was defined as a hemorrhagic infiltration into the anterior or posterior epidural space that spread along more than three vertebrae including the level of the fracture. A DSE was regarded as a fluid-like signal lesion in the deep subcutaneous layer of the back, and its epicenter was at the burst fracture level. The frequency of the SEH/DSE in the two groups was analyzed. In addition, the association between each sign and the degree of vertebral collapse, the severity of central canal compromise, and surgical decisions were analyzed. Magnetic resonance images showed an SEH in 20 out of 43 patients (46%) and a DSE in 17 (40%). The SEH and DSE were more commonly seen in the study group with PLC injuries (SEH, 15 out of 17 patients, 80%; DSE, 16 out of 17 patients, 94%) than in the control group without PLC injuries (SEH, 5 out of 26, 19%; DSE, 1 out of 26, 4%) (P <0.0001). The SEH and DSE were significantly associated with surgical management decisions (17 out of 20 patients with SEH, 85%, vs 8 out of the 23 without SEH, 35%, P =0.002; 15 out of 17 with DSE, 88%, vs 10 out of 26 without DSE, 38%, P =0.002). The SEH and DSE did not correlate with the degree of vertebral collapse or the severity of central canal compromise. The SEH and DSE may be useful secondary MR signs of posterior ligamentous complex injury in thoracolumbar burst fractures. (orig.)

  6. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inducible Siphoviruses in superficial and deep tissue isolates of Propionibacterium acnes

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    Rasmussen Magnus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also known to be involved in certain diseases, such as acne vulgaris and infections of orthopaedic implants. Treatment of these conditions is complicated by increased resistance to antibiotics and/or biofilm formation of P. acnes bacteria. P. acnes can be infected by bacteriophages, but until recently little has been known about these viruses. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize inducible phages from P. acnes on a genetic and morphological basis. Results More than 70% (65/92 of P. acnes isolates investigated have inducible phages, classified morphologically as Siphoviruses. The phages have a head of 55 nm in diameter and a tail of 145–155 nm in length and 9–10 nm in width. There was no difference in carriage rate of phages between P. acnes isolates from deep infections and isolates from skin. However, there was a significant lower carriage rate of phages in P. acnes biotype IB, mostly attributed to the low carriage rate of inducible phages in biotype IB isolated from deep tissue. Most phages have a strong lytic activity against all P. acnes isolates with inducible phages, but have less lytic activity against isolates that have no prophages. Phages only infected and lysed P. acnes and not other closely related propionibacteria. All phages could infect and lyse their non-induced parental host, indicating that these prophages do not confer superinfection immunity. The phages have identical protein pattern as observed on SDS-PAGE. Finally, sequencing of two phage genes encoding a putative major head protein and an amidase and showed that the phages could be divided into different groups on a genetic basis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that temperate phages are common in P. acnes, and that they are a genetically and functionally homogeneous group of Siphoviruses. The phages are specific for P. acnes and do not seem to confer superinfection

  8. Conversion of a low cost off-the-shelf spectrometer into a suitable instrument for deep tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Eric; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou

    2013-03-01

    Efficient light collection is critical in noninvasive deep tissue spectroscopy since only a small fraction of the injected light emerges from any given finite area on the surface of the probed medium. Light collection can be improved by optimizing the contact area between the detection system and the probed medium by means of light guides with large detection areas. Since the form factor of these light guides do not match the entrance of commercial spectrometers, which are usually equipped with a narrow slit to improve their spectral resolution, deep tissue spectrometers are typically custom-built. However, off-the-shelf spectrometers have attractive advantages compared to custom-made units, such as low-cost, small foot-print and availability. In this report, we present simple modifications to an off-the-shelf spectrometer to convert it into a suitable instrument for deep tissue spectroscopy. The modified spectrometer was characterized and compared to a custom-built unit specifically designed for deep tissue spectroscopy. We also present in vivo measurements acquired simultaneously with the two spectrometers in a piglet model of newborn.

  9. Dermal Fenestration With Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: A Technique for Managing Soft Tissue Injuries Associated With High-Energy Complex Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Henrietta; Le Cocq, Heather; Mountain, Alistair J; Sargeant, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Military casualties can sustain complex foot fractures from blast incidents. This frequently involves the calcaneum and is commonly associated with mid-foot fracture dislocations. The foot is at risk of both compartment syndrome and the development of fracture blisters after such injuries. The amount of energy transfer and the environment in which the injury was sustained also predispose patients to potential skin necrosis and deep infection. Decompression of the compartments is a part of accepted practice in civilian trauma to reduce the risk of complications associated with significant soft tissue swelling. The traditional methods of foot fasciotomy, however, are not without significant complications. We report a simple technique of dermal fenestration combined with the use of negative pressure wound therapy, which aims to preserve the skin integrity of the foot without resorting to formal fasciotomy.

  10. 皮下埋线治疗慢性软组织损伤53例%53 cases of chronic soft tissue injury using subcutaneous line embedding therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶立汉; 胡亚明

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Acupuncture and ventouse can dredge meridian, activate blood circulation and relieve pain thus is effective to chronic soft tissue injury.We investigated a kind of method using subcutaneous line-embedding therapy to cure chronic soft tissue injury and explore a high performance and effective method in curing chronic soft tissue injury.

  11. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-09-20

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of Calcaneal Fracture With Severe Soft Tissue Injury and Osteomyelitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Michael; Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in surgical technique have resulted in the ability to reconstruct lower extremity injuries that would have previously been treated by amputation. Currently, a paucity of data is available specifically addressing limb amputation versus reconstruction for calcaneal fractures with severe soft tissue compromise. Reconstruction leaves the patient with their native limb; however, multiple surgeries, infections, chronic pain, and a poor functional outcome are very real possibilities. We present the case of a complex calcaneal fracture complicated by soft tissue injury and osteomyelitis that highlights the importance of shared decision-making between patient and surgeon when considering reconstruction versus amputation. This case exemplifies the need for open communication concerning the risks and benefits of treatment modalities while simultaneously considering the patient's expectations and desired outcomes.

  13. Mapping of thermal injury in biologic tissues using quantitative pathologic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.

    1999-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative pathologic techniques can be used for (1) mapping of thermal injury, (2) comparisons lesion sizes and configurations for different instruments or heating sources and (3) comparisons of treatment effects. Concentric zones of thermal damage form around a single volume heat source. The boundaries between some of these zones are distinct and measurable. Depending on the energy deposition, heating times and tissue type, the zones can include the following beginning at the hotter center and progressing to the cooler periphery: (1) tissue ablation, (2) carbonization, (3) tissue water vaporization, (4) structural protein denaturation (thermal coagulation), (5) vital enzyme protein denaturation, (6) cell membrane disruption, (7) hemorrhage, hemostasis and hyperhemia, (8) tissue necrosis and (9) wound organization and healing.

  14. The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is “Inflammation” Always Inflammation?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of “proinflammatory” cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine “inflammation”? In this review, we discuss the functions of “inflammatory” mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine t...

  15. Endurance exercise accelerates myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery and reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjing Li

    Full Text Available Exercise training offers cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury. However, few essential signals have been identified to underscore the protection from injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that exercise-induced acceleration of myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery contributes to this protection. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old were trained on treadmills for 45 min/day at a treading rate of 15 m/min for 8 weeks. At the end of 8-week exercise training, mice underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60-min or 24-h reperfusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was performed to measure myocardial tissue oxygenation. Western immunoblotting analyses, gene transfection, and myography were examined. The oximetry study demonstrated that exercise markedly shortened myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery time following reperfusion. Exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1 protein expression (a subunit of ATP-sensitive K(+channel on vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMC sarc-K(ATP and protected the heart from I/R injury. In vivo gene transfer of dominant negative Kir6.1AAA prolonged the recovery time and enlarged infarct size. In addition, transfection of Kir6.1AAA increased the stiffness and reduced the relaxation capacity in the vasculature. Together, our study demonstrated that exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1, improved tissue oxygenation recovery, and protected the heart against I/R injury. This exercise-induced cardioprotective mechanism may provide a potential therapeutic intervention targeting VSMC sarc-K(ATP channels and reperfusion recovery.

  16. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  17. Therapeutic impact of CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of deep tissue abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Nobuhiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Aoshima, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ikuo; Kawamura, Yasutaka, E-mail: nobuhiro0204@hotmail.com [Kameda Medical Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Combination therapy of CT-guided percutaneous drainage and antibiotics is the first-line treatment for abscesses. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated. However, the therapeutic impact of this procedure for infection treatment has never been reported. We retrospectively analyzed all 47 patients who received CT-guided percutaneous drainage for infection treatment. Patients' characteristics, pathogens isolated, antibiotics administered, technical and clinical outcomes, complications related to this procedure and therapeutic impacts were investigated. Patients were 26 males and 21 females. The mean age was 63.5 years ({+-}18.7). The diseases targeted were 19 retroperitoneal abscesses, 18 intraabdominal abscesses, three pelvic abscesses, and seven others. As for technical outcomes, all of the 54 procedures (100%) were successful. As for clinical outcomes, 44 (93.6%) were cured and three patients (6.4%) died. No complications related to this procedure were found in this study. A total of 42 patients (88%) had a change in the management of their infection as a result of CT-guided percutaneous drainage, such as selection and discontinuation of antibiotics. In conclusion, CT-guided percutaneous drainage is a safe and favorable procedure in the treatment of deep tissue abscesses. Therapeutic impact of these procedures helped physicians make a rational decision for antibiotics selection. (author)

  18. Optimal spectral filtering in soliton self-frequency shift for deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Qiu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Tunable optical solitons generated by soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) have become valuable tools for multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Recent progress in MPM using 1700 nm excitation enabled visualizing subcortical structures in mouse brain in vivo for the first time. Such an excitation source can be readily obtained by SSFS in a large effective-mode-area photonic crystal rod with a 1550-nm fiber femtosecond laser. A longpass filter was typically used to isolate the soliton from the residual in order to avoid excessive energy deposit on the sample, which ultimately leads to optical damage. However, since the soliton was not cleanly separated from the residual, the criterion for choosing the optimal filtering wavelength is lacking. Here, we propose maximizing the ratio between the multiphoton signal and the n'th power of the excitation pulse energy as a criterion for optimal spectral filtering in SSFS when the soliton shows dramatic overlapping with the residual. This optimization is based on the most efficient signal generation and entirely depends on physical quantities that can be easily measured experimentally. Its application to MPM may reduce tissue damage, while maintaining high signal levels for efficient deep penetration.

  19. Therapeutic impact of CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of deep tissue abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Nobuhiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Ikuo; Kaneko, Norihiro; Aoshima, Masahiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy of CT-guided percutaneous drainage and antibiotics is the first-line treatment for abscesses. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated. However, the therapeutic impact of this procedure for infection treatment has never been reported. We retrospectively analyzed all 47 patients who received CT-guided percutaneous drainage for infection treatment. Patients' characteristics, pathogens isolated, antibiotics administered, technical and clinical outcomes, complications related to this procedure and therapeutic impacts were investigated. Patients were 26 males and 21 females. The mean age was 63.5 years (±18.7). The diseases targeted were 19 retroperitoneal abscesses, 18 intra-abdominal abscesses, three pelvic abscesses, and seven others. As for technical outcomes, all of the 54 procedures (100%) were successful. As for clinical outcomes, 44 (93.6%) were cured and three patients (6.4%) died. No complications related to this procedure were found in this study. A total of 42 patients (88%) had a change in the management of their infection as a result of CT-guided percutaneous drainage, such as selection and discontinuation of antibiotics. In conclusion, CT-guided percutaneous drainage is a safe and favorable procedure in the treatment of deep tissue abscesses. Therapeutic impact of these procedures helped physicians make a rational decision for antibiotics selection.

  20. Tissue reconstruction of skin failures and soft-tissue injuries using regenerative medicine methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Smirnova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrospinning technique has been used to manufacture a composite material based on nanofibers made of aliphatic copolyamide and composite nanofibers made of chitosan and chitin nanofibrils. Experimental in vivo studies of the designed material as wound covering were carried out to treat a vast and multilayered wound on a rat's back. After 28days and nights of observation, complete epithelialization of the wound surface was established to occur in the experimental rat group. Histological analysis of scar tissue showed the presence of a small minority of capillaries and a low amount of infiltrating cells. The survival of animals was 100%. At the same time, in the control group of animals, lethality was observed in 11% of cases, and suppurative complications were observed in 100% of cases. Thrombocyte gel prepared from the peripheral blood of the patients was used to increase the rate of tissue regeneration, and to reduce the infection probability. The curative effect was proved to increase when wound dressings and autologous blood product separation, i.e., thrombocyte gel and platelet-rich plasma, were applied simultaneously.

  1. Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza

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    Barbieri Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009. Methods Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A, charred (C, burns (B, multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP (M, were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals. Results Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn, in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn; Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples. Conclusions The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

  2. TREATMENT OF 120 CASES OF SOFT-TISSUE INJURY OF THE SHOULDER-BACK REGION WITH FLOATING NEEDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; WANG Ke-hong; WANG Xiu-juan

    2005-01-01

    @@ In recent several years, the authors of the present paper employed floating needle to treat 120 cases of soft tissue injury of the shoulder-back region and achieved a good therapeutic effect. Following is the report.

  3. Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment on Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Injury in Rats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Djedovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT enhances tissue vascularization and neoangiogenesis. Recent animal studies showed improved soft tissue regeneration using ESWT. In most cases, deep partial-thickness burns require skin grafting; the outcome is often unsatisfactory in function and aesthetic appearance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of ESWT on skin regeneration after deep partial-thickness burns. Under general anesthesia, two standardized deep partial-thickness burns were induced on the back of 30 male Wistar rats. Immediately after the burn, ESWT was given to rats of group 1 (N=15, but not to group 2 (N=15. On days 5, 10, and 15, five rats of each group were analyzed. Reepithelialization rate was defined, perfusion units were measured, and histological analysis was performed. Digital photography was used for visual documentation. A wound score system was used. ESWT enhanced the percentage of wound closure in group 1 as compared to group 2 (P<0.05. The reepithelialization rate was improved significantly on day 15 (P<0.05. The wound score showed a significant increase in the ESWT group. ESWT improves skin regeneration of deep partial-thickness burns in rats. It may be a suitable and cost effective treatment alternative in this type of burn wounds in the future.

  4. Effect of extracorporeal shock wave treatment on deep partial-thickness burn injury in rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Kamelger, Florian Stefan; Jeschke, Johannes; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances tissue vascularization and neoangiogenesis. Recent animal studies showed improved soft tissue regeneration using ESWT. In most cases, deep partial-thickness burns require skin grafting; the outcome is often unsatisfactory in function and aesthetic appearance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of ESWT on skin regeneration after deep partial-thickness burns. Under general anesthesia, two standardized deep partial-thickness burns were induced on the back of 30 male Wistar rats. Immediately after the burn, ESWT was given to rats of group 1 (N = 15), but not to group 2 (N = 15). On days 5, 10, and 15, five rats of each group were analyzed. Reepithelialization rate was defined, perfusion units were measured, and histological analysis was performed. Digital photography was used for visual documentation. A wound score system was used. ESWT enhanced the percentage of wound closure in group 1 as compared to group 2 (P < 0.05). The reepithelialization rate was improved significantly on day 15 (P < 0.05). The wound score showed a significant increase in the ESWT group. ESWT improves skin regeneration of deep partial-thickness burns in rats. It may be a suitable and cost effective treatment alternative in this type of burn wounds in the future.

  5. Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case-Control, Multicenter Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0031 TITLE: Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case...DATES COVERED 15Mar2013-31Oct2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case-Control...assess the success of skin cell spray combined with a biocomposite subcutaneous (INTEGRA) layer for repair of large open wounds. The objective is the

  6. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  7. Bone And Soft Tissue Changes In Patients With Spinal Cord Injury And Multiple Sclerosis

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    Dionyssiotis Yannis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis, deterioration of body composition (changes in bone, fat and muscle mass is associated with increased risk for diseases such as coronary artery heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, lipid metabolism abnormalities, and osteoporotic fractures in these patients. Immobility leads to a changing pattern of loading in the paralyzed areas, and secondary alteration in structure. However, bone and soft tissue changes in these patients are usually neglected. The purpose of this article is to update on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bone and soft tissue changes, and to increase the awareness of the treating physicians with respect to bone, muscle and fat loss and their consequences aiming to obtain measures to prevent bone and soft tissue loss in these patients.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA threatens public health worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL expressed by most CA-MRSA strains could contribute to severe human infections, particularly in young and immunocompetent hosts. PVL is proposed to induce cytolysis or apoptosis of phagocytes. However, recent comparisons of isogenic CA-MRSA strains with or without PVL have revealed no differences in human PMN cytolytic activity. Furthermore, many of the mouse studies performed to date have failed to demonstrate a virulence role for PVL, thereby provoking the question: does PVL have a mechanistic role in human infection? In this report, we evaluated the contribution of PVL to severe skin and soft tissue infection. We generated PVL mutants in CA-MRSA strains isolated from patients with necrotizing fasciitis and used these tools to evaluate the pathogenic role of PVL in vivo. In a model of necrotizing soft tissue infection, we found PVL caused significant damage of muscle but not the skin. Muscle injury was linked to induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines KC, MIP-2, and RANTES, and recruitment of neutrophils. Tissue damage was most prominent in young mice and in those strains of mice that more effectively cleared S. aureus, and was not significant in older mice and mouse strains that had a more limited immune response to the pathogen. PVL mediated injury could be blocked by pretreatment with anti-PVL antibodies. Our data provide new insights into CA-MRSA pathogenesis, epidemiology and therapeutics. PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes.

  9. An in vitro scratch tendon tissue injury model: effects of high frequency low magnitude loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekanmbi, Isaiah; Zargar, Nasim; Hulley, Philippa

    2017-03-01

    The healing process of ruptured tendons is suboptimal, taking months to achieve tissue with inferior properties to healthy tendon. Mechanical loading has been shown to positively influence tendon healing. However, high frequency low magnitude (HFLM) loads, which have shown promise in maintaining healthy tendon properties, have not been studied with in vitro injury models. Here, we present and validate an in vitro scratch tendon tissue injury model to investigate effects of HFLM loading on the properties of injured rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTFs). A longitudinal tendon tear was simulated using a needle aseptically to scratch a defined length along individual RTTFs. Tissue viability, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters were investigated before and 7 days after culture . The effects of static, HFLM (20 Hz), and low frequency (1 Hz) cyclic loading or no load were also investigated. Tendon viability was confirmed in damaged RTTFs after 7 days of culture, and the effects of a 0.77 ± 0.06 cm scratch on the mechanical property (tangent modulus) and tissue metabolism in damaged tendons were consistent, showing significant damage severity compared with intact tendons. Damaged tendon fascicles receiving HFLM (20 Hz) loads displayed significantly higher mean tangent modulus than unloaded damaged tendons (212.7 ± 14.94 v 92.7 ± 15.59 MPa), and damaged tendons receiving static loading (117.9 ± 10.65 MPa). HFLM stimulation maintained metabolic activity in 7-day cultured damaged tendons at similar levels to fresh tendons immediately following damage. Only damaged tendons receiving HFLM loads showed significantly higher metabolism than unloaded damaged tendons (relative fluorescence units -7021 ± 635.9 v 3745.1 ± 641.7). These validation data support the use of the custom-made in vitro injury model for investigating the potential of HFLM loading interventions in treating damaged tendons.

  10. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  11. Interleukin-19 mediates tissue damage in murine ischemic acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsu

    Full Text Available Inflammation and renal tubular injury are major features of acute kidney injury (AKI. Many cytokines and chemokines are released from injured tubular cells and acts as proinflammatory mediators. However, the role of IL-19 in the pathogenesis of AKI is not defined yet. In bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI-induced and HgCl2-induced AKI animal models, real-time quantitative (RTQ-PCR showed that the kidneys, livers, and lungs of AKI mice expressed significantly higher IL-19 and its receptors than did sham control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that IL-19 and its receptors were strongly stained in the kidney, liver, and lung tissue of AKI mice. In vitro, IL-19 upregulated MCP-1, TGF-β1, and IL-19, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in murine renal tubular epithelial M-1 cells. IL-19 upregulated TNF-α and IL-10 in cultured HepG2 cells, and it increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in cultured A549 cells. In vivo, after renal IRI or a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 treatment, IL-20R1-deficient mice (the deficiency blocks IL-19 signaling showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in serum and less tubular damage than did wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that IL-19 mediates kidney, liver, and lung tissue damage in murine AKI and that blocking IL-19 signaling may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.

  12. Elective amputation and bionic substitution restore functional hand use after critical soft tissue injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszmann, Oskar C.; Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D.; Salminger, Stefan; Herceg, Malvina; Sturma, Agnes; Hruby, Laura A.; Pittermann, Anna; Hofer, Christian; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries. Clinical tests conducted before, during and after the procedure, evaluating both functional and psychometric parameters, document the benefits of this approach. Additionally, in one of the patients, we show the possibility of implementing a highly functional and natural control of an advanced prosthesis providing both proportional and simultaneous movements of the wrist and hand for completing tasks of daily living with substantially less compensatory movements compared to the traditional systems. It is concluded that the proposed procedure is a viable solution for re-gaining highly functional hand use following critical soft tissue injuries when existing surgical measures fail. Our results are clinically applicable and can be extended to institutions with similar resources. PMID:27721419

  13. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  14. Computerized cuff pressure algometry: A new method to assess deep-tissue hypersensitivity in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Anders; Dreyer, Lene; Kendall, Sally; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsoe, Bente

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of computerized cuff pressure algometry (CPA) in fibromyalgia (FM) and to correlate deep-tissue sensitivity assessed by CPA with other disease markers of FM. Forty-eight women with FM and 16 healthy age-matched women were included. A computer-controlled, pneumatic tourniquet cuff was placed over the gastrocnemius muscle. The cuff was inflated, and the subject rated the pain intensity continuously on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The subject stopped the inflation at the pressure-pain tolerance and the corresponding VAS-score was determined (pressure-pain limit). The pressure at which VAS firstly exceeded 0 was defined as the pressure-pain threshold. Other disease markers (FM only): Isokinetic knee muscle strength, tenderpoint-count, myalgic score, Beck Depression Inventory, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Student's T-test was used to compare pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance and the Mann-Whitney test to compare pressure-pain limit. Pearson's correlation was used to detect linear relationships. Pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance assessed by CPA were significantly lower in FM compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in pressure-pain limit. CPA-parameters were significantly correlated to isokinetic muscle strength where more hypersensitivity resulted in lower strength. Pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance assessed by CPA were significantly lower in patients with FM indicating muscle hyperalgesia. CPA was associated with knee muscle strength but not with measures thought to be influenced by psychological distress and mood.

  15. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Priya Giri,1 Sabine Ebert,1 Ulf-Dietrich Braumann,2 Mathias Kremer,3 Shibashish Giri,1 Hans-Günther Machens,4 Augustinus Bader1 1Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics (IZBI, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 3Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 4Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which

  16. Agmatine improves locomotor function and reduces tissue damage following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C G; Marcillo, A E; Fairbanks, C A; Wilcox, G L; Yezierski, R P

    2000-09-28

    Clinically effective drug treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) remain unavailable. Agmatine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is an endogenous neuromodulator found in the brain and spinal cord. Evidence is presented that agmatine significantly improves locomotor function and reduces tissue damage following traumatic SCI in rats. The results suggest the importance of future therapeutic strategies encompassing the use of single drugs with multiple targets for the treatment of acute SCI. The therapeutic targets of agmatine (NMDA receptor and NOS) have been shown to be critically linked to the pathophysiological sequelae of CNS injury and this, combined with the non-toxic profile, lends support to agmatine being considered as a potential candidate for future clinical applications.

  17. A CD11d Monoclonal Antibody Treatment Reduces Tissue Injury and Improves Neurological Outcome after Fluid Percussion Brain Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an international health concern often resulting in chronic neurological abnormalities, including cognitive deficits, emotional disturbances, and motor impairments. An anti-CD11d monoclonal antibody that blocks the CD11d/CD18 integrin and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 interaction following experimental spinal cord injury improves functional recovery, while reducing the intraspinal number of neutrophils and macrophages, oxidative activity, and tissue d...

  18. Comparison of four lasers (λ = 650, 808, 980, and 1075 nm) for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface lesions in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Wilson, Christopher R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Lasers have been used in combination with applied cooling methods to preserve superficial skin layers (100's μm's) during cosmetic surgery. Preservation of a thicker tissue surface layer (millimeters) may also allow development of other noninvasive laser procedures. We are exploring noninvasive therapeutic laser applications in urology (e.g. laser vasectomy and laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence), which require surface tissue preservation on the millimeter scale. In this preliminary study, four lasers were compared for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions. Laser energy from three diode lasers (650, 808, and 980 nm) and a Ytterbium fiber laser (1075 nm) was delivered through a custom built, side-firing, laser probe with integrated cooling. An alcohol-based solution at -5 °C was circulated through a flow cell, cooling a sapphire window, which in turn cooled the tissue surface. The probe was placed in contact with porcine liver tissue, ex vivo, kept hydrated in saline and maintained at ~ 35 °C. Incident laser power was 4.2 W, spot diameter was 5.3 mm, and treatment time was 60 s. The optimal laser wavelength tested for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions during contact cooling of tissues was 1075 nm, which preserved a surface layer of ~ 2 mm. The Ytterbium fiber laser provides a compact, low maintenance, and high power alternative laser source to the Neodymium:YAG laser for noninvasive thermal therapy.

  19. Liver regeneration - The best kept secret: A model of tissue injury response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Cienfuegos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR is one of the most amazing tissue injury response. Given its therapeutic significance has been deeply studied in the last decades. LR is an extraordinary complex process, strictly regulated, which accomplishes the characteristics of the most evolutionary biologic systems (robustness and explains the difficulties of reshaping it with therapeutic goals. TH reproduces the physiological tissue damage response pattern, with a first phase of priming of the hepatocytes -cell-cycle transition G0-G1-, and a second phase of proliferation -cell-cycle S/M phases- which ends with the liver mass recovering. This process has been related with the tissue injury response regulators as: complement system, platelets, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, growth factors (HGF, EGF, VGF and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-β. Given its complexity and strict regulation, illustrates the unique alternative to liver failure is liver transplantation. The recent induced pluripotential cells (iPS description and the mesenchymal stem cell (CD133+ plastic capability have aroused new prospects in the cellular therapy field. Those works have assured the cooperation between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Herein, we review the physiologic mechanisms of liver regeneration.

  20. Reduction of thermocoagulative injury via use of a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) in laryngeal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Arne; Kucher, Stanislav; Knecht, Rainald; Jowett, Nathan; Krötz, Peter; Reimer, Rudolph; Schumacher, Udo; Anders, Sven; Münscher, Adrian; Dalchow, Carsten V; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-04-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is routinely used in glottic microsurgery for the treatment of benign and malignant disease, despite significant collateral thermal damage secondary to photothermal vaporization without thermal confinement. Subsequent tissue response to thermal injury involves excess collagen deposition resulting in scarring and functional impairment. To minimize collateral thermal injury, short-pulse laser systems such as the microsecond pulsed erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser and picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) have been developed. This study compares incisions made in ex vivo human laryngeal tissues by CO2 and Er:YAG lasers versus PIRL using light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and infrared thermography (IRT). In comparison to the CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, PIRL incisions showed significantly decreased mean epithelial (59.70 µm) and subepithelial (22.15 µm) damage zones (p lasers (p laser incisions. IRT demonstrated median temperature rise of 4.1 K in PIRL vocal fold incisions, significantly less than for Er:YAG laser cuts (171.85 K; p lasers in human glottis and supraglottic tissues.

  1. The Acute Effects of Deep Tissue Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching on Muscular Strength, Power, and Flexibility in Division I Linemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Brandon; Jacobson, Bert H

    2015-06-24

    A recent strategy to increase sports performance is a self-massage technique called myofascial release using foam rollers. Myofascial restrictions are thought to be brought on by injuries, muscle imbalances, over recruitment, and/or inflammation, all of which can decrease sports performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of a single-bout of lower extremity self-myofascial release using a custom deep tissue roller (DTR) and a dynamic stretch protocol. Subjects consisted of NCAA Division 1 offensive linemen (n=14) at a Midwestern university. All players were briefed on the objectives of the study and subsequently signed an approved IRB consent document. A randomized crossover design was used to assess each dependent variable (vertical jump power and velocity, knee isometric torque, and hip range of motion was assessed before and after: a) no treatment, b) deep tissue foam rolling, c) dynamic stretching. Results of repeated measures ANOVA yielded no pre- to post-test significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups for VJ peak power (p=.45), VJ average power (p=.16), VJ peak velocity (p=.25), VJ average velocity (p=.23), peak knee extension torque (p=0.63), average knee extension torque (p=0.11), peak knee flexion torque (p=0.63), or average knee flexion torque (p=0.22). However hip flexibility was statistically significant when tested after both dynamic stretching and foam rolling (p=0.0001). While no changes in strength or power was evident increase flexibility following DTR may be used interchangeably with traditional stretching exercises.

  2. Soft tissue tumors following traumatic injury: two observations of interest for the medicolegal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, P A; Rouge, D; Durroux, R; Rouquette, I; Arbus, L

    1998-06-01

    Two cases of tumors of the soft tissues developing at the site of a previous traumatic injury occurring a few years earlier are reported. One was finally diagnosed as aggressive fibromatosis and the other as low-grade fibrosarcoma. Among the pathogenic mechanisms and the etiologic factors involved in such tumors, the posttraumatic causality is discussed, and in addition to the initial trauma, the role of iterative surgery in the first case and mineral muscular inclusions in the second case are examined. The different therapeutic approaches of such lesions are also reviewed.

  3. Referred pain and cutaneous responses from deep tissue electrical pain stimulation in the groin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain is located around the scar and external inguinal ring and is often described as deep rather than cutaneous, with frequent complaints of pain in adjacent areas. Whether this pain is due to local pathology or referred/projected pain is unknown, hindering...... outside the stimulation area was reported, with 90-100% having the same response on both days, depending on the location. Deep pain stimulation significantly increased the cutaneous HPT (P

  4. Heat transfer analysis of catheters used for localized tissue cooling to attenuate reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Thomas L; Mitchell, Jennifer E; Merrill, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    Recent revascularization success for ischemic stroke patients using stentrievers has created a new opportunity for therapeutic hypothermia. By using short term localized tissue cooling interventional catheters can be used to reduce reperfusion injury and improve neurological outcomes. Using experimental testing and a well-established heat exchanger design approach, the ɛ-NTU method, this paper examines the cooling performance of commercially available catheters as function of four practical parameters: (1) infusion flow rate, (2) catheter location in the body, (3) catheter configuration and design, and (4) cooling approach. While saline batch cooling outperformed closed-loop autologous blood cooling at all equivalent flow rates in terms of lower delivered temperatures and cooling capacity, hemodilution, systemic and local, remains a concern. For clinicians and engineers this paper provides insights for the selection, design, and operation of commercially available catheters used for localized tissue cooling.

  5. Pallidal deep-brain stimulation associated with complete remission of self-injurious behaviors in a patient with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deon, Laura L; Kalichman, Miriam A; Booth, Cynthia L; Slavin, Konstantin V; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to review the management of a boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome with deep-brain stimulation who had remission of self-injurious behaviors as a result. This patient was treated with intrathecal baclofen and, later, with deep-brain stimulation to reduce hypertonia. Goals were to improve wheelchair positioning for school attendance and to reduce the use of restraints for comfort. Intrathecal baclofen was implanted twice and decreased the hypertonia, but both were explanted because of infection. Deep-brain stimulation was initiated 2.5 years ago, and since that time, comfort and function have improved and caregiver burden has decreased. Improvements in dystonia with deep-brain stimulation have also occurred, and self-injurious behaviors have resolved.

  6. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  7. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  8. Recovery of renal function after administration of adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction in rat model of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunwoo; Jang, Myoung Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Jin Young; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-03-10

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major challenge in critical care medicine. The purpose of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the optimal route for SVF delivery in a rat model of AKI induced by I/R injury. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (10 animals per group): sham, nephrectomy control, I/R injury control, renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection. To induce AKI by I/R injury, the left renal artery was clamped with a nontraumatic vascular clamp for 40 min, and the right kidney was removed. Rats receiving renal arterial infusion of SVF had a significantly reduced increase in serum creatinine compared with the I/R injury control group at 4 days after I/R injury. The glomerular filtration rate of the renal arterial SVF infusion group was maintained at a level similar to that of the sham and nephrectomy control groups at 14 days after I/R injury. Masson's trichrome staining showed significantly less fibrosis in the renal arterial SVF infusion group compared with that in the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection groups compared with the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal function is effectively rescued from AKI induced by I/R injury through the renal arterial administration of SVF in a rat model.

  9. Diannexin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and targets phosphatidylserines in ischemic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E Wever

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5 homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.

  10. A retrospective review over 1999 to 2007 of head, shoulder and knee soft tissue and fracture dislocation injuries and associated costs for rugby league in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D; Hume, P; Gianotti, S; Clark, T

    2011-04-01

    King et al. reported that of 5 941 moderate to serious claims resulting in medical treatment for rugby league injuries, the knee, shoulder, and head and neck body sites and soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injuries were most frequent and costly in the New Zealand national no-fault injury compensation corporation database during 1999 to 2007. However, additional analyses of knee, shoulder and head and neck body sites by soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injury types was required to enable a greater understanding of the nature of injuries most likely to be seen by sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players. From 1999 to 2007 the injury claims and costs for head and neck soft tissue, fracture-dislocations, shoulders soft tissue significantly increased. Knee soft tissue injury claims and costs significantly decreased from 1999 to 2007. There was no significant difference in knee fracture-dislocation injury claims but there was a significant increase in knee fracture-dislocation injury costs from 1999 to 2007. Changes in the nature of injuries may be related to changes in defensive techniques employed in rugby league during this time. Sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players should focus their injury prevention strategies on reducing musculoskeletal injuries to the head and shoulder. There should be a focus on increasing awareness of correct tackling technique, head injury awareness and management of suspected cervical spine injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. An acellular biologic scaffold does not regenerate appreciable de novo muscle tissue in rat models of volumetric muscle loss injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Amit; Roe, Janet L; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds continue to be investigated for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries. Clinically, ECM scaffolds have been used for lower extremity VML repair; in particular, MatriStem™, a porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), has shown improved functional outcomes and vascularization, but limited myogenesis. However, efficacy of the scaffold for the repair of traumatic muscle injuries has not been examined systematically. In this study, we demonstrate that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to repair a rodent gastrocnemius musculotendinous junction (MTJ) and tibialis anterior (TA) VML injury does not support muscle tissue regeneration. In the MTJ model, the scaffold was completely resorbed without tissue remodeling, suggesting that the scaffold may not be suitable for the clinical repair of muscle-tendon injuries. In the TA VML injury, the scaffold remodeled into a fibrotic tissue and showed functional improvement, but not due to muscle fiber regeneration. The inclusion of physical rehabilitation also did not improve functional response or tissue remodeling. We conclude that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to treat VML injuries may hasten the functional recovery through the mechanism of scaffold mediated functional fibrosis. Thus for appreciable muscle regeneration, repair strategies that incorporate myogenic cells, vasculogenic accelerant and a myoconductive scaffold need to be developed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Assessment of deep tissue hyperalgesia in the groin – a method comparison of electrical vs. pressure stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    and preventive strategies. Thus, there is a need for development of methods with direct stimulation of suspected hyperalgesic tissues to identify the peripheral origin of nociceptive input. METHODS: We compared the reliability of an ultrasound-guided needle stimulation protocol of electrical detection and pain...... thresholds to pressure algometry, by performing identical test-retest sequences 10 days apart, in deep tissues in the groin region. Electrical stimulation was performed by five up-and-down staircase series of single impulses of 0.04 ms duration, starting from 0 mA in increments of 0.2 mA until a threshold......-retest repeatability, but with superior same-day reliability for electrical stimulation (P source for test variation. There were no systematic differences in electrical thresholds across tissues and locations (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION...

  13. Liver transplantation in the mouse: Insights into liver immunobiology, tissue injury, and allograft tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A; Thomson, Angus W

    2016-04-01

    The surgically demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved to be a powerful research tool for the investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction, and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, because the mouse genome is well characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice have provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immunobiology and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in the regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. In conclusion, orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology, and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in the liver and in the treatment of other diseases.

  14. Protective effects of erdosteine on rotenone-induced oxidant injury in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Alpaslan; Iraz, Mustafa; Sahin, Semsettin; Ilhan, Atilla; Idiz, Nuri; Fadillioglu, Ersin

    2004-09-01

    Rotenone, an insecticide of botanical origin, causes toxicity through inhibition of complex I of the respiratory chain in mitochondria. This study was undertaken to determine whether rotenone-induced liver oxidant injury is prevented by erdosteine, a mucolytic agent showing antioxidant properties. There were four groups of Male Wistar Albino rats: group one was untreated as control; the other groups were treated with erdosteine (50 mg/kg per day, orally), rotenone (2.5 mg/mL once and 1 mL/kg per day for 60 days, i.p.) or rotenone plus erdosteine, respectively. Rotenone treatment without erdosteine increased xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme activity and also increased lipid peroxidation in liver tissue (P erdosteine produced a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and XO activities in comparison with rotenone group (P Erdosteine treatment with rotenone led to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in comparison with the rotenone group (P erdosteine group, there was a negative correlation between XO activity and NO level in liver tissue (r = -0.833, P erdosteine may be a protective agent for rotenone-induced liver oxidative injury in rats.

  15. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  16. CD163 interacts with TWEAK to regulate tissue regeneration after ischaemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahori, Hirokuni; Karmali, Vinit; Polavarapu, Rohini; Lyle, Alicia N; Weiss, Daiana; Shin, Eric; Husain, Ahsan; Naqvi, Nawazish; Van Dam, Richard; Habib, Anwer; Choi, Cheol Ung; King, Adrienne L; Pachura, Kimberly; Taylor, W Robert; Lefer, David J; Finn, Aloke V

    2015-08-05

    Macrophages are an essential component of the immune response to ischaemic injury and play an important role in promoting inflammation and its resolution, which is necessary for tissue repair. The type I transmembrane glycoprotein CD163 is exclusively expressed on macrophages, where it acts as a receptor for haemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes. An extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in the blood as a soluble protein, for which no physiological function has so far been described. Here we show that during ischaemia, soluble CD163 functions as a decoy receptor for TWEAK, a secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor family, to regulate TWEAK-induced activation of canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Notch signalling necessary for myogenic progenitor cell proliferation. Mice with deletion of CD163 have transiently elevated levels of TWEAK, which stimulate muscle satellite cell proliferation and tissue regeneration in their ischaemic and non-ischaemic limbs. These results reveal a role for soluble CD163 in regulating muscle regeneration after ischaemic injury.

  17. Fluorescence Quenching Nanoprobes Dedicated to In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging and High-Efficient Tumor Therapy in Deep-Seated Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huan; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2015-06-10

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photoacoustic (PA) therapy have promising applications for treating tumors. It is known that the utilization of high-absorption-coefficient probes can selectively enhance the PAI target contrast and PA tumor therapy efficiency in deep-seated tissue. Here, the design of a probe with the highest availability of optical-thermo conversion by using graphene oxide (GO) and dyes via π-π stacking interactions is reported. The GO serves as a base material for loading dyes and quenching dye fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), with the one purpose of maximum of PA efficiency. Experiments verify that the designed fluorescence quenching nanoprobes can produce stronger PA signals than the sum of the separate signals generated in the dye and the GO. Potential applications of the fluorescence quenching nanoprobes are demonstrated, dedicating to enhance PA contrast of targets in deep-seated tissues and tumors in living mice. PA therapy efficiency both in vitro and in vivo by using the fluorescence quenching nanoprobes is found to be higher than with the commonly used PA therapy agents. Taken together, quenching dye fluorescence via FRET will provide a valid means for developing high-efficiency PA probes. Fluorescence quenching nanoprobes are likely to become a promising candidate for deep-seated tumor imaging and therapy.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Christos G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomas of the deep soft tissue are quite uncommon and occur even more rarely in upper extremity. Case presentation A 32-year old manual laborer man presented with a two-year history of numbness, tingling and burning pain in the palmar surface of the left hand and fingers. His medical history was unremarkable and no trauma episode was reported. According to the clinical examination and the result of median nerve conduction study (NCS the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome was established. Operative release of the transverse carpal ligament was subsequently performed but the patient experienced only temporary relief of his symptoms. MRI examination revealed a deep palmary located mass with well-defined margins and ovoid shape. Intraoperatively, the tumor was in continuity with the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of the middle finger causing substantial compression to median nerve. Histopathological findings of the resected mass were consistent with leiomyoma. After two years the patient was pain-free without signs of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Despite the fact that reports on deep soft tissue leiomyoma are exceptional, this tumor had to be considered as differential diagnosis in painful non-traumatic hand syndromes especially in young patients.

  19. Anesthesia for deep brain stimulation in traumatic brain injury-induced hemidystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Jill M; Oluigbo, Chima O; Reddy, Srijaya K

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Deep brain stimulation in an awake patient presents several unique challenges to the anesthesiologist. It is important to understand the various stages of the procedure and the complexities of anesthetic management in order to have a successful surgical outcome and provide a safe environment for the patient.

  20. Anesthesia for deep brain stimulation in traumatic brain injury-induced hemidystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Jill M; Oluigbo, Chima O; Reddy, Srijaya K

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation in an awake patient presents several unique challenges to the anesthesiologist. It is important to understand the various stages of the procedure and the complexities of anesthetic management in order to have a successful surgical outcome and provide a safe environment for the patient.

  1. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who develop

  2. Genome-wide mutant fitness profiling identifies nutritional requirements for optimal growth of Yersinia pestis in deep tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Samantha G; Proulx, Megan K; Lu, Shan; Baker, Richard E; Goguen, Jon D

    2014-08-19

    Rapid growth in deep tissue is essential to the high virulence of Yersinia pestis, causative agent of plague. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this unusual ability, we used transposon mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq) to systematically probe the Y. pestis genome for elements contributing to fitness during infection. More than a million independent insertion mutants representing nearly 200,000 unique genotypes were generated in fully virulent Y. pestis. Each mutant in the library was assayed for its ability to proliferate in vitro on rich medium and in mice following intravenous injection. Virtually all genes previously established to contribute to virulence following intravenous infection showed significant fitness defects, with the exception of genes for yersiniabactin biosynthesis, which were masked by strong intercellular complementation effects. We also identified more than 30 genes with roles in nutrient acquisition and metabolism as experiencing strong selection during infection. Many of these genes had not previously been implicated in Y. pestis virulence. We further examined the fitness defects of strains carrying mutations in two such genes-encoding a branched-chain amino acid importer (brnQ) and a glucose importer (ptsG)-both in vivo and in a novel defined synthetic growth medium with nutrient concentrations matching those in serum. Our findings suggest that diverse nutrient limitations in deep tissue play a more important role in controlling bacterial infection than has heretofore been appreciated. Because much is known about Y. pestis pathogenesis, this study also serves as a test case that assesses the ability of Tn-seq to detect virulence genes. Our understanding of the functions required by bacteria to grow in deep tissues is limited, in part because most growth studies of pathogenic bacteria are conducted on laboratory media that do not reflect conditions prevailing in infected animal tissues. Improving our

  3. Electrical resistance increases at the tissue-electrode interface as an early response to nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Rajas P; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Berk, Julian; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J

    2016-08-01

    The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days. Daily resistance values rose significantly (pstimulation.

  4. Electrical resistance increases at the tissue-electrode interface as an early response to nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Rajas P; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Berk, Julian; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J; Kale, Rajas P; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Berk, Julian; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J; Berk, Julian; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Kale, Rajas P; Walder, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days. Daily resistance values rose significantly (pstimulation.

  5. Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2013-04-01

    A survey of the fossil record of land-plant tissues and their damage by arthropods reveals several results that shed light on trophic trends in host-plant resource use by arthropods. All 14 major plant tissues were present by the end of the Devonian, representing the earliest 20 % of the terrestrial biota. During this interval, two types of time lags separate the point between when tissues first originated from their earliest consumption by herbivorous arthropods. For epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma and xylem, live tissue consumption was rapid, occurring on average 10 m.y. after the earliest tissue records. By contrast, structural tissues (periderm, sclerenchyma), tissues with actively dividing cells (apical, lateral, intercalary meristems), and reproductive tissues (spores, megagametophytes, integuments) experienced approximately a 9-fold (92 m.y.) delay in arthropod herbivory, extending well into the Carboniferous Period. Phloem similarly presents a delay of 85 m.y., but this incongruously long lag-time may be attributed to the lack of preservation of this tissue in early vascular plants. Nevertheless, the presence of phloem can be indicated from planar spaces adjacent well-preserved xylem, or inferred from a known anatomy of the same plant taxon in better preserved material, especially permineralisations. The trophic partitioning of epidermis, parenchyma, phloem and xylem increases considerably to the present, probably a consequence of dietary specialization or consumption of whole leaves by several herbivore functional feeding groups. Structural tissues, meristematic tissues and reproductive tissues minimally have been consumed throughout the fossil record, consistent with their long lags to herbivory during the earlier Paleozoic. Neither angiosperm dominance in floras nor global environmental perturbations had any discernible effect on herbivore trophic partitioning of plant tissues.

  6. Skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure of deep second-degree scalding injuries via combined expression of the EPO receptor and beta common receptor by local subcutaneous injection of nanosized rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Augustinus Bader1, Sabine Ebert1, Shibashish Giri1, Mathias Kremer2, Shuhua Liu2, Andreas Nerlich5, Christina I Günter³, Dagmar U Smith4, Hans-Günther Machens2,31Department of Applied Stem Cell Biology and Cell Techniques, Centre for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzieg, 2Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, 3Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, 4Münchner Studienzentrum, Technische Universität München, Munich, 5Institute of Pathology, Klinikum München-Bogenhausen, Munich, GermanyBackground: Acceleration of skin regeneration is still an unsolved problem in the clinical treatment of patients suffering from deep burns and scalds. Although erythropoietin (EPO has a protective role in a wide range of organs and cells during ischemia and after trauma, it has been recently discovered that EPO is not tissue-protective in the common β subunit receptor (βCR knockout mouse. The protective capacity of EPO in tissue is mediated via a heteroreceptor complex comprising both the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR and βCR. However, proof of coexpression of these heterogenic receptors in regenerating skin after burns is still lacking.Methods: To understand the role of nanosized recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO in wound healing, we investigated the effects of subcutaneous injections of EPO on skin regeneration after deep second-degree scalding injuries. Our aim was to determine if joint expression of EPOR and βCR is a prerequisite for the tissue-protective effect of rhEPO. The efficiency in wound regeneration in a skin scalding injury mouse model was examined. A deep second-degree dermal scald injury was produced on the backs of 20 female Balb/c mice which were subsequently randomized to four experimental groups, two of which received daily subcutaneous injections of rhEPO. At days 7 and 14, the mice were sacrificed and the effects of rhEPO were

  7. Clinical Use of Fungal PCR from Deep Tissue Samples in the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases - A Retrospective, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Houhala, Mari; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Antikainen, Jenni; Valve, Jaana; Kirveskari, Juha; Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Secondly, we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013-2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was non-selected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), compering the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with the culture and microscopy results. There were 48 (16%) positive and 259 (84%) negative PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing invasive fungal disease were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the NPV and PPV were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Deep sequencing of the transcriptome reveals inflammatory features of porcine visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Anan; Guo, Yanqin; Tan, Ya; Tang, Guoqing; Mai, Miaomiao; Liu, Haifeng; Xiao, Jian; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei

    2013-01-01

    Functional differences in the different types of adipose tissue and the impact of their dysfunction on metabolism are associated with the regional distribution of adipose depots. Here we show a genome-wide comparison between the transcriptomes of one source of subcutaneous and two sources of visceral adipose tissue in the pig using an RNA-seq approach. We obtained ~32.3 million unique mapped reads which covered ~80.2% of the current annotated transcripts across these three sources of adipose tissue. We identified various genes differentially expressed between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which are potentially associated with the inflammatory features of visceral adipose tissue. These results are of benefit for understanding the phenotypic, metabolic and functional differences between different types of adipose tissue that are deposited in different body sites.

  9. bFGF and TGFβ expression in rat kidneys after ischemic/ reperfusional gut injury and its relationship with tissue repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Hui Yang; Xiao Bing Fu; Tong Zhu Sun; Li Xian Jiang; Xiao Man Gu

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion ( I/ R ) occur commonly in critically ill patients. It is well recognized that gut I/R may cause tissue damage and dysfunction of intestine, and induce remote organ injury including kidney, lung, and liver[1]. It may also lead to complications after severe burn or injury. Previous studies have focused on cellular elements, cytokines and inflammatory mediators.Relatively little attention has been paid endogenous protective mechanisms, I.e. The growth factors.

  10. Ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a potential examination for deep brain stimulation devices and the limitation study concerning MRI-related heating injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chuan; Li, Jun-Ju; Zhu, Guan-Yu; Shi, Lin; Yang, An-Chao; Jiang, Yin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices are restricted to undertake 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the guideline. Nevertheless, we conducted an experiment to test pathological change near the leads in different field-strength MRI. Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were assigned to Group 1 (G1, n = 6, 7.0T, DBS), Group 2 (G2, n = 6, 3.0T, DBS), Group 3 (G3, n = 6, 1.5T, DBS), and Group 4 (G4, n = 6, 1.5T, paracentesis). DBS leads were implanted in G1, G2 and G3, targeting left nucleus ventralis posterior thalami. Paracentesis was performed in G4. 24 h after MRI scan, all animals were killed for examining pathological alternation (at different distance from lead) via transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that the severity of tissue injury correlates with the distance to electrode instead of field strength of MRI. Up to now, the reason for the restriction of MRI indicated no significantly different pathological change.

  11. Deep tissue single cell MSC ablation using a fiber laser source to evaluate therapeutic potential in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Pendleton, Emily G.; Lin, Charles P.; Mortensen, Luke J.

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a currently uncurable disease where a mutation in collagen type I yields brittle bones. One potential therapy is transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but controlling and enhancing transplanted cell survival has proven challenging. Therefore, we use a 2- photon imaging system to study individual transplanted cells in the living bone marrow. We ablated cells deep in the bone marrow and observed minimal collateral damage to surrounding tissue. Future work will evaluate the local impact of transplanted MSCs on bone deposition in vivo.

  12. A new therapeutic strategy for lung tissue injury induced by influenza with CR2 targeting complement inhibitior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a respiratory disease that seriously threatens human health. In fact, influenza virus itself does not make critical contribution to mortality induced by influenza, but "cytokine storm" produced by the excessive immune response triggered by the virus can result in inflammatory reaction of lung tissues and fatal lung tissue injury, and thus increase influenza mortality. Therefore, besides antiviral drugs, immunosuppression drugs should also be included in infection treatment. Presentation of the hypothesis Complement is the center of inflammatory reaction. If complement system is over activated, the body will have strong inflammatory reaction or tissue injury, resulting in pathological process. Many studies have proved that, inflammatory injury of lung tissues caused by influenza virus is closely related to complement activation. Therefore, inhibiting complement activation can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues. As complement is both a physiological defense and pathological damage medium, systematic inhibition may result in side effects including infection. Therefore, we design targeting complement inhibitors for complement activation sites, i.e. with CR2 as targeting vector, complement inhibitors like CD59 and Crry are targeted to inflammatory sites to specially inhibit the complement activation in local injury, thus local inflammatory reaction is inhibited. Testing the hypothesis CR2-CD59 and CR2-Crry targeting complement inhibitors are fusion-expressed, and their biological activity is examined via in vivo and in vitro tests. CR2 targeting complement inhibitors are used to treat mouse influenza viral pneumonia model, with PBS treatment group as the control. The survival and lung tissue injury of the mice is observed and the effect of CR2 targeting complement inhibitors on pneumonia induced by influenza virus is evaluated. Implications of the hypothesis CR2 targeting complement inhibitors

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Various Rat Ocular Tissues after Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Possible Relevance to Acute Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Liao, En-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wei, Yu-Shan; Li, Ji-Min; Lin, Li-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Chun; Wang, Yi-Shiuan; Ko, Mei-Lan; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera) during ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group). The analysis results revealed 221 unique differentially expressed proteins of a total of 1481 proteins in the cornea between the two groups. In addition, 97 of 1206 conjunctival proteins, 90 of 1354 uveal proteins, 61 of 1180 scleral proteins, and 37 of 1204 retinal proteins were differentially expressed. These findings imply that different ocular tissues have different tolerances against IR injury. To sum up, this study utilized the acute glaucoma model combined with 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the IR injury affected protein expression on various ocular tissues, and based on the ratio of protein expression alterations, the alterations in the ocular tissues were in the following order: the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, sclera, and retina. PMID:28165428

  14. Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lai Guan; Qin, Jim S; Roediger, Ben; Wang, Yilin; Jain, Rohit; Cavanagh, Lois L; Smith, Adrian L; Jones, Cheryl A; de Veer, Michael; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Meeusen, Els N; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes traffic into sites of organ injury in which they may not only participate in tissue repair and pathogen clearance but may also contribute to collateral cell damage through the release of noxious mediators. The dynamics and mechanisms of neutrophil migration in the extravascular space toward loci of tissue damage are not well understood. Here, we have used intravital multi-photon microscopy to dissect the behavior of neutrophils in response to tissue injury in the dermis of mice. We found that, following confined physical injury, initially rare scouting neutrophils migrated in a directional manner toward the damage focus. This was followed by the attraction of waves of additional neutrophils, and finally stabilization of the neutrophil cluster around the injury. Although neutrophil migration in the steady state and during the scouting phase depended on pertussis toxin-sensitive signals, the amplification phase was sensitive to interference with the cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose pathway. We finally demonstrated that neutrophil scouts also transit through the non-inflamed dermis, suggesting immunosurveillance function by these cells. Together, our data unravel a three-step cascade of events that mediates the specific accumulation of neutrophils at sites of sterile tissue injury in the interstitial space.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Various Rat Ocular Tissues after Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Possible Relevance to Acute Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera during ischemia–reperfusion (IR injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group. The analysis results revealed 221 unique differentially expressed proteins of a total of 1481 proteins in the cornea between the two groups. In addition, 97 of 1206 conjunctival proteins, 90 of 1354 uveal proteins, 61 of 1180 scleral proteins, and 37 of 1204 retinal proteins were differentially expressed. These findings imply that different ocular tissues have different tolerances against IR injury. To sum up, this study utilized the acute glaucoma model combined with 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the IR injury affected protein expression on various ocular tissues, and based on the ratio of protein expression alterations, the alterations in the ocular tissues were in the following order: the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, sclera, and retina.

  16. State of the art. Four easy pieces: interconnections between tissue injury, intermediary metabolism, autoimmunity, and chronic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lawrence

    2006-08-01

    Four questions are posed: (1) Can tissue damage itself provoke autoimmunity? (2) Can genetic mutations of key structures produce tissue pathology and thus provoke autoimmunity? (3) Can acute immune damage produce tissue degeneration without further hallmarks of an immune response? (4) Can intermediary metabolism modulate immune damage to tissues? Four answers are given: (1) Tissue injury itself may lead to autoimmunity. Both innate and adaptive immunity may arise as a response to tissue injury, and the immune attack can further damage tissue. (2) Genetic mutations can lead to an immune response indistinguishable from autoimmunity, exemplified from Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (3) Chronic immune damage may lead to tissue degeneration, with or without further hallmarks of an immune response. Variations on this theme, including inverse scenarios, are also possible: Inborn errors of metabolism may lead to tissue damage that may provoke an adaptive and or innate immune response. The immune response might further damage tissue. (4) Finally, perturbations of intermediary metabolism may modulate the immune response, controlling the extent of immune-mediated damage. Examples are taken from perturbations in the cholesterol pathway that influence the characteristics of the immune response, and with tryptophan metabolites that modulate autoimmunity and graft rejection. Inflammatory, degenerative, and autoimmune neurological disease will be discussed in terms of their implications for pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Severe open ankle sprain (SOAS): a lesion presenting as a penetrating soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeyrand, Marc; Vincent-Mansour, César; Guidon, Julie; Asselineau, Alain; Ducharnes, Gildas; Molina, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective case study was to describe the incidence and clinical features of severe open ankle sprain (SOAS), defined as a tear of the lateral or medial collateral ligaments with an associated transverse tear of the skin over the corresponding malleolus. To this end, we reviewed the medical records of patients with SOAS managed between January 2005 and January 2009, using the databases of 3 different orthopedic trauma centers. Our review revealed 9 patients with SOAS, 7 (77.77%) of which involved the lateral ligaments and 2 (22.22%) of which involved the medial ligaments. The median age was 32 (range 21 to 45) years, and the injury occurred as a result of a motor vehicle accident in 6 (66.67%) patients, and as a result of a fall from a height in 3 (33.33%) patients. Two tendons were damaged in 2 (22.22%) patients, the deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve) in 2 (22.22%) patients, and the anterior tibial artery in 1 (11.11%) patient. The only abnormality on plain radiographs was pneumarthrosis, which was present in 5 (55.56%) patients. The incidence of SOAS is rare, accounting for 0.002% (9/438,000) of all trauma cases and 0.22% (9/4142) of all cases of ankle trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by intraoperative stress-maneuvers in all 9 patients. In conclusion, SOAS should be suspected in patients who present with a traumatic skin wound over the malleolus.

  18. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  19. Periostin as a tissue and urinary biomarker of renal injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Bancha Satirapoj

    Full Text Available Improving the early detection of diabetic nephropathy remains a great challenge in disease management. Periostin is a marker of renal tubular injury and related to progressive kidney injury in animal models of chronic kidney disease. The clinical implications of urinary periostin activities in patients with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated.Urine samples were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 328 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (n=114, microalbuminuria (n=100 and macroalbuminuria (n=114. The excretion levels of urinary periostin were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical periostin expression was determined in kidney tissues from overt diabetic nephropathy.Increased periostin expression in glomeruli and tubular epithelium in diabetic renal pathology was observed. Urinary periostin levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the normoalbuminuria [3.06 (IQR: 1.12, 6.77 ng/mgCr], microalbuminuria [8.71 (IQR: 5.09, 19.29 ng/mgCr] and macroalbuminuria [13.58 (IQR: 3.99, 16.19 ng/mgCr] compared with healthy controls [1.15 (IQR: 0.60, 1.63 ng/mgCr] (P<0.01.Increased urine periostin level significantly correlated with aging, high albuminuria and decline of GFR. Urine periostin ELISA also demonstrated high performance for the diagnosis of established normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetes (AUC 0.78 (95%CI, 0.71 to 0.86, 0.99 (95%CI, 0.98 to 1.00 and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.91 to 0.98, respectively.The study indicates that increased urine periostin levels can be detected in patients with type 2 diabetes before the onset of significant albuminuria. Urinary periostin is an associated renal derangement in patients with established diabetic nephropathy and it may be used as an early marker of diabetic renal injury.

  20. Effect of Fucoidan Extracted from Mozuku on Experimental Cartilaginous Tissue Injury 

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    Saburo Minami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea and two in the trochlear sulcus of the distal femur. Rabbits in three experimental groups (F groups were orally administered fucoidan of seven different molecular weights (8, 50, 146, 239, 330, 400, or 1000 kD for 3 weeks by screening. Control (C group rabbits were provided water ad libitum. After the experimental period, macroscopic examination showed that the degree of filling in the fucoidan group was higher than that in the C group. Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. Image analysis of Alcian blue- and safranin O-stained F-group specimens showed increased production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs, respectively. Some injured holes were well repaired both macroscopically and microscopically and were filled with cartilage tissues; cartilage matrices such as PGs and GAGs were produced in groups F 50, F 146, and F 239. Thus, fucoidan administration enhanced morphologically healing of cartilage injury.

  1. Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Si; Reto Fiolka; Meng Cui

    2012-01-01

    Optical microscopy has so far been restricted to superficial layers, leaving many important biological questions unanswered. Random scattering causes the ballistic focus, which is conventionally used for image formation, to decay exponentially with depth. Optical imaging beyond the ballistic regime has been demonstrated by hybrid techniques that combine light with the deeper penetration capability of sound waves. Deep inside highly scattering media, the sound focus dimensions restrict the ima...

  2. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the deep peri-articular tissue of the stifle in a dog : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Booth

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A Belgian shepherd dog aged 4 years and 9 months was presented with acute onset of non-weight bearing lameness and stifle effusion of the left hind limb, caused by the deep form of a malignant fibrous histiocytoma originating in the deep musculature and fascia surrounding the stifle joint. The tumour progressed rapidly in the tissues along the femoral diaphysis with marked periosteal new bone formation. Cytology of a stifle joint aspirate revealed numerous large polygonal neoplastic cells with considerable anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. These cells were present in clusters, with cytoplasmic projections between the cells, but occasionally also occurred singly. Several cells contained multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles and occasional giant cells were also encountered. Adequate tumour-free margins were not possible with radical limb amputation and the dog was euthanased. Macroscopically the tumour appeared as an extensive pale tan, firm mass with scattered small haemorrhages and foci of yellow discolouration. Histologically the tumour consisted of dense neoplastic expanses or multiple nodules, composed of spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells, polygonal histiocytic cells or cell clusters and scattered giant cells with 2-3 nuclei. The polygonal neoplastic cells were frequently present around and invading lymphatics and blood vessels, causing neoplastic emboli. This is the 1st report of the clinical behaviour, radiography and cytology of the deep form of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the dog.

  3. Brown adipose tissue and its modulation by a mitochondria-targeted peptide in rat burn injury-induced hypermetabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yo, Kikuo; Yu, Yong-Ming; Zhao, Gaofeng; Bonab, Ali A; Aikawa, Naoki; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fischman, Alan J

    2013-02-15

    Hypermetabolism is a prominent feature of burn injury, and altered mitochondria function is presumed to contribute to this state. Recently, brown adipose tissue (BAT) was found to be present not only in rodents but also in humans, and its activity is associated with resting metabolic rate. In this report, we elucidate the relationship between burn injury-induced hypermetabolism and BAT activity and the possible role of the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 in attenuating burn injury-induced hypermetabolism by using a rat burn injury model. We demonstrate that burn injury induces morphological changes in interscapular BAT (iBAT). Burn injury was associated with iBAT activation, and this effect was positively correlated with increased energy expenditure. BAT activation was associated with augmentation of mitochondria biogenesis, and UCP1 expression in the isolated iBAT mitochondria. In addition, the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS31 attenuated burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, which was accompanied by suppression of UCP1 expression in isolated mitochondria. Our results suggest that BAT plays an important role in burn injury-induced hypermetabolism through its morphological changes and expression of UCP1.

  4. Incidence and prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in outpatients with injury of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujath, P; Spannagel, U; Habscheid, W

    1993-03-01

    253 outpatients were included in a prospective randomized study. All patients had incidence of injuries of the lower limb immobilized by a plaster cast. 126 patients (group I) received a subcutaneous injection of Fraxiparin daily, and 127 patients (group II) received no thromboprophylaxis. Without prophylaxis 21 (16.5%) cases developed a thrombosis, and with prophylaxis a thrombosis could be proven in 6 (4.8%) patients only (p immobilized by a plaster cast, a thromboprophylaxis with a low-molecular-weight heparin is recommended.

  5. Noninvasive thermal coagulation of deep subsurface tissue structures using a laser probe with integrated contact cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M; Scott, Nicholas J; Trammell, Susan R; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2008-01-01

    Cooling methods are used during cosmetic laser surgery to preserve a superficial layer of the skin surface. This study investigates contact cooling for sparing a deeper layer of the tissue surface during laser irradiation of subsurface tissues, with the goal of developing noninvasive laser therapy applications beyond cosmetic surgery. A laser probe was designed and tested for simultaneous laser irradiation and contact cooling of liver tissue, ex vivo. Gross and histologic examination was used to quantify thermal lesion dimensions. Liver lesions of 5.8-mm-diameter were created, while preserving the tissue surface to a depth of 1.5 mm. In vivo animal studies are planned to optimize the laser and cooling parameters for potential clinical applications.

  6. 3D Printer Generated Tissue iMolds for Cleared Tissue Using Single- and Multi-Photon Microscopy for Deep Tissue Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sean J; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Pathological analyses and methodology has recently undergone a dramatic revolution. With the creation of tissue clearing methods such as CLARITY and CUBIC, groups can now achieve complete transparency in tissue samples in nano-porous hydrogels. Cleared tissue is then imagined in a semi-aqueous medium that matches the refractive index of the objective being used. However, one major challenge is the ability to control tissue movement during imaging and to relocate precise locations post sequential clearing and re-staining. Using 3D printers, we designed tissue molds that fit precisely around the specimen being imaged. First, images are taken of the specimen, followed by importing and design of a structural mold, then printed with affordable plastics by a 3D printer. With our novel design, we have innovated tissue molds called innovative molds (iMolds) that can be generated in any laboratory and are customized for any organ, tissue, or bone matter being imaged. Furthermore, the inexpensive and reusable tissue molds are made compatible for any microscope such as single and multi-photon confocal with varying stage dimensions. Excitingly, iMolds can also be generated to hold multiple organs in one mold, making reconstruction and imaging much easier. Taken together, with iMolds it is now possible to image cleared tissue in clearing medium while limiting movement and being able to relocate precise anatomical and cellular locations on sequential imaging events in any basic laboratory. This system provides great potential for screening widespread effects of therapeutics and disease across entire organ systems.

  7. Brain tissue oxygen tension and its response to physiological manipulations: influence of distance from injury site in a swine model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Phan, Nicolas; Ferguson, Adam R; Morabito, Diane; Derugin, Nikita; Stewart, Campbell L; Knudson, M Margaret; Manley, Geoffrey; Rosenthal, Guy

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The optimal site for placement of tissue oxygen probes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unresolved. The authors used a previously described swine model of focal TBI and studied brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) at the sites of contusion, proximal and distal to contusion, and in the contralateral hemisphere to determine the effect of probe location on PbtO2 and to assess the effects of physiological interventions on PbtO2 at these different sites. METHODS A controlled cortical impact device was used to generate a focal lesion in the right frontal lobe in 12 anesthetized swine. PbtO2 was measured using Licox brain tissue oxygen probes placed at the site of contusion, in pericontusional tissue (proximal probe), in the right parietal region (distal probe), and in the contralateral hemisphere. PbtO2 was measured during normoxia, hyperoxia, hypoventilation, and hyperventilation. RESULTS Physiological interventions led to expected changes, including a large increase in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood with hyperoxia, increased intracranial pressure (ICP) with hypoventilation, and decreased ICP with hyperventilation. Importantly, PbtO2 decreased substantially with proximity to the focal injury (contusion and proximal probes), and this difference was maintained at different levels of fraction of inspired oxygen and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. In the distal and contralateral probes, hypoventilation and hyperventilation were associated with expected increased and decreased PbtO2 values, respectively. However, in the contusion and proximal probes, these effects were diminished, consistent with loss of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity at and near the injury site. Similarly, hyperoxia led to the expected rise in PbtO2 only in the distal and contralateral probes, with little or no effect in the proximal and contusion probes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS PbtO2 measurements are strongly influenced by the distance from the

  8. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

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    Jean Guezennec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair.

  9. Unusual glycosaminoglycans from a deep sea hydrothermal bacterium improve fibrillar collagen structuring and fibroblast activities in engineered connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2013-04-23

    Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair.

  10. Perivascular adipose tissue-secreted angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) accelerates neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Miyata, Keishi; Tazume, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Horio, Eiji; Takahashi, Otowa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Araki, Kimi; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Hao, Hiroyuki; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka; Kawasuji, Michio; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Much attention is currently focused on the role of perivascular adipose tissue in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some researchers view it as promoting CVD through secretion of cytokines and growth factors called adipokines, while recent reports reveal that perivascular adipose tissue can exert a protective effect on CVD development. Furthermore, adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, reportedly suppresses neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury, whereas such vascular remodeling is enhanced by pro-inflammatory adipokines secreted by perivascular adipose, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These findings suggest that extent of vascular remodeling, a pathological process associated with CVD development, depends on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from perivascular adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2), a pro-inflammatory factor secreted by adipose tissue, promotes adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we examined whether Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue contributes to vascular remodeling after endovascular injury in studies of transgenic mice expressing Angptl2 in adipose tissue (aP2-Angptl2 transgenic mice) and Angptl2 knockout mice (Angptl2(-/-) mice). To assess the role of Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue on vascular remodeling after endovascular injury, we performed adipose tissue transplantation experiments using these mice. Wild-type mice with perivascular adipose tissue derived from aP2-Angptl2 mice exhibited accelerated neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury compared to wild-type mice transplanted with wild-type tissue. Conversely, vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury were significantly attenuated in wild-type mice transplanted with Angptl2(-/-) mouse-derived perivascular adipose tissue compared to wild-type mice

  11. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia Ziraldo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People with spinal cord injury (SCI are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU. PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to "better" vs. "worse" outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU.

  12. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Solovyev, Alexey; Allegretti, Ana; Krishnan, Shilpa; Henzel, M Kristi; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Brienza, David; An, Gary; Mi, Qi; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU). PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM) was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to "better" vs. "worse" outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU.

  13. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Solovyev, Alexey; Allegretti, Ana; Krishnan, Shilpa; Henzel, M. Kristi; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Brienza, David; An, Gary; Mi, Qi; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU). PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM) was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to “better” vs. “worse” outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU. PMID:26111346

  14. Erdosteine protects rat testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, A; Ickin, M; Uzun, O; Bakar, C; Balbay, E Gulec; Balbay, O

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on testis morphology and the effects of erdosteine on testis tissue. Caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. Adult male Wistar rats were placed in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber. Rats in the erdosteine group were exposed to the same conditions and treated orally with erdosteine (20 mg kg(-1) daily) at the same time from the first day of hypoxic exposure for 2 weeks. The normoxia group was evaluated as the control. The hypoxia group showed decreased height of spermatogenic epithelium in some seminiferous tubules, vacuolisation in spermatogenic epithelial cells, deterioration and gaps in the basal membrane and an increase in blood vessels in the interstitial area. The erdosteine group showed amelioration of both epithelial cell vacuolisation and basal membrane deterioration. Numbers of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-immunostained Sertoli and Leydig cells were significantly higher in the hypoxia group than in the erdosteine group. The number of seminiferous tubules with caspase-3-immunostained germ cells was highest in the hypoxia group and decreased in the erdosteine and normoxia groups respectively. Based on these observations, erdosteine protects testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

  15. Complement activation in coronary artery bypass grafting patients without cardiopulmonary bypass - The role of tissue injury by surgical incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; van Oeveren, W

    1999-01-01

    Study objectives: Complement activation is a trigger in inducing inflammation in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is usually thought to be induced by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), In this study, we examined whether tissue injury caused by chest surgical inci

  16. [Experimental studies on the early treatment of soft tissue explosion injury by vacuum-assisted closure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Xue, Yun; Ge, Bao-feng; Chen, Ke-ming; Zhao, Dong-hua; Han, Gui-qiu; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect on early treatment with vacuum-assisted closure(VAC) to wound healing of acute explosion injury in pigs, and provide a new way for early treatment of battle wounds. Eight healthy 3-month Landrace pigs of both sexes with the body mass of (50 +/- 5) kg were selected in the study. Sixteen battle wounds were made by explosion of same type detonator (pattern number: 660929F48840-55, included DDNP 0.3 g, RDX 0.7 g) in hibateral skin of buttock of 8 pigs, which were divided into experimental group and control group (pair wounds of left and right). The raw sufaces were thorough debrided at 3 h after exposure, according to the characteristics of treatment on the battlefield, experimental group was treated with VAC under the pressure of (-50 +/- 5) Kpa after debridement and sterilization and control group was treated with routine dry sterile gauze draping. Results of bacteriology (bacterial counts and the proportion of G+ bacteria) and pathology (HE stain and Masson stain) were detected at every wound before and after treatment. At the 3 days after treatment,the bacterial number in the experimental group was [(7.82 +/- 0.55) x 10(4) ] CFU/g, in control group was [(1.07 +/- 0.14) x 10(6)] CFU/g. There was significant difference between two groups. The proportion of G+ bacteria in experimental group was significantly increased. The raw surface in experimental group was clean with affluent and neoformative granulation tissue, blood vessels and collagen, necrotic tissue decreased obviously by pathological observation. VAC could reduce the quantity of bacteria, improve the proportion of G+ bacteria, and promote the formation of granulation tissue and the healing of wound. The VAC for the treatment of battle wounds has a positive effect.

  17. Posttraumatic head injury resulting in spasticity disorders and oral injury: application of prosthodontic skills for tissue protection--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Harold V; Patel, Bhaven; DiPede, Louis A

    2009-06-01

    Patients who have experienced significant brain injury (such as hemorrhagic stroke or trauma) can suffer brain damage that leads to altered neurologic functioning. One such ill effect is the development of aberrant mandibular reflexes that may inflict serious trauma to oral and labial tissues. As primary oral health care providers, dental clinicians may be called upon to function as part of the medical team managing the patient. This case report reviews one such scenario in which the unique skills of trained specialists were used to provide a protective oral device to allow for tissue protection and healing.

  18. Using deep learning to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue in MRI volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmis, M.U.; Litjens, G.J.; Holland, K.; Setio, A.A.A.; Mann, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Gubern Merida, A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching, or, edge and surface detection, have been applied to solve this task.

  19. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolin; Han, Bing; Mura, Marco; Li, Li; Cypel, Marcelo; Soderman, Avery; Picha, Kristen; Yang, Jing; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-30

    Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI) transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859) were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  20. Profile of the subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at an occupational health service and the RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the profile of subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at the Reference Center of Occupational Health – CEREST in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state, in 2010, and the social insurance benefits granted.Materials and Methods: Analysis of medical records of the subjects assisted at CEREST in 2010, surveying data on gender, age, occupation, clinical diagnostics, clinical complaints, retirement, etc. The clinical diagnostics were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10, subjects with soft tissue injuries were selected, and the diagnostics related to mental health disorders were registered. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software R Development Core Team.Results: Of the 206 medical records analyzed, 18.0% (n=37 showed soft tissue injuries, 81.1% were female and 18.9% were male, and the subjects’ mean age was 43.24 years (SD=8.76. Subjects between 31 and 50 years old (70.2% were the most affected. The most affected occupations were cleaners, general service workers, and bank clerks. The most prevalent clinical diagnoses were synovitis and tenosynovitis, shoulder bursitis, and rotator cuff syndrome, with 62.2% of the subjects presenting more than one clinical diagnosis. 13.5% of the subjects also presented mental disorders. Association between retirement from work and the presence of soft tissue injury was observed (p=0.032. Only 13.5% of the diagnoses had some association with the work conditions.Conclusions: The general profile of the workers with soft tissue injuries was obtained: prevalence in women, diseases manifested in productive age, difficulty of association with work conditions, need for interdisciplinary interventions.

  1. Functional changes in deep dorsal horn interneurons following spinal cord injury are enhanced with different durations of exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, M M; Flynn, J R; Battistuzzo, C R; Galea, M P; Callister, R; Callister, R J

    2015-01-01

    Following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), collaterals sprout from intact and injured axons in the vicinity of the lesion. These sprouts are thought to form new synaptic contacts that effectively bypass the lesion epicentre and contribute to improved functional recovery. Such anatomical changes are known to be enhanced by exercise training; however, the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated plasticity are poorly understood. Specifically, we do not know how SCI alone or SCI combined with exercise alters the intrinsic and synaptic properties of interneurons in the vicinity of a SCI. Here we use a hemisection model of incomplete SCI in adult mice and whole-cell patch-clamp recording in a horizontal spinal cord slice preparation to examine the functional properties of deep dorsal horn (DDH) interneurons located in the vicinity of a SCI following 3 or 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training. We examined the functional properties of local and descending excitatory synaptic connections by recording spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and responses to dorsal column stimulation, respectively. We find that SCI in untrained animals exerts powerful effects on intrinsic, and especially, synaptic properties of DDH interneurons. Plasticity in intrinsic properties was most prominent at 3 weeks post SCI, whereas synaptic plasticity was greatest at 6 weeks post injury. Exercise training did not markedly affect intrinsic membrane properties; however, local and descending excitatory synaptic drive were enhanced by 3 and 6 weeks of training. These results suggest exercise promotes synaptic plasticity in spinal cord interneurons that are ideally placed to form new intraspinal circuits after SCI. PMID:25556804

  2. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Daniela F.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Casper, T. Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  3. Plasma Bacterial and Mitochondrial DNA Distinguish Bacterial Sepsis from Sterile SIRS and Quantify Inflammatory Tissue Injury in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. SIRS can cause organ dysfunction and death but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS and post-infective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) reflecting cellular injury. Circulating bacterial 16S-DNA (bDNA) is a pathogen-associated pattern (PAMP) reflecting ongoing infection. We developed qPCR assays to quantify these markers and predicted their plasma levels might help distinguish sterile injury from infection. To study these events in primates we assayed banked serum from papio baboons that had undergone a brief challenge of intravenous Bacillus anthracis deltaSterne (modified to remove toxins) followed by antibiotics (anthrax) that causes organ failure and death. To investigate the progression of sepsis to “severe” sepsis and death we studied animals where anthrax was pretreated with drotrecogin alfa (aPC), which attenuates sepsis in baboons. We also contrasted lethal anthrax bacteremia against non-lethal E.coli bacteremia and against sterile tissue injury from Shiga-like toxin-1 (Stx1). bDNA and mtDNA levels in timed samples were correlated with blood culture results and assays of organ function. Sterile injury by Stx1 increased mtDNA but bDNA was undetectable: consistent with the absence of infection. The bacterial challenges caused parallel early bDNA and mtDNA increases, but bDNA detected pathogens even after bacteria were undetectable by culture. Sub-lethal E.coli challenge only caused transient rises in mtDNA consistent with a self-limited injury. In lethal anthrax challenge (n=4) bDNA increased transiently but mtDNA levels remained elevated until death

  4. Noninvasive near-infrared fluorescent protein-based imaging of tumor progression and metastases in deep organs and intraosseous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet-Jiglaire, Carine; Cayol, Mylène; Mathieu, Sylvie; Jeanneau, Charlotte; Bouvier-Labit, Corinne; Ouafik, L.'houcine; El-Battari, Assou

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body imaging of experimental tumor growth is more feasible within the near-infrared (NIR) optical window because of the highest transparency of mammalian tissues within this wavelength spectrum, mainly due to improved tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. We took advantage from the recently cloned infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) together with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based lentiviral vector to produce virally transduced tumor cells that permanently express this protein. We then noninvasively explored metastatic spread as well as primary tumor growth in deep organs and behind bone barriers. Intrabone tumor growth was investigated through intracranial and intratibial injections of glioblastoma and osteosarcoma cells, respectively, and metastasis was assessed by tail vein injection of melanoma cells. We found that the emitted fluorescence is captured as sharp images regardless of the organ or tissue considered. Furthermore, by overlaying fluorescence spots with the white light, it was possible to afford whole-body images yet never observed before. This approach allowed us to continuously monitor the growth and dissemination of tumor cells with a small number of animals, minimal animal handling, and without the need for any additive. This iRFP-based system provides high-resolution readouts of tumorigenesis that should greatly facilitate preclinical trials with anticancer therapeutic molecules.

  5. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  6. Deep feature learning for automatic tissue classification of coronary artery using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmanafi, Atefeh; Duong, Luc; Dahdah, Nagib; Cheriet, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute childhood disease complicated by coronary artery aneurysms, intima thickening, thrombi, stenosis, lamellar calcifications, and disappearance of the media border. Automatic classification of the coronary artery layers (intima, media, and scar features) is important for analyzing optical coherence tomography (OCT) images recorded in pediatric patients. OCT has been known as an intracoronary imaging modality using near-infrared light which has recently been used to image the inner coronary artery tissues of pediatric patients, providing high spatial resolution (ranging from 10 to 20 μm). This study aims to develop a robust and fully automated tissue classification method by using the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as feature extractor and comparing the predictions of three state-of-the-art classifiers, CNN, random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM). The results show the robustness of CNN as the feature extractor and random forest as the classifier with classification rate up to 96%, especially to characterize the second layer of coronary arteries (media), which is a very thin layer and it is challenging to be recognized and specified from other tissues. PMID:28271012

  7. Closed-suction drain placement at laparotomy in isolated solid organ injury is not associated with decreased risk of deep surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Shahin; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Kim, Dennis; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Chan, Linda S; Coimbra, Raul; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of intra-abdominal closed-suction drainage after emergent trauma laparotomy for isolated solid organ injuries (iSOI) and to determine its association with deep surgical site infections (DSSI). All patients subjected to trauma laparotomy between January 2006 and December 2008 for an iSOI at two Level I urban trauma centers were identified. Patients with isolated hepatic, splenic, or renal injuries were included. Study variables extracted included demographics, clinical characteristics, intra-abdominal injuries, drain placement, DSSI, septic events, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Diagnosis of DSSI was based on abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrating an intra-abdominal collection combined with fever and elevated white blood cell count. For the analysis, patients were stratified based on injury severity. To identify an independent association between closed-suction drain placement and DSSI, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 142 patients met the inclusion criteria with 80 per cent (n=114) having severe iSOI. In 47 per cent (n=53) of the patients with a severe injury, an intra-abdominal drain was placed. A drain was placed more often in patients with a blunt trauma with more severe injury defined by Injury Severity Score and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale Score and those who underwent splenectomy (Pdrain placement (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 8.2; P=0.046). Subgroup analysis demonstrated those who sustained severe hepatic injury receiving a drain had a significantly increase risk of DSSI (P=0.02). There was no statistical difference in the rate of DSSI based on the presence or absence of an intra-abdominal drain after severe splenic injury (17 vs 18%, P=0.88). The use of intra-abdominal closed-suction drains after iSOI is not associated with decreased risk of DSSI.

  8. Effects of recombinant sCR1 on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良满; 朱悦; 范广宇

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats and its protective effects. Results: The motor function of rat in sCR1 group at 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d was obviously better than that in NS group (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). C3c positive expression in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). The myeloperoxidase activity in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). Conclusions: Recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) can lessen the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue and relieve secondary spinal cord injury by inhibiting the activation of the complement system.

  9. Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced thermotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzker, Jochen; Kirscher, Lorenz; Scadeng, Miriam; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Morscher, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Schaefer, Karin; Zhang, Qian; Buckel, Lisa; Hess, Michael; Donat, Ulrike; Bradley, William G; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Szalay, Aladar A

    2013-02-26

    We reported earlier the delivery of antiangiogenic single chain antibodies by using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide evidence that gene-evoked production of melanin can be used as a therapeutic and diagnostic mediator, as exemplified by insertion of only one or two genes into the genome of an oncolytic vaccinia virus strain. We found that produced melanin is an excellent reporter for optical imaging without addition of substrate. Melanin production also facilitated deep tissue optoacoustic imaging as well as MRI. In addition, melanin was shown to be a suitable target for laser-induced thermotherapy and enhanced oncolytic viral therapy. In conclusion, melanin as a mediator for thermotherapy and reporter for different imaging modalities may soon become a versatile alternative to replace fluorescent proteins also in other biological systems. After ongoing extensive preclinical studies, melanin overproducing oncolytic virus strains might be used in clinical trials in patients with cancer.

  10. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells for treatment of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shasha Dong§; Na Liu§; Yang Hu ; Ping Zhang; Chao Pan; Youping Zhang; Yingxin Tang; Zhouping Tang 

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Currently, the clinical repair of sciatic nerve injury remains difficult. Previous studies have confirmed that transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells promotes nerve regeneration and restoration at peripheral nerve injury sites. Methods:In this study, adipose tissue-derived stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells, transfected with a green fluorescent protein-containing lentivirus, and then transplanted into the lesions of rats with sciatic nerve compression injury. Results: Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the transplanted cells survived, migrated, and differentiated in rats. At two weeks post-operation, a large number of transplanted cells had migrated to the injured lesions; at six weeks post-operation, transplanted cells were visible around the injured nerve and several cells were observed to express a Schwann cell marker. Sciatic function index and electrophysiological outcomes of the transplantation group were better than those of the control group. Cell transplantation promoted the recovery of motor nerve conduction velocity and com-pound muscle action potential amplitude, and reduced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Conclusions: Our experimental findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells, are potential seed stem cells that can be transplanted into lesions to treat sciatic nerve injury. This provides a theoretical basis for their use in clinical applications.

  11. Multiple Intramuscular Gouty Tophi Mimicking Deep Tissue Abscesses: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Van T

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gout is a common metabolic disorder resulting from supersaturation of uric acid in extracellular fluid and deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals in tissues triggering inflammatory response. Depositions of uric acid crystal outside articular structures cause tophi and are commonly found at peripheral areas of the body which have a lower temperature. Deposition of uric acid crystals in the central area of the body is not uncommon and may be overlooked. Case presentation: A 55-year-old Pacific Islander man with a history of chronic tophaceous gout was admitted because of acute right knee pain. Physical examination revealed signs of inflammation over the right knee. Arthrocentesis was performed but no synovial fluid obtained. The patient was empirically treated with prednisone, colchicine, and febuxostat. On the next day, there was progression of inflammation up to the right mid-thigh. MRI of the right femur was obtained to exclude abscess and necrotizing faciitis. Multiple pockets of abscesses were identified within the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius adjacent to the femoral shaft. This prompted immediate surgical consultation and incision and drainage. Intraoperative findings revealed healthy muscles and deposition of soft-tan material in the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius along and above the shaft of the femur. Culture of the surgical aspirate was negative and pathology showed needle-shaped structures consistent with uric acid crystals. Empiric antibiotic was discontinued. The patient's condition improved after treatment for acute gout. Pegloticase was also added to the treatment regimen during an outpatient follow up visit with his rheumatologist. At six month follow up, the patient reported excellent improvements in clinical symptoms. Discussion: Atypical presentations of chronic tophaceous gout can be a great mimicker, causing diagnostic challenges for clinicians. Our patient who had multiple intramuscular tophi

  12. What Is the Meaning of Increased Myocardial Injury Enzymes during Hemodialysis? A Tissue Doppler Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gürsel; Kayataş, Mansur; Candan, Ferhan; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zorlu, Ali; Sarikaya, Savaş

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular death is decreasing in the general population; however, it appears in still higher rates and even increases gradually in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This situation has led to a debate about cardiovascular adverse effects of HD which lead to significant changes in cardiac and hemodynamic events. It is known that troponins are often elevated in HD patients, and high levels of troponin are associated with increased mortality. Therefore, it is difficult to interpret the value of elevations in chronic kidney disease patients. Echocardiographic and biochemical parameters of 41 patients treated with HD were evaluated before and after a HD session. HD led to an increased heart rate, and tissue Doppler imaging parameters such as early diastolic mitral peak velocity (E)/early diastolic myocardial peak velocity (é) and septal é decreased significantly after HD. HD caused an increase in troponin I, myoglobin and cardiac creatine kinase (CK MB) levels (p = 0.019, p increased levels of cardiac damage markers (group 2) compared to those without increased levels of cardiac damage markers (group 1) in HD. A decrease in LV S' velocity was found to be an independent predictor of an increase of myocardial injury enzymes in HD (odds ratio = 1.099; p = 0.039). We concluded that HD may lead to significant acute stress upon the myocardium.

  13. Acupuncture activates signal transduction pathways related to brain-tissue restoration after ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haomei; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Junbao; Zhang, Juan; Cai, Hening; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Chutao

    2012-08-25

    A middle cerebral artery occlusion-model was established in rats using the improved thread embolism method. Rats were treated with acupuncture at either Dazhui (DU14), Renzhong (DU26), Baihui (DU20), or a non-meridian point. Detection with protein-chip technology showed that the level of protein phosphorylation in both groups was upregulated or downregulated depending on the signaling pathway compared with the model group that did not receive acupuncture. Analysis of proteins showing downregulated phosphorylation revealed that five signaling pathways were activated in the acupuncture-treatment group, while only two were activated in the acupuncture- control group. In contrast, analysis of proteins showing upregulated phosphorylation revealed only one pathway was activated in the acupuncture-treatment group, whereas four pathways were activated in the acupuncture-control group. Furthermore, the number of activated proteins in the acupuncture-treatment group was not only higher than the acupuncture-control group, but unlike the acupuncture-control group, the majority of activated proteins were key proteins in the signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that acupuncture at specific points can activate multiple signaling pathways to promote the restoration of brain tissue following ischemic injury, and that this is based on a combination of effects resulting from multiple pathways, targets, and means.

  14. In vivo imaging of enteric neurogenesis in the deep tissue of mouse small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Goto

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of using imaging techniques as a tool to study cellular physiology has been the inability to resolve structures that are not located near the surface of the preparation. Nonlinear optical microscopy, in particular two photon-excited fluorescence microscopy (2PM, has overcome this limitation, providing deeper optical penetration (several hundred µm in ex vivo and in vivo preparations. We have used this approach in the gut to achieve the first in vivo imaging of enteric neurons and nerve fibers in the mucosa, submucosa, submucosal and myenteric plexuses, and circular and longitudinal muscles of the small intestine in H-line: Thy1 promoter GFP mice. Moreover, we obtained clear three-dimensional imaging of enteric neurons that were newly generated after gut transection and reanastomosis. Neurogenesis was promoted by oral application of the 5-HT(4-receptor agonist, mosapride citrate (MOS. The number of newly generated neurons observed in mice treated with MOS for one week was 421±89 per 864,900 µm(2 (n = 5, which was significantly greater than that observed in preparations treated with MOS plus an antagonist (113±76 per 864,900 µm(2 or in 4 week vehicle controls (100±34 per 864,900 µm(2 (n = 4 both. Most neurons were located within 100 µm of the surface. These results confirm that activation of enteric neural 5-HT(4-receptor by MOS promotes formation of new enteric neurons. We conclude that in vivo 2PM imaging made it possible to perform high-resolution deep imaging of the living mouse whole gut and reveal formation of new enteric neurons promoted by 5-HT(4-receptor activation.

  15. Deep two-photon microscopic imaging through brain tissue using the second singlet state from fluorescent agent chlorophyll α in spinach leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Nguyen, Thien An; Alfano, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon (2P) excitation of the second singlet (S₂) state was studied to achieve deep optical microscopic imaging in brain tissue when both the excitation (800 nm) and emission (685 nm) wavelengths lie in the "tissue optical window" (650 to 950 nm). S₂ state technique was used to investigate chlorophyll α (Chl α) fluorescence inside a spinach leaf under a thick layer of freshly sliced rat brain tissue in combination with 2P microscopic imaging. Strong emission at the peak wavelength of 685 nm under the 2P S₂ state of Chl α enabled the imaging depth up to 450 μm through rat brain tissue.

  16. Efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B for deep mycosis in patients with connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Takuya; Takeuchi, Tohru; Makino, Shigeki; Hata, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Shuzo; Nagai, Koji; Wakura, Daisuke; Isoda, Kentaro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were retrospectively evaluated for patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) during treatment with immunosuppressive therapy. Subjects were 13 patients with CTDs complicated by IFI, on the basis of clinical symptoms, imaging findings, and microbiological and histological examinations. All patients were treated with L-AMB. Efficacy and safety were evaluated before and after administration of L-AMB. Underlying diseases were systemic lupus erythematosus for 4 patients, rheumatoid arthritis for 3, microscopic polyangiitis for 2, adult-onset Still disease for 1, dermatomyositis for 1, and mixed connective tissue disease for 1. Eight patients were resistant to other antifungal drugs. Prednisolone was given to 11 patients and the median dose was 10 mg/day. Immunosuppressants were used for 8 patients. The median duration of administration of L-AMB was 8.5 days (range 4-38 days). In proven and probable diagnosis patients (n = 5), the treatment was effective for 3 patients and ineffective for 2 (efficacy rate 60 %). Serum 1,3-β-D-glucan antigenemia (BG) levels decreased after treatment in the 2 patients who were positive for BG. Serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen levels decreased in 3 of 4 patients with Aspergillus infection. No patient died of IFI. Regarding potential adverse reactions, there were no significant changes in serum creatinine and potassium levels. L-AMB is effective and well-tolerated for treatment of IFI in patients with CTDs.

  17. Three-photon luminescence of gold nanorods and its applications for high contrast tissue and deep in vivo brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Xi, Wang; Cai, Fuhong; Zhao, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhengping; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents for bio-imaging applications. Here we studied multi-photon luminescence (MPL) of gold nanorods (GNRs), under the excitation of femtosecond (fs) lasers. GNRs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules have high chemical and optical stability, and can be used as multi-photon luminescent nanoprobes for deep in vivo imaging of live animals. We have found that the depth of in vivo imaging is dependent upon the transmission and focal capability of the excitation light interacting with the GNRs. Our study focused on the comparison of MPL from GNRs with two different aspect ratios, as well as their ex vivo and in vivo imaging effects under 760 nm and 1000 nm excitation, respectively. Both of these wavelengths were located at an optically transparent window of biological tissue (700-1000 nm). PEGylated GNRs, which were intravenously injected into mice via the tail vein and accumulated in major organs and tumor tissue, showed high image contrast due to distinct three-photon luminescence (3PL) signals upon irradiation of a 1000 nm fs laser. Concerning in vivo mouse brain imaging, the 3PL imaging depth of GNRs under 1000 nm fs excitation could reach 600 μm, which was approximately 170 μm deeper than the two-photon luminescence (2PL) imaging depth of GNRs with a fs excitation of 760 nm.

  18. CXCL16 participates in pathogenesis of immunological liver injury by regulating T lymphocyte infiltration in liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Bin Xu; Yan-Ping Gong; Jin Cheng; Yi-Wei Chu; Si-Dong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of CXCL16 in the pathogenesis of immunological liver injury and to explore the possible mechanism of T lymphocyte infiltration requlated by CXCL16.METHODS: Immunological liver injury in murine model was induced by Bacille Calmette-Guerin and lipopolysaccharide.Expression pattem and distribution of CXCL16 were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Anti-CXCL16 antibody was administrated in vivo to investigate its effect on T-cell recruitment and acute hepatic necrosis. The survival of murine model was also evaluated.RESULTS: The murine immunological liver injury model was successfully established. CXCL16 expression increased and predominantly distributed in periportal areas and vascular endothelia in injured liver tissues. Administration of anti-CXCL16 Ab protected the mice from death and acute liver damage. Approximately 70% of the mice survived for 72 h in the anti-CXCL16 Ab treatment group, whereas 80% died within 72 h in control Ab group. The number of liver-infiltrating T lymphocytes was significantly reduced from 1.01×L07 to 3.52x 106/liver, compared with control Ab treatment.CONCLUSION: CXCL16 is involved in immunological liver injury by regulating T lymphocyte infiltration in liver tissue.

  19. The use of beta-tricalcium phosphate and bovine bone matrix in the guided tissue regeneration treatment of deep infra-bony defects

    OpenAIRE

    Luković Natalija; Zelić Obrad; Čakić Saša; Petrović Vanja

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The primary goal of bone regeneration procedures with application of various regenerative biologic agents and biomaterials is to facilitate the formation of periodontal tissues lost as a result of periodontitis. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare clinical outcome of the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) treatment with the use of β-tricalcium phosphate and with bovine bone matrix in human deep intra-osseous defects. Methods. Twenty-one systemically healthy subjects wit...

  20. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  1. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) For Soft Tissue Injuries (ASSERT): An Online Database Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Maffulli, G; Hemmings, Steph; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background Soft tissue injuries and tendinopathies account for large numbers of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is popular, and effective in the management of chronic tendon conditions in the elbow, shoulder, and pain at and around the heel. Methods/Design Ethical approval was granted from the South East London Research Ethics Committee to implement a database for the Assessment of Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Soft Tis...

  2. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasabov, Sergey G; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A; Simone, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as on, off, and neutral cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. On cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, off cells are inhibitory, whereas neutral cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as on (25.5%), off (25.5%), or neutral (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of on (39.2%), off (42.2%), and neutral (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01-1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of neutral cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that on and off cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that neutral cells likely are subgroups of on and off cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions.

  3. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  4. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    the possible thermal side-effects of the excitation light moderate. These key results facilitate means to break through the general shallow depth limit of upconverting-nanoparticle-based fluorescence techniques, necessary for a range of biomedical applications, including diffuse optical imaging, photodynamic...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  5. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  6. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华

    2000-01-01

    Objeaive. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury. Methods. Lipopolysaeeharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasoue group.Macroscopic and histopathological e~aminatiom were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimem. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA. Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P < 0.01),demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasoue and rhubarb emfld decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P< 0.01, P < 0.05) ; the correslxmding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were simifieantlv decreased or ameliorated. Conclusions. The increase of the expression d ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI.The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM-1 m

  7. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury.Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasone group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimens. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA.Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P<0.01), demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasone and rhubarb could decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05); the corresponding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were significantly decreased or ameliorated.Conclusions. The increase of the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI. The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM

  8. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  9. Implementation of a Shoulder Soft Tissue Injury Triage Service in a UK NHS Teaching Hospital Improves Time to Surgery for Acute Rotator Cuff Tears

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Marcus; Davies-Jones, Gareth; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David I

    2016-01-01

    .... A specialist shoulder soft tissue injury clinic was set up in a large UK NHS teaching hospital with the primary purpose in the first year to halve the length of time patients with traumatic rotator...

  10. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibres, and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesising this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodelling demonstrate a strong response that appears...... when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning...

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we investigated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with moderate and severe TBI and 15 age-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Plasma and CSF samples were collected within 24 h (as the initial value, at 72 and 120 h post injury. CSF and plasma MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were estimated using ELISA. Different levels of these indexes were compared in the two groups and further investigated the correlation between each other. Results: There was a significant elevation in the levels of the initial MMP-9 in the CSF (P < 0.05, which lasted for 72 h post injury. TIMP-1 kept increasing within 120 h post injury and it was different compared with TIMP-1 at 24 and 72 h post injury. Plasma levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in TBI patients were also significantly different from those in controls. Furthermore the CSF MMP-9 in patients with severe TBI was higher than that in patients with moderate TBI. In addition, there was a positive relationship between the initial MMP-9 and TIMP-1 at 120 h post injury (r = 0.614, P < 0.01. Conclusion: MMPs and TIMPs are increased in both CSF and plasma of TBI patients. TIMP-1 has a positive correlation with MMP-9 and the initial MMP-9 is associated with the neurological outcomes.

  12. Gene expression arrays as a tool to unravel mechanisms of normal tissue radiation injury and prediction of response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline JCM Kruse; Fiona A Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a rapid increase in the use of microarray technology in the field of cancer research. The majority of studies use microarray analysis of tumor biopsies for profiling of molecular characteristics in an attempt to produce robust classifiers for prognosis. There are now several published gene sets that have been shown to predict for aggressive forms of breast cancer, where patients are most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and tumors most likely to develop distant metastases, or be resistant to treatment. The number of publications relating to the use of microarrays for analysis of normal tissue damage, after cancer treatment or genotoxic exposure, is much more limited. A PubMed literature search was conducted using the following keywords and combination of terms: radiation, normal tissue, microarray, gene expression profiling, prediction. With respect to normal tissue radiation injury, microarrays have been used in three ways: (1) to generate gene signatures to identify sensitive and resistant populations (prognosis); (2) to identify sets of biomarker genes for estimating radiation exposure, either accidental or as a result of terrorist attack (diagnosis); (3) to identify genes and pathways involved in tissue response to injury (mechanistic). In this article we will review all (relevant) papers that covered our literature search criteria on microarray technology as it has been applied to normal tissue radiation biology and discuss how successful this has been in defining predisposition markers for radiation sensitivity or how it has helped us to unravel molecular mechanisms leading to acute and late tissue toxicity. We also discuss some of the problems and limitations in application and interpretation of such data.

  13. Expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 in lung tissue of rat model with ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Song; LI Xiang-nan

    2010-01-01

    @@ End-stage lung diseases are common and frequentlyoccurring diseases which are difficult for clinical treatment. In recent years, lung transplantation has become a widely accepted and effective therapeutic option for patients with the end-stage pulmonary diseases. Early pulmonary edema resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury accounts for the major part of mortality and morbidity after lung transplantation. The water channel proteins in lung injury have been little studied, and their impact on the formation of pulmonary edema remains unclear. In this study, we established a rat lung ischemia-reperfusion model to study its impact on the expressions of water channel proteins in lung tissue and explore a new approach to lung transplantation in pulmonary edema pathogenesis.

  14. Assays of normal tissue injury and their cellular interpretation. Proceedings of the 12th L. H. Gray conference, Manchester, 2-5 September, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Moore, J.V.; Hume, W.J. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Some of the questions posed were: 1) Can target cell populations be defined in the tissue for specific types of injury 2) Are there qualitative differences in the target-cell populations for different cytotoxic agents, e.g. resistant subpopulations of cells 3) What is the cellular basis to the volume effect (i.e. greater injury per unit volume with increasing volume of tissue treated) 4) What is the contribution of intracellular repair of potentially-lethal damage to the sparing of injury in late-responding tissues 5) What are the contributions of repopulation by colony-forming cells and cells with very limited division potential to the sparing of injury in the late-responding tissues 6) How well is functional (effector) cell number correlated with overall capacity for function 7) What is the contribution of stromal (including vascular) injury in the response of the parenchyma. A total of 90 contributions considered these questions and others, in the following sections: the alimentary canal, skin, germinal tissue, vascular tissue, neuromuscular and glandular tissues, kidneys, bladder and liver, and lungs, models and strategy.

  15. Description of a technique for vacuum-assisted deep drains in the management of cavitary defects and deep infections in devastating military and civilian trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Damian M; Horne, Brandon R; Kryzak, Thomas J; Richardson, Mark W

    2010-05-01

    Deep soft-tissue defects often present in high-energy trauma and during the surgical treatment of infection. Injuries caused by high-velocity projectiles can create deep soft-tissue defects that are challenging to manage. Persistent, deep wound cavities have been associated with infection and prolonged wound healing. This article presents a technique that marries vacuum-assisted wound closure technology with traditional drains to allow for management of deep soft-tissue cavities. A deep drain was placed in the cavitary lesion with application of a negative-pressure wound therapy sponge in the standard fashion. The deep drain was brought into the sponge and fenestrated as to allow the sponge to evacuate the deep drain. Several illustrative cases are presented. Conversion of deep cavitary defects to superficial defects allowed for delayed primary or secondary closure of the wound defects without the need for increasing the size of the superficial wound to facilitate drainage. Deep infection was also successfully controlled without incurring the additional surgical soft-tissue trauma typical of standard technique. The use of the active deep suction decreases edema and dead space, theoretically reducing the chance of infection. It also prevents premature walling off of deeper cavities, which can occur with the use of vacuum-assisted closure therapy on superficial defects. Our method of wound management allows for the reduction of the deep cavitary defects without delaying wound closure or creating more tissue damage.

  16. The effects of cilostazol on tissue oxygenation upon an ischemic-reperfusion injury in the mouse cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takayuki; Hattori, Katsuji; Kajimura, Mayumi; Suematsu, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although cilostazol, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3), is known to exert a potent antiplatelet function by raising intracellular cAMP concentration, its effect on cerebral microcirculation upon an ischemic insult is not clearly understood. To examine effects of cilostazol on the global ischemic injury in the brain, we first measured the plasma leakage using modified Miles assay after mice had been subjected to 60 min of a bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA) occlusion followed by reperfusion for 4 h. Oral treatment with cilostazol (30 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma leakage. This result led us to examine if the treatment with cilostazol recruits more capillaries leading to an increase in surface area for exchange and oxygen transport to tissues. To do so, we simultaneously measured degrees of tissue hypoxia and vessel perfusion. Pimonidazol was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before sacrifice and capillary patency was assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Lycopersicon esculentum lectin bound to the endothelial surface. Treatment with cilostazol markedly increased the capillary patency which was accompanied by a reduction in the hypoxic area. Although the treatment with cilostazol caused an increase in the flux of plasma proteins across endothelial barrier that may imply an adverse role after a BCCA occlusion, this increase in protein leakage was attributable to the increased surface area for exchange which in turn brought about a reduction in tissue hypoxia. Taken together cilostazol appears to produce a protective effect against the ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  17. New Insights into the Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Regulating the Inflammatory Response after Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Miriam D.; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Stahel, Philip F.

    2012-01-01

    Major trauma results in a strong inflammatory response in injured tissue. This posttraumatic hyperinflammation has been implied in the adverse events leading to a breakdown of host defense mechanisms and ultimately to delayed organ failure. Ligands to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have recently been identified as potent modulators of inflammation in various acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. The main mechanism of action mediated by ligand binding to PPARs is the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB, leading to downregulation of downstream gene transcription, such as for genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. Pharmacological PPAR agonists exert strong anti-inflammatory properties in various animal models of tissue injury, including central nervous system trauma, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, and shock. In addition, PPAR agonists have been shown to induce wound healing process after tissue trauma. The present review was designed to provide an up-to-date overview on the current understanding of the role of PPARs in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory response after major trauma. Therapeutic options for using recombinant PPAR agonists as pharmacological agents in the management of posttraumatic inflammation will be discussed. PMID:22481914

  18. Expression and significance of SOCS3 in liver tissue of rats with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the expression and mechanism of action of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 in liver tissue of rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP concurring with liver injury. Methods  The rat model of SAP was reproduced by retrograde injection of 4% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (8 each: normal control group (NC, SAP 6h, 12h, and 18h groups. The levels of serum amylase (AMY, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured dynamically. The concentrations of IL -6 and IL -18 were determined by ELISA. The localization and expression of SOCS3 protein in liver were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results  Compared with NC group, the serum levels of AMY, ALT and AST increased significantly in SAP groups (P < 0.05, and there was significant difference among SAP groups. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-18 increased significantly in the SAP groups than in NC group (P < 0.05, and there was significant difference among SAP groups. Compared with NC group, the concentration of SOCS3 protein increased significantly in SAP groups, and increased gradually along with the increased duration of pancreatitis (P < 0.05. A minor expression of SOCS3 protein was found in NC group. The change in SOCS3 protein concentration was consistent with the severity of liver injury as well as the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-18. Conclusions  The inflammatory action induced by SAP concurring with liver injury may induce the expression of SOCS3 in liver tissue, and it may increase in intensity along with the severity of liver injury and inflammatory reaction. The mechanism may be attributed to a negative feedback regulation of the inflammatory action mediated by JAK/STAT pathway.

  19. Unicompartmental muscle edema: an early sign of deep venous thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Ilaslan, Hakan [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The finding of muscle edema restricted to a single muscle compartment on MRI usually indicates a diagnosis of traumatic injury, myositis, denervation or neoplasm. This case demonstrates that deep venous thrombosis can also be the cause of isolated deep posterior compartment muscle edema in the calf and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of diffuse soft tissue or subcutaneous edema. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of the microcirculation after soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in patients with severe burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Fabian; Medesan, Raluca; Rothenberger, Jens Martin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Schoeller, Thomas; Manoli, Theodora; Weitgasser, Lennart; Naumann, Aline; Weitgasser, Laurenz

    2016-07-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the ear with burns remains one of the most difficult tasks for the reconstructive surgeon. Although numerous reconstructive options are available, the results are often unpredictable and worse than expected. Besides full and split skin grafting, local random pattern flaps and pedicled flaps are frequently utilized to cover soft tissue defects of the outer auricle. Because of the difficulty and unpredictable nature of outer ear reconstruction after burn injury, a case-control study was conducted to determine the best reconstructive approach. The microcirculatory properties of different types of soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in six severely burned Caucasian patients (three men and three women; mean age, 46 years (range, 22-70)) were compared to those in the healthy tissue of the outer ear using the O2C device (Oxygen to See; LEA Medizintechnik, Gießen, Germany). The results of this study revealed that the investigated microcirculation parameters such as the median values of blood flow (control group: 126 AU), relative amount of hemoglobin (control group: 59.5 AU), and tissue oxygen saturation (control group: 73%) are most similar to those of normal ear tissue when pedicled flaps based on the superficial temporal artery were used. These findings suggest that this type of reconstruction is superior for soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in contrast to random pattern flaps and full skin grafts regarding the microcirculatory aspects. These findings may improve the knowledge on soft tissue viability and facilitate the exceptional and delicate process of planning the reconstruction of the auricle with burns.

  1. Effect of seawater immersion on periosteal function of the soft tissue with open injury in rabbit limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-sheng; CHENG Xun-sheng; CHEN Xiao-song; SHAN Hong-wei; LIN Zhao-fen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of seawater immersion on periosteal function of the soft tissue with open injury in rabbit limbs.Methods Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in the experiment.The animal model of open soft tissue injury was developed by cutting open the hindlimbs,and then the animals were randomly divided into 3 groups:the simple injury group or the control group ( group A),the injury plus 30 min seawater immersion group (group B),and the injury plus 1 h seawater immersion group (group C).Rabbits were sacrificed following surgery on 0,1,3,7 days,and histopathology and expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β1 were observed and monitored from the collected periosteum.Results (1) Inflammatory response of periosteum resulting from limb surgery plus 30 min seawater immersion was more serious than that of the animals in the control group.The longer the immersion,the more serious the response.(2) Intramembranous bone formation delayed markedly,following 1 h seawater immersion,however,for the animals in group B,delay in intramembranous bone formation was insignificant. (3) Periosteal malpighian layer cells for the animals in group B increased significantly,following injury on 1,3,7 days.Marked differences could be seen,when comparisons were made with animals of group A and group C (P < 0.01 ).Though periosteal malpighian layer cells for the animals in group A increased,when compared with those of the animals in group C,no significant differences could be noted between them ( P > 0.05 ).(4) Expressions of TNF-α were all seen in periosteal osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in the animals of the 3 groups.The expression reached peak on day 1 after surgery,then,decreased gradually,with the expression level increased with the extension of seawater immersion. (5)There were expressions of TGF-β1 in periosteal osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in the animals of the 3 groups and persistent expression of TGF-β1 could be observed on day 0 to day 7,and

  2. Diclofenac epolamine medicated plaster in the treatment of minor soft tissue injuries: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunde; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano; Zheng, Qingshan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a topical plaster containing diclofenac epolamine (DHEP) 1.3% in the treatment of patients with acute minor soft tissue injuries in China. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study had balanced random assignment to DHEP medicated plaster and placebo plaster. A total of 384 patients, aged 18-74 years, with minor soft tissue injury occurring within 72 hours of study entry were enrolled and randomized. Plasters were applied twice daily for seven consecutive days. Outcomes were assessed in three visits over 7 days, in addition to patients' daily self-assessment and an adverse events follow-up visit on day 21. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in pain on movement on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after 7 days of treatment. Secondary efficacy endpoints included pain on movement day-by-day evaluation, summed pain intensity difference, overall treatment efficacy, rescue medication consumption, and treatment tolerability. Reduction in pain on movement after 7 days of treatment, the primary efficacy endpoint, was statistically significantly greater in the DHEP plaster group than with placebo (reduction in VAS pain scores -53.78 ± 16.96 vs -37.02 ± 18.30 for DHEP vs placebo, p plaster was evident by day 1 and increased progressively throughout the treatment period. Global pain relief and overall treatment efficacy were significantly better with DHEP. Both DHEP and placebo plaster were well tolerated with few adverse events, mostly application site reactions. A medicated plaster containing DHEP applied to the affected site in Chinese patients with minor soft tissue injury, such as sprains, strains and contusions, was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain scores. Onset of action was rapid and the DHEP plaster was safe and well tolerated. The main limitation was the use of a subjective, though validated, self-reported VAS to assess the primary endpoint.

  3. Deep Tissue Massage and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Low Back Pain: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Majchrzycki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether chronic low back pain therapy with deep tissue massage (DTM gives similar results to combined therapy consisting of DTM and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. Design. Prospective controlled randomized single blinded trial. Settings. Ambulatory care of rehabilitation. Participants. 59 patients, age 51.8 ± 9.0 years, with chronic low back pain. Interventions. 2 weeks of DTM in the treatment group (TG versus 2 weeks of DTM combined with NSAID in the control group (CG. Main Outcome Measures. Visual analogue scale, Oswestry disability index (ODI, and Roland-Morris questionnaire (RM. Results. In both the TG and the CG, a significant pain reduction and function improvement were observed. VAS decreased from 58.3 ± 18.2 to 42.2 ± 21.1 (TG and from 51.8 ± 18.8 to 30.6 ± 21.9 (CG. RM value decreased from 9.8 ± 5.1 to 6.4 ± 4.4 (TG, and from 9.3 ± 5.5 to 6.1 ± 4.6 (CG. ODI value decreased from 29.2 ± 17.3 to 21.4 ± 15.1 (TG and from 21.4 ± 9.4 to 16.6 ± 9.4 (CG. All pre-post-treatment differences were significant; however, there was no significant difference between the TG and the CG. Conclusion. DTM had a positive effect on reducing pain in patients with chronic low back pain. Concurrent use of DTM and NSAID contributed to low back pain reduction in a similar degree that the DTM did.

  4. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  5. Expression of GLUT4 mRNA of peripheral tissues and insulin resistance in rats with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-qing; ZHU Lie-lie; LI Yong-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues and investigate the mechanism of posttraumatic insulin resistance.Methods: Sixteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 group (n=8 in each group), i.e., severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) group due to falls from a height and normal control group. Blood glucose and serum insulin were measured at 0.5 h before trauma and 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d after trauma, respectively. And insulin sensitivity was calculated by insulin activity index (IAI) formula. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at the same time when blood was sampled. The changes of expression of GLUT4 mRNA were observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: Accompanied by the decrease of insulin sensitivity, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was significantly decreased in adipose tissues at 24 h and 72 h after trauma (P<0.01), however, such phenomena did not appear in skeletal muscle samples.Conclusions: To some extent, the development of posttraumatic insulin resistance is related to the abnormality of transcription activity of GLUT4 gene. Adipose tissues show some difference in the transcriptional level of GLUT4 gene after trauma as compared with skeletal muscle tissues.

  6. An overview of tissue engineering approaches for management of spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadikuchaksaraei Ali

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe spinal cord injury (SCI leads to devastating neurological deficits and disabilities, which necessitates spending a great deal of health budget for psychological and healthcare problems of these patients and their relatives. This justifies the cost of research into the new modalities for treatment of spinal cord injuries, even in developing countries. Apart from surgical management and nerve grafting, several other approaches have been adopted for management of this condition including pharmacologic and gene therapy, cell therapy, and use of different cell-free or cell-seeded bioscaffolds. In current paper, the recent developments for therapeutic delivery of stem and non-stem cells to the site of injury, and application of cell-free and cell-seeded natural and synthetic scaffolds have been reviewed.

  7. Thermal therapeutic method for selective treatment of deep-lying tissue by combining laser and high-intensity focused ultrasound energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haemin; Kang, Jeeun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2014-05-01

    Photothermal therapy is performed by delivering laser radiation into the target lesion containing tissue chromophores so as to induce localized heating. For high treatment efficacy, the laser wavelength should be selected to maximize the absorption of incident laser radiation in the tissue chromophores. However, even with the optimal laser wavelength, both the absorption and the scattering of laser energy in tissue openly hamper treatment efficacy in deep-lying lesions. To overcome the limitation, we propose a dual thermal therapeutic method in which both laser and acoustic energies are transmitted to increase therapeutic depth while maintaining high target selectivity of photothermal therapy. Through skin-mimicking phantom experiments, it was verified that the two different energies are complementary in elevation of tissue temperature, and the treatment depth using laser radiation is increased along with acoustic energy.

  8. Combined anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral reconstruction of the knee using allograft tissue in chronic knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Gregory C; Fanelli, David G; Edson, Craig J; Fanelli, Matthew G

    2014-10-01

    Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral injury of the knee can result in significant functional instability for the affected individual. Both components of the instability must be treated to maximize the probability of success for the surgical procedure. Higher failure rates of the ACL reconstruction have been reported when the posterolateral instability has been left untreated. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique, and present the results of 34 chronic combined ACL posterolateral reconstructions in 34 knees using allograft tissue, and evaluating these patient outcomes with KT 1000 knee ligament arthrometer, Lysholm, Tegner, and Hospital for Special Surgery knee ligament rating scales. In addition, observations regarding patient demographics with combined ACL posterolateral instability, postoperative range of motion loss, postinjury degenerative joint disease, infection rate, return to function, and the use of radiated and nonirradiated allograft tissues will be presented.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE EFFICACIES OF ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH CRYOKINETICS VERSUS ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH SOFT TISSUE MASSAGE (DEEP FRICTION MASSAGE IN ACUTE SUPRASPINATUS TENDINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Supraspinatus tendinitis is the non-traumatic, inflammatory and degenerative changes of tendon. This condition is common in athletes involving repetitive overhead activities like bowling, swimming, and javelin throw etc. and even in persons involving these repetitive overhead activities at their work places. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition have a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. This study was done to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound and cryokinetics versus ultrasound and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage in patients suffering from acute supraspinatus tendinitis. AIMS: To compare the efficacy of ultrasound therapy with cryokinetics versus ultrasound therapy with soft tissue massage (deep fiction massage in acute supraspinatus tendinitis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: It is a comparative experimental study dividing in to two groups. 60 subjects aged between 30-60 years 30 in each group. Group A: (n=30:- Treated with ultrasound therapy and cryokinetics Group B: (n=30:- Treated with ultrasound therapy and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage. Analysis was based on VAS scores and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI.Treatment was given for 6 days a week for 2 weeks. The following outcome measures were measured at baseline, day 7 and day14 with 1 week follow up. VAS Score, and Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI. The baseline measurements were compared to data at the end of 2nd week. RESULTS: The VAS, SPADI percentage across baseline, day 7 and day 14 follow up showed a significant improvement statistically in their mean scores within Group A and Group B (P<0.001. Statistically significant greater changes in score were found in ultrasound therapy and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage in (Group B for VAS, and SPADI as compared to ultrasound therapy and cryokinetics (Group A. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that ultrasound therapy with cryokinetics (Group A and

  10. Effects of prolonged cold injury on the subcutaneous microcirculation of the hamster. I. Technique, morphology and tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrich, B; Laprell-Moschner, C; Brendel, W; Messmer, K

    1982-01-01

    An animal model is described allowing for direct measurements of local tissue PO2, microhemodynamics and vascular density in the event of a prolonged non freezing cold injury. The model consists of implanting a transparent skin fold chamber in the dorsal skin fold in hamsters and of inserting two permanent indwelling catheters in jugular vein and carotid artery, respectively. The microcirculation was studied using a Wild Photomacroscope for photography and a platinum multiwire electrode for measurements of local PO2 in the conscious animal. After 72 h of recovery from anesthesia and surgery, the experimental was started with the animal immobilized. The decrease of local s.c. temperature was achieved by perfusing a heat exchanger with distilled H2O and Isopropanol 70% (1:1) at a rate of 81/min with the heat exchanger located directly beneath the aluminium frame of the chamber. With this technique, a decrease in local tissue temperature from 28 degrees C to 15 degrees C could be obtained within 15 min and was kept constant for 60 min. After photography of the microcirculation and local PO2-measurements, the local temperature was further reduced to 5 degrees C with 15 min. Sixty minutes later, the area exposed was slowly rewarmed from a level of 5 degrees C within 30 min. This procedure was repeated in intervals of 24 h over a period of five days. During the course of the experiments, local PO2 values shifted toward hypoxic or even anoxic values. Intravital microscopic observation revealed aggregate formation, stasis and obstruction of capillary flow associated with pronounced tissue anoxia after five cold exposures. This event resulted inevitably in tissue necrosis and scar formation after seven consecutive exposures to cold. It is concluded that this model can be used to study the effects of local non freezing cold injury in a precisely reproducible manner.

  11. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide Against Ethanol-Induced Injury in Rat Adipose Tissue and Primary Human Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kema, Venkata Harini; Khan, Imran; Jamal, Reshma; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Lakki Reddy, Chandrakala; Parwani, Kirti; Patel, Farhin; Patel, Dhara; Khan, Aleem A; Mandal, Palash

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol-mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol-induced tissue damage. This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol-induced outcomes on adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed with 36% Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) for 4 weeks. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric diet containing maltodextrin instead of EtOH. During the last week of feeding protocol, the EtOH-fed rat group was given 200 mg/kg body weight of DAS through diet. We also studied DAS effect on isolated human primary adipocytes. Viability of human primary adipocytes on DAS treatment was assessed by MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, was measured by HPLC and the thiobarbituric acid method. Expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes was studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Serum inflammatory gene expression was studied by ELISA. Our study results showed that DAS could alleviate EtOH-induced expression levels of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes and improve adipose tissue mass and adipocyte morphology in male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6% EtOH. Further, we showed that DAS reduced the expression of lipogenic genes and improved lipid accumulation and adipocyte mass in human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH. Subsequently, we also showed that oxidative stress, as measured by the changes in MDA levels, was reduced in both male Wistar rats and human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH plus DAS. Our study results prove that DAS is effective in ameliorating EtOH-induced damage to adipose tissue as evidenced by the reduction brought about by DAS in oxidative stress

  12. Functional Regulation of the Plasma Protein Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein by Zn2+ in Settings of Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Priebatsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn2+. HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interestingly, these processes are often associated with sites of tissue injury or tumour growth, where the concentration and distribution of Zn2+ is known to vary. Changes in Zn2+ levels have been shown to modify HRG function by altering its affinity for certain ligands and/or providing protection against proteolytic disassembly by serine proteases. This review focuses on the molecular interplay between HRG and Zn2+, and how Zn2+ binding modifies HRG-ligand interactions to regulate function in different settings of tissue injury.

  13. Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of Indigofera oblongifolia on Plasmodium chabaudi-induced spleen tissue injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbad, Mahmoud Y; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still one of the most common infectious diseases and leads to various public health problems worldwide. Medicinal plants are promising sources for identifying novel agents with potential antimalarial activity. This study aimed to investigate the antimalarial and the antioxidant activities of Indigofera oblongifolia on Plasmodium chabaudi-induced spleen tissue injury in mice. Mice were divided into five groups. The first group served as a vehicle control; the second, third, fourth, and fifth groups were infected with 1 × 10(6) P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Mice of the last three groups were gavaged with 100 μl of I. oblongifolia leave extract (IOLE) at a dose of 100, 200, and 300 mg IOLE/kg, respectively, once daily for 7 days. IOLE was significantly able to lower the percentage of parasitemia. The most effective dose was the 100 mg IOLE/kg, which could reduce the parasitemia from about 38 to 12 %. The infection induced spleen injury. This was evidenced by disorganization of spleen white and red pulps, appearance of hemozoin granules and parasitized erythrocytes. These changes in spleen led to the increased histological score. Also, the infection increased the spleen oxidative damage where the levels of nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and catalase were significantly altered. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly improved during IOLE treatment. In addition, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were upregulated after infection with P. chabaudi, whereas IOLE significantly reduced the expression of these genes. Our results indicate that I. oblongifolia leaves extract exhibits a significant antimalarial and antioxidant effects, and protects host spleen tissue from injuries induced by P. chabaudi.

  14. A Standardized Rat Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury for the Development of Tissue Engineering Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    conditions, making this assessment advantageous for the study of VML. However, hypertrophy of the EDL muscle in response to VML injury (Table 1) would...prevents com- pensatory hypertrophy of overloaded mouse extensor digito- rum longus muscle . J Appl Physiol. 1992;73:2538–2543. 34. Rosenblatt JD, Yong...D, Parry DJ. Satellite cell activity is re- quired for hypertrophy of overloaded adult rat muscle . Muscle Nerve. 1994;17:608–613. 35. Corona BT

  15. Human Recombinant Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF) Increases Survival and Limits Tissue Injury After Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    For lung injury scoring as described previously (Carraway, et al., 2003), four parameters ( alveolar fibrin edema, alveolar hemorrhage, septal...thickening and intra- alveolar inflammatory cells) were scored on each slide for 1) severity (0: absent; 1, 2 and 3 for more severe changes) and 2) extent...groups at 120 min (Table 1). Significantly reduced bicarbonate levels and base deficit were observed in the H + DAF25μg + Hextend® group at the

  16. New products tissue-engineering in the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, I. N.; Sergienko, V. I.; Kiselev, S. L.; Lagarkova, M. A.; Remigaylo, A. A.; Mihaylov, A. A.; Prokopenko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In the treatment of patients with complicated spinal cord injury the Russian Health spends about one million rubles for each patient in the acute and the interim period after the injury. The number of complicated spinal cord injury is different in geographical areas Russian Federation from 30 to 50 people per 1 million that is affected by the year 5600. Applied to the present surgical and pharmacological techniques provide unsatisfactory results or minimally effective treatment. Transplantation of 100 thousand neuronal mouse predecessors (24 rats) or human neuronal predecessors (18 rats) in the anatomical gap rat spinal cord, followed by analysis of neurological deficit. The neuro-matrix implantation in the rat spinal cord containing 100 thousand neuronal precursors hESC, repeatable control neuro-matrix transplantation, non-cell mass, eliminating neurological deficit for 14 weeks after transplantation about 5-9 points on the scale of the BBB. The cultivation under conditions in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cells on collagen-chitosan matrix (hIPSC) showed that neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells grown on scaffolds as compact groups and has no neurites. Cells do not penetrate into the matrix during long-term cultivation and formed near the surface of the spherical structures resembling neurospheres. At least 90% of the cells were positive for the neuronal marker tubulin b3. Further studies should be performed to examine the compatibility of neuronal cultures and matrices.

  17. Electrical Enhancement of Healing in Combat Injuries to Hard and Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    correlation in a given bone or portion thereof between the amount of calcified tissue (as determined by bone ash values) and the compression or...regulating bone architecture. In: Fleisch, H. Blackwood and M. Owen, editors, Proceedings of the Third European Symposium on Calcified Tissue...1970). The effect of electric current on rat tail tendon collagen in solution. Calc. Tis. Res. 4:330. 12. Norton, L.A. and Becker, S.J. (1972). Altered

  18. [Autotransplantation of the greater omentum in patients with radiation injuries of the integumentary tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, N O; Bardyshev, M S; Shilov, B L; Trofimov, E I

    1989-05-01

    The treatment of radiation damages of the integumentary tissues is a complicated problem of reconstructive plastic surgery. The condition of the tissues in the irradiated zone do not allow wide application of the traditional methods. Microsurgical autotransplantation of the greater omentum provides the possibility for adequate closure of the radiation ulcers. Operations were conducted on 9 patients with such ulcers of various localization; the cosmetic and functional result was good in 7 of them.

  19. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  20. Intrathecal Acetyl-L-Carnitine Protects Tissue and Improves Function after a Mild Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Hagg, Theo

    2016-02-01

    Primary and secondary ischemia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to tissue and axon degeneration, which may result from decreased energy substrate availability for cellular and axonal mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Therefore, providing spinal tissue with an alternative energy substrate during ischemia may be neuroprotective after SCI. To assess this, rats received a mild contusive SCI (120 kdyn, Infinite Horizons impactor) at thoracic level 9 (T9), which causes loss of ∼ 80% of the ascending sensory dorsal column axonal projections to the gracile nucleus. Immediately afterwards, the energy substrate acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC; 1 mg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was infused intrathecally (sub-arachnoid) for 6 days via an L5/6 catheter attached to a subcutaneous Alzet pump. ALC treatment improved overground locomotor function (Basso-Beattie-Breshnahan [BBB] score 18 vs. 13) at 6 days, total spared epicenter (71% vs. 57%) and penumbra white matter (90% vs. 85%), ventral penumbra microvessels (108% vs. 79%), and penumbra motor neurons (42% vs. 15%) at 15 days post-SCI, compared with PBS treatment. However, the ascending sensory projections (anterogradely traced with cholera toxin B from the sciatic nerves) and dorsal column white matter and perfused blood vessels were not protected. Furthermore, grid walking, a task we have shown to be dependent on dorsal column function, was not improved. Thus, mitochondrial substrate replacement may only be efficacious in areas of lesser or temporary ischemia, such as the ventral spinal cord and injury penumbra in this study. The current data also support our previous evidence that microvessel loss is central to secondary tissue degeneration.

  1. GOOD NEWS TO THOSE SUFFERING FROM CERVICOBRACHIALGIA,LUMBAGO AND SCELALGIA AN INTRODUCTION OF DING’S THERAPY FOR THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Under the guidelines of modern medical principles,applying the theory ofmicrocirculation and receptor and by using molecular cytologic method,Dr.DingChangyi,the director of the Soft Tissue Injury and Strain Institute and its affiliatedhospital,engaged in research of the mechanism of soft tisssue injury for years,has firstcreated and developed a complete series of traditional,specific and new regimen for soft

  2. Up-converting NaYF4:0.1%Tm3+, 20%Yb3+nanoparticles as luminescent labels for deep-tissue optical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Gnach; K. Prorok; M. Misiak; B. Cichy; A. Bednarkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging plays an important role in biomedical research being extremely useful for early detection, screening and image-guided therapy. Lanthanide-doped up-converting nanoparticles were ideally suited for bioimaging because they could be ex-cited in near infrared (NIR) and emit in NIR or visible (VIS). Here, we compared lanthanide doped up-converting NaYF4 and organic fluorophores for application in deep-tissue imaging. For that purpose-tissue phantoms mimicking the natural properties of light scat-tering by living tissues were prepared. The studies allowed to quantitatively compare optical resolution of different fluorescent com-pounds, revealing that the NIR photoexcitation was favorable over conventional UV photoexcitation.

  3. Quality of carcass sides, yield and distribution of certain tissues in carcasses from pigs fattened in conventional way and on deep litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosovac Olga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to present and compare results of the research of the effect of two fattening methods, on deep litter and conventional method (without litter. Slaughter properties have been determined with special focus on distribution of certain tissues in pig carcasses fattened in two different ways. Research was carried out on meat, fattening pig breeds - Swedish landrace. Research included 115 fatteners from single farm in Vojvodina. Depending on the housing conditions, two groups were formed: first group - group I (60 heads in group was housed on deep litter, and the second - group II (55 heads in group, without litter. At the end of the trial, pigs were slaughtered and dissection was performed on cooled (+4ºC left carcass sides and meat yield determined using the method of partial dissection (Walstra and Merkus, 1996. Carcass sides were cut in 12 parts. Based on the meat quantity in four main carcass parts: leg, shoulder, back-loin part (BLP and belly-rib part (BRP, which contain 75% of total musculature mass and mass of tenderloin of carcass side, meat percentage in carcass sides was calculated according to formulation (Manojlović Danica et al., 1999. Fatteners housed on deep litter had statistically significantly (**p<0.01 lower mass of cool carcass sides (38.38 kg compared to fatteners housed without litter (40.90 kg. Higher absolute and relative shares of leg (10.22 kg and 25.02% were established and higher absolute yield of shoulder (5.35 kg in fatteners housed in boxes without litter (II group. Yield of muscle tissue in leg, shoulder, BLP and BRP was higher in fatteners of the II group (without litter compared to pigs fattened on deep litter, and also statistically highly significant differences were established in share of muscle tissue in shoulder (**p<0.01 and considerable differences in regard to share of muscle tissue in BRP (*p<0.05. Meat yield of pig carcass sides was determined by method of partial dissection

  4. Sixty-four-slice CT angiography to determine the three dimensional relationships of vascular and soft tissue wounds in lower extremity war time injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer M; Fox, Charles J; Brazaitis, Michael P; Via, Kathy; Garcia, Roman; Feuerstein, Irwin M

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the use and benefits of the 64-slice CT scanner in determining the 3D relationships of vascular and soft tissue wounds in lower extremity war time injuries. A brief overview of CT scanning is given as well as the techniques used to produce the images needed for diagnosis. The series follows two similar cases of war time injury patients at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The first case is a 30-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma from a motor vehicle accident because of an improvised explosive device (IED) blast, sustaining substantial lower extremity injuries. The second case is a 34-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma blast injuries. Both cases were of interest because the vasculature was found to be very close to the surface of the wound, which put the arteries at risk for rupture and for iatrogenic injury during repeated debridements.

  5. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms on patterns of non-contact musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries in a football player population according to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Ricard; Ribas, Jordi; Montoro, Jose Bruno; Artells, Rosa

    2015-02-02

    The prevention, diagnosis, and management of non-contact musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries (NCMSTIs) related to participation in sports are key components of sport and exercise medicine. Epidemiological data have demonstrated the existence of interindividual differences in the severity of NCMSTIs, indicating that these injuries occur as a consequence of both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including genetic variations. We have collected data on NCMSTIs suffered by 73 elite players of White, black African and Hispanic ethnicity of European football over the course of three consecutive seasons. We have also examined eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to tissue recovery and tissue repair in blood drawn from the players and correlated our findings with type and severity of injuries in each ethnic group. The frequency of the SNPs varied among the three ethnic sub-groups (p<0.0001). Among Whites, a significant relationship was observed between ligament injuries and ELN (p=0.001) and between tendinous injuries and ELN (p=0.05) and IGF2 (p=0.05). Among Hispanics, there was a significant relation between muscle injuries and ELN (p=0.032) and IGF2 (p=0.016). Interracial genotypic differences may be important in the study of NCMSTIs. A genetic profile based on SNPs may be useful tool to describe each individual's injuribility risk and provide specific treatment and preventive care for football players. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin, soft tissue and systemic bacterial infections following aquatic injuries and exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H; Lopez, Fred A

    2015-03-01

    : Bacterial infections following aquatic injuries occur commonly in fishermen and vacationers after freshwater and saltwater exposures. Internet search engines were queried with the key words to describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies and outcomes of both the superficial and the deeper invasive infections caused by more common, newly emerging and unusual aquatic bacterial pathogens. Main findings included the following: (1) aquatic injuries often result in gram-negative polymicrobial infections with marine bacteria; (2) most marine bacteria are resistant to 1st- and 2nd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins; (3) nontuberculous, mycobacterial infections should be considered in late-onset, culture-negative and antibiotic-resistant marine infections; (4) superficial marine infections and pre-existing wounds exposed to seawater may result in deeply invasive infections and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. With the exception of minor marine wounds demonstrating localized cellulitis, most other marine infections and all gram-negative and mycobacterial marine infections will require therapy with antibiotic combinations.

  7. A Review of the Literature Refuting the Concept of Minor Impact Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Centeno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minor impact soft tissue (MIST is an insurance industry concept that seeks to identify late whiplash as a psychosocial phenomenon. However, the medical literature in this area has not been systematically reviewed since the Quebec Task Force's review in 1995.

  8. The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesner, Raluca; Andresen, Volker; Neumann, Jens; Spiecker, Heinrich; Gunzer, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Two-photon microscopy is indispensable for deep tissue and intravital imaging. However, current technology based on single-beam point scanning has reached sensitivity and speed limits because higher performance requires higher laser power leading to sample degradation. We utilize a multifocal scanhead splitting a laser beam into a line of 64 foci, allowing sample illumination in real time at full laser power. This technology requires charge-coupled device field detection in contrast to conventional detection by photomultipliers. A comparison of the optical performance of both setups shows functional equivalence in every measurable parameter down to penetration depths of 200 microm, where most actual experiments are executed. The advantage of photomultiplier detection materializes at imaging depths >300 microm because of their better signal/noise ratio, whereas only charge-coupled devices allow real-time detection of rapid processes (here blood flow). We also find that the point-spread function of both devices strongly depends on tissue constitution and penetration depth. However, employment of a depth-corrected point-spread function allows three-dimensional deconvolution of deep-tissue data up to an image quality resembling surface detection.

  9. Lisfranc关节损伤后局部软组织损伤对足部功能的影响%Functional evaluation of foot after Lisfranc injury with local soft tissue injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 王智; 张建中

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the foot function after Lisfranc injury with local soft tissue in-jury. Methods From November 2000 to April 2006, 43 patients (at mean age of 32 years) with fresh Lisfranc injuries (45 sides) were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with screws, Kir-schner wires and AO plates. All patients had no joint surface damage and received no fusion surgery. Ac-cording to the Quenu-Kuss classification of Lisfranc injury, there were 14 patients with type-A injury, 21 with type-B and 10 with type-C. According to AO classification, there were 29 feet without severe soft tis-sue injury and 16 feet with severe soft tissue injury, of which 10 patients were combined with severe local soft tissue injury (one patient with Foot compartment syndrome). The period from injury to surgery was seven days. All patients received cast immobilization for 8-12 weeks and the foot function was evaluated by anteroposterior and lateral X-rays and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Results All patients were followed up for 12-69 months (average 37 months), which showed that all pa-tients obtained anatomic reduction and 32 patients were satisfied with operative outcome. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 97 points for patients without severe soft tissue injury and 82 points for pa-tients with severe soft tissue injury (P<0.05). Conclusion After Lisfranc injury, the foot function is related to severity of both joint injury and local soft tissue injury.%目的 评价Lisfranc关节损伤后局部软组织损伤程度与足部功能恢复程度之间的关系.方法 自2000年11月至2006年4月,共收治新鲜Lisfranc关节损伤患者43例(45足),平均年龄32岁.所有患者关节面均无毁损,未行融合手术,均行切开复位内固定,故可排除骨性因素影响.按跖跗关节损伤Quenu-Kuss分型:A型14足,B型21足,C型10足;按AO分类局部软组织损伤程度分为:不伴严重软组织损伤组29足

  10. [Injury and reparative regeneration of the oral mucosal epithelium after cytostatic drugs administration (tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of human and animal surface oral mucosal epithelium (OME) injury caused by cytostatic drugs (CSD) administration, and on the ways of its regeneration after the cytostatic chemotherapy (CSCT) discontinuation. Tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms of CSCT effects on OME, are described. The direct effects of CSD included the epithelial layer attenuation with the derangement of its architecture, epitheliocyte proliferation suppression, apoptosis activation, and differentiation disturbances (involving the broad spectrum of cytological, cytochemical, ultrastructural and molecular-biological changes). In severe cases, these processes resulted in the loss of the epithelial layer integrity with the development of ulceration. Complete epithelial regeneration requires a long period after the CSCT discontinuation. Indirect effects of CSD on OME are associated with the microbial invasion and the diffusion of microbial vital activity products into the epithelium with concurrent leukopenia, immunosuppression and decreased salivary secretion.

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue injury by alcohol, high fat, nonalcoholic substances and pathological conditions through post-translational protein modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Joon Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are critically important in providing cellular energy ATP as well as their involvement in anti-oxidant defense, fat oxidation, intermediary metabolism and cell death processes. It is well-established that mitochondrial functions are suppressed when living cells or organisms are exposed to potentially toxic agents including alcohol, high fat diets, smoking and certain drugs or in many pathophysiological states through increased levels of oxidative/nitrative stress. Under elevated nitroxidative stress, cellular macromolecules proteins, DNA, and lipids can undergo different oxidative modifications, leading to disruption of their normal, sometimes critical, physiological functions. Recent reports also indicated that many mitochondrial proteins are modified via various post-translation modifications (PTMs and primarily inactivated. Because of the recently-emerging information, in this review, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and roles of five major PTMs (namely oxidation, nitration, phosphorylation, acetylation, and adduct formation with lipid-peroxides, reactive metabolites, or advanced glycation end products in experimental models of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as well as acute hepatic injury caused by toxic compounds. We also highlight the role of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1 in some of these PTM changes. Finally, we discuss translational research opportunities with natural and/or synthetic anti-oxidants, which can prevent or delay the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction, fat accumulation and tissue injury.

  12. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  13. A three-photon microscope with adaptive optics for deep-tissue in vivo structural and functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lu, Ju; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Zuo, Yi; Kubby, Joel

    2017-02-01

    We developed a three-photon adaptive optics add-on to a commercial two-photon laser scanning microscope. We demonstrated its capability for structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins or calcium indicators deep in the living mouse brain with cellular and subcellular resolution.

  14. Effect of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury on protein levels of leptin and orexin-A in peripheral blood and central secretory tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Lin; Guang-Tao Yan; Xiu-Hua Hao; Lu-Huan Wang; Kai Zhang; Hui Xue

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury on protein levels of leptin and orexin-A in peripheral blood and their central secretory tissues and to find out the role leptin and orexin-A play in acute inflammatory responses.METHODS: An intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)injury model of rats was established and rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham-operation group, 60 min ischemia/30 min reperfusion group (I60'R30'), I60'R90',I60'R150', I60'R240' and I60'R360', 9 rats each group.Two highly-sensitive radioimmunoassays for leptin and orexin-A were established and used to check the change of their concentrations in peripheral blood and central secretory tissues before and after intestinal I/R injury.RESULTS: Compared with the serum leptin level before injury, it decreased significantly in I60'R30' group and increased significantly in I60'R360' group; compared to sham-operation group after injury, serum leptin level increased significantly in I60'R360' group; compared to sham-operation group after injury, adipose leptin levels decreased significantly in I60'R30' and I60'R90' groups,while increased significantly in I60'R360' group. There was no significant difference between the expression levels of orexin-A before and after I/R injury.CONCLUSION: Leptin has a time-dependent response and orexin-A has a delayed response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as intestinal I/R injury and they may participate in metabolic disorders in injury as inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Penetration Deep into Tissues of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated in Floating-Electrode Dielectric Barrier Discharge (FE-DBD): in Vitro Agarose Gel Model Mimicking an Open Wound

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrynin, Danil; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we present an in vitro model based on agarose gel that can be used to simulate a dirty, oily, bloody, and morphologically complex surface of, for example, an open wound. We show this models effectiveness in simulating depth of penetration of reactive species generated in plasma deep into tissue of a rat and confirm the penetration depths with agarose gel model. We envision that in the future such a model could be used to study plasma discharges (and other modalities) and minimize the use of live animals: plasma can be optimized on the agarose gel wound model and then finally verified using an actual wound.

  16. The advantage of deep-inspiration breath-hold and cone-beam CT based soft-tissue registration for locally advanced lung cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Wiviann; Rahma, Fatma; Sjöström, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Three cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration strategies combined with deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and free-breathing (FB) were explored, in terms of obtaining the smallest planning target volume (PTV). Material and methods: CBCT images were acquired pre...... uncertainties compared to FB, DIBH resulted in smaller PTV-Totals for all registration methods. Soft-tissue registrations were superior to bony registration, independently of FB and DIBH. During DIBH, undesirable arching of the back was identified. Daily CBCT pre-treatment target verification is advised....

  17. Carbon materials in the treatment of soft and hard tissue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazewicz M.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based implant materials are of interest because they are well accepted by the biological environment. Carbon fibrous materials developed in the Department of Special Ceramics of the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow were tested in in vivo studies to determine their influence on the living body. For comparative purposes, different carbon fibers were prepared and subjected to different surface modifications. Carbon materials prepared in the form of braids were implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and into skeletal muscle of rats. Carbon fabrics were examined as scaffolds in reconstruction of bone defects. The present study examined the synthesis-structure-property relationships of fibrous carbon samples with respect to the tissue response. It was shown that the tissue response depends on the form of the material form, the degree of order of the crystallites, the surface state and microstructural parameters. Carbon fibers with higher crystallinity and a better-organized graphite structure were assimilated by the body with more difficulty and small particles coming from these materials were found in the regional lymph nodes. Low-carbonized carbon fibers (small crystallite size underwent partial fragmentation and reacted with the biological environment by being gradually resorbed in the implantation site. The presence of acidic groups on the surface of the carbon fibers enhanced phagocytosis of the carbon material by macrophages. Depending on the surface state of carbon fibers different rates of bone wound healing were observed.

  18. Gap junction proteins: master regulators of the planarian stem cell response to tissue maintenance and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, T Harshani; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2013-01-01

    Gap junction (GJ) proteins are crucial mediators of cell-cell communication during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and disease. GJ proteins form plasma membrane channels that facilitate passage of small molecules across cells and modulate signaling pathways and cellular behavior in different tissues. These properties have been conserved throughout evolution, and in most invertebrates GJ proteins are known as innexins. Despite their critical relevance for physiology and disease, the mechanisms by which GJ proteins modulate cell behavior are poorly understood. This review summarizes findings from recent work that uses planarian flatworms as a paradigm to analyze GJ proteins in the complexity of the whole organism. The planarian model allows access to a large pool of adult somatic stem cells (known as neoblasts) that support physiological cell turnover and tissue regeneration. Innexin proteins are present in planarians and play a fundamental role in controlling neoblast behavior. We discuss the possibility that GJ proteins participate as cellular sensors that inform neoblasts about local and systemic physiological demands. We believe that functional analyses of GJ proteins will bring a complementary perspective to studies that focus on the temporal expression of genes. Finally, integrating functional studies along with molecular genetics and epigenetic approaches would expand our understanding of cellular regulation in vivo and greatly enhance the possibilities for rationally modulating stem cell behavior in their natural environment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue injury and repair following cutaneous exposure of mice to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Heck, Diane E

    2016-08-01

    In mouse skin, sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant, damaging both the epidermis and the dermis. The extent of wounding is dependent on the dose of SM and the duration of exposure. Initial responses include erythema, pruritus, edema, and xerosis; this is followed by an accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the tissue, activation of mast cells, and the release of mediators, including proinflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids. These proinflammatory mediators contribute to damaging the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands and to disruption of the epidermal basement membrane. This can lead to separation of the epidermis from the dermis, resulting in a blister, which ruptures, leading to the formation of an eschar. The eschar stimulates the formation of a neoepidermis and wound repair and may result in persistent epidermal hyperplasia. Epidermal damage and repair is associated with upregulation of enzymes generating proinflammatory and pro-growth/pro-wound healing mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2, which generates prostanoids, inducible nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, and galectin-3. Characterization of the mediators regulating structural changes in the skin during SM-induced tissue damage and wound healing will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities to mitigate toxicity and stimulate tissue repair processes. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Severe Burn Injury Induces Thermogenically Functional Mitochondria in Murine White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Bhattarai, Nisha; Ogunbileje, John O; Szczesny, Bartosz; Szabo, Csaba; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cold exposure induces functionally thermogenic mitochondria in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of mice. Whether this response occurs in pathophysiological states remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of severe burn trauma on iWAT mitochondrial function in mice. Male BALB/c mice (10-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns to ∼30% of the body surface area. Inguinal white adipose tissue was harvested from mice at 1, 4, 10, 20, and 40 days postinjury. Total and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mitochondrial thermogenesis were determined in iWAT. Citrate synthase activity was determined as a proxy of mitochondrial abundance. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess iWAT morphology and UCP1 expression. Uncoupling protein 1-dependent respiration was significantly greater at 4 and 10 days after burn compared with sham, peaking at 20 days after burn (P white adipose tissue in vivo and may offer a mechanistic explanation for the chronic hypermetabolism observed in burn victims.

  1. Dopamine treatment attenuates acute kidney injury in a rat model of deep hypothermia and rewarming - The role of renal H2S-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J; Talaei, Fatemeh; Houwertjes, Martin C; Goris, Maaike; Epema, Anne H; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Henning, Robert H

    2015-12-15

    Hypothermia and rewarming produces organ injury through the production of reactive oxygen species. We previously found that dopamine prevents hypothermia and rewarming-induced apoptosis in cultured cells through increased expression of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine β-Synthase (CBS). Here, we investigate whether dopamine protects the kidney in deep body cooling and explore the role of H2S-producing enzymes in an in vivo rat model of deep hypothermia and rewarming. In anesthetized Wistar rats, body temperature was decreased to 15°C for 3h, followed by rewarming for 1h. Rats (n≥5 per group) were treated throughout the procedure with vehicle or dopamine infusion, and in the presence or absence of a non-specific inhibitor of H2S-producing enzymes, amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA). Kidney damage and renal expression of three H2S-producing enzymes (CBS, CSE and 3-MST) was quantified and serum H2S level measured. Hypothermia and rewarming induced renal damage, evidenced by increased serum creatinine, renal reactive oxygen species production, KIM-1 expression and influx of immune cells, which was accompanied by substantially lowered renal expression of CBS, CSE, and 3-MST and lowered serum H2S levels. Infusion of dopamine fully attenuated renal damage and maintained expression of H2S-producing enzymes, while normalizing serum H2S. AOAA further decreased the expression of H2S-producing enzymes and serum H2S level, and aggravated renal damage. Hence, dopamine preserves renal integrity during deep hypothermia and rewarming likely by maintaining the expression of renal H2S-producing enzymes and serum H2S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Burn injuries and soft tissue traumas complicated by mucormycosis infection: a report of six cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriopoulos, E J; Kyriakopoulos, A; Karonidis, A; Gravvanis, A; Gamatsi, I; Tsironis, C; Tsoutsos, D

    2015-12-31

    Mucor fungus infection is a rare opportunistic infection, rapidly progressive and often fatal in immunocompromised patients, or in patients with chronic debilitating diseases. We report six cases of trauma patients with mucormycosis. Three had severe thermal burns, one of them with a medical history of diabetes mellitus. The other three patients suffered from severe soft tissue injuries caused by traffic accidents. In all cases there had been spontaneous exposure and contact of the wounds with soil. During hospitalization, fungi cultures and/or biopsies of all wounds were performed and all resulted positive. The patients were treated with Amphotericin B (AmB) and surgical debridement. Two of them died and the other four were fully healed and discharged. Mucormycosis should be considered in any case of aggressive skin tissue necrosis with a history of soiled wounds. We suggest that mucormycosis is treated by intravenous and local administration of AmB, extensive and repeated debridement and cautious coverage of the wound. The plastic surgeon must wait for negative swab cultures and biopsies before covering the defects with skin grafts or flaps. Reconstruction may be challenging, depending on the extent, depth, location and special indications of the affected site and the donor site availability.

  3. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue Song-Kun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC at day 1 (acute and day 14 (subacute after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, β-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG, and F-actin-capping protein subunit β (CAPZB at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of β-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction

  4. Concentrations of Nitric Oxide in Rat Brain Tissues after Diffuse Brain Injury and Neuroprotection by the Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Aminoguanidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-bao Wang; Shao-wu Ou; Guang-yu Li; Yun-hui Liu

    2005-01-01

    @@ To investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and the selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) on trauma, we explored the concentrations of nitric oxide in rat brain tissues at different time stamps after diffuse brain injury (DBI) with or without AG treatment.

  5. Attempted endogenous tissue repair following experimental spinal cord injury in the rat: involvement of cell adhesion molecules L1 and NCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Brook, G.A.; Houweling, D.A.; Gieling, R.G.; Hermanss, T.; Joosten, E.A.J.; Bär, D.P.R.; Schmitt, W.H.; Leprince, P.; Noth, J.; Nacimiento, W.

    2000-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the devastating consequences of spinal cord injury are due to the failure of lesioned CNS axons to regenerate. The current study of the spontaneous tissue repair processes following dorsal hemisection of the adult rat spinal cord demonstrates a phase of rapid and

  6. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peng; Zhu Lielie; Zhang Jiasheng; Xie Songling; Pan Da; Wen Hao; Meng Weiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN) in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36),RSTN group (n=36) and sham operation group (n=6).Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat.At respectively 12 h,24 h,72 h,1 w,2 w,and 4 w after operation,venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled.We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles,western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value) was also conducted.The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed.Results:Compared with sham operation group,the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05),and reduced Q value (P<0.05) in traumatic group.Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001) in traumatic group.Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism.RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI.

  7. Argonaute proteins in cardiac tissue contribute to the heart injury during viral myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shougang; Ma, Jialiang; Zhang, Quan; Wang, Qiongying; Zhou, Lei; Bai, Feng; Hu, Hao; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing; Gao, Bingren

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of short, noncoding, regulatory RNA molecules the dysregulation of which contributes to the pathogenesis of myocarditis. Argonaute proteins are essential components of miRNA-induced silencing complex and play important roles during miRNA biogenesis and function. However, the expression pattern of four AGO family members has not yet been detected in the coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis tissue samples. In this study, we detected the expression of four AGOs in the CVB3-infected mouse heart tissues and found that AGO1 and AGO3 up-regulated significantly at 4 and 8h after CVB3 infection. Further in vitro research indicated that up-regulated AGO1 and AGO3 are related to the down-regulated TNFAIP3, which is a negative regulator of NF-κB pathway. Subsequently, we confirmed that TNFAIP3 is a direct target of miR-19a/b, and during CVB3 infection, the expression of miR-19a/b and miR-125a/b is not significantly changed. TNFAIP3 level is mainly reduced by up-regulated AGO1 and AGO3. This research sheds light on the relationship between overexpressed AGO proteins and CVB3-induced myocarditis, and this provides potential therapeutic target for viral myocarditis.

  8. High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Paula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel found in association with large faunal communities living in chemosynthetic environments at the bottom of the sea floor near the Azores Islands. Investigation of the exceptional physiological reactions that vent mussels have adopted in their habitat, including responses to environmental microbes, remains a difficult challenge for deep-sea biologists. In an attempt to reveal genes potentially involved in the deep-sea mussel innate immunity we carried out a high-throughput sequence analysis of freshly collected B. azoricus transcriptome using gills tissues as the primary source of immune transcripts given its strategic role in filtering the surrounding waterborne potentially infectious microorganisms. Additionally, a substantial EST data set was produced and from which a comprehensive collection of genes coding for putative proteins was organized in a dedicated database, "DeepSeaVent" the first deep-sea vent animal transcriptome database based on the 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results A normalized cDNA library from gills tissue was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 778,996 sequencing reads. Assembly of the high quality reads resulted in 75,407 contigs of which 3,071 were singletons. A total of 39,425 transcripts were conceptually translated into amino-sequences of which 22,023 matched known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 15,839 revealed conserved protein domains through InterPro functional classification and 9,584 were assigned with Gene Ontology terms. Queries conducted within the database enabled the identification of genes putatively involved in immune and inflammatory reactions which had not been previously evidenced in the vent mussel. Their physical counterpart was confirmed by semi-quantitative quantitative Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR and their RNA transcription level by quantitative PCR (q

  9. Partial liquid ventilation decreases tissue and serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in acute lung injury model of immature piglet induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; FAN Xiang-ming; LI Xiao-feng; LI Zhi-qiang; WANG Qiang; SUN Li-zhong; LIU Ying-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury in children often results in high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an immature piglet model of acute lung injury induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of six animals,(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with 10 ml/kg FC-77 group.Results Compared with MV group,the PLV group had better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate,mean blood pressure,blood pH,partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2),PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).PLV reduced TNF-α levels both in plasma and tissue compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusion PLV provides protective effects against TNF-a response in OA-induced acute lung injury in immature piglets.

  10. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  11. Protective Effects of Oyster Extract Against Hepatic Tissue Injury in Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cuiping; LI Xiaoyu; JING Xue; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Qi; NIU Qinghui; WANG Jianjun; TIAN Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster extract is an effective bioactivity component. It has abundant nutritional value and antiviral, antitumor and im-mune defense functions. The role of oyster extract in treating liver injury has been paid more attention. We use Wistar rats to make alcoholic liver disease model through injecting alcohol into rats’ stomachs. These rats were randomly divided into five groups:model group, control group, low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose experimental group with a dose of 0.12 g kg-1, 0.40 g kg-1, and 1.20 g kg-1 alcoholic. After nine weeks, serum biomarkers (ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), C3a, C5a, IL-17, TNF-ɑ, anti-MAA-HAS IgG, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell activation and zinc content were assessed. The results showed that the serum biomarkers(ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), MDA content, anti-MAA-HSA IgG, serum C3a, C5a IL-17 and TNF-ɑlevels of oyster extract treatment groups were significantly decreased in comparison with model group. On the contrary, GSH showed ad-verse trend. Serum CD3+, CD4+ and NK cell activation were significantly increased in middle-dose group and high-dose group compared with model group, and there was decrease of CD8+activity in high-dose group. Plasma Zn level was decreased in model group compared with that in control group. Meanwhile, Mean plasma Zn levels increased dramatically following the dose increase of a given oyster extract.

  12. The protein C pathway in tissue inflammation and injury: pathogenic role and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Silvio; Vetrano, Stefania; Zhang, Li; Poplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2010-02-11

    Inflammation and coagulation are closely linked interdependent processes. Under physiologic conditions, the tissue microcirculation functions in anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory fashions. However, when inflammation occurs, coagulation is also set in motion and actively participates in enhancing inflammation. Recently, novel and unexpected roles of hemostasis in the humoral and cellular components of innate immunity have been described. In particular, the protein C system, besides its well-recognized role in anticoagulation, plays a crucial role in inflammation. Indeed, the protein C system is now emerging as a novel participant in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, and lung and heart inflammation, and may emerge as unexpected therapeutic targets for intervention.

  13. Abiotic Versus Biotic Pathogens: Replicative Growth in Host Tissues Key to Discriminating Between Biotoxic Injury and Active Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Life can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution; a self-bounded, self-replicating, and self-perpetuating entity [1]. This definition should hold for terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial life-forms. Although, it is reasonable to expect that a Mars life-form would be more adaptable to Mars-like conditions than to Earth-like environments, it remains possible that negative ecological or host interactions might occur if Mars microbiota were to be inadvertently released into the terrestrial environment. A biogenic infectious agent can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution and derives its sustenance from a living cell or from the by-products of cell death. Disease can be de-fined as the detrimental alteration of one or more ordered metabolic processes in a living host caused by the continued irritation of a primary causal factor or factors; disease is a dynamic process [2]. In contrast, an injury is due to an instantaneous event; injury is not a dynamic process [2]. A causal agent of disease is defined as a pathogen, and can be either abiotic or biotic in nature. Diseases incited by biotic pathogens are the exceptions, not the norms, in terrestrial host-microbe interactions. Disease induction in a plant host can be conceptually characterized using the Disease Triangle (Fig. 1) in which disease occurs only when all host, pathogen, and environ-mental factors that contribute to the development of disease are within conducive ranges for a necessary minimum period of time. For example, plant infection and disease caused by the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia recondita, occur only if virulent spores adhere to genetically susceptible host tissues for at least 4-6 hours under favorable conditions of temperature and moisture [3]. As long as one or more conditions required for disease initiation are not available, disease symptoms will not develop.

  14. Tissue-engineered conduit promotes sciatic nerve regeneration following radiation-induced injury as monitored by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengde; Zheng, Rui; Wei, Changzheng; Yan, Jun; Ding, Yingying; Wang, Guangshun; Li, Zhuolin; Zhang, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the longitudinal changes in peripheral nerve repaired with chitosan conduits in a rat model of radiation-induced neuropathy. Four months after 40 Gy radiation to the right lower limbs, forty-two rats were divided randomly into three groups. Chitosan conduits were implanted with (group A, n=12) or without (group B, n=12) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and untreated controls (group C, n=12). Following sciatic nerve MR imaging (including T2WI and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI), functional evaluation and electrophysiological exam were performed two-monthly, final histological assessments were done at the end of one year. The differences among the experimental and control groups were statistically analysed with Fisher's PLSD or t-test. The compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sciatic function index (SFI) had declined since 4 months after radiation injury. The focal nerve enlargement and hyperintensity, the perineurium and connecting muscle enhancement were demonstrated by MR neurography images. After chitosan tube implantation, the normalized signal intensities (SIs) in group A were declined more rapidly than SIs in other groups. The histological assessments indicated that group A had better remyelination, combined with higher CMAPs amplitude and SFI score than other groups. A single fraction dose of 40 Gy can be used to establish a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Longitudinal electrophysiological examination and MR neurography are useful to evaluate the post-irradiation sciatic neuropathy. The rats with tissue-engineered conduits implantation showed some improvement of lower limb function, accompanied by a normalization of (T1W/T2W) MR signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Peroneal Tendon Injuries What Are the Peroneal Tendons? A tendon is a band of tissue that ... protect them from sprains. Causes & Symptoms of Peroneal Tendon Injuries Peroneal tendon injuries may be acute (occurring ...

  16. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Lucas H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Methods A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD. Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. Results No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664. Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753. With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895. Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. Conclusions We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum.

  17. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on tissue injury markers and endothelial activation during coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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    S Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is done either using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB or without using CPB (OPCAB. But, recently, reports have shown that CPB is associated with increased postoperative morbidity because of the involvement of many systems. Aims: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of the technique of surgery on various tissue injury markers and the extent of endothelial activation in patients undergoing CABG and OPCAB coronary revascularization. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare center during the period May 2008 to December 2009. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized blinded study. The activities of Creatine Phosphokinase (CK and its isoenzyme CK-MB, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, levels of cardiac Troponin I, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-I and systemic nitric oxide production were assessed. Statistical analysis: All the results were expressed as Mean±SD. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 11.5-computer software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: The surgical trauma had elevated CK, CK-MB and Troponin I in both the groups and further elevation was seen in the CABG group in comparison to OPCAB (P<0.001. The Troponin I concentrations showed an increase from 0.11±0.02 preoperatively to 6.59±0.59 (ng/ml at 24 h (P<0.001 compared to the OPCAB group. Mean serum levels of sVCAM-1 increased significantly after surgery in both the groups (P<0.02. To determine serum nitric oxide (NO production, NO2− and NO3− (stable end products of NO oxidation were analyzed which also increased significantly at 24 h in both the groups. But the increase was not significant at 48 h in both the groups compared to the preoperative value in our study. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, despite comparable surgical trauma, the OPCAB significantly reduces

  18. Association between serum tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels and mortality in patients with severe brain trauma injury.

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    Leonardo Lorente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs play a role in neuroinflammation after brain trauma injury (TBI. Previous studies with small sample size have reported higher circulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in patients with TBI, but no association between those levels and mortality. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether serum TIMP-1 and MMP-9 levels are associated with mortality in patients with severe TBI. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational and prospective study carried out in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. Patients with severe TBI defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS lower than 9 were included, while those with Injury Severity Score (ISS in non-cranial aspects higher than 9 were excluded. Serum levels of TIMP-1, MMP-9 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, and plasma levels of tissue factor (TF and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 plasma were measured in 100 patients with severe TBI at admission. Endpoint was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Non-surviving TBI patients (n = 27 showed higher serum TIMP-1 levels than survivor ones (n = 73. We did not find differences in MMP-9 serum levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum TIMP-1 levels were associated 30-day mortality (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 1.001-1.013; P = 0.03. Survival analysis showed that patients with serum TIMP-1 higher than 220 ng/mL presented increased 30-day mortality than patients with lower levels (Chi-square = 5.50; P = 0.02. The area under the curve (AUC for TIMP-1 as predictor of 30-day mortality was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.624-0.844; P<0.001. An association between TIMP-1 levels and APACHE-II score, TNF- alpha and TF was found. CONCLUSIONS: The most relevant and new findings of our study, the largest series reporting data on TIMP-1 and MMP-9 levels in patients with severe TBI, were that serum TIMP-1 levels were associated with TBI mortality and could be used as a prognostic biomarker of mortality

  19. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

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    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  20. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  1. Erythropoietin reduces apoptosis of brain tissue cells in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: a characteristic analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

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    Chun-juan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some in vitro experiments have shown that erythropoietin (EPO increases resistance to apoptosis and facilitates neuronal survival following cerebral ischemia. However, results from in vivo studies are rarely reported. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI have been applied successfully to distinguish acute cerebral ischemic necrosis and penumbra in living animals; therefore, we hypothesized that PWI and DWI could be used to provide imaging evidence in vivo for the conclusion that EPO could reduce apoptosis in brain areas injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. To validate this hypothesis, we established a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and treated with intra-cerebroventricular injection of EPO (5,000 U/kg 20 minutes before injury. Brain tissue in the ischemic injury zone was sampled using MRI-guided localization. The relative area of abnormal tissue, changes in PWI and DWI in the ischemic injury zone, and the number of apoptotic cells based on TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL were assessed. Our findings demonstrate that EPO reduces the relative area of abnormally high signal in PWI and DWI, increases cerebral blood volume, and decreases the number of apoptotic cells positive for TUNEL in the area injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The experiment provides imaging evidence in vivo for EPO treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  2. Erythropoietin reduces apoptosis of brain tissue cells in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury:a characteristic analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-juan Jiang; Zhong-juan Wang; Yan-jun Zhao; Zhui-yang Zhang; Jing-jing Tao; Jian-yong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Somein vitro experiments have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) increases resistance to apoptosis and facilitates neuronal survival follow-ing cerebral ischemia. However, results fromin vivo studies are rarely reported. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied successfully to distinguish acute cerebral ischemic necrosis and penumbra in living animals; therefore, we hypothesized that PWI and DWI could be used to provide imaging evidencein vivo for the conclusion that EPO could reduce apoptosis in brain areas injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. To validate this hypothesis, we established a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and treated with intra-cerebroventricular injection of EPO (5,000 U/kg) 20 minutes before injury. Brain tissue in the ischemic injury zone was sampled using MRI-guided localization. The relative area of abnormal tissue, changes in PWI and DWI in the ischemic injury zone, and the number of apoptotic cells based on TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) were assessed. Our ifndings demonstrate that EPO reduces the relative area of abnormally high signal in PWI and DWI, increases cerebral blood volume, and decreases the number of apoptotic cells positive for TUNEL in the area injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The experiment pro-vides imaging evidencein vivo for EPO treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  3. Microarray expression profiles of genes in lung tissues of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway.

  4. Erythropoietin reduces apoptosis of brain tissue cells in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: a characteristic analysis using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Juan; Zhao, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Zhui-Yang; Tao, Jing-Jing; Ma, Jian-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Some in vitro experiments have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) increases resistance to apoptosis and facilitates neuronal survival following cerebral ischemia. However, results from in vivo studies are rarely reported. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied successfully to distinguish acute cerebral ischemic necrosis and penumbra in living animals; therefore, we hypothesized that PWI and DWI could be used to provide imaging evidence in vivo for the conclusion that EPO could reduce apoptosis in brain areas injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. To validate this hypothesis, we established a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and treated with intra-cerebroventricular injection of EPO (5,000 U/kg) 20 minutes before injury. Brain tissue in the ischemic injury zone was sampled using MRI-guided localization. The relative area of abnormal tissue, changes in PWI and DWI in the ischemic injury zone, and the number of apoptotic cells based on TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) were assessed. Our findings demonstrate that EPO reduces the relative area of abnormally high signal in PWI and DWI, increases cerebral blood volume, and decreases the number of apoptotic cells positive for TUNEL in the area injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The experiment provides imaging evidence in vivo for EPO treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  5. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  6. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  7. Thermal injuries induce gene expression of endogenous c-fos, c-myc and bFGF in burned tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 顾小曼; 孙同柱; 杨银辉; 孙晓庆; 盛志勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression sequence and distribution characteristics of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF ) genes in burned tissues, and to explore the possible effects of changes in the se genes' functions on wound healing. Methods Partial-thickness burns of 30% TBSA were established on backs of Wistar rats. Insitu hybridization and histological methods were used to detect expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF genes in normal and burned tissue at 3 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d , 7 d and 14 d postburn. Results Although expression of c-fos and c-myc genes and bFGF gene could be found in normal skin, the expression of all three were markedly induced by burn wounds and the expression models in sequence and distribution were quite different. Expre ssion of c-fos gene increased and peaked at 6 h. Signals were mainly localiz ed in both nuclei of dermal fibroblasts and monocytes. The expression of bFGF gene increased at 6 h and peaked at 1 d postburn, and was distributed in the cyt oplasm of fibroblasts. C-myc gene peaked 3 d postburn and was also distributed in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. Conclusions These results indicated that thermal injury could induce the expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF at gene level, showing phasic control and regional distributi on. The phasic expression of these genes suggests that there is an interaction between protooncogenes and bFGF, which may play an important role in wound heali ng. The different expressions of c-fos and c-myc play an inducing role in reg ulating bFGF, and in turn affect wound healing.

  8. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  9. Role of Joshi's external stabilization system with percutaneous screw fixation in high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Kumar Gupta; Rahul Sapra; Rakesh Kumar; Som Prakash Gupta; Devwart Kaushik; Sahil Gaba; Mahesh Chand Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of high-energy tibial condylar fractures which are associated with severe sott tissue injuries remains contentious and challenging.In this study, we assessed the results of Joshi's external stabilization system (JESS) by using the principle of ligamentotaxis and percutaneous screw fixation for managing high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.Methods: Between June 2008 and June 2010, 25 consecutive patients who were 17-71 years (mean, 39.7), underwent the JESS fixation for high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.Out of 25 patients, 2 were lost during follow-up and in 1 case early removal of frame was done, leaving 22 cases for final follow-up.Among them, 11 had poor skin condition with abrasions and blisters and 2 were open injuries (Gustilo-Anderson grade Ⅰ & Ⅱ).The injury mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (n =19), fall from a height (n =2) and assault (n =1).The fractures were classified according to Schatzker classification system.Results: There were 7 type-Ⅴ, 14 type-Ⅵ and 1 type-Ⅳ Schatzker's tibial plateau fractures.The average interval between the injury and surgery was 6.8 days (range 2-13).The average hospital stay was 13 days (range, 7-22).The average interval between the surgery and full weight bearing was 13.6 weeks (range 11-20).The average range of knee flexion was 121° (range 105°-135°).The normal extension of the knee was observed in 20 patients, and an extensor lag of 5°-8° was noted in 2 patients.The complications included superficial pin tract infections (n =4) with no knee stiffness.Conclusion: JESS with lag screw fixation combines the benefit of traction, external fixation, and limited internal fixation, at the same time as allowing the ease of access to the soft tissue for wound checks, pin care, dressing changes, measurement of compartment pressure, and the monitoring of the neurovascular status.In a nutshell, JESS

  10. Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG) of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amanda; Green, Shadaesha; Chung, Jum Sook

    2017-01-01

    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG); however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG), and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt) includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically. PMID:28763037

  11. Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG; however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG, and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically.

  12. Injury and regeneration of intramuscular connective tissue subjected to various regimes of distraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li; XU Song-jie; SUN Xiao-tang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect on intramuscular connective tissue and passive range of joint motion by the stress produced in limb lengthening. Methods:An animal model of limb lengthening was established in the tibia of rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/d and 2 mm/d in two steps respectively,and both proceeded until 10%and 20% of the tibia length was achieved. Muscle samples were harvested at the time when distraction ended and at the 4th week of consolidation after the distraction. Scanning electron microscope was applied to observe the morphological changes of the perimysium. The goniometer,which we made for this study,was used to measure the passive range of joint motion.Results:The collagen fibers were partitioned in bundles, crimped and interconnected closely and orderly.In the regime of 1 mm/d distraction with 10% lengthening,no apparent changes of the collagen fiber and passive range of joint motion was demonstrated. When tibia was increased to 20%,the crimped fibers showed a tendency of being straightened while the passive range of joint motion was reduced. The findings remained the same at the 4th week of consolidation. In the regime of 2 mm/d distraction with 10% lengthening,the crimped structure of the collagen fibers in the perimysium disappeared and the fibers were almost straightened. Additionally,the interconnection of the collagen fibers became loosened and interstice was presented among the fibers. At the 4th week of consolidation,the restoration to the original crimped structure was not completed. When the lengthening ratio was increased to 20%,the collagen fibers were straightened completely. This condition remained unchanged throughout all 4 weeks. The passive range of joint motion was reduced dramatically in the regime of 2 mm/d distraction.Conclusion:The ultrastructure of perimysium and the passive range of joint motion in the regime of 1 mm/d lengthening shows the condition closest to the normal ones. The regime of 2 mm

  13. Prolonged Ischemia Triggers Necrotic Depletion of Tissue-Resident Macrophages To Facilitate Inflammatory Immune Activation in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shi; Zhou, Haoming; Wang, Xuehao; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Zhai, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Although mechanisms of immune activation against liver ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) have been studied extensively, questions regarding liver-resident macrophages, that is, Kupffer cells (KCs), remain controversial. Recent progress in the biology of tissue-resident macrophages implicates homeostatic functions of KCs. This study aims to dissect responses and functions of KCs in liver IRI. In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we analyzed liver-resident versus infiltrating macrophages by FACS and immunofluorescence staining. Our data showed that liver immune activation by IR was associated with not only infiltrations/activations of peripheral macrophages, but also necrotic depletion of KCs. Inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) by necrostatin-1s protected KCs from ischemia-induced depletion, resulting in the reduction of macrophage infiltration, suppression of proinflammatory immune activation, and protection of livers from IRI. The depletion of KCs by clodronate liposomes abrogated the effect of necrostatin-1s. Additionally, liver reconstitutions with KCs postischemia exerted anti-inflammatory/cytoprotective effects against IRI. These results reveal a unique response of KCs against liver IR, that is, RIP1-dependent necrosis, which constitutes a novel mechanism of liver inflammatory immune activation in the pathogenesis of liver IRI. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Long-term effects of traumatic injuries to incisors and periodontal tissues during childhood: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Susanne; Martin, Monika; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of dentoalveolar growth disturbances, loss of teeth and esthetic impairment after the end of growth following traumatic injuries to incisors and periodontal tissues during childhood. 41 patients having sustained dentoalveolar trauma before age 10 and who were now at least aged 16 years, and a total of 68 traumatized teeth were documented by clinical examination, dental casts and photographs. We determined the three-dimensional position of the traumatized teeth on the casts, as well as the traumatized teeth's pulp sensibility, percussive sound and sensitivity, shape and color. 82% of the traumatized teeth were in the upper dentition. 45% of the traumatized teeth experienced subluxation, nearly 30% luxation, 16% avulsion. At the time of the follow-up examination (mean 17.0 years post-trauma), 57% of the traumatized teeth were still in situ. Immediately after trauma 7.4% of the teeth were lost; up to 16 years post-trauma 35.6% of the teeth were lost because of failed root canal filling, root resorption or ankylosis. We observed no functional deviations. Dentoalveolar growth disturbances were rare. Three teeth were markedly discolored. Following dentoalveolar trauma during childhood, negative effects on growth, function and esthetics can be minimized by timely interdisciplinary treatment and by follow-up controls until the end of growth to achieve an outcome satisfying both the patient and clinician.

  15. Effects of pentoxifylline on some peripheral blood parameters and haemostasis in acute pulmonary tissue injury after cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowska, M; Musiatowicz, B; Sulkowski, S; Giedrojć, J; Sulik, M; Jakubowski, A; Terlikowski, S; Pasztaleniec, L; Baltaziak, M; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M

    1997-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used cytostatic drugs, with a strong toxic influence on pulmonary tissue. Experimental works have shown that a single high dose of CP causes injury to all elements of the interalveolar septum, especially to the alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pentoxifylline (PTXF) (30 mg/kg b.w.) on the ultrastructure of lungs capillaries and blood cell count as well as plasma fibrinogen levels in Wistar rats after intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/b.w. CP. We established that in the doses applied PTXF had no statistically significant influence on the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes determined in the left ventricular blood of rats receiving CP, while the number of white cells from animals given PTXF only was higher than in controls. There was a smaller decrease in the number of platelets (p < 0.05) and smaller reduction in fibrinogen level (p < 0.01) in the serum of PTXF-CP animals than in the CP group. The results obtained suggest a protective effect of PTXF on CP induced changes, which have been evidenced in some of the parameters examined. Ultrastructural examinations found the lungs to be the organ of extramedullary thrombocytopoiesis in CP-treated animals and revealed that platelet accumulation in the system of lung capillaries was a potential cause of the decrease observed in the number of blood platelets following CP administration.

  16. The soft tissue landmarks to avoid injury to the facial artery during filler and neurotoxin injection at the nasolabial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumyoo, Thirawass; Tansatit, Tanvaa; Rachkeaw, Natthida

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the course of the facial artery and to propose "the danger line" vulnerable to vascular complications following filler injection. The entire facial soft tissues were harvested from 14 Thai soft embalmed cadavers as a facial flap specimen. Measurements of the distance, the depth, and the diameter of the facial artery were done at level of the oral commissure and the nasal ala. The distance between the facial artery and the oral commissure was 15.3 ± 3.7 mm and the depth from the skin was 11.1 ± 3.1 mm. The distance between the facial artery and the nasal ala was 6.7 ± 4.4 mm and the depth was 11.6 ± 3.7 mm. The diameters of the facial artery at level of the oral commissure and the nasal ala were 2.6 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Maximum risk of arterial complication from dermal filler injection lateral to the oral commissure is located approximately 15 mm at the depth of 11 mm. High risk of arterial injury at the lateral nasal ala is located at 7 mm with the depth of 12 mm.

  17. Melatonin exerts a more potent effect than S-adenosyl-l-methionine against iron metabolism disturbances, oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Túnez, Isaac; Herencia, Carmen; Ranchal, Isidora; González, Raúl; Ramírez, Luz M; Arjona, Alvaro; Barcos, Montserrat; Espejo, Isabel; Cruz, Adolfo; Montilla, Pedro; Padillo, Francisco J; Muntané, Jordi

    2008-07-30

    Melatonin and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) prevent oxidative stress and tissue dysfunction in obstructive jaundice (OJ). Lipid peroxidation is exacerbated in the presence of trace amounts of iron (Fe). The study investigated the regulation by melatonin and SAMe the induction of oxidative stress, iron metabolism disturbances and tissue injury in an experimental model of OJ. Different parameters of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, tissue injury and Fe metabolism were determined in liver and blood. OJ induced Fe accumulation in liver, and increased transferrin (Tf) saturation and loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin, and SAMe at lesser extent, enhanced protein Tf content in liver and blood, that reduced loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin and SAMe did not affect ferritin (FT) and Tf mRNA expression, but reduced Tf receptor (TfR) mRNA expression in liver. In conclusion, the effect of melatonin and SAMe on Fe metabolism may be included in the beneficial properties of these agents on lipid peroxidation and tissue injury induced by OJ.

  18. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins.

  19. Explaining clinical effects of deep brain stimulation through simplified target-specific modeling of the volume of activated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädler, B; Coenen, V A

    2012-06-01

    Although progress has been made in understanding the optimal anatomic structures as target areas for DBS, little effort has been put into modeling and predicting electromagnetic field properties of activated DBS electrodes and understanding their interactions with the adjacent tissue. Currently, DBS is performed with the patient awake to assess the effectiveness and the side effect spectrum of stimulation. This study was designed to create a robust and rather simple numeric and visual tool that provides sufficient and practical relevant information to visualize the patient's individual VAT. Multivariate polynomial fitting of previously obtained data from a finite-element model, based on a similar DBS system, was used. The model estimates VAT as a first-approximation sphere around the active DBS contact, using stimulation voltages and individual tissue-electrode impedances. Validation uses data from 2 patients with PD by MR imaging, DTI, fiber tractography, and postoperative CT data. Our model can predict VAT for impedances between 500 and 2000 Ω with stimulation voltages up to 10 V. It is based on assumptions for monopolar DBS. Evaluation of 2 DBS cases showed a convincing correspondence between predicted VAT and neurologic (side) effects (internal capsule activation). Stimulation effects during DBS can be readily explained with this simple VAT model. Its implementation in daily clinical routine might help in understanding the types of tissues activated during DBS. This technique might have the potential to facilitate DBS implantations with the patient under general anesthesia while yielding acceptable clinical effectiveness.

  20. High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoop, Shajith; Misra, Anoop; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Gulati, Seema; Mahajan, Harsh; Prabakaran, Gokulraj

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n = 81; BMI skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume)). Plasma glucose and glucagon, serum insulin, hepatic transaminases, and lipid profile were measured. Significantly higher levels of fasting and postprandial glucagon (p skinfold thickness, IPAT, and deep SCAT (p < 0.05; r(2) = 0.84). These observations in Asian Indians may have significance for diabetes therapies which impact glucagon levels.

  1. Comparison of Deep Tissue Massage and Therapeutic Massage for Lower Back Pain, Disease Activity, and Functional Capacity of Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wojciech Romanowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of deep tissue massage (DTM and therapeutic massage (TM in the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS patients. Materials and Methods. This was a small, randomized clinical pilot study. Subjects were 27 men with diagnosed AS, randomly assigned to DTM group or TM group. Subjects in each group had 10 sessions of massage. Outcomes included the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI, Modified Schober Test, Finger to Floor Test, chest expansion, and pain intensity of lower back. Results. There are no statistical significant differences between groups, except for BASDAI and pain intensity of lower back. Conclusions. This study suggests that massage may have clinical benefits for treating ankylosing spondylitis patients. Additional scientific research in this area is warranted.

  2. Comparison of Deep Tissue Massage and Therapeutic Massage for Lower Back Pain, Disease Activity, and Functional Capacity of Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špiritović, Maja; Dudek, Adrian; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to compare the effectiveness of deep tissue massage (DTM) and therapeutic massage (TM) in the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Materials and Methods This was a small, randomized clinical pilot study. Subjects were 27 men with diagnosed AS, randomly assigned to DTM group or TM group. Subjects in each group had 10 sessions of massage. Outcomes included the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Modified Schober Test, Finger to Floor Test, chest expansion, and pain intensity of lower back. Results There are no statistical significant differences between groups, except for BASDAI and pain intensity of lower back. Conclusions This study suggests that massage may have clinical benefits for treating ankylosing spondylitis patients. Additional scientific research in this area is warranted. PMID:28845185

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbatur, Meral Erdal; Sezen, Şaban Cem; Bayraktar, Aslıhan Cavunt; Arslan, Mustafa; Kavutçu, Mustafa; Aydın, Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine – administered before ischemia – has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods: After obtaining ethical committee approval, four study groups each containing six rats were created (Control (Group C), diabetes-control (Group DM-C), diabetes I/R (Group DM-I/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (Group DM-I/R-D). In diabetes groups, single-dose (55 mg/kg) streptozotocin was administered intraperitoneally. Rats with a blood glucose level above 250 mg/dl at the 72nd hour were accepted as diabetic. At the end of four weeks, laparotomy was performed in all rats. Nothing else was done in Group C and DM-C. In Group DM-I/R, ischemia reperfusion was produced via two-hour periods of clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta. In Group DM-I/R-D, 100 μg/kg dexmedetomidine was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before ischemia period. At the end of reperfusion, period biochemical and histopathological evaluation of renal tissue specimen were performed. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathion S transferase (GST) levels were found significantly higher in Group DM-I/R when compared with Group C and Group DM-C. In the dexmedetomidine-treated group, TBARS, NOS, CAT, and GST levels were significantly lower than those measured in the Group D-I/R. In histopathological evaluation, glomerular vacuolization (GV), tubular dilatation (TD), vascular vacuolization and hypertrophy (VVH), tubular cell degeneration and necrosis (TCDN), tubular hyaline cylinder (THC), leucocyte infiltration (LI), and tubular cell spillage (TCS) in Group DM-I/R were significantly increased when compared with the control group

  4. Doxycycline treatment in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia reduces cerebral tissue and white matter injury: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerøe, Marius; Havnes, Marianne B; Morken, Tora Sund; Skranes, Jon; Goa, Pål-Erik; Brubakk, Ann-Mari

    2012-07-01

    Doxycycline may potentially be a neuroprotective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury through its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine any long-term neuroprotection by doxycycline treatment on cerebral gray and white matter. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury was induced in 7-day-old rats. Pups were treated with either doxycycline (HI+doxy) or saline (HI+vehicle) by intraperitoneal injection at 1 h after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). At 6 h after HI, MnCl(2) was injected intraperitoneally for later manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was performed with diffusion-weighted imaging on day 1 and T(1) -weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging at 7, 21 and 42 days after HI. Animals were killed after MRI on day 42 and histological examinations of the brains were performed. There was a tendency towards lower lesion volumes on diffusion maps among HI+doxy than HI+vehicle rats at 1 day after HI. Volumetric MRI showed increasing differences between groups with time after HI, with less cyst formation and less cerebral tissue loss among HI+doxy than HI+vehicle pups. HI+doxy pups had less manganese enhancement on day 7 after HI, indicating reduced inflammation. HI+doxy pups had higher fractional anisotropy on diffusion tensor imaging in major white matter tracts in the injured hemisphere than HI+vehicle pups, indicating less injury to white matter and better myelination. Histological examinations supported the MRI results. Lesion size on early MRI was highly correlated with final injury measures. In conclusion, a single dose of doxycycline reduced long-term cerebral tissue loss and white matter injury after neonatal HI, with an increasing effect of treatment with time after injury. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Deep-Tissue Anatomical Imaging of Mice Using Carbon Nanotube Fluorophores in the Second Near Infrared Window

    CERN Document Server

    Welsher, Kevin; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR II, 1-1.4 {\\mu}m) holds much promise due to minimal autofluorescence and tissue scattering. Here, using well functionalized biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as NIR II fluorescent imaging agents, we performed high frame rate video imaging of mice during intravenous injection of SWNTs and investigated the path of SWNTs through the mouse anatomy. We observed in real-time SWNT circulation through the lungs and kidneys several seconds post-injection, and spleen and liver at slightly later time points. Dynamic contrast enhanced imaging through principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and found to greatly increase the anatomical resolution of organs as a function of time post-injection. Importantly, PCA was able to discriminate organs such as the pancreas which could not be resolved from real-time raw images. Tissue phantom studies were performed to compare imaging in the NIR II region to the traditional NIR I biological transpar...

  6. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Castiglioni; Gianfranca Corna; Elena Rigamonti; Veronica Basso; Michela Vezzoli; Antonella Monno; Almada, Albert E; Anna Mondino; Wagers, Amy J.; Angelo A. Manfredi; Patrizia Rovere-Querini

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the musc...

  7. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [Department of Radiology, Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  9. Brain tissue oxygen-based therapy and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangunoori, Raj; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Stiefel, Michael; Park, Soojin; Andrew Kofke, W; Levine, Joshua M; Yang, Wei; Le Roux, Peter D

    2012-08-01

    Observational clinical studies demonstrate that brain hypoxia is associated with poor outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, available medical literature was reviewed to examine whether brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2)-based therapy is associated with improved patient outcome after severe TBI. Clinical studies published between 1993 and 2010 that compared PbtO2-based therapy combined with intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP/CPP)-based therapy to ICP/CPP-based therapy alone were identified from electronic databases, Index Medicus, bibliographies of pertinent articles, and expert consultation. For analysis, each selected paper had to have adequate data to determine odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of outcome described by the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Seven studies that compared ICP/CPP and PbtO2- to ICP/CPP-based therapy were identified. There were no randomized studies and no comparison studies in children. Four studies, published in 2003, 2009, and 2010 that included 491 evaluable patients were used in the final analysis. Among patients who received PbtO2-based therapy, 121(38.8%) had unfavorable and 191 (61.2%) had a favorable outcome. Among the patients who received ICP/CPP-based therapy 104 (58.1%) had unfavorable and 75 (41.9%) had a favorable outcome. Overall PbtO2-based therapy was associated with favorable outcome (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1). Summary results suggest that combined ICP/CPP- and PbtO2-based therapy is associated with better outcome after severe TBI than ICP/CPP-based therapy alone. Cross-organizational practice variances cannot be controlled for in this type of review and so we cannot answer whether PbtO2-based therapy improves outcome. However, the potentially large incremental value of PbtO2-based therapy provides justification for a randomized clinical trial.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress tissue factor overexpression in rat balloon injury model with paclitaxel infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bean Park

    Full Text Available The role and underlying mechanisms of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ agonist, on myocardial infarction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of this PPAR-γ agonist on the expression of tissue factor (TF, a primary molecule for thrombosis, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. The PPAR-γ agonist inhibited TF expression in response to TNF-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocytic leukemia cell line, and human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. The overexpression of TF was mediated by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist. The effective MAPK differed depending on each cell type. Luciferase and ChIP assays showed that transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1, was a pivotal target of the PPAR-γ agonist to lower TF transcription. Intriguingly, two main drugs for drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel or rapamycin, significantly exaggerated thrombin-induced TF expression, which was also effectively blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist in all cell types. This PPAR-γ agonist did not impair TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI in three cell types. In rat balloon injury model (Sprague-Dawley rats, n = 10/group with continuous paclitaxel infusion, the PPAR-γ agonist attenuated TF expression by 70±5% (n = 4; P<0.0001 in injured vasculature. Taken together, rosiglitazone reduced TF expression in three critical cell types involved in vascular thrombus formation via MAPK and AP-1 inhibitions. Also, this PPAR-γ agonist reversed the paclitaxel-induced aggravation of TF expression, which suggests a possibility that the benefits might outweigh its risks in a group of patients with paclitaxel-eluting stent implanted.

  11. Tumour necrosis factor-α inhibition with lenalidomide alleviates tissue oxidative injury and apoptosis in ob/ob obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Shasha; Hu, Nan; Luo, Fuling; Dong, Hailong; Kang, Yu-Ming; Jones, Kyla R; Zou, Yunzeng; Xiong, Lize; Ren, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Lenalidomide (Revlimid; Selleck Chemicals, Houston, TX, USA), an analogue of thalidomide, possesses potent cytokine modulatory capacity through inhibition of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a cytokine pivotal for the onset and development of complications in obesity and diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of lenalidomide on oxidative stress, protein and DNA damage in multiple organs in an ob/ob murine model of obesity. To this end, C57BL/6 lean and ob/ob obese mice were administered lenalidomide (50 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 5 days. Oxidative stress, protein and DNA damage were assessed using the conversion of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), carbonyl formation and Comet assay, respectively. Apoptosis was evaluated using caspase 3 activity, and levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Bip, caspase 8, caspase 9 and TNF-α were assessed using western blot analysis. Lenalidomide treatment did not affect glucose clearance in lean or ob/ob mice. Obese mice exhibited a reduced GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, gastrocnemius skeletal muscle and small intestine, as well as enhanced protein carbonyl formation, DNA damage and caspase 3 activity in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and intestine; these effects were alleviated by lenalidomide, with the exception of obesity-associated DNA damage in the liver and kidney. Western blot analysis revealed elevated TNF-α, Bax, Bcl-2, Bip, caspase 8 and caspase 9 in ob/ob mice with various degrees of reversal by lenalidomide treatment. Together, these data indicate that lenalidomide protects against obesity-induced tissue injury and protein damage, possibly in association with antagonism of cytokine production and cytokine-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  12. The first report of luminescent liver tissue in fishes: evolution and structure of bioluminescent organs in the deep-sea naked barracudinas (Aulopiformes: Lestidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J; Barton, Ryan W; Simons, Andrew M; Davis, Matthew P

    2015-03-01

    Bioluminescent organs that provide ventral camouflage are common among fishes in the meso-bathypelagic zones of the deep sea. However, the anatomical structures that have been modified to produce light vary substantially among different groups of fishes. Although the anatomical structure and evolutionary derivation of some of these organs have been well studied, the light organs of the naked barracudinas have received little scientific attention. This study describes the anatomy and evolution of bioluminescent organs in the Lestidiidae (naked barracudinas) in the context of a new phylogeny of barracudinas and closely related alepisauroid fishes. Gross and histological examination of bioluminescent organs or homologous structures from preserved museum specimens indicate that the ventral light organ is derived from hepatopancreatic tissue and that the antorbital spot in Lestrolepis is, in fact, a second dermal light organ. In the context of the phylogeny generated from DNA-sequence data from eight gene fragments (7 nuclear and 1 mitochondrial), a complex liver with a narrow ventral strand running along the ventral midline evolves first in the Lestidiidae. The ventral hepatopancreatic tissue later evolves into a ventral bioluminescent organ in the ancestor of Lestidium and Lestrolepis with the lineage leading to the genus Lestrolepis evolving a dermal antorbital bioluminescent organ, likely for light-intensity matching. This is the first described hepatopancreatic bioluminescent organ in fishes.

  13. Trans-syndesmotic fibular plating for fractures of the distal tibia and fibula with medial soft tissue injury: report of 6 cases and description of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciadini, Marcus F; Manson, Theodore T; Shah, Swapnil B

    2013-03-01

    This report presents a retrospective review of several cases of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula with significant injury to the medial soft tissues treated either primarily or in staged fashion with fixed-angle trans-syndesmotic fixation. This fixation strategy was used in an effort to minimize further surgical trauma and implant load in the zone of soft tissue injury. Ten patients were identified between September 2002 and November 2010 who presented to a level I trauma center with fractures of the distal tibia and fibula associated with open medial wounds (9 patients) or extensive closed medial degloving injury (1 patient). They were all treated with trans-syndesmotic plating of the distal fibula. Two patients were lost to follow-up after initial treatment, and an additional 2 patients had follow-up durations of only 6.5 and 3 months, respectively. This left 6 patients with an average of 23.3 months of follow-up (range: 14-36 months). Radiographs and medical records were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic results were evaluated. All 6 patients had radiographic evidence of bony healing and had resumed weight bearing. Two patients required additional bone graft surgery to encourage healing, 1 of whom also required free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair. One patient resumed weight bearing earlier than instructed and experienced mild but acceptable loss of reduction. No patients developed wound infections of either the medial traumatic or lateral surgical wounds, although, as noted above, 1 of the patients with a nonunion required medial free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair because of incompetent medial soft tissues. Trans-syndesmotic fixation has previously been described as providing enhanced fixation of diabetic and osteoporotic ankle fractures but has not, to our knowledge, been described for the treatment of higher energy traumatic injuries. Specifically, the valgus distal tibial fracture, frequently associated

  14. Multifidus Muscle Changes After Back Injury Are Characterized by Structural Remodeling of Muscle, Adipose and Connective Tissue, but Not Muscle Atrophy: Molecular and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; James, Gregory; Blomster, Linda; Hall, Leanne; Schmid, Annina; Shu, Cindy; Little, Chris; Melrose, James

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal case-controlled animal study. To investigate putative cellular mechanisms to explain structural changes in muscle and adipose and connective tissues of the back muscles after intervertebral disc (IVD) injury. Structural back muscle changes are ubiquitous with back pain/injury and considered relevant for outcome, but their exact nature, time course, and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. We used an animal model that produces phenotypic back muscle changes after IVD injury to study these issues at the cellular/molecular level. Multifidus muscle was harvested from both sides of the spine at L1-L2 and L3-L4 IVDs in 27 castrated male sheep at 3 (n = 10) or 6 (n = 17) months after a surgical anterolateral IVD injury at both levels. Ten control sheep underwent no surgery (3 mo, n = 4; 6 mo, n = 6). Tissue was harvested at L4 for histological analysis of cross-sectional area of muscle and adipose and connective tissue (whole muscle), plus immunohistochemistry to identify proportion and cross-sectional area of individual muscle fiber types in the deepest fascicle. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measured gene expression of typical cytokines/signaling molecules at L2. Contrary to predictions, there was no multifidus muscle atrophy (whole muscle or individual fiber). There was increased adipose and connective tissue (fibrotic proliferation) cross-sectional area and slow-to-fast muscle fiber transition at 6 but not 3 months. Within the multifidus muscle, increases in the expression of several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) and molecules that signal trophic/atrophic processes for the 3 tissue types (e.g., growth factor pathway [IGF-1, PI3k, Akt1, mTOR], potent tissue modifiers [calcineurin, PCG-1α, and myostatin]) were present. This study provides cellular evidence that refutes the presence of multifidus muscle atrophy accompanying IVD degeneration at this intermediate time point. Instead, adipose/connective tissue increased in

  15. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks. The foot may also become overly sweaty. Treatment consists primarily of the following ... give antibiotics to prevent infection. A tetanus booster is given if the person’s tetanus vaccination ...

  16. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffuse brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qi; Huang Ping; Xing Bo; Tuo Ya; Zhang Yongpan; Tian Weiping; Wang Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamics of the level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum following the diffuse brain injury in rats and provide the experimental evidences for estimating injury time. Methods ELISA was used to determine whether S100 protein is changed after diffuse brain injury in rats. Forty rats were sacrificed at 0.5 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 d and 7 d after diffuse brain injury and normal rats as control. Results The level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum increased, followed by a decrease, and then further increased. The level of S100 could be detected to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 4 hours after DBI. The level decreased gradually to the normal at 1d and till 3 d formed the second peak. The level returned to the normal at 7d following injury again. In the postmortem injury groups, there were no significant changes compared to the control group. Conclusion The present study showed that the time-dependent expression of S100 is obvious following diffuse brain injury in rats and suggested that S100 will be a suitable marker for diffuse brain injury age determination.

  17. Estimated Tissue and Blood N(2) Levels and Risk of Decompression Sickness in Deep-, Intermediate-, and Shallow-Diving Toothed Whales during Exposure to Naval Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvadsheim, P H; Miller, P J O; Tyack, P L; Sivle, L D; Lam, F P A; Fahlman, A

    2012-01-01

    Naval sonar has been accused of causing whale stranding by a mechanism which increases formation of tissue N(2) gas bubbles. Increased tissue and blood N(2) levels, and thereby increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS), is thought to result from changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving. Previous theoretical studies have used hypothetical sonar-induced changes in both behavior and physiology to model blood and tissue N(2) tension [Formula: see text], but this is the first attempt to estimate the changes during actual behavioral responses to sonar. We used an existing mathematical model to estimate blood and tissue N(2) tension [Formula: see text] from dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked, and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to Low- (1-2 kHz) and Mid- (2-7 kHz) frequency active sonar. Our objectives were: (1) to determine if differences in dive behavior affects risk of bubble formation, and if (2) behavioral- or (3) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors. Our results suggest that all species have natural high N(2) levels, with deep diving generally resulting in higher end-dive [Formula: see text] as compared with shallow diving. Sonar exposure caused some changes in dive behavior in both killer whales, pilot whales and beaked whales, but this did not lead to any increased risk of DCS. However, in three of eight exposure session with sperm whales, the animal changed to shallower diving, and in all these cases this seem to result in an increased risk of DCS, although risk was still within the normal risk range of this species. When a hypothetical removal of the normal dive response (bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction), was added to the behavioral response during model simulations, this led to an increased variance in the estimated end-dive N(2) levels, but no consistent change of risk. In conclusion, we cannot rule out the possibility that a combination

  18. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  19. CHANGES OF NITRIC OXIDE LEVEL IN BRAIN TISSUES AFTER EXPERIMENTAL FOCAL INJURY%实验性颅脑损伤后脑组织NO的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 袁先厚; 袁忠惠

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of nitric oxide (NO) level and its relationship with brain edema in acutebrain injury.Methods After acute brain injury model was produced by free dropping of rats,brain tissues were obtained andits water concentration,Ca2 + and NO were measured.Results After brain injury,the water content,NO level and Ca2 + wereall increased.The peak levels of Ca2+ and NO emerged 4 hours and 8 hours after the injury respectively,and the increasing ofCa2 + tended to last for a longer time.Tests showed that No concentration was positively correlated with the water content inbrain tissues.Conclusion NO is involved in the occurrence of brain edema after acute brain injury.%目的探讨脑损伤后急性期局部一氧化氮(NO)含量变化及其与脑水肿的关系。方法采用自由落体法制造大鼠脑损伤后,于相应时间点取出脑组织测定其含水量、NO及Ca2+浓度。结果在损伤后急性期脑组织含水量、NO及Ca2+含量均升高,其中Ca2+浓度和NO含量分别于损伤后4h、8h达高峰,且Ca2+升高趋势持续时间长。经检验,NO含量与脑组织含水量呈正相关。结论 NO在脑损伤急性期参与了脑水肿的发生过程。

  20. The Effect Of Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure on Traumatic Brain Injury and Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Variable Aortic Control in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure On Traumatic Brain Injury And Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion Of The Aorta And Variable Aortic...Mandatory) The Effect of REBOA, Partial Aortic Occlusion and Aggressive Blood Transfusion on Traumatic Brain Injury in a Swine Polytrauma Model...Objectives: Despite clinical reports of poor outcomes, the degree to which REBOA exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. We hypothesized that

  1. Image processing and 3D visualization in the interpretation of patterned injury of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1995-09-01

    The use of image processing is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of violent crime. While much work has been done in the use of these techniques for forensic purposes outside of forensic pathology, its use in the pathologic examination of wounding has been limited. We are investigating the use of image processing in the analysis of patterned injuries and tissue damage. Our interests are currently concentrated on 1) the use of image processing techniques to aid the investigator in observing and evaluating patterned injuries in photographs, 2) measurement of the 3D shape characteristics of surface lesions, and 3) correlation of patterned injuries with deep tissue injury as a problem in 3D visualization. We are beginning investigations in data-acquisition problems for performing 3D scene reconstructions from the pathology perspective of correlating tissue injury to scene features and trace evidence localization. Our primary tool for correlation of surface injuries with deep tissue injuries has been the comparison of processed surface injury photographs with 3D reconstructions from antemortem CT and MRI data. We have developed a prototype robot for the acquisition of 3D wound and scene data.

  2. Effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2007-07-01

    Overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of Chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees C, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. We reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the Saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern Japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. However, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. We compared the extent of tissue damage, accumulation of glycerol, and transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues between cold-acclimated and non-acclimated non-diapausing and diapausing larvae. The tissue from cold-acclimated diapausing larvae could survive only when frozen in Grace's insect medium with 0.25 M glycerol at -20 degrees C. The protection provided by glycerol was offset by mercuric chloride, which is a water-channel inhibitor. Fat body tissue isolated from non-acclimated diapausing larvae was injured by freezing even though glycerol was added to the medium, but the level of freezing injury was significantly lower than in non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays in cold-acclimated diapausing larvae showed that during freezing, water left the cells into the medium and glycerol entered the cells from the medium at the same time. Therefore, in Saigoku ecotype larvae of the rice stem borer, both diapause and cold-acclimation are essential to accumulate glycerol and activate aquaporin for the avoidance of freezing injury.

  3. Palifermin for the protection and regeneration of epithelial tissues following injury: new findings in basic research and pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Paul W; Mark Cross, Lawrence J; McAuley, Daniel F; Farrell, Catherine L

    2013-09-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a paracrine-acting epithelial mitogen produced by cells of mesenchymal origin, that plays an important role in protecting and repairing epithelial tissues. Pre-clinical data initially demonstrated that a recombinant truncated KGF (palifermin) could reduce gastrointestinal injury and mortality resulting from a variety of toxic exposures. Furthermore, the use of palifermin in patients with hematological malignancies reduced the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis experienced after intensive chemoradiotherapy. Based upon these findings, as well as the observation that KGF receptors are expressed in many, if not all, epithelial tissues, pre-clinical studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of palifermin in protecting different epithelial tissues from toxic injury in an attempt to model various clinical situations in which it might prove to be of benefit in limiting tissue damage. In this article, we review these studies to provide the pre-clinical background for clinical trials that are described in the accompanying article and the rationale for additional clinical applications of palifermin.

  4. Ultra-deep sequencing detects ovarian cancer cells in peritoneal fluid and reveals somatic TP53 mutations in noncancerous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Michael W; Harrell, Maria I; Agnew, Kathy J; Kennedy, Scott R; Emond, Mary J; Loeb, Lawrence A; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Risques, Rosa Ana

    2016-05-24

    Current sequencing methods are error-prone, which precludes the identification of low frequency mutations for early cancer detection. Duplex sequencing is a sequencing technology that decreases errors by scoring mutations present only in both strands of DNA. Our aim was to determine whether duplex sequencing could detect extremely rare cancer cells present in peritoneal fluid from women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). These aggressive cancers are typically diagnosed at a late stage and are characterized by TP53 mutations and peritoneal dissemination. We used duplex sequencing to analyze TP53 mutations in 17 peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC and 20 from women without cancer. The tumor TP53 mutation was detected in 94% (16/17) of peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC (frequency as low as 1 mutant per 24,736 normal genomes). Additionally, we detected extremely low frequency TP53 mutations (median mutant fraction 1/13,139) in peritoneal fluid from nearly all patients with and without cancer (35/37). These mutations were mostly deleterious, clustered in hotspots, increased with age, and were more abundant in women with cancer than in controls. The total burden of TP53 mutations in peritoneal fluid distinguished cancers from controls with 82% sensitivity (14/17) and 90% specificity (18/20). Age-associated, low frequency TP53 mutations were also found in 100% of peripheral blood samples from 15 women with and without ovarian cancer (none with hematologic disorder). Our results demonstrate the ability of duplex sequencing to detect rare cancer cells and provide evidence of widespread, low frequency, age-associated somatic TP53 mutation in noncancerous tissue.

  5. Deep Sequencing Reveals Novel Genetic Variants in Children with Acute Liver Failure and Tissue Evidence of Impaired Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, C Alexander; Wang, Xinjian; Wang, Jin; Peters, Anna; Simmons, Julia R; Moran, Molly C; Mathur, Abhinav; Husami, Ammar; Qian, Yaping; Sheridan, Rachel; Bove, Kevin E; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Miethke, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) remains elusive in almost half of affected children. We hypothesized that inherited mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation disorders were occult etiological factors in patients with idiopathic ALF and impaired energy metabolism. Twelve patients with elevated blood molar lactate/pyruvate ratio and indeterminate etiology were selected from a retrospective cohort of 74 subjects with ALF because their fixed and frozen liver samples were available for histological, ultrastructural, molecular and biochemical analysis. A customized next-generation sequencing panel for 26 genes associated with mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation defects revealed mutations and sequence variants in five subjects. Variants involved the genes ACAD9, POLG, POLG2, DGUOK, and RRM2B; the latter not previously reported in subjects with ALF. The explanted livers of the patients with heterozygous, truncating insertion mutations in RRM2B showed patchy micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content <30% of controls, and reduced respiratory chain complex activity; both patients had good post-transplant outcome. One infant with severe lactic acidosis was found to carry two heterozygous variants in ACAD9, which was associated with isolated complex I deficiency and diffuse hypergranular hepatocytes. The two subjects with heterozygous variants of unknown clinical significance in POLG and DGUOK developed ALF following drug exposure. Their hepatocytes displayed abnormal mitochondria by electron microscopy. Targeted next generation sequencing and correlation with histological, ultrastructural and functional studies on liver tissue in children with elevated lactate/pyruvate ratio expand the spectrum of genes associated with pediatric ALF.

  6. Mechanical Tissue Resuscitation Treatment Reduces Brain Tissue Volume and Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Increases Blood Perfusion in a Traumatic Brain Injury Model in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    extremities.(Covey, 2006; Geiger, 2008; Leininger , 2006) It is also used to successfully treat injuries associated with high energy trauma...case report and the role of vacuum-assisted wound closure dressing. J Orthop Trauma 19:748- 50. Leininger BE, Rasmussen TE, Smith DL, Jenkins DH

  7. The use of beta-tricalcium phosphate and bovine bone matrix in the guided tissue regeneration treatment of deep infra-bony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Natalija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The primary goal of bone regeneration procedures with application of various regenerative biologic agents and biomaterials is to facilitate the formation of periodontal tissues lost as a result of periodontitis. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare clinical outcome of the guided tissue regeneration (GTR treatment with the use of β-tricalcium phosphate and with bovine bone matrix in human deep intra-osseous defects. Methods. Twenty-one systemically healthy subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis, between 30 and 56 years of age, 11 females and 10 males, were selected. Patients having two similar inter-proximal defects with pocket probing depths following initial therapy greater than 5 mm were recruited for the study. Experimental sites were grafted with pure β-tricalcium phosphate biomaterial (Cerasorb® and a biomembrane, while control sites were treated with bovine-bone hydroxiapatite xenograft (Bio-oss® and a biomembrane. Immediately before surgery and 12 months after surgery, pocket probing depth (PPD, epithelial attachment level (EAL and gingival recession (GR were evaluated. Results. In the experimental group PPD amounted to 6.76±0.83 mm before surgery, and decreased significantly to 2.67±0.48 mm 12 months following surgery, while in the control group PPD significantly decreased from 7.14±0.65 mm presurgically to 2.85±0.57 mm postsurgically. After one year, EAL gain was 2.76±0.99 mm in the experimental group, and 3.24±0.16 mm in the control group. After twelve months postoperatively GR amounted to 1.33±0.79 mm in the experimental group and to 1.05±0.80 mm in the control group. No statistically significant differences for PPD reduction, EAL gain and GR increase were detected between the groups. Conclusion. Results from the present study indicate that GTR treatment of deep intra-osseous defects with Bio-oss® and Cerasorb® resulted in clinically and statistically significant improvement of EAL gain

  8. Body-on-a-chip simulation with gastrointestinal tract and liver tissues suggests that ingested nanoparticles have the potential to cause liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Mandy B; Mahler, Gretchen J; Stokol, Tracy; Shuler, Michael L

    2014-08-21

    The use of nanoparticles in medical applications is highly anticipated, and at the same time little is known about how these nanoparticles affect human tissues. Here we have simulated the oral uptake of 50 nm carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles with a microscale body-on-a-chip system (also referred to as multi-tissue microphysiological system or micro Cell Culture Analog). Using the 'GI tract-liver-other tissues' system allowed us to observe compounding effects and detect liver tissue injury at lower nanoparticle concentrations than was expected from experiments with single tissues. To construct this system, we combined in vitro models of the human intestinal epithelium, represented by a co-culture of enterocytes (Caco-2) and mucin-producing cells (TH29-MTX), and the liver, represented by HepG2/C3A cells, within one microfluidic device. The device also contained chambers that together represented the liquid portions of all other organs of the human body. Measuring the transport of 50 nm carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles across the Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture, we found that this multi-cell layer presents an effective barrier to 90.5 ± 2.9% of the nanoparticles. Further, our simulation suggests that a larger fraction of the 9.5 ± 2.9% nanoparticles that travelled across the Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell layer were not large nanoparticle aggregates, but primarily single nanoparticles and small aggregates. After crossing the GI tract epithelium, nanoparticles that were administered in high doses estimated in terms of possible daily human consumption (240 and 480 × 10(11) nanoparticles mL(-1)) induced the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), an intracellular enzyme of the liver that indicates liver cell injury. Our results indicate that body-on-a-chip devices are highly relevant in vitro models for evaluating nanoparticle interactions with human tissues.

  9. Systemic biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation, tissue injury and repair in COPD patients with differing levels of disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A Cockayne

    inflammatory pathways, neutrophil activation and epithelial tissue injury/repair processes as key pathways associated with COPD.

  10. Humeral remodeling and soft tissue injury of the wings caused by backpack harnesses for radio transmitters in New Zealand Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Sarah; Gartrell, Brett; Hunter, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Backpack harnesses are commonly used to attach radio and satellite transmitters to a wide range of bird species for research and conservation management. They are an integral part of the conservation management of the New Zealand Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri), an endangered flightless rail. Radio transmitters mounted on backpack harnesses enable the birds to be tracked in their remaining native range of remote, mountainous Fiordland, New Zealand. We evaluated 26 Takahē retrospectively at necropsy by gross examination, radiography, and computed tomography to assess damage from the backpack harness. Ten birds that had never worn a harness had no evidence of wing injury. Of the 16 birds that had worn a harness, 10 (63%) had superficial soft tissue injury to skin or patagium or more severe injury, such as remodeling of the distal humerus at the harness cord-wing interface, or pathologic fractures. Such injuries are hypothesized to be associated with discomfort, increased risk of infection or fracture, and therefore reduced fitness. These findings have implications for all avian species deployed with backpack harnesses.

  11. The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future.

  12. The diagnostic value of low-field MRI on soft tissue Injury%低场磁共振对软组织损伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建荣; 毛小明; 赵峰; 王国松; 顾利勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value and clinical significance of Low-field MRI on tissue injury. Methods:36 patients with soft tissue injury in different parts receive MRI. The examination time was 2 h~5 d after injuring,MR regular examinations included T1WI, T2WI, FS-T2 WI (Fat-suppression, FS) , and observed the MR hehaviors of soft tissue injury. Results: Within 36 cases, there were 8 cases of musculus quadriceps injury , including 2 cases of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 4 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 6 cases of triceps muscle of calf injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 3 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 5 cases of popliteus muscle injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 2 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 7 cases of knee ti(bi)al collateral ligament injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 4 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 4 cases of posterior cruciate ligament injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 1 case of Ⅰ degree injury ; 6 cases of anterior cruciate ligament injury, including 2 cases of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 2 cases of Ⅰ degree injury. The behavior of MR was divided into Ⅰ ~ Ⅲ degrees, Ⅰ degree was tension injury and there were 16 cases, Ⅱ degree was partial-thickness tear and there were 12 cases, Ⅲ degree was full-thickness tear and there were 8 cases. Conclusion:MR has a higher application value on the diagnosis of muscle and tendon ligaments injury.%目的:评价低场磁共振对组织损伤的诊断价值和临床意义.方法:36例不同部位软组织损伤患者接受MR(为外伤后2h~5天)检查,包括TWI、TWI、FS-TWI(脂肪抑制序列),观察软组织损伤的MR表现.结果:36例中股四头肌Ⅲ度损伤2例,Ⅱ度损伤2例,Ⅰ度4例;小腿三头肌Ⅲ度损伤1例,Ⅱ度2例,Ⅰ度3例;胭肌Ⅲ度损伤1

  13. Association between serum tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels and mortality in patients with severe brain trauma injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; López, Patricia; Ramos, Luis; Blanquer, José; Cáceres, Juan J; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Solera, Jorge; Cabrera, Judith; Argueso, Mónica; Ortiz, Raquel; Mora, María L; Lubillo, Santiago; Jiménez, Alejandro; Borreguero-León, Juan M; González, Agustín; Orbe, Josune; Rodríguez, José A; Páramo, José A

    2014-01-01

    ...) play a role in neuroinflammation after brain trauma injury (TBI). Previous studies with small sample size have reported higher circulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in patients with TBI, but no association between those levels and mortality...

  14. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    than abstracts): PaperReceived TOTAL: Books Number of Manuscripts: PaperReceived TOTAL: Patents Submitted Patents Awarded Awards no additional honors... Biomechanics of traumatic brain injury. Computational methods in applied mechanics and engineering 2008;197:4692-4701. [14] Halabieh O, Wan JWL...Simulating Mechanism of Brain Injury During Closed Head Impact. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 5104/2008. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg; 2008. p 107

  15. Marine stingray injuries to the extremities: Series of three cases with emphasis on imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S; Bosco, J I E; Lohan, R

    2013-01-01

    Stingray injuries are usually reported from coastal regions. The injury is caused by the tail spine of the stingray, which can penetrate deep into the soft tissues, and the venom in the tail can cause extensive tissue damage. Imaging plays a very important role in patients with stingray injuries, especially to detect the presence of retained foreign bodies and its complications. We present three cases of stingray injuries to the extremities, with a special emphasis on radiographic findings. Embedded foreign bodies that were radiographically visualized were removed in two of the patients (one patient was discharged at request and was lost to follow-up). We also discuss the types of injuries, clinical presentation, importance of imaging and management considerations in stingray injuries.

  16. Marine stingray injuries to the extremities: Series of three cases with emphasis on imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingray injuries are usually reported from coastal regions. The injury is caused by the tail spine of the stingray, which can penetrate deep into the soft tissues, and the venom in the tail can cause extensive tissue damage. Imaging plays a very important role in patients with stingray injuries, especially to detect the presence of retained foreign bodies and its complications. We present three cases of stingray injuries to the extremities, with a special emphasis on radiographic findings. Embedded foreign bodies that were radiographically visualized were removed in two of the patients (one patient was discharged at request and was lost to follow-up. We also discuss the types of injuries, clinical presentation, importance of imaging and management considerations in stingray injuries.

  17. Effect of mild hypothermia on partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue and brain temperature in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 只达石; 林欣; 尚彦国; 牛玉德

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2) and brain temperature (BT) in patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and to study the effect of mild hypothermia on PbtO2 and BT.   Methods: The PbtO2 and the BT of 18 patients with severe head injury were monitored, and the patients were treated with mild hypothermia within 20 hours after injury. The rectal temperature (RT) of the patients was kept on 31.5-34.9℃ for 1-7 days (57.7 hours±28.4 hours averagely), simultaneously, the indexes of PbtO2 and BT were monitored for 1-5 days (with an average of 54.8 hours±27.0 hours). According to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), the prognosis of the patients was evaluated at 6 months after injury.   Results: Within 24 hours after severe head injury, the PbtO2 was significantly lower (9.6 mm Hg±6.8 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) than the normal value (16-40 mm Hg). After treatment of mild hypothermia, the mean PbtO2 increased to 28.7 mm Hg±8.8 mm Hg during the first 24 hours, and the PbtO2 was still maintained within the range of normal value at 3 days after injury. The BT was higher than the RT in the patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and the difference between the BT and the RT significantly increased after treatment of mild hypothermia. Hyperventilation (the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2)≈25 mm Hg) decreased the high intracranial pressure (ICP) and significantly decreased the PbtO2.   Conclusions: This study demonstrates that PptO2 and BT monitoring is a safe, reliable and sensitive diagnostic method to follow cerebral oxygenation. It might become an important tool in our treatment regime for patients in the acute phase of severe head injury requiring hypothermia and hyperventilation.

  18. Plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels as a marker for postoperative bleeding after enoxaparin use in deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in orthopedics and general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, S I; Fareed, J; Hoppensteadt, D A; Abdullah, H; Camblin, J; Nasseri, A F; Hamadeh, O; Wright, T

    2000-10-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are widely used as antithrombotic prophylactic pharmaceutical agents in orthopedic and general surgery. Their antithrombotic characteristics are expressed by plasma mediators such as anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and increased release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) from vascular endothelium. The purpose of this clinical research is to study the relation between plasma levels of these mediators and postoperative bleeding. Forty-one consecutive patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty (n = 36) and colectomy (n = 5) received the standard enoxaparin (a LMWH) dose preoperatively (general surgery) or immediately postoperatively (orthopedic surgery). Major bleeding was defined as a postoperative drop of > or = 5 g/dL) of hemoglobin. The authors observed that there was a linear relationship between an increase in free/total TFPI ratio levels and postoperative bleeding. When that ratio increased by > 60%, the hemoglobin dropped to > 5 g/dL (n = 17). This relationship between free/total TFPI ratio increase and postoperative bleeding was statistically significant (P bleed (hemoglobin drop was less than 5 g/dL) (n = 24) had a ratio increase (if any) of less than 50%. However, the authors did not observe any statistical relationship between anti-Xa, anti-IIa, or prothrombin time and postoperative bleeding in patients receiving LMWH for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in orthopedic and general surgery patients. The authors recommend a pre- and postoperative ratio level measurement whenever major bleeding is anticipated, as adjustments of LMWH dose or frequency might be necessary.

  19. Non-Immunogenic Structurally and Biologically Intact Tissue Matrix Grafts for the Immediate Repair of Ballistic-Induced Vascular and Nerve Tissue Injury in Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    days after surgery. No antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents were given during or following surgery. B. Implantability Nine UVG segments from three...used in both the detergent and enzyme steps of the processing protocol as a prophylactic agent , incubation of the harvested tissue at 370C to optimize...various antibiotics covering a broad spectrum of activity and an antifungal agent . Following procurement, the tissue is shipped and stored in a

  20. 探析针药并用治疗肩部经筋病%Study on Treatment of Acupuncture Combined with Herbs for Shoulder Soft Tissue Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昶; 熊会海; 王瑞红; 王军; 刘赵丽; 廖奕歆; 赵吉平

    2013-01-01

    肩部经筋病常引起肩臂疼痛及活动障碍.本病反复发作,单一治疗难以根治.文章分析了经筋的生理病理,指出治疗肩部经筋病,先以火针点刺、毫针排刺以止痛,次则依据不同证候,分别给予活血化瘀、祛风散寒除湿、补益肝肾中药内服,为针药并用治疗肩部经筋病提供理论依据.%Shoulder pain and movement disorders are common clinical symptoms of shoulder soft tissue injuries. The shoulder soft tissue injuries are usually caused,and hard to be cured. The article analyses the disease physiological of shoulder soft tissue, and suggests that fire needle combined with filiform needle can eliminate pain. Then according to different types, treatment should be to resolve blood stasis,to relieve wind,to disperse cold and eliminate wet,and to strengthen liver and invigorate the kidney. The article provides theory base for this treatment.

  1. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  2. Plastic Surgery for Repairing Facial Soft Tissue Injury%面部软组织损伤的整形美容修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and the application of cosmetic repair of patients with injury of facial soft tissue. Method:130 patients for surgery from February,2012 to December,2013 were selected,high-tech means and minimally invasive techniques was used,and plastic repair of facial soft tissue injury was adopted. Result:The repair effect is ideal with good functional recovery,without infection, hematoma and skin flap necrosis. After 1~12 months follow-up,rehabilitation effect was significant. Conclusion:The facial soft tissue injury of the situation is more complicated,and recovery effect is not ideal by using the traditional plastic method. The new technology and minimally invasive technique for facial repair is used with significant effect.%目的:探讨面部软组织损伤患者整形美容修复效果以及应用方法。方法:我所选取2012年2月至2013年12月间进行整容的130例患者,采用高科技手段与微创技术,进行面部软组织损伤的整形美容修复。结果:修复效果理想,功能恢复良好,且未出现感染、皮瓣坏死以及血肿等情况。随访1~12月后,康复效果显著。结论:面部软组织损伤的情况较为复杂,利用传统整形美容方法恢复效果不理想,我们采用新型科技手段与微创技术进行面部修复,效果显著。

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  4. One Hundred and Eighty-nine Cases of Acute Articular Soft Tissue Injury Treated by Blood-letting Puncture with Plum-blossom Needle and Cupping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Erqing; Li Haiying; Zhao Zhankao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acute articular soft tissue injury, a frequently encountered disease, is often clinically treated with analgesics, Chinese drugs for relaxing muscles and tendons to promote blood circulation, physiotherapy and acupuncture. These therapies can achieve certain curative effects, however, there is a longer course of treatment and some cases even have sequela particularly in such weight-carrying joints as the ankle joint and the knee joint. The therapeutic method of blood letting puncture with plum-blossom needle and cupping is adopted to treat this disease with satisfactory therapeutic effect. The results are reported as follows.

  5. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  6. Repair of full-thickness tendon injury using connective tissue progenitors efficiently derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Leshansky, Lucy; Zussman, Eyal; Burman, Michael; Srouji, Samer; Livne, Erella; Abramov, Natalie; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery.

  7. 干细胞参与运动损伤的组织修复%Stem cells involved in the tissue repair of sports injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 梁静群; 刘涛; 王王; 张翔

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential of multi-directional differentiation, and applied to many field. Stem cells therapy will be a revolutionary progress for tissue injury repairing.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the situation and new progress of soft tissue injury with stem cells therapy at home and abroad.METHODS: The articles related to stem cells involved in the treatment of soft tissue injury in CNKI database and Elsevier database from January 2000 to September 2010 were retrieved by computer with the key words of "stem cells, treatment, soft tissues injury" in Chinese and in English. The content of articles related to stem cells therapy, and recently published or published in authoritative magazines in the same field were selected, and 36 documents of them were involved for summarization.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The competitive state of athletes was seriously affected by tendon, skeletal injury in sports, and it is difficult to radical cure, often recurrent attacks. The research of stem cells technology has a great significance in the treatment of injury of athletes. At present, MSCs as a basis of cells therapy is becoming a hot spot and most forward in the field of regenerative medicine research. Therefore, MSCs as the most important source of adult stem cells has a vital application prospect.%背景:既往多项研究已证实间充质干细胞具备多向分化潜力,并应用到多个领域,同样干细胞疗法对解决组织损伤修复将是一种革命性进步.目的:对国内外应用干细胞治疗软组织损伤的现状及新进展作一综述.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和Elsevier数据库中2000-01/2010-09关于干细胞参与软组织损伤治疗的文章,在标题和摘要中以"干细胞,治疗,损伤"或"stem cells,treatment,Soft tissues injure"为检索词进行检索.选择文章内容与干细胞治疗有关者,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.

  8. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffusebrain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 黄平; 邢博; 托娅; 张勇攀; 田卫平; 王振原

    2007-01-01

    Wound examination is one of the most i mpor-tant aspects inthe forensic practice,and forensic pa-thologists are often required to esti mate woundsage.The diffuse brain injury(DBI)exists in theforensic practices widely.At present,various kindsof biological substances such as c-fos,β-App,FN,and appolipoprotein Eare knownto be closely relat-ed to braininjury,but no effective methods can beused to differentiate the antemortem diffuse braininjuries from the post mortem injuries and exactlyesti mate the ti me of ...

  9. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  10. Soft tissue injury related to choice of entry point in antegrade femoral nailing : piriform fossa or greater trochanter tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, CMA; Verhofstad, MHJ; Bleys, RLAW; van der Werken, C

    2005-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing through the piriform fossa results in some cases in toss of abduction strength and persistent pain. Nail insertion at the tip of the greater trochanter may be favourable. The aim of this study was to assess (possible) iatrogenic injury to the abductor and external rotator musc

  11. Soft tissue injury related to choice of entry point in antegrade femoral nailing: piriform fossa or greater trochanter tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, C.M.A.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; van der Werken, C.

    2005-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing through the piriform fossa results in some cases in toss of abduction strength and persistent pain. Nail insertion at the tip of the greater trochanter may be favourable. The aim of this study was to assess (possible) iatrogenic injury to the abductor and external rotator musc

  12. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection.

  13. New vascular tissue rapidly replaces neural parenchyma and vessels destroyed by a contusion injury to the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Gizelda T B; Marcillo, Alexander; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Wood, Patrick M

    2002-01-01

    Blood vessels identified by laminin staining were studied in uninjured spinal cord and at 2, 4, 7, and 14 days following a moderate contusion (weight drop) injury. At 2 days after injury most blood vessels had been destroyed in the lesion epicenter; neurons and astrocytes were also absent, and few ED1+ cells were seen infiltrating the lesion center. By 4 days, laminin associated with vessel staining was increased and ED1+ cells appeared to be more numerous in the lesion. By 7 days after injury, the new vessels formed a continuous cordon oriented longitudinally through the lesion center. ED1+ cells were abundant at this time point and were found in the same area as the newly formed vessels. Astrocyte migration from the margins of the lesion into the new cordon was apparent. By 14 days, a decrease in the number of vessels in the lesion center was observed; in contrast, astrocytes were more prominent in those areas. In addition to providing a blood supply to the lesion site, protecting the demise of the newly formed vascular bridge might provide an early scaffold to hasten axonal regeneration across the injury site. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science.

  14. Contents of myelin-basic protein and S-100 in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine infection-caused brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Li; Hongying Li; Zhihai Lu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The change of the content of myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum and brain tissue is the bio chemical diadynamic index of amyelination. S-100 is a specific and sensitive marker of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Whether or not the content of S-100 and MBP in blood and brain tissue can be used as the quan titative index for early diagnosing the intrauterine infection-caused brain injury still needs investigation. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether or not MBP and S-100 detection can be used as the biochemical indexes for early diagnosing the intrauterine infection-caused brain injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Laboratory of Pediatric Neuro-rehabilitation, Medical College of Rehabilitation, Jiamusi University. MATERIALS: Sixty female and thirty male common Wistar rats, weighing from 180 to 240 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Jiamusi University. Reagent: Lipopolysaccharide(LPS, serological type 055: B5, SIGMA Company of USA); MBP enzyme linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) immunoreagent kit (Preclinicai Recombination DNA Laboratory, Chengdu Huaxi Medical Center, Sichuan Province); S-100 ELISA immunoreagent kit ( Department of Physiology, the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA) and bovine serum albumin(Haitaike Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Pediatric Neuro-Rehabilitation, Experimental Animal Center, Department of Pathology and Central Laboratory of Jiamusi University from July 2005 to March 2006. ① Preparation of models and grouping: The female and male rats were placed in one cage at 2: 1 at 17:00 o'clock. Vaginal smear was checked at 8:00 on the next morning. Sperm was found and 0 day of pregnancy was recorded. Pregnant rats were bred in another cage. The pregnant 47 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n =10) and experimental group (n =37). The experimental pregnant rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS

  15. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 Is a Valuable Marker for the Prediction of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Tumor Metastasis in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of blood coagulation contributes to cancer progression. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1 is the main inhibitor of extrinsic coagulation pathway. The aim of this study is to assess the predicting significance of TFPI-1 for thrombotic complication and metastasis in lung cancer patients. Total of 188 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were included in this study. Plasma TFPI-1, D-dimer (D-D, antithrombin (AT, Fibrinogen (Fbg, and coagulating factor VIII activity (FVIII:C were measured. In NSCLC patients, significantly decreased TFPI-1 and AT and increased D-D, Fbg, and FVIII:C levels were observed, and there was a significant correlation between TFPI-1 and other hemostatic parameters (P<0.001, resp.. NSCLC patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT or metastasis had significantly lower TFPI-1 levels than those without DVT or metastasis (P<0.01, resp.. Multivariate regression revealed that TFPI-1 acted as a predictor for DVT or tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients [OR: 4.15 or 3.28, P<0.05, resp.]. The area under ROC curve of TFPI-1 was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.842~0.967 or 0.828 (95% CI, 0.742~0.915 for predicting DVT or metastasis (P<0.001, resp.. The optimal point of TFPI-1 was 57.7 or 54.3 ng/mL for predicting DVT or metastasis, respectively. Combination of TFPI-1 and D-D measurements can improve the predicting power for DVT or metastasis in NSCLC patients. Our findings suggested that TFPI-1 was a valuable predictor of DVT and tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients.

  16. A Regulatory miRNA–mRNA Network Is Associated with Tissue Repair Induced by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Bassi, Ênio Jose; Azevedo, Hatylas; Anderson, Letícia; Origassa, Clarice Silvia Taemi; Cenedeze, Marcos Antônio; de Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Felizardo, Raphael José Ferreira; da Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Semedo, Patricia; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Pacheco-Silva, Álvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) orchestrate tissue repair by releasing cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), which, presumably by small RNA species, modulate global gene expression. The knowledge of miRNA/mRNA signatures linked to a reparative status may elucidate some of the molecular events associated with MSC protection. Here, we used a model of cisplatin-induced kidney injury (acute kidney injury) to assess how MSCs or MVs could restore tissue function. MSCs and MVs presented similar protective effects, which were evidenced in vivo and in vitro by modulating apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and a set of prosurvival molecules. In addition, we observed that miRNAs (i.e., miR-880, miR-141, miR-377, and miR-21) were modulated, thereby showing active participation on regenerative process. Subsequently, we identified that MSC regulates a particular miRNA subset which mRNA targets are associated with Wnt/TGF-β, fibrosis, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition signaling pathways. Our results suggest that MSCs release MVs that transcriptionally reprogram injured cells, thereby modulating a specific miRNA–mRNA network. PMID:28096802

  17. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect’s mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU- labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure (ICP. The ADSCs steadily secreted detectable pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF in vitro. The expression of PEDF increased in the penis of the bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI group for 14 days and then gradually decreased. On day 28 after the intracavernous injection, the ADSCs group exhibited a significantly increased ICP compared with the phosphate buffered saline- (PBS- treated group. Moreover, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and S100 expression in penile dorsal nerves and the smooth muscle content to collagen ratio in penile tissues significantly increased. Furthermore, elevated PEDF, p-Akt, and p-eNOS were identified in the ADSCs group. This study demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSCs improved erectile function, repaired the nerve, and corrected penile fibrosis. One potential mechanism is the PEDF secretion of ADSCs and subsequent PI3K/Akt pathway activation.

  18. Histopathologic investigation of the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against boric acid-induced injury in kidney and testis tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye 2 Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Hatay, Türkiye 3 Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Hatay Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Hatay , Türkiye 4 Antakya Doğumevi, Hatay, Türkiye 5 Fatih Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye 6 Turgut Özal Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Ankara, Türkiye Yazışma Adresi / Correspondence : Ahmet Nacar, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye Email: drnacar@gmail.com Geliş Tarihi / Received: 09.01.2014, Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 10.02.2014 Copyright © Dicle Tıp Dergisi 2014, Her hakkı saklıdır / All rights reserved Dicle Tıp Dergisi / 2014; 41 (2: 385-390 Dicle Medical Journal doi: 10.5798/diclemedj.0921.2014.02.0436 ÖZGÜN ARAŞTIRMA / ORIGINAL ARTICLE Borik asit uygulamasının sıçan böbrek ve testis dokusunda oluşturduğu hasara karşı Omega-3 yağ asitlerinin koruyucu etkisinin histopatolojik olarak incelenmesi Histopathologic investigation of the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against boric acid-induced injury in kidney and testis tissue Ahmet Nacar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of boric acid on rat kidney and testis tissues histopathologically. Secondly, the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acid against boric acid-induced renal and testicular toxicity were investigated. Methods: 32 wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control, Omega-3 (400 mg/kg/day for 10 days, Boric acid (375 mg/kg/day for 10 days and Boric acid+omega-3 (both drugs same dosage for same day. Kidney and testis tissues were evaluated using a scoring system based on the extent of certain histopathological changes. Results: In histopathological examination, boric acid caused significant degeneration in both testis and kidney tissues. Most evident findings were glomerular shrinkage and necrosis, hemorrhage and tubular cell degeneration in kidneys, and exfoliation of seminiferous tubule cells, detachement of epithelium from basement membrane, decreased cellularity and degeneration in epithelial cells in testis tissues. Omega-3 administration significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: To our literature search, this is the first study reporting protective effects of omega-3 fatty acid against boric-acid-induced testicular and renal injury.

  19. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste C; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David N; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-07-01

    Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aims of the current study were to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns) on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (13-18 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69-369 days after burn), an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation.

  20. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  1. Thermal shell fragment craniofacial injury: biophysics, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to bring attention to unique risks and burns by thermal shell fragment craniofacial soft tissue injury. Hot shrapnel may inflict burns to major vessel walls and lead to life-threatening hemorrhaging or death, which adds a new challenge for craniofacial surgeons. Morbidity of thermal deep tissue may lead to deep tissue necrosis and infection.Thermal energy (TE) physics, biophysics, and pathophysiological effects relate directly to the amount of heat generated from shell casing detonation, which transfers to skin, deep tissue, as well as brain and leads to life-threatening burning of organs; this is different from shrapnel kinetic energy injury.The unprecedented increase in using a large range of explosives and high-heat thermobaric weapons contributes to the superfluous and unnecessary suffering caused by thermal injury wounds.Surgeons and medics should recognize that a surprising amount of TE can be found in an explosion or detonation of a steel-encased explosive, resulting in TEs ranging from 400 F up to 1000 F.

  2. Tissue distribution, metabolism and hepatic tissue injury in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) after a single oral administration of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Li, Jitong; Wang, Huili; Wang, Yinghuan; Guo, Baoyuan; Yin, Jing; Hao, Weiyu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a widely used pyrethroid with neurotoxicity. However, little is known about the toxicokinetics of LCT in reptiles. In this study, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of LCT in Chinese lizards (Eremias Argus) were determined following a single dose (10 mg kg(-1)) treatment. In the liver, brain, gonads and skin, LCT levels peaked within several hours and then decreased rapidly. However, the concentration of LCT gradually increased in the fat tissue. More than 90% of the LCT dose was excreted in the faeces. One LCT metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), was detected in lizard plasma and tissues. PBA preferentially accumulates in the brain and plasma. The half-life of PBA in the brain was 3.2 days, which was 35.4-fold greater than that of LCT. In the plasma, the concentration of PBA was significantly higher than that of LCT. The bioaccumulation of LCT in tissues was enantioselective, and the enantiomeric fractions (EF) ranged from 0.72 to 0.26. The preferential accumulation of enantiomers changed according to exposure time, but the reasons behind this phenomenon were not clear. For pathological analysis, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and large areas of necrosis were observed in the liver sections after 168 h of dosing. The liver tissues exhibited both decreases in the hepatosomatic index and histopathological lesions during the exposure period. In this study, the effect concentration of LCT in lizards was 200-fold lower than its LD50 value used in risk assessments for birds. These results may provide additional information for the risk assessment of LCT for reptiles and indicate that birds may not be an ideal surrogate for reptile toxicity evaluation.

  3. Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 enhances tissue repair in a rat model of radiation-induced injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Liao Tian'an; Wang Hong; Deng Wei; Yu Dahai

    2014-01-01

    Background The multilineage differentiation potential ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) showed great potential in tissue engineering,while vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) promotes vasculogenesis and further promotes tissue regeneration.This study aimed to assess the ability of rat BMSCs expressing human VEGFA165 (hVEGF165) to promote tissue repair in rat model of radiation-induced injury.Methods Rat BMSCs were isolated from the tibia.Plasmid DNA expressing hVEGF165 was stably transfected into BMSCs using liposomes.The right hindlimb muscle of 40 rats was irradiated using a 60Co y source (total dose 30 Gy).The animals were divided into four groups (n=10):not injected with BMSCs (control; group 1) or intramuscularly injected two times (once in 2 weeks) with pcDNATM3.1-transfected BMSCs (group 2),untransfected BMSCs (group 3),or hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs (group 4).Angiography was performed 1 week after the last injection of BMSCs; samples of the hindlimb muscle were subjected to transmission electron microscopy,ultrastructural analysis,reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR),Western blotting,and immunohistochemistry.Results Rat BMSCs with multipotent differentiation capacity were isolated,hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs overexpressed hVEGF165 mRNA and protein.Injection of BMSCs (groups 2-4) increased the average vessel number,density,diameter,and cross-sectional area; mRNA expression of the myogenic markers including myoblast determination protein,myogenin,and α-smooth muscle actin; and CD31 protein expression; and promoted the repair of blood vessels and myofibers after radiation-induced injury compared to group 1; each of these parameters and hVEGF165 mRNA or protein expression were markedly improved in rats injected with hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs compared to groups 2 and 3.Conclusions BMSCs expressing hVEGF165 enhanced the repair of radiation-induced tissue injury by promoting vasculogenesis and muscle fiber regeneration.BMSCs expressing h

  4. Experience with Proctectomy to Manage Combat Casualties Sustaining Catastrophic Perineal Blast Injury Complicated by Invasive Mucor Soft-Tissue Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    traumatic amputations, open pelvic fracture with left sacroiliac joint dissociation, traumatic right orchiectomy, penile burns with membranous...transfused within 24 hours of injury).4 A recent clinical practice guideline addressing IFI has been published by the Department of Defense Joint ...1441 9. 5. Department of Defense Joint Theater Trauma System. http://www.usaisr .amedd.army.mil/assets/cpgs/Invasive Fungal Infection in War Wounds 1

  5. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP- guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg, and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU; demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  6. First molluscan transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) member from disk abalone and its expression profiling against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Yeo, Sang-Yeop; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-12-01

    The regulation of transcriptional activation is an essential and critical point in gene expression. In this study, we describe a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) gene from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbAp-1) for the first time in mollusk. It was identified by homology screening of an abalone normalized cDNA library. The cloned AbAp-1 consists of a 945 bp coding region that encodes a putative protein containing 315 amino acids. The AbAp-1 gene is composed of a characteristic Jun transcription factor domain and a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) signature similar to known Ap-1 genes. The AbAp-1 shares 46, 43 and, 40% amino acid identities with fish (Takifugu rubripes), human and insect (Ixodes scapularis) Ap-1, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that AbAp-1 gene expression is constitutive in all selected tissues. AbAp-1 was upregulated in gills after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) challenge; and, upregulated in hemocytes and gills by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge. Shell damage and tissue injury also increased the transcriptional level of Ap-1 in mantle together with other transcription factors (NF-kB, LITAF) and pro-inflammatory TNF-α. All results considered, identification and gene expression data demonstrate that abalone Ap-1 is an important regulator in innate immune response against bacteria and virus, as well as in the inflammatory response during tissue injury. In addition, stimulation of Ap-1 under different external stimuli could be useful to understand the Ap-1 biology and its downstream target genes, especially in abalone-like mollusks.

  7. Protective effects of β-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Akkaya, Vahide Baysal; Güleçol, Şeyma Celik; Ceyhan, Betül Mermi; Özgüner, Fehmi; Chen, WenChieh

    2012-09-01

    In recent times, there is widespread use of 2.45-GHz irradiation-emitting devices in industrial, medical, military and domestic application. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the oxidant and antioxidant status of skin and to examine the possible protective effects of β-glucans against the oxidative injury. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control; sham exposed; EMR; and EMR + β-glucan. A 2.45-GHz EMR emitted device from the experimental exposure was applied to the EMR group and EMR + β-glucan group for 60 min daily, respectively, for 4 weeks. β-glucan was administered via gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day before each exposure to radiation in the treatment group. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in tissue homogenates of the skin. Exposure to 2.45-GHz EMR caused a significant increase in MDA levels and CAT activity, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px decreased in skin tissues. Systemic β-glucan significantly reversed the elevation of MDA levels and the reduction of SOD activities. β-glucan treatment also slightly enhanced the activity of CAT and prevented the depletion of GSH-Px activity caused by EMR, but not statistically significantly. The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.

  8. Bilateral deep neck space infection in pediatric patients: review of literature and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghani, Manish J; Raghani, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of deep neck infections is still an enigma for surgeons and physicians. Because of the complexity and the deep location of this region, the diagnosis and treatment in this area is difficult. The anatomy of deep neck spaces is highly complex and therefore precise localization of infections in this region is very difficult. The diagnoses of deep neck space infection (DNSI) are difficult because of the deep location of these spaces and are usually covered by substantial amount of normal superficial soft tissue. Access: To gain surgical access to the deep neck spaces, the superficial tissues must be crossed with the risk of injury to the neurovascular structures in the neck. Neural dysfunction, vascular erosion or thrombosis, and osteomyelitis are some of the complications of DNSI because of the proximity of nerves, vessels, bones, and other soft tissues. Deep neck spaces are communicated with each other and infections from one space can spread to adjacent space. DNSI, if not diagnosed early and promptly, may result in serious consequences even mortality. The treatment of DNSI with antibiotic therapy and drainage is most often definitive and recurrence of these cases is rare.

  9. Revised National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Injury Staging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joyce M.; Goldberg, Margaret; McNichol, Laurie; Moore, Lynn; Sieggreen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of pressure injury etiology and development has grown in recent years through research, clinical expertise, and global interdisciplinary expert collaboration. Therefore, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) has revised the definition and stages of pressure injury. The revision was undertaken to incorporate the current understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, as well as to clarify the anatomical features present or absent in each stage of injury. An NPUAP-appointed Task Force reviewed the literature and created drafts of definitions, which were then reviewed by stakeholders and the public, including clinicians, educators, and researchers around the world. Using a consensus-building methodology, these revised definitions were the focus of a multidisciplinary consensus conference held in April 2016. As a result of stakeholder and public input, along with the consensus conference, important changes were made and incorporated into the new staging definitions. The revised staging system uses the term injury instead of ulcer and denotes stages using Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals. The revised definition of a pressure injury now describes the injuries as usually occurring over a bony prominence or under a medical or other device. The revised definition of a Stage 2 pressure injury seeks to clarify the difference between moisture-associated skin damage and injury caused by pressure and/or shear. The term suspected has been removed from the Deep Tissue Pressure Injury diagnostic label. Each definition now describes the extent of tissue loss present and the anatomical features that may or may not be present in the stage of injury. These important revisions reflect the methodical and collaborative approach used to examine the available evidence and incorporate current interdisciplinary clinical expertise into better defining the important phenomenon of pressure injury etiology and development. PMID:27749790

  10. Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya S; Patil, Vijayetha P; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (pperiodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  12. Evaluation of the susceptibility artifacts and tissue injury caused by implanted microchips in dogs on 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miyoko; Ono, Shin; Kayanuma, Hideki; Honnami, Muneki; Muto, Makoto; Une, Yumi

    2010-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a metallic implant raises concern over the potential complications, including susceptibility artifacts, implant migration, and heat injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate these complications in dogs with implanted microchips by evaluating MR images and the histopathological changes after 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI. Five dogs underwent microchip implantation in the cervicothoracic area. One month later, the area was imaged using 1.5T MRI in three dogs. The microchips were removed surgically together with the surrounding tissue in all dogs. There was significant signal loss and image distortion over a wide range around the area where the microchip was implanted. This change was consistent with susceptibility artifacts, which rendered the affected area including the spinal cord undiagnostic. The artifact was more extensive in T2*-weighted images (gradient-echo) and less extensive in proton density-weighted images (fast spin-echo with short echo time). Histopathologically, all microchips were well-encapsulated with granulation tissue, and there were no evidence of migration of microchips. Cell debris and a moderate number of degenerated cells with fibrin were seen in the inner layer of the granulation tissue in each dog that underwent MRI. These changes were very subtle and did not seem to be clinically significant. The results of this study suggest that, in 1.5T MRI, susceptibility artifacts produced by implanted microchips can be marked, although the dogs with implants appeared to be scanned safely.

  13. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  14. RIPK3 deficiency or catalytically inactive RIPK1 provides greater benefit than MLKL deficiency in mouse models of inflammation and tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, K; Dugger, D L; Maltzman, A; Greve, J M; Hedehus, M; Martin-McNulty, B; Carano, R A D; Cao, T C; van Bruggen, N; Bernstein, L; Lee, W P; Wu, X; DeVoss, J; Zhang, J; Jeet, S; Peng, I; McKenzie, B S; Roose-Girma, M; Caplazi, P; Diehl, L; Webster, J D; Vucic, D

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of cell death that is triggered by activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and phosphorylation of its pseudokinase substrate mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL), which then translocates to membranes and promotes cell lysis. Activation of RIPK3 is regulated by the kinase RIPK1. Here we analyze the contribution of RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL to several mouse disease models. Loss of RIPK3 had no effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis, dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, cerulein-induced pancreatitis, hypoxia-induced cerebral edema, or the major cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. However, kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and systemic inflammation associated with A20 deficiency or high-dose tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were ameliorated by RIPK3 deficiency. Catalytically inactive RIPK1 was also beneficial in the kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury model, the high-dose TNF model, and in A20−/− mice. Interestingly, MLKL deficiency offered less protection in the kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury model and no benefit in A20−/− mice, consistent with necroptosis-independent functions for RIPK1 and RIPK3. Combined loss of RIPK3 (or MLKL) and caspase-8 largely prevented the cytokine storm, hypothermia, and morbidity induced by TNF, suggesting that the triggering event in this model is a combination of apoptosis and necroptosis. Tissue-specific RIPK3 deletion identified intestinal epithelial cells as the major target organ. Together these data emphasize that MLKL deficiency rather than RIPK1 inactivation or RIPK3 deficiency must be examined to implicate a role for necroptosis in disease. PMID:27177019

  15. Study on changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩湘; 姚杰; 卢尚坤; 章更生; 周关仁

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy and the clinical significance.Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with severe head injury were selected and divided into a mild hypothermia group (n=58), and a control group (n=58) according to odd and even numbers of hospitalization. While mild hypothermia therapy was performed PbtO2 and brain temperature were monitored for 1-7 days (mean=86 hours), simultaneously, the intracranial pressure, rectum temperature, cerebral perfusion pressure, PaO2 and PaCO2 were also monitored. The patients were followed up for 6 months and the prognosis was evaluated with GOS (Glasgow outcome scale).Results: The mean value of PbtO2 within 24 hour monitoring in the 116 patients was 13.7 mm Hg±4.94 mm Hg, lower than the normal value (16 mm Hg±40 mm Hg) The time of PbtO2 recovering to the normal value in the mild hypothermia group was shortened by 10±4.15 hours compared with the control group (P<0.05). The survival rate of the mild hypothermia group was 60.43%, higher than that of the control group (46.55%). After the recovery of the brain temperature, PbtO2 increased with the rise of the brain temperature. Conclusions: Mild hypothermia can improve the survival rate of severe head injury. The technique of monitoring PbtO2 and the brain temperature is safe and reliable, and has important clinical significance in judging disease condition and instructing clinical therapy.

  16. Cytosolic Double-Stranded DNA as a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Induces the Inflammatory Response in Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cells: A Plausible Mechanism for Tissue Injury-Associated Pancreatitis

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    Taichi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of unknown causes. There are many triggers causing pancreatitis, such as alcohol, common bile duct stone, virus and congenital or acquired stenosis of main pancreatic duct, which often involve tissue injuries. Pancreatitis often occurs in sterile condition, where the dead/dying pancreatic parenchymal cells and the necrotic tissues derived from self-digested-pancreas were observed. However, the causal relationship between tissue injury and pancreatitis and how tissue injury could induce the inflammation of the pancreas were not elucidated fully until now. This study demonstrates that cytosolic double-stranded DNA increases the expression of several inflammatory genes (cytokines, chemokines, type I interferon, and major histocompatibility complex in rat pancreatic stellate cells. Furthermore, these increase accompanied the multiple signal molecules genes, such as interferon regulatory factors, nuclear factor-kappa B, low-molecular-weight protein 2, and transporter associated with antigen processing 1. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how cell damage of the pancreas or tissue injury triggers acute, chronic, and autoimmune pancreatitis; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during alcohol consumption or other causes.

  17. Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

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    Esther K. Wolthuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventing tissue-factor-(TF- mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF+/− mice and their wild-type (TF+/+ littermates were sedated (controls or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF+/+ mice, TF+/− mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF+/− and TF+/+ mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF+/− as compared to TF+/+ mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.

  18. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to assess the impact of normobaric hyperoxia within at-risk pericontusional tissue after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenith, Tonny V; Carter, Eleanor L; Grossac, Julia; Newcombe, Virginia F; Outtrim, Joanne G; Nallapareddy, Sridhar; Lupson, Victoria; Correia, Marta M; Mada, Marius M; Williams, Guy B; Menon, David K; Coles, Jonathan P

    2014-10-01

    Ischemia and metabolic dysfunction remain important causes of neuronal loss after head injury, and we have shown that normobaric hyperoxia may rescue such metabolic compromise. This study examines the impact of hyperoxia within injured brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fourteen patients underwent DTI at baseline and after 1 hour of 80% oxygen. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) we assessed the impact of hyperoxia within contusions and a 1 cm border zone of normal appearing pericontusion, and within a rim of perilesional reduced ADC consistent with cytotoxic edema and metabolic compromise. Seven healthy volunteers underwent imaging at 21%, 60%, and 100% oxygen. In volunteers there was no ADC change with hyperoxia, and contusion and pericontusion ADC values were higher than volunteers (P<0.01). There was no ADC change after hyperoxia within contusion, but an increase within pericontusion (P<0.05). We identified a rim of perilesional cytotoxic edema in 13 patients, and hyperoxia resulted in an ADC increase towards normal (P=0.02). We demonstrate that hyperoxia may result in benefit within the perilesional rim of cytotoxic edema. Future studies should address whether a longer period of hyperoxia has a favorable impact on the evolution of tissue injury.

  19. Phosphorylated Histone 3 at Serine 10 Identifies Activated Spinal Neurons and Contributes to the Development of Tissue Injury-Associated Pain

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    Torres-Pérez, Jose Vicente; Sántha, Péter; Varga, Angelika; Szucs, Peter; Sousa-Valente, Joao; Gaal, Botond; Sivadó, Miklós; Andreou, Anna P; Beattie, Sara; Nagy, Bence; Matesz, Klara; C. Arthur, J. Simon; Jancsó, Gábor; Nagy, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional changes in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons (SSDHN) are essential in the development and maintenance of prolonged pain. Epigenetic mechanisms including post-translational modifications in histones are pivotal in regulating transcription. Here, we report that phosphorylation of serine 10 (S10) in histone 3 (H3) specifically occurs in a group of rat SSDHN following the activation of nociceptive primary sensory neurons by burn injury, capsaicin application or sustained electrical activation of nociceptive primary sensory nerve fibres. In contrast, brief thermal or mechanical nociceptive stimuli, which fail to induce tissue injury or inflammation, do not produce the same effect. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors or activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, or blocking or deleting the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases 1 and 2 (MSK1/2), which phosphorylate S10 in H3, inhibit up-regulation in phosphorylated S10 in H3 (p-S10H3) as well as fos transcription, a down-stream effect of p-S10H3. Deleting MSK1/2 also inhibits the development of carrageenan-induced inflammatory heat hyperalgesia in mice. We propose that p-S10H3 is a novel marker for nociceptive processing in SSDHN with high relevance to transcriptional changes and the development of prolonged pain. PMID:28120884

  20. Changes of mature adipocytes after incision injury of subcutaneous adipose tissue%皮下脂肪组织创伤后脂肪细胞的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雄; 林炜栋; 江万里; 刘伟伟; 原博; 陈向芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察脂肪组织创伤愈合的情况,探讨成熟脂肪细胞的变化.方法 以杜洛克母猪为实验动物,用滚轴取皮刀在其背部制作脂肪组织切割伤皮瓣,大体观察伤后1、2、4及12周的愈合情况.并于伤后3、7、14及21 d在皮瓣中央处取材,观察切缘及周围成熟脂肪细胞的形态学改变,用酶联免疫吸附法和免疫组织化学方法检测脂肪组织中瘦素和脂联素的表达情况.结果 脂肪组织切割伤组皮瓣中央与未创伤处皮肤无异,但皮瓣边缘早期有明显炎症反应,后期则呈典型的疤痕生长.组织学观察发现:脂肪组织创伤后,仍以纤维化愈合为主,但愈合过程中,炎症反应的局灶性及小脂肪细胞出现呈现一定的规律性;与未创伤组相比,脂肪组织创伤后其瘦素及脂联素的表达量均呈下降趋势,但两者的比值在愈合的过程中存在差异.结论 脂肪组织创伤后,脂肪细胞表面瘦素及脂联素的表达量下降.早期创缘附近出现大量的小脂肪细胞,可能与脂肪分解有关.%Objective To investigate the changes of mature adipocytes after incision injury in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Methods Wound model was induced by incised flaps on the back of female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) using roller dermatome. The megascopic morphological changes of flaps were observed at week 1,2,4 and 12. The samples in the center of flaps were harvested at day 3,7, 14 and 21; the morphological changes of incisal edge and associated mature adipocytes were observed; the expression of leptin and adiponectin of incised subcutaneous adipose tissue was detected by imrnunohistochemistry and ELISA methods. Results The center of flaps in incised adipose tissue showed no difference compared with the unwounded tissue, but the evident inflammation developed in its edges and resolved in scar formation eventually. Furthermore, histological outcomes of wound areas in adipose tissue revealed the collagen deposition and

  1. 髌下深囊与关节腔间组织结构观察及临床意义%Anatomy and clinical significance of the tissues separating the deep infrapatellar bursa and knee joint cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍刘军; 钟河清; 杜芯瑜; 罗瑛; 吴少平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate structural features of the soft tissues separating the deep infrapatellar bursa and knee joint cavity, and provide anatomic basis for imaging diagnosis of knee joint diseases. Methods 20 specimens of antiseptic knee joint were dissected. Synovial membrane of knee joint cavity and deep infrapatellar bursa, and the related connective tissue were observed and analyzed. Meanwhile, 20 knee cast samples were used to explore the origin, branches, and distribution of the blood vessels in knee joint cavity and deep infrapatellar bursa. Results Synovial tissues covered the internal surface of knee joint cavity and deep infrapatellar bursa, however, synovial membrane of deep infrapatellar bursa was separated from that of knee joint cavity by infrapatellar adipose tissue. Different arteries, including descending genicular artery, inferior-internal arteries of knee, superior-external artery of knee, inferior-external arteries of knee and its branches passed through knee joint cavity and deep infrapatellar bursa. Conclusions The synovial tissue of knee joint cavity is divided from that of deep infrapatellar bursa, however, arterial connection occurs between them. Different pathological and imaging changes maybe appear in knee joint cavity and deep infrapatellar bursa for different kinds of diseases.%目的 观察髌下深囊和关节腔间组织结构特点,为膝关节疾病的影像学诊断研究提供依据。方法对20侧固定后的膝关节标本进行解剖,观察关节腔、髌下深囊的滑膜分布及其之间区域组织结构;对20件膝关节铸型标本进行观察,研究关节腔、髌下深囊及其之间区域的血管来源、分支及分布。结果关节腔和髌下深囊内表面有相同的滑膜组织,但彼此间并非延续而成,二者之间被髌下脂肪组织填充分隔;关节腔、髌下深囊及其之间区域主要通过膝降动脉、膝下内侧动脉和膝上、下外侧动脉及其分支连通。结

  2. [The role of disequilibrium of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and their tissue inhibitors in pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Zhu, Guang-fa; Liu, Shuang; Foda, Hussein D

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1/2) in pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperoxia. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hyperoxia for 24 hours group, hyperoxia for 48 hours group, and hyperoxia for 72 hours group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in hyperoxia groups were exposed to >98% oxygen in sealed cages, and the normal control group were placed outside of the cage to breathe room air. At the end of the exposure time the animals were euthanized, the right lung was removed and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was used to lavage the lung through the endotracheal catheter. The wet/dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content and the volume of pleural fluid were measured, the severity of lung injury was assessed; the expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 mRNA in lung tissue at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were assessed by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 protein in lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperoxia caused ALI as evidenced by the increase in lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF protein content and the volume of pleural fluid as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). RT-PCR study showed increased expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissues (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ELISA assay also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2/9 and an increase in TIMP-1 amount in BALF compared with their normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The ratios of both MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA and MMP-2 protein/TIMP-2 protein were all increased in hyperoxia groups as compared with their normal control group (all P<0.01). Hyperoxia causes ALI in mice, and disturbance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 balance plays an important role in the development of hyperoxia-induced ALI in mice.

  3. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  4. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Castiglioni

    Full Text Available Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue.

  5. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Corna, Gianfranca; Rigamonti, Elena; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue.

  6. Long-term existence of cerebral hypoxic tissue in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yidong Wang; Jingrui Pan; Yu Qiu; Xiangpen Li; Mei Li; Ying Peng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxic tissue surrounding the ischemic core may represent the ischemic penumbra following cerebral infarction. However, some studies have shown that the duration of ischemic tissue is longer than previously believed.OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether cerebral hypoxic tissue could survive long-term and whether it is altered in rats following cerebral infarction; to establish an ischemia/reperfusion model in which hypoxic tissue exists for extended periods of time.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized grouping and controlled experiment was performed at the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University and Medical Research Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between June and December 2008. MATERIALS: 4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2, 11-dione dioxime (BnAO) (HL91), used as the hypoxic marker for autoradiography, was supplied by the Beijing Syncor Star Medicinal, China, and the flesh eluent Na99TcmO4 to mark HL91 was supplied by Guangzhou Medical Isotope Center of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF5) and its antibody ELK3-51, used as a hypoxic marker for immunofluorescence, were supplied by the University of Pennsylvania, USA.METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1.5-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (1.5 h IR), 2-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (2 h IR), 3-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (3 h IR), and permanent ischemia (PI) group, with 21 rats in each group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established using the intraluminal suture method, while reperfusion was performed by removing the suture at each observation time point. However, in the PI group, the suture was left in the artery.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area and average absorbance of fluorescence, representing hypoxic tissue, were measured by image-analysis.RESULTS: Autoradiography revealed positive hypoxia at days 1 and 14

  7. 14,000 volt electrical injury to bilateral upper extremities: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Sinno, H; Perkins, A; Tahiri, Y; Luc, M

    2011-06-01

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating of burn injuries. High voltage electrical injuries result in extensive deep tissue damage and are associated with multiple complications, long term morbidity, and a high mortality rate. We describe the case of a 47 year-old electric company linesman who suffered a high voltage electrical injury (HVEI) of 14,000 volts to bilateral hands and wrists managed by the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the McGill University Health Center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His management included multiple operative procedures, including escharotomies, fasciotomies, serial debridements, and bilateral pedicle groin flaps, and amputation of his left hand.

  8. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Kumar

    Full Text Available The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI, which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA induced acute kidney injury (AKI characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI. Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  9. Ameliorative effect of septilin, an ayurvedic preparation against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Heba Hosny; Ismael, Naglaa El-Sayed Rifaat; Hafez, Hafez Farouk

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by gamma-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against gamma-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.

  10. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

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    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  11. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Li, Tao; Qu, Wei; Li, Xin; Ma, Shaoxin; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Wenya; Hou, Shanshan; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS) effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI). Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS) were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate