WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep survey rosat

  1. A medium-deep Chandra and Subaru survey of the 13-h XMM/ROSAT deep survey area

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, I. M.; Gunn, K. F.; Newsam, A. M.; Mason, K. O.; Page, M. J.; Takata, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Sasseen, T.; Cordova, F.; Jones, L. R.; Loaring, N.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a Chandra ACIS-I survey of a high-latitude region at 13 h +38° which was earlier observed with ROSAT and which has recently been observed by XMM-Newton for 200 ks. XMM-Newton will provide good-quality X-ray spectra for over 200 sources with fluxes around the knee of the log N/ log S, which are responsible for the bulk of the X-ray background. The main aim of the Chandra observations is to provide arcsecond, or better, positions, and hence reliable identifications, for the XMM-Newton sources. The ACIS-I observations were arranged in a mosaic of four 30-ks pointings, covering almost all of the 15-arcmin radius XMM-Newton/ROSAT field. We detect 214 Chandra sources above a Cash likelihood statistic of 25, which approximates to 5σ significance, to a limiting flux of ~1.3 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 (0.5-7 keV). Optical counterparts are derived from a Subaru SuprimeCam image reaching to R~ 27. The very large majority of the Chandra sources have an optical counterpart, with the distribution peaking at 23 high LX/Lopt ratios, implying absorption at moderate redshift. Comparison with the earlier ROSAT survey shows that the accuracy of the ROSAT positions agrees very well with the predictions from simulations by McHardy et al. and that the large majority of the identifications were correct.

  2. A deep imaging survey of the Pleiades with ROSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, J. R.; Caillault, J.-P.; Gagne, M.; Prosser, C. F.; Hartmann, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained deep ROSAT images of three regions within the Pleiades open cluster. We have detected 317 X-ray sources in these ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) images, 171 of which we associate with certain or probable members of the Pleiades cluster. We detect nearly all Pleiades members with spectral types later than G0 and within 25 arcminutes of our three field centers where our sensitivity is highest. This has allowed us to derive for the first time the luminosity function for the G, K, amd M dwarfs of an open cluster without the need to use statistical techniques to account for the presence of upper limits in the data sample. Because of our high X-ray detection frequency down to the faint limit of the optical catalog, we suspect that some of our unidentified X-ray sources are previously unknown, very low-mass members of Pleiades. A large fraction of the Pleiades members detected with ROSAT have published rotational velocities. Plots of L(sub X)/L(sub Bol) versus spectroscopic rotational velocity show tightly correlated `saturation' type relations for stars with ((B - V)(sub 0)) greater than or equal to 0.60. For each of several color ranges, X-ray luminosities rise rapidly with increasing rotation rate until c sin i approximately equal to 15 km/sec, and then remains essentially flat for rotation rates up to at least v sin i approximately equal to 100 km/sec. The dispersion in rotation among low-mass stars in the Pleiades is by far the dominant contributor to the dispersion in L(sub X) at a given mass. Only about 35% of the B, A, and early F stars in the Pleiades are detected as X-ray sources in our survey. There is no correlation between X-ray flux and rotation for these stars. The X-ray luminosity function for the early-type Pleiades stars appears to be bimodal -- with only a few exceptions, we either detect these stars at fluxes in the range found for low-mass stars or we derive X-ray limits below the level found for most Pleiades

  3. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  4. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  5. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Th.; Freyberg, M. J.; Trümper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. Methods: We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4° × 6.4° sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the variable point-spread function (PSF) across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. X-ray control images showing the source and background extraction regions were generated, which were visually inspected. Simulations were performed to assess the spurious source content of the 2RXS catalogue. X-ray spectra and light curves were extracted for the 2RXS sources, with spectral and variability parameters derived from these products. Results: We obtained about 135 000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5, as adopted in the 1RXS faint source catalogue. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spurious detections. A more conservative likelihood threshold of 9, on the other hand, yields about 71 000 detections with a 5% spurious fraction. We recommend thresholds appropriate to the scientific application. X-ray images and overlaid X-ray contour lines provide an additional user product to evaluate the detections visually, and we performed our own visual inspections to flag uncertain detections. Intra-day variability in the X-ray light curves was quantified based on the

  6. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  7. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey view of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Denner, K.; Kahabka, P.; Pakull, M.; Schaeidt, S.

    1996-01-01

    During the Rosat all sky survey, centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 516 X-ray sources were detected. The field was covered from July 1990 to January 1991. The X-ray parameters of the sources, involving position, count rates, hardness ratios, extent, and time variability during the observations, are discussed. Identifications with objects from optical, radio and infrared wavelength allow the LMC candidates to be separated from the foreground stars and the background objects.

  8. Evolution of cluster X-ray luminosities and radii: Results from the 160 square degree rosat survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; McNamara, B.R.; Forman, W.

    1998-01-01

    We searched for cluster X-ray luminosity and radius evolution using our sample of 203 galaxy clusters detected in the 160 deg(2) survey with the ROSAT PSPC (Vikhlinin et al.). With such a large area survey, it is possible, for the first time with ROSAT, to test the evolution of luminous clusters, L......-X > 3 x 10(44) ergs s(-1) in the 0.5-2 keV band. We detect a factor of 3-4 deficit of such luminous clusters at z > 0.3 compared with the present. The evolution is much weaker or absent at modestly lower luminosities, (1-3) x 10(44) ergs s(-1). At still lower luminosities, we find no evolution from...... the analysis of the log N-log S relation. The results in the two upper L, bins are in agreement with the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey evolution result (Gioia et al.; Henry ct al.), which was obtained using a completely independent cluster sample. The low-L-X results are in agreement with other...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ROSAT detected quasars. I. (Brinkmann+ 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, W.; Yuan, W.

    1996-09-01

    We have compiled a sample of all quasars with measured radio emission from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue (1993, VV93 ) detected by ROSAT in the ALL-SKY SURVEY (RASS, Voges 1992), as targets of pointed observations, or as serendipitous sources from pointed observations as publicly available from the ROSAT point source catalogue (ROSAT-SRC, Voges et al. 1995). The total number of ROSAT detected radio quasars from the above three sources is 654 objects. 69 of the objects are classified as radio-quiet using the defining line at a radio-loudness of 1.0, and 10 objects have no classification. The 5GHz data are from the 87GB radio survey, the NED database, or from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue. The power law indices and their errors are estimated from the two hardness ratios given by the SASS assuming Galactic absorption. The X-ray flux densities in the ROSAT band (0.1-2.4keV) are calculated from the count rates using the energy to counts conversion factor for power law spectra and Galactic absorption. For the photon index we use the value obtained for a individual source if the estimated 1 sigma error is smaller than 0.5, otherwise we use the mean value 2.14. (1 data file).

  10. A ROTSE-I/ROSAT Survey of X-ray Emission from Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M.; McKay, T.

    2005-05-01

    Using public data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and the ROTSE-I Sky Patrols, the incidence of strong x-ray emissions from contact binary systems was examined. The RASS data was matched to an expanded catalog of contact binary systems from the ROTSE-I data, using a 35 arc second radius. X-ray luminosities for matching objects were then determined. This information was then used to evaluate the total x-ray emissions from all such objects, in order to determine their contribution to the galactic x-ray background.

  11. Observation of the Coma cluster of galaxies with ROSAT during the all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, U. G.; Henry, J. P.; Boehringer, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Coma cluster of galaxies was observed with the position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) during the ROSAT all sky survey. We find evidence for substructure in this cluster. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected from the regions of the NGC 4839 and 4911 subgroups at 6 percent and 1 percent of the total cluster emission respectively. There may be emission associated with the NGC 4874 and 4889 subgroups as well. The NGC 4839 group appears to be in the process of merging with the cluster. These X-ray data show that at least some of the groups previously found in projection are in fact physical objects possessing potential wells deep enough to trap their own X-ray gas. Because of the unlimited field of view of the all sky survey and the low background of the PSPC, we were able to measure the azimuthally averaged surface brightness of Coma out to approximately 100 arcmin, twice as far as was previously possible. Given the validity of our mass models, these new X-ray data imply that within 5/h(50) Mpc the binding mass of the Coma cluster is 1.8 +/- 0.6 x 10 exp 15/h(50) solar mass, and the fraction of cluster mass contained in hot gas is 0.30 +/- 0.14h(50) exp -3/2. Furthermore, the binding mass is more centrally concentrated than is the X-ray gas.

  12. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral ...... provide new insight into the evolution of galaxies, clusters of galaxies and AGN's.......The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral....... This spectroscopic X-ray survey will provide a large, statistically complete, sample of sources detected at high energies, more than an order of magnitude fainter than obtained by previous missions. The study of these sources will significantly improve our understanding not only of the origin of DXRB, but also...

  13. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.; Malkan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed the ''S IX '' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S IX 95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S IX 2 , permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  14. Multifrequency observations of KAZ 102 during the ROSAT all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Fink, H. H.; Malkan, M.; Wilkes, B. J.; Baganoff, F.; Heidt, J.; Pian, E.; Sadun, A.; Schaeidt, S.; Bonnell, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    The bright quasar Kaz 102, which lies in the vicinity of the North Ecliptic Pole, was monitored during the ROSAT All Sky Survey for 121.5 days from 1990 July 30 to 1991 January 25. In the course of the survey, optical photometry with various filters was peformed at several epochs, together with UV (IUE) and optical spectrophotometry. The spectral energy distribution in the 3 x 10(exp 14) -3 x 10(exp 17) Hz range is obtained simultaneously among the various frequencies to less than or = 1 day. No clear case of variability can be made in the X-rays, while in the optical and UV variability of 10%-20% is apparent. An analysis of IUE and Einstein archives indicates a doubling timescale of years for the UV and soft X-ray flux. The X-ray photon index, which in 1979 was rather flat (Gamma = 0.8(+0.6 -0.4), in 1990/1991 was found to be Gamma = 2.22 +/- 0.13, a typical value for radio-quiet quasars in this energy range. The overall energy distribution and the variability are discussed.

  15. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim; Retzlaff, Jörg; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Schartel, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10 −12 erg s −1 cm −2 (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ 8 and Ω m , yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  16. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ROSAT detected quasars. II. (Yuan+ 1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Brinkmann, W.; Siebert, J.; Voges, W.

    1997-11-01

    We have compiled a sample of all radio-quiet quasars or quasars without radio detection from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue (1993, VV93, Cat. ) detected by ROSAT in the ALL-SKY SURVEY (RASS, Voges 1992, in Proc. of the ISY Conference `Space Science', ESA ISY-3, ESA Publications, p.9, See Cat. ), as targets of pointed observations, or as serendipitous sources from pointed observations publicly available from the ROSAT point source catalogue (ROSAT-SRC, Voges et al. 1995, Cat. ). For all sources we used the results of the Standard Analysis Software System (SASS, Voges et al. 1992, in Proc. of the ISY Conference `Space Science', ESA ISY-3, ESA Publications, p.223), employing the most recent processing for the Survey data (RASS-II, Voges et al. 1996, Cat. ). The total number of quasars is 846. 69 of the radio-quiet objects with radio detections have already been presented in a previous paper (Brinkmann, Yuan, & Siebert 1997, Cat. ) using the RASS-I results. 17 objects were found to be radio-loud from recent radio surveys and were marked in the table. When available, the power law photon indices and the corresponding absorption column densities (NH) were estimated from the two hardness ratios given by the SASS, both with free fitted NH and for Galactic absorption. The unabsorbed X-ray flux densities in the ROSAT band (0.1-2.4keV) were calculated from the count rates using the energy to counts conversion factor for power law spectra and Galactic absorption. As the photon index we used the value obtained for the individual source if the estimated 1-σ error is smaller than 0.5, otherwise we used the redshift-dependent mean value (see the paper for details). (1 data file).

  18. Panchromatic properties of 99 000 galaxies detected by SDSS, and (some by) ROSAT, GALEX, 2MASS, IRAS, GB6, FIRST, NVSS and WENSS surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obric, M.; Ivezic, Z.; Best, P. N.; Lupton, R. H.; Tremonti, C.; Brinchmann, J.; Agueeros, M. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Rockosi, C. M.; Schlegel, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Gacesa, M.; Smolcic, V.; Anderson, S. F.; Voges, W.; Juric, M.; Siverd, R. J.; Steinhardt, W.; Jagoda, A. S.; Blanton, M. R.; Schneider, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the panchromatic properties of 99 088 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 1 'main' spectroscopic sample ( a flux-limited sample for 1360 deg(2)). These galaxies are positionally matched to sources detected by ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX),

  19. A Deep ROSAT HRI Observation of NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Petre, Robert; Colbert, E. J. M.; Miller, Scott

    2000-11-01

    We describe a series of observations of NGC 1313 using the ROSAT HRI with a combined exposure time of 183.5 ks. The observations span an interval between 1992 and 1998; the purpose of observations since 1994 was to monitor the X-ray flux of SN 1978K, one of several luminous sources in the galaxy. No diffuse emission is detected in the galaxy to a level of ~1-2×1037 ergs s-1 arcmin-2. A total of eight sources are detected in the summed image within the D25 diameter of the galaxy. The luminosities of five of the eight range from ~6×1037 to ~6×1038 ergs s-1 these sources are most likely accreting X-ray binaries, similar to sources observed in M31 and M33. The remaining three sources all emit above 1039 ergs s-1. We present light curves of the five brightest sources. Variability is detected at the 99.9% level in four of these. We identify one of the sources as an NGC 1313 counterpart of a Galactic X-ray source. The light curve, though crudely sampled, most closely resembles that of a Galactic black hole candidate such as GX 339-4 but with considerably higher peak X-ray luminosity. An additional seven sources lie outside the D25 diameter and are either foreground stars or background active galactic nuclei.

  20. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Malkan, M., E-mail: rickedelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We have developed the ''S{sub IX}'' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S{sub IX} < 0 have a {approx}>95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S{sub IX} < 0. Only 2209 of these sources are currently in the Veron-Cetty and Veron (VCV) catalog of spectroscopically confirmed AGNs, indicating that the W2R sample contains nearly 2000 new, relatively bright (J {approx}< 16) AGNs. We utilize the W2R sample to quantify biases and incompleteness in the VCV catalog. We find that it is highly complete for bright (J < 14), northern AGNs, but the completeness drops below 50% for fainter, southern samples and for sources near the Galactic plane. This approach also led to the spectroscopic identification of 10 new AGNs in the Kepler field, more than doubling the number of AGNs being monitored by Kepler. The W2R sample contains better than 1 bright AGN every 10 deg{sup 2}, permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  1. X-RAY-EMITTING STARS IDENTIFIED FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY AND THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Newsom, Emily R.; Anderson, Scott F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Covey, Kevin R.; Posselt, Bettina; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) was the first imaging X-ray survey of the entire sky. Combining the RASS Bright and Faint Source Catalogs yields an average of about three X-ray sources per square degree. However, while X-ray source counterparts are known to range from distant quasars to nearby M dwarfs, the RASS data alone are often insufficient to determine the nature of an X-ray source. As a result, large-scale follow-up programs are required to construct samples of known X-ray emitters. We use optical data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 709 stellar X-ray emitters cataloged in the RASS and falling within the SDSS Data Release 1 footprint. Most of these are bright stars with coronal X-ray emission unsuitable for SDSS spectroscopy, which is designed for fainter objects (g > 15 [mag]). Instead, we use SDSS photometry, correlations with the Two Micron All Sky Survey and other catalogs, and spectroscopy from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope to identify these stellar X-ray counterparts. Our sample of 707 X-ray-emitting F, G, K, and M stars is one of the largest X-ray-selected samples of such stars. We derive distances to these stars using photometric parallax relations appropriate for dwarfs on the main sequence, and use these distances to calculate L X . We also identify a previously unknown cataclysmic variable (CV) as a RASS counterpart. Separately, we use correlations of the RASS and the SDSS spectroscopic catalogs of CVs and white dwarfs (WDs) to study the properties of these rarer X-ray-emitting stars. We examine the relationship between (f X /f g ) and the equivalent width of the Hβ emission line for 46 X-ray-emitting CVs and discuss tentative classifications for a subset based on these quantities. We identify 17 new X-ray-emitting DA (hydrogen) WDs, of which three are newly identified WDs. We report on follow-up observations of three candidate cool X-ray-emitting WDs (one DA and two DB (helium) WDs); we have not

  2. A LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS DETECTED IN THE ROSAT ALL-SKY-SURVEY BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Letcavage, Ryan; Shevchuk, Andrew S. H.; Fox, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Using new and archival observations made with the Swift satellite and other facilities, we examine 147 X-ray sources selected from the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) to produce a new limit on the number of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the RASS/BSC, the most constraining such limit to date. Independent of X-ray spectrum and variability, the number of INSs is ≤48 (90% confidence). Restricting attention to soft (kT eff < 200 eV), non-variable X-ray sources-as in a previous study-yields an all-sky limit of ≤31 INSs. In the course of our analysis, we identify five new high-quality INS candidates for targeted follow-up observations. A future all-sky X-ray survey with eROSITA, or another mission with similar capabilities, can be expected to increase the detected population of X-ray-discovered INSs from the 8-50 in the BSC, to (for a disk population) 240-1500, which will enable a more detailed study of neutron star population models.

  3. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Arendt, R.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P.; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Davé, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg 2 to a depth of 26 AB mag (3σ) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 ± 1.0 and 4.4 ± 0.8 nW m –2 sr –1 at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  4. X-ray emission on hybird stars: ROSAT observations of alpha Trianguli Australis and iota Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, V.; Rosner, R.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on deep ROSAT observations of two Hybrid atmosphere stars, alpha TrA and iota Aur, and our analysis of these observations. We detect high-energy transient phenomena on alpha TrA and consider the implications of this discovery to the atmospheres of Hybrid stars. We detect iota Aur in the high-energy passband of ROSAT, implying the existence of multimillion degree plasma on the star. Our major results include the following: discovery of two large flare events, detected during pointed observations of alpha TrA; the demonstration that the flare emission most likely comes from the giant itself, rather than from a previously unseen low-mass companion star; the demonstration that the plasma characteristics associated with the flares and with the 'quiescent' component are essentially indistinguishable; and that the geometric dimensions of the emitting plasma are considerably smaller than the critical dimension characterizing stable 'hot' coronal loop structures. Our results suggest that alpha TrA does not have any steady X-ray emission consistent with theoretical expectations, and support the argument that Hybrid stars constitute a transitional type of object in which large-scale magnetic dynamo activity ceases, and the dominant spatial scales characterizing coronal structure rapidly decline as such stars evolve across the X-ray 'Dividing Line' in the H-R diagram.

  5. The ROSAT Field Sources --- What are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, J.-P.; Briceno, C.; Martin, E. L.; Palla, F.; Wichmann, R.

    Recent studies using the ROSAT All-Sky Survey towards nearby star-forming regions have identified a widely dispersed population of X-ray active stars and have suggested that these objects are older PMS stars located far from molecular clouds. Another group, however, has presented a simple model assuming continuing star formation over the past 10^8 yrs that quantitatively reproduces the number, surface density, X-ray emission, and optical properties of the RASS sources, leading to the argument that these stars are not PMS stars, but young MS stars of ages up to approximately 10^8 yrs. A third party notes that the similarity between molecular cloud lifetimes and the ambipolar diffusion timescale implies that star formation does not take place instantaneously, nor at a constant rate. They thus argue that the probability of finding a large population of old stars in a star-forming region is intrinsically very small and that the post-T Tauri problem is by and large nonexistent.

  6. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Contribution To The ROSAT Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Y.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Liu, W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    DXL (Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission designed to estimate the contribution of solar wind charge eXchange (SWCX) to the diffuse X-ray background and to help determine the properties of the Local Hot Bubble. The detectors are large area thin-window proportional counters with a spectral response that is similar to that of the PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counters) used in the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). A direct comparison of DXL and RASS data for the same part of the sky viewed from quite different vantage points in the solar system, and the assumption of approximate isotropy for the solar wind, allowed us to quantify the SWCX contribution to all six RASS bands (R1-R7, excluding R3). We find that the SWCX contribution at l = 140 degrees, b = 0 degrees, where the DXL path crosses the Galactic plane, is 33 percent plus or minus 6 percent (statistical) plus or minus 12 percent (systematic) for R1, 44 percent plus or minus 6 percent plus or minus 5 percent for R2, 18 percent plus or minus 12 percent plus or minus 11 percent for R4, 14 percent plus or minus 11 percent plus or minus 9 percent for R5, and negligible for the R6 and R7 bands. Reliable models for the distribution of neutral H and He in the solar system permit estimation of the contribution of interplanetary SWCX emission over the the whole sky and correction of the RASS maps. We find that the average SWCX contribution in the whole sky is 26 percent plus or minus 6 percent plus or minus 13 percent for R1, 30 percent plus or minus 4 percent plus or minus 4 percent for R2, 8 percent plus or minus 5 percent plus or minus 5 percent for R4, 6 percent plus or minus 4 percent plus or minus 4 percent for R5, and negligible for R6 and R7.

  7. A deep x-ray survey of the Pleiades cluster and the B6-A3 main sequence stars in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained deep ROSAT images of three regions within the Pleiades open cluster. We have detected 317 X-ray sources in these ROSAT PSPC images, 171 of which we associate with certain probable members of the Pleiades cluster. We detect nearly all Pleiades members with spectral types later than G0 and within 25 arcminutes of our three field centers where our sensitivity is highest. This has allowed us to derive for the first time the luminosity function for the G, K, and M dwarfs of an open cluster without the need to use statistical techniques to account for the presence of upper limits in the data sample. Because of our high X-ray detection frequency down to the faint limit of the optical catalog, we suspect that some of our unidentified X-ray sources are previously unknown, very low-mass members of the Pleiades. A large fraction of the Pleiades members detected with ROSAT have published rotational velocities. Plots of L(sub x)/L(sub bol) versus spectroscopic rotational velocity show tightly correlated 'saturation' type relations for stars with (B - V)(sub O) greater than 0.60. For each of several color ranges, X-ray luminosities rise rapidly with increasing rotation rate until v sin i approximately equals 15 km/s, and then remain essentially flat for rotation rates up to at least v sin i approximately equal to 100 km/s. The dispersion in rotation among low-mass stars in the Pleiades is by far the dominant contributor to the dispersion in L(subx) at a given mass. Only about 35 percent of the B.A. and early F stars in the Pleiades are detected as X-ray sources in our survey. There is no correlation between X-ray flux and rotation for these stars. The X-ray luminosity function for the early-type Pleiades stars appears to be bimodal, with only a few exceptions. We either detect these stars at fluxes in the range found for low-mass stars or we derive X-ray limits below the level found for most Pleiades dwarfs. The X-ray spectra for the early-type Pleiades stars

  8. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  9. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  10. WFIRST: Science from Deep Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton; Foley, Ryan; WFIRST Deep Field Working Group

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will enable deep field imaging across much larger areas than those previously obtained with Hubble, opening up completely new areas of parameter space for extragalactic deep fields including cosmology, supernova and galaxy evolution science. The instantaneous field of view of the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) is about 0.3 square degrees, which would for example yield an Ultra Deep Field (UDF) reaching similar depths at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to that obtained with Hubble, over an area about 100-200 times larger, for a comparable investment in time. Moreover, wider fields on scales of 10-20 square degrees could achieve depths comparable to large HST surveys at medium depths such as GOODS and CANDELS, and would enable multi-epoch supernova science that could be matched in area to LSST Deep Drilling fields or other large survey areas. Such fields may benefit from being placed on locations in the sky that have ancillary multi-band imaging or spectroscopy from other facilities, from the ground or in space. The WFIRST Deep Fields Working Group has been examining the science considerations for various types of deep fields that may be obtained with WFIRST, and present here a summary of the various properties of different locations in the sky that may be considered for future deep fields with WFIRST.

  11. Candidate isolated neutron stars and other optically blank x-ray fields identified from the rosat all-sky and sloan digital sky surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueros, Marcel A.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Margon, Bruce; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; /Garching,; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-11-01

    Only seven radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) emitting thermal X rays are known, a sample that has yet to definitively address such fundamental issues as the equation of state of degenerate neutron matter. We describe a selection algorithm based on a cross-correlation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that identifies X-ray error circles devoid of plausible optical counterparts to the SDSS g {approx} 22 magnitudes limit. We quantitatively characterize these error circles as optically blank; they may host INSs or other similarly exotic X-ray sources such as radio-quiet BL Lacs, obscured AGN, etc. Our search is an order of magnitude more selective than previous searches for optically blank RASS error circles, and excludes the 99.9% of error circles that contain more common X-ray-emitting subclasses. We find 11 candidates, nine of which are new. While our search is designed to find the best INS candidates and not to produce a complete list of INSs in the RASS, it is reassuring that our number of candidates is consistent with predictions from INS population models. Further X-ray observations will obtain pinpoint positions and determine whether these sources are entirely optically blank at g {approx} 22, supporting the presence of likely isolated neutron stars and perhaps enabling detailed follow-up studies of neutron star physics.

  12. Three new BL Lacertae objects in the Palomar-Green survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas A.; Green, Richard F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Liebert, James; Smith, Paul S.; Fink, Henner

    1993-01-01

    We have identified three BL Lacertae objects in the Palomar-Green Survey which were previously misclassified as DC white dwarfs, namely PG 1246+586, PG 1424+240, and PG 1437+398. Our reclassification is based on the detection of these objects as x-ray sources in the ROSAT all-sky survey and upon our subsequent detection of intrinsic linearly polarized and variable optical emission from these sources. As a result of the ROSAT survey, the number of identified BL Lac objects in the Palomar-Green catalog of UV excess objects has been doubled. Corrected optical positions are presented for PG 1246+586 and PG 1437+398.

  13. Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS): Motivation, Design and Target Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Lagos, C. P.; Cortese, L.; Mannering, E.; Foster, C.; Lidman, C.; Hashemizadeh, A.; Koushan, S.; O'Toole, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bilicki, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Bryant, J. J.; Catinella, B.; Croom, S. M.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Jarvis, M. J.; Maddox, N.; Meyer, M.; Moffett, A. J.; Phillipps, S.; Taylor, E. N.; Windhorst, R. A.; Wolf, C.

    2018-06-01

    The Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS) is a large spectroscopic campaign at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) aimed at bridging the near and distant Universe by producing the highest completeness survey of galaxies and groups at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 1.0). Our sample consists of ˜60,000 galaxies to Y<21.2 mag, over ˜6 deg2 in three well-studied deep extragalactic fields (Cosmic Origins Survey field, COSMOS, Extended Chandra Deep Field South, ECDFS and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission Large-Scale Structure region, XMM-LSS - all Large Synoptic Survey Telescope deep-drill fields). This paper presents the broad experimental design of DEVILS. Our target sample has been selected from deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Y-band imaging (VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations, VIDEO and UltraVISTA), with photometry measured by PROFOUND. Photometric star/galaxy separation is done on the basis of NIR colours, and has been validated by visual inspection. To maximise our observing efficiency for faint targets we employ a redshift feedback strategy, which continually updates our target lists, feeding back the results from the previous night's observations. We also present an overview of the initial spectroscopic observations undertaken in late 2017 and early 2018.

  14. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  15. ROSAT view of the ISM in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, You-Hua

    1996-01-01

    Rosat observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) show a large scale unbounded diffuse X-ray emission, as well as an enhanced emission within large shell structures. These observations allow the distribution of hot ionized medium in the LMC to be examined. Moreover, the hot interior of supernova shells and superbubbles, supernova remnants and the multi-phase structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) can be investigated.

  16. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  17. Flares from a new Integral hard X-ray source, IGR J17407-2808, likely associated with the ROSAT source SBM 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmar, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Hermsen, W.

    2004-01-01

    This new hard X-ray source, IGR J17407-2808, is positionally coincident with a faint ROSAT source listed as no. 10 in the catalogue of sources in the Galactic Center region by Sidoli, Belloni & Mereghetti 2001, A&A 368, 835 and as 2RXP J174040.9-280852 in the ROSAT Source Browser. No other observ...

  18. A 6-cm deep sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomalont, E.B.; Kellermann, K.I.; Wall, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In order to extend radio source counts to lower flux density, the authors have used the VLA to survey a small region of sky at 4.885 GHz (6 cm) to a limiting flux density of 50 μJy. Details of this deep survey are given in the paper by kellermann et al. (these proceedings). In addition, they have observed 10 other nearby fields to a limiting flux density of 350 μJy in order to provide better statistics on sources of intermediate flux density. (Auth.)

  19. ROSAT in-orbit attitude measurement recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffer, L.; Boeinghoff, A.; Bruederle, E.; Schrempp, W.; Wullstein, P.

    After about 7 months of nearly perfect Attitude Measurement and Control System (AMCS) functioning, the ROSAT mission was influenced by gyro degradations which complicated the operation and after one year the nominal mission could no longer be maintained. The reestablishment of the nominal mission by the redesign of the attitude measurement using inertial reference generation from coarse Sun sensor and magnetometer together with a new star acquisition procedure is described. This success was only possible because sufficient reprogramming provisions in the onboard computer were available. The new software now occupies nearly the complete Random Access Memory (RAM) area and increases the computation time from about 50 msec to 300 msec per 1 sec cycle. This proves that deficiencies of the hardware can be overcome by a more intelligent software.

  20. The final optical identification content of the Einstein deep x-ray field in Pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, J. I.; Gilmozzi, R.

    1997-07-01

    The optical identification of all sources revealed in the final analysis of the Einstein deep field observations in Pavo has been completed to the viable limits accessible to spectroscopy. This work combined with previously published data results in the identification of 16 AGN's with the real possibility of 3 further such identifications, while a further 2 probably are spurious. Another AGN is identified in an IPC exposure just outside the boundary of the four HRI exposures. One elliptical galaxy (or cluster) and one dMe star complete the tally. In a log N-log S plot the point represented by these 16-19 AGN's falls precisely on the extension of the line defined by the EMSS data, and somewhat below the line defined by the more recent deep field ROSAT data. It extends to fainter sensitivities than the previously published work from the Einstein observations of the same field. It is consistent with the more recently published data for Pavo obtained with ROSAT even though this latter reaches a slightly fainter sensitivity. This identification work therefore sets a firm lower limit to the AGN content of the X-ray identifications in Pavo. By virtue of having selected in this survey intrinsically fainter-than-average AGN's it has been possible to show, by combination with data for higher luminosity quasars, that a correlation exists between the luminosities and (B-V) colours extending over a luminosity range of 6 magnitudes. This sequence coincides with the sequence obtained by plotting data for all AGN's in the same redshift range taken from the Veron and Veron catalogue. It is argued that the magnitude of this effect cannot be explained by the translation of various strong emission lines through the band-passes of the relevant filters. It may be explained by the influence of host galaxies.

  1. Cataclysmic variables from a ROSAT/2MASS selection - I. Four new intermediate polars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gänsicke, B.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Edge, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Steeghs, D.; Araujo-Betancor, S.; Harlaftis, E.; Giannakis, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Aungwerojwit, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first results from a new search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) using a combined X-ray (ROSAT)/infrared (2MASS) target selection that discriminates against background active galactic nuclei. Identification spectra were obtained at the Isaac Newton Telescope for a total of 174 targets,

  2. Chandra Observations of the Deep Impact Encounter with Comet 9P/Tempel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Hoekstra, R.; Makinen, T.; Schultz, P. H.; Weaver, H. A.

    2005-08-01

    On July 4, 2005 NASA's discovery mission Deep Impact (hereafter DI) will send a 375 kg impactor into the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 at 10.2 km/s relative velocity. In the x-ray, the DI experiment allows for a controlled test of the charge exchange (CXE) emission mechanism that drives cometary x-ray emission (Lisse et al. 2001, Kharchenko and Dalgarno 2001, Krasnopolsky et al.2002). Previous ROSAT and Chandra observations studied cometary x-ray emission as the solar wind changed but the cometary emission remained constant. Here, at a precise time, a fresh amount of neutral material will be injected into a finite volume of the extended atmosphere, or coma, of the comet. This new material will directly increase the emission measure for the comet, passing from the collisionally thick to the collisionally thin regions of emission over the course of days. The DI experiment also allows for a direct search for prompt x-rays created by hyper-velocity impact processes, such as was seen by ROSAT during the impact of the K-fragment of comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter (Waite et al. 1995). We report here on the first results of of the Chandra observations of the Deep Impact encounter.

  3. Quasi-periodicity in deep redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, R. van de

    1991-01-01

    The recent result by Broadhurst et al., (1990. Nature 343, 726) showing a striking, nearly periodic, galaxy redshift distribution in a narrow pencil-beam survey, is explained within the Voronoi cellular model of clustering of galaxies. Galaxies, whose luminosities are selected from a Schechter luminosity function, are placed randomly within the walls of this cellular model. Narrow and deep, magnitude-limited, pencil-beam surveys through these structures are simulated. Some 15 per cent of these beams show that observed regular pattern, with a spacing between the peaks of the order of 105 h -1 -150 h -1 Mpc, but most pencil-beams show peaks in the redshift distribution without periodicity, so we may conclude that, even within a cellular universe, periodicity is not a common phenomenon. (author)

  4. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: DESIGN, OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION, AND REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Harker, Justin J.; Lai, Kamson; Coil, Alison L.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan Renbin; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z ∼ 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M B = –20 at z ∼ 1 via ∼90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg 2 divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R AB = 24.1. Objects with z ∼ 0.7 to be targeted ∼2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ∼ 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 Å doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm –1 grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R ∼ 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate

  5. A survey on deep learning in medical image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, Geert; Kooi, Thijs; Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Ciompi, Francesco; Ghafoorian, Mohsen; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ginneken, Bram; Sánchez, Clara I

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year. We survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks. Concise overviews are provided of studies per application area: neuro, retinal, pulmonary, digital pathology, breast, cardiac, abdominal, musculoskeletal. We end with a summary of the current state-of-the-art, a critical discussion of open challenges and directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blank Field Sources in the ROSAT HRI Brera Multiscale Wavelet catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Chieregato, M.; Campana, S.; Treves, A.; Moretti, A.; Mignani, R. P.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2005-01-01

    The search for Blank Field Sources (BFS), i.e. X-ray sources without optical counterparts, paves the way to the identification of unusual objects in the X-ray sky. Here we present four BFS detected in the Brera Multiscale Wavelet catalog of ROSAT HRI observations. This sample has been selected on the basis of source brightness, distance from possible counterparts at other wavelengths, point-like shape and good estimate of the X-ray flux (f_X). The observed f_X and the limiting magnitude of th...

  7. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  8. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  9. Deep-towed CSEM survey of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are increasingly being used to remotely detect hydrate deposits in seafloor sediments. CSEM methods are sensitive to sediment pore space resistivity, such as when electrically resistive hydrate displaces the electrically conductive pore fluid, increasing the bulk resistivity of the sediment. In July 2017, a two-week research cruise using an upgraded and expanded "Vulcan" towed receiver system collected over 250 line km of data at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) thought to have hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate bearing horizons at the survey sites ranged from 400-700 m below seafloor. Modeling suggested an array with source receiver offsets of up to 1600 m would be needed to properly image the deep hydrate. A deep towed electromagnetic transmitter outputting 270 Amps was towed 100 m above seafloor. Six Vulcan receivers, each recording three-axis electric field data, were towed at 200 m intervals from 600-1600 m behind the transmitter. The four sites surveyed, Walker Ridge 313, Orca Basin, Mad Dog, and Green Canyon 955, are associated with the upcoming GOM^2 coring operation scheduled for 2020. Wells at WR313 and GC955 were logged as part of a joint industry drilling project in 2009 and will be used to ground truth our inversion results. In 2008, WR313 and GC955 were surveyed using traditional CSEM seafloor receivers, accompanied by a single prototype Vulcan towed receiver. This prior survey will allow comparison of results from a seafloor receiver survey with those from a towed receiver survey. Seismic data has been collected at all the sites, which will be used to constrain inversions. In addition to the four hydrate sites surveyed, two lines were towed over Green Knoll, a deep-water salt dome located between Mad Dog and GC955. Presented here are initial results from our recent cruise.

  10. Deep 20-GHz survey of the Chandra Deep Field South and SDSS Stripe 82: source catalogue and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Chhetri, Rajan; Ekers, Ronald D.; Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Murphy, Tara; Norris, Ray P.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Whittam, Imogen H.

    2014-04-01

    We present a source catalogue and first results from a deep, blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, with follow-up observations at 5.5, 9 and 18 GHz. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) deep pilot survey covers a total area of 5 deg2 in the Chandra Deep Field South and in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We estimate the survey to be 90 per cent complete above 2.5 mJy. Of the 85 sources detected, 55 per cent have steep spectra (α _{1.4}^{20} law spectra between 1.4 and 18 GHz, while the spectral indices of the flat- or inverted-spectrum sources tend to steepen with frequency. Among the 18 inverted-spectrum (α _{1.4}^{20} ≥ 0.0) sources, 10 have clearly defined peaks in their spectra with α _{1.4}^{5.5} > 0.15 and α 9^{18} Cambridge and Tenth Cambridge surveys: there is a shift towards a steeper-spectrum population when going from ˜1 Jy to ˜5 mJy, which is followed by a shift back towards a flatter-spectrum population below ˜5 mJy. The 5-GHz source-count model by Jackson & Wall, which only includes contributions from FRI and FRII sources, and star-forming galaxies, does not reproduce the observed flattening of the flat-spectrum counts below ˜5 mJy. It is therefore possible that another population of sources is contributing to this effect.

  11. Deep Echo State Network (DeepESN): A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The study of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and, in particular, of deep Reservoir Computing (RC) is gaining an increasing research attention in the neural networks community. The recently introduced deep Echo State Network (deepESN) model opened the way to an extremely efficient approach for designing deep neural networks for temporal data. At the same time, the study of deepESNs allowed to shed light on the intrinsic properties of state dynamics developed by hierarchical compositions ...

  12. XMM-Newton 13H deep field - I. X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaring, N. S.; Dwelly, T.; Page, M. J.; Mason, K.; McHardy, I.; Gunn, K.; Moss, D.; Seymour, N.; Newsam, A. M.; Takata, T.; Sekguchi, K.; Sasseen, T.; Cordova, F.

    2005-10-01

    We present the results of a deep X-ray survey conducted with XMM-Newton, centred on the UK ROSAT13H deep field area. This region covers 0.18 deg2, and is the first of the two areas covered with XMM-Newton as part of an extensive multiwavelength survey designed to study the nature and evolution of the faint X-ray source population. We have produced detailed Monte Carlo simulations to obtain a quantitative characterization of the source detection procedure and to assess the reliability of the resultant sourcelist. We use the simulations to establish a likelihood threshold, above which we expect less than seven (3 per cent) of our sources to be spurious. We present the final catalogue of 225 sources. Within the central 9 arcmin, 68 per cent of source positions are accurate to 2 arcsec, making optical follow-up relatively straightforward. We construct the N(>S) relation in four energy bands: 0.2-0.5, 0.5-2, 2-5 and 5-10 keV. In all but our highest energy band we find that the source counts can be represented by a double power law with a bright-end slope consistent with the Euclidean case and a break around 10-14yergcm-2s-1. Below this flux, the counts exhibit a flattening. Our source counts reach densities of 700, 1300, 900 and 300 deg-2 at fluxes of 4.1 × 10-16,4.5 × 10-16,1.1 × 10-15 and 5.3 × 10-15ergcm-2s-1 in the 0.2-0.5, 0.5-2, 2-5 and 5-10 keV energy bands, respectively. We have compared our source counts with those in the two Chandra deep fields and Lockman hole, and found our source counts to be amongst the highest of these fields in all energy bands. We resolve >51 per cent (>50 per cent) of the X-ray background emission in the 1-2 keV (2-5 keV) energy bands.

  13. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  14. A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Pye, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known star systems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in at least one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while we consider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-ray luminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along with the WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for single stars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, and these luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functions derived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 and S2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find that most stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levels different from those of single stars, but there may be a few EUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation due to some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity to EUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggesting that coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We find that our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated with rotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relations determined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found to be significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars. The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronal saturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limited fraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, which means stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relatively low X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronal emission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied

  15. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dahlen, Tomas; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Haeussler, Boris; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Hao-Jing; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the

  16. Westerbork Ultra-Deep Survey of HI at z=0.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc; Deshev, Boris; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Poggianti, Bianca; Chung, Aeree; Cybulski, Ryan; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Montero-Castano, Maria; Morrison, Glenn; Schiminovich, David; Szomoru, Arpad; Yun, Min

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we present some preliminary observational results from the completed ultra-deep survey of 21cm emission from neutral hydrogen at redshifts z=0.164-0.224 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. In two separate fields, a total of 160 individual galaxies has been detected

  17. X-Ray Spectrometer For ROSAT II (SPECTROSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predehl, Peter; Brauninger, Heinrich

    1986-01-01

    The objective transmission grating was one of the earliest inventions in the field of X-ray astronomy and has been incorporated into Skylab, HERO-P, and EXOTAT. In recent years there have been advances in grating technology and spectrometer design. A high precision mechanical ruling and replication process for manufacturing large self-supporting transmission gratings has been developed by an industrial manufacturer in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI). Theoretical analyses have determined the optimum configuration of the grating facets and the grating surface in order to correct third order aberations and obtain maximum resolving power. We have verified experimentally that the predicted efficiencies may be achieved. In addition, an experimental study of large grating assemblies for space telescopes was made in industry with scientific guidance by MPI. Main objectives of this study were the determination of mechanical loads during launch, as well as the design, construction and fabrication of a representative model of a ROSAT grating ring. Performancy studies including instrument pro-perties as well as the simulated radiation from hot plasmas have shown the ability of SPECTROSAT to perform high efficiency, high resolution line-spectroscopy on a wide variety of cosmic X-ray sources.

  18. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  19. The CfA Einstein Observatory extended deep X-ray survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, F. A.; Murray, S. S.; Huchra, J.; Schild, R.; Burg, R.

    1991-01-01

    All IPC exposures in the Einstein Extended Deep X-ray Survey program have been reanalyzed. The current survey covers about 2.3 sq deg with a typical limiting sensitivity of about 5 x 10 to the -14th ergs/sq cm/s in the energy range from 0.8-3.5 keV. A total of 25 IPC sources are detected above a threshold of 4.5 sigma. A total of 18 are detected independently in the HRI, leading to the identification of six with stars and 11 with extragalactic objects. The remaining sources are classified as extragalactic. The population of identified extragalactic objects is dominated by QSOs, with one or two possible clusters. The basic conclusions of the original survey remain unchanged.

  20. Survey and analysis of deep water mineral deposits using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, C.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.

    1991-01-01

    Present knowledge of the location, quality, quantity and recoverability of sea floor minerals is severely limited, particularly in the abyssal depths and deep water within the 200 mile Exclusion Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. Pacific Islands. To improve this understanding and permit exploitation of these mineral reserves much additional data is needed. This paper will discuss a sponsored program for extending existing proven nuclear survey methods currently used on the shallow continental margins of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico into the deeper waters of the Pacific. This nuclear technology can be readily integrated and extended to depths of 2000 m using the existing RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the PISCESE V manned deep submersible vehicle (DSV) operated by The University of Hawaii's, Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratory (HURL). Previous papers by the authors have also proposed incorporating these nuclear analytical methods for survey of the deep ocean through the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUX). Such a vehicle could extend the use of passive nuclear instrument operation, in addition to conventional analytical methods, into the abyssal depths and do so with speed and economy not otherwise possible. The natural radioactivity associated with manganese nodules and crustal deposits is sufficiently above normal background levels to allow discrimination and quantification in near real time

  1. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  2. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 1/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. 1) and 2) were included in this report, and 3) in the next report. In 1), the items were as follows: the study plan/gist of study execution, the details and results of the deep geothermal resource survey, the outline of the deep exploration well drilling work, and the outline of the results of the FY 1998 study. In 2), the drilling work plan/the actual results of the drilling work were summed up. As to the results of the study, summarized were the acquisition of survey data on deep exploration well, heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for deep geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1993); 1993 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted in order to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Following fiscal 1992, the well was drilled in fiscal 1993 down to depths of 605m-1505m, and a 13-3/8 inch casing was inserted down to a depth of 1500m. In the drilling, four cores including oriented cores were sampled, and microscopic observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, fluid inclusion survey, core property test, etc. were conducted. In the FMI logging, detected were 273 bedding planes, 483 fractures, etc. Further made were a velocity structure survey, a gravity survey in the area of 270 km{sup 2} including deep exploration wells, a quality survey of the Kakkonda river water, etc. As to geothermal structure models in the Kakkonda area, results of the drilling were added to prediction models before drilling deep exploration wells, but the revision was not very much. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, a survey technique using resistivity, etc. 61 refs., 259 figs., 95 tabs.

  4. ROSAT X-ray luminosity functions of the Hyades dK and dM stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, John P.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Stern, Robert A.; Stauffer, John R.

    1994-02-01

    Long-duration ROSAT PSPC pointed observations of the Hyades open star cluster are performed. The Hyades dK and XLFs from the present observations are compared with published Einstein dK/dM XLFs. The Hyades dK binaries have significantly higher L(X) than the Hyades dK stars. However, all these binaries have relatively long periods (greater than about 1 yr), and hence the L(X) levels cannot be attributed to the enhanced activity expected in short-period, 'BY Dra-type' systems. It is also shown that the effect cannot be due simply to the summed luminosities of the component stars.

  5. Simulation of deep one- and two-dimensional redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J.R. III

    1991-01-01

    We show that slice or pencil-beam redshift surveys of galaxies can be simulated in a box with non-equal sides. This method saves a lot of computer time and memory while providing essentially the same results as from whole-cube simulations. A 2457.6-h -1 Mpc-long rod (out to a redshift z = 0.58 in two opposite directions) is simulated using the standard biased Cold Dark Matter model as an example to mimic the recent deep pencil-beam surveys by Broadhurst et al. The structures (spikes) we see in these simulated samples occur when the narrow pencil-beam pierces walls, filaments and clusters appearing randomly along the line-of-sight. We have applied a statistical test for goodness of fit to a periodic lattice to the observations and the simulations. (author)

  6. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L X ≥ 10 45 erg s -1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L X ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  7. Deep Sea Coral voucher sequence dataset - Identification of deep-sea corals collected during the 2009 - 2014 West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project resides in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Database. Deep-sea corals are often components of trawling bycatch, though their...

  8. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 2/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. This report contained 3). In 3), the items were as follows: heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, making of a geothermal model in the Kakkonda area, study of deep drilling technology, study of deep fluid utilization technology, and making of a guide for deep geothermal resource exploration/development in the Kakkonda area. As to the technology of high temperature deep geothermal well drilling, studies were made of the borehole cooling method, mud water cooling method, survey of deterioration of casing with age, etc. (NEDO)

  9. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z ∼ 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around α 2000 ∼ 0 h , δ ∼ 15 0 42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is ρ H I [z = 0.125] = (1.0 ± 0.3)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the H I density at zero redshift.

  10. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  11. Deep fracturing of granite bodies. Literature survey, geostructural and geostatistic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with investigations about deep fracturing of granite bodies, which were performed within two cost-sharing contracts between the Commission of the European Communities, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of fracturing in granite from the surface to larger depths, so that guidelines can be identified in order to extrapolate, at depth, the data obtained from surface investigations. These guidelines could eventually be used for feasibility studies about radioactive waste disposal. The results of structural and geostatistic investigations about the St. Sylvestre granite, as well as the literature survey about fractures encountered in two long Alpine galleries (Mont-Blanc tunnel and Arc-Isere water gallery), in the 1000 m deep borehole at Auriat, and in the Bassies granite body (Pyrenees) are presented. These results show that, for radioactive waste disposal feasibility studies: 1. The deep state of fracturing in a granite body can be estimated from results obtained at the surface; 2. Studying only the large fault network would be insufficient, both for surface investigations and for studies in deep boreholes and/or in underground galleries; 3. It is necessary to study orientations and frequencies of small fractures, so that structural mapping and statistical/geostatistical methods can be used in order to identify zones of higher and lower fracturing

  12. A systematic search for new X-ray pulsators in ROSAT fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. L.

    1996-10-01

    powered neutron stars, some of which were observed in the X-ray band, can show highly coherent signals as well. Photospheric oscillations due to opacity instability in a layer close to the surface of an isolated hot white dwarf or pre-white dwarf star can be also observed in the very soft X-ray band. Light curves with increased statistical quality, time resolution and duration have become available in recent years for a variety of astronomical objects and over different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Power spectrum analysis is probably the single most important technique that is applied to time series, in order to detect periodicities and quasi-periodicities by the presence of significant power spectrum peaks. Applications to time series of high energy astronomical data have been especially numerous and successful over the last decade, as a consequence of the pronounced variability (often both periodic and non-periodic in character) detected in many sources. ROSAT, an acronym for the German word Rontgensatellit, is an X-ray satellite launched in June 1990. Its X-ray telescope covers the soft X-ray band from 0.05 keV to 2.4 keV. The main aim of the mission was to perform the first all-sky survey (RASS) with imaging telescopes, possessing an X-ray sensitivity of about a factor 1000 higher than that of UHURU. The survey took the first 6 months of the operations of ROSAT. After that the satellite has been used to carry out pointed observations of selected targets. These observations cover a much smaller portion of the sky than the RASS, but afford a factor 10-1000 higher sensitivity. A systematic exploitation of the public domain ROSAT pointed observations with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC; about 10% of the sky and about 5300 fields until May 1996) was carried out by several groups. NASA-HEASARC and MPE have produced catalogues containing about 60000 serendipitous sources (WGA by White, Giommi & Angelini 1994; ROSATSRC by Zimmermann 1994). This

  13. Simulation of deep one- and two-dimensional redshift surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard, III

    1991-03-01

    It is shown that slice or pencil-beam redshift surveys of galaxies can be simulated in a box with nonequal sides. This method saves a lot of computer time and memory while providing essentially the same results as from whole-cube simulations. A 2457.6/h Mpc-long rod (out to a redshift z = 0.58 in two opposite directions) is simulated using the standard biased cold dark matter model as an example to mimic the recent deep pencil-beam surveys by Broadhurst et al. (1990). The structures (spikes) seen in these simulated samples occur when the narrow pencil-beam pierces walls, filaments, and clusters appearing randomly along the line-of-sight. A statistical test for goodness of fit to a periodic lattice has been applied to the observations and the simulations. It is found that the statistical significance level (P = 15.4 percent) is not strong enough to reject the null hypothesis that the observations and the simulations were drawn at random from the same set.

  14. ROSAT Energy Spectra of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 0.1-2.4 keV bandpass of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) offers an opportunity to study the very soft X-ray continuum of bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In 46 pointed observations, 23 LMXBs were observed with count rates between 0.4 and 165.4 counts s-1. The survey identified a total of 29 different luminosity levels, which are compared with observations and identified spectral states from other missions. The atoll source 4U 1705-44 was observed near Eddington luminosities in an unusually high intensity state. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the interstellar column density for all 49 observations. The sensitivity of spectral fits depends strongly on column density. Fits to highly absorbed spectra are merely insensitive toward any particular spectral model. Sources with column densities well below 1022 cm-2 are best fitted by power laws, while the blackbody model gives clearly worse fits to the data. Most single-component fits from sources with low column densities, however, are not acceptable at all. The inclusion of a blackbody component in eight sources can improve the fits significantly. The obtained emission radii of less than 5 km suggest emission from the neutron star surface. In 10 sources acceptable fits can only be achieved by including soft-line components. With a spectral resolution of the PSPC of 320-450 eV, between 0.6 and 1.2 keV unresolved broad-line features were detected around 0.65, 0.85, and 1.0 keV. The line fluxes range within 10-11 and 10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, with equivalent widths between 24 and 210 eV. In LMC X-2, 2S 0918-549, and 4U 1254-690, line emission is indicated for the first time. The soft emission observed in 4U 0614+091 compares with recent ASCA results, with a new feature indicated at 1.31 keV. The deduced line fluxes in 4U 1820-30 and Cyg X-2 showed variability of a factor of 2 within timescales of 1-2 days. Average fluxes of line components in 4U 1820-30 varied by the same factor over a

  15. ROSAT Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange with the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the count rate in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the anti-solar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the count rate increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed. This technique can be used to explore the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  16. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - I. Template fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Williams, Wendy L.; Best, Philip N.; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Jarvis, Matt J.; Małek, Katarzyna; Oliver, S. J.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Smith, Daniel J. B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift performance for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. Using two multiwavelength data sets, over the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Boötes and COSMOS fields, we assess photometric redshift (photo-z) performance for a sample of ∼4500 radio continuum sources with spectroscopic redshifts relative to those of ∼63 000 non-radio-detected sources in the same fields. We investigate the performance of three photometric redshift template sets as a function of redshift, radio luminosity and infrared/X-ray properties. We find that no single template library is able to provide the best performance across all subsets of the radio-detected population, with variation in the optimum template set both between subsets and between fields. Through a hierarchical Bayesian combination of the photo-z estimates from all three template sets, we are able to produce a consensus photo-z estimate that equals or improves upon the performance of any individual template set.

  17. On lunar exospheric column densities and solar wind access beyond the terminator from ROSAT soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Collier, M. R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W.M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. K.; Hodges, R. R.; Holmstrom, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Trávníček, Pavel; Walsh, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 7 (2014), s. 1459-1478 ISSN 2169-9097 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : HPC2N * Moon * PSPC * ROSAT * SWCX Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JE004628/epdf

  18. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  19. Survey on deep learning for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Noblet, Vincent; Mazzara, Christophe; Lallement, Alex

    2018-05-17

    More than 50% of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, either exclusively or in combination with other methods. The planning and delivery of radiotherapy treatment is a complex process, but can now be greatly facilitated by artificial intelligence technology. Deep learning is the fastest-growing field in artificial intelligence and has been successfully used in recent years in many domains, including medicine. In this article, we first explain the concept of deep learning, addressing it in the broader context of machine learning. The most common network architectures are presented, with a more specific focus on convolutional neural networks. We then present a review of the published works on deep learning methods that can be applied to radiotherapy, which are classified into seven categories related to the patient workflow, and can provide some insights of potential future applications. We have attempted to make this paper accessible to both radiotherapy and deep learning communities, and hope that it will inspire new collaborations between these two communities to develop dedicated radiotherapy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ROSAT and ASCA Observations of NGC 1313 and SN1978k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, R.; Okada, K.; Mihara, T.; Makishima, K.; Schlegel, E.; Colbert, E.

    1994-05-01

    NGC 1313 is a nearby (d = 4.5 Mpc) spiral galaxy, whose X-ray emission is dominated by three point sources with log (Lx) > 39. One of these sources is near, but not at, the optical nucleus; a second is 8 kpc distant from the nucleus, in an outer region of the galaxy; and the third is SN1978k, the first supernova identified as such on the basis of its X-ray emission. NGC 1313 has been the subject of a series of X-ray observations, including two using the ROSAT PSPC (April-May, 1991, and November, 1993) and ASCA during PV phase (July, 1993). We discuss the results of a combined analysis of these observations, which suggest that the luminosity and spectrum of SN1978k has not varied since its discovery, and reveal the presence of a number of additional sources of X-rays, including diffuse emission from the ISM surrounding the nucleus. Possible interpretations of the emission from SN1978k and the other two luminous sources are presented.

  1. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the

  2. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian Areg M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc., proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia, variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA. An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  3. GTC/OSIRIS SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF A FAINT L SUBDWARF IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodieu, N.; Osorio, M. R. Zapatero; MartIn, E. L.; Solano, E.; Aberasturi, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 deg 2 common to the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong K I pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide a rough estimate of the space density for mid-L subdwarfs of 1.5 x 10 -4 pc -3 .

  4. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

    2012-02-14

    We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

  5. Fiscal 1996 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 1/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1996 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In fiscal 1996, the deep-seated exploration well WD-1a is sidetracked for penetration for a target newly assigned at the 3,000m-deep level. Carried out in a survey of well geology are the naked-eye and microscopic observation of core cuttings, X-ray powder method, examination of inclusions in fluids, chemical analysis of whole rocks, analysis of isotopes in minerals, analysis of core fracturing, etc. Also, data are collected from a survey of mud log, survey of water in the well before digging, and from well logging. Furthermore, pressure monitoring etc. are conducted in order to determine the interference in pressure between the deep-seated and shallow-seated wells that accompanies multiple outbursts from the Kakkonda No. 2 machine, to know the water permeability between the shallow-seated and deep-seated parts, and to grasp the anisotropy in permeability in shallow-seated reservoirs. (NEDO)

  6. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  7. ROSAT EUV and soft X-ray studies of atmospheric composition and structure in G191-B2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Fleming, T. A.; Finley, D. S.; Koester, D.; Diamond, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies of the hot DA white dwarf GI91-B2B have been unable to determine whether the observed soft X-ray and EUV opacity arises from a stratified hydrogen and helium atmosphere or from the presence of trace metals in the photosphere. New EUV and soft X-ray photometry of this star, made with the ROSAT observatory, when analyzed in conjunction with the earlier data, shows that the stratified models cannot account for the observed fluxes. Consequently, we conclude that trace metals must be a substantial source of opacity in the photosphere of G191-B2B.

  8. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (case for NELGs to be major contributors to the XRB at the fainter fluxes. The analysis of optical spectroscopy, obtained on La Palma and Hawaii, shows that NELGs form a very heterogeneous group, made up of a mixture of Seyfert 2, LINER and HII-region like galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to possess in general the steepest X-ray slopes. Ways to explain this in the context of the unified model of AGN are discussed. The FWHM of some emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta, [NII]) in the NELGs appears to increase with steepening X-ray spectral slope. In the case of the Balmer lines

  9. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  10. Deep, Broadband Spectral Line Surveys of Molecule-rich Interstellar Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Laas, Jacob C.; Zou, Luyao; Kroll, Jay A.; Rad, Mary L.; Hays, Brian M.; Sanders, James L.; Cross, Trevor N.; Wehres, Nadine; McGuire, Brett A. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Sumner, Matthew C., E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Spectral line surveys are an indispensable tool for exploring the physical and chemical evolution of astrophysical environments due to the vast amount of data that can be obtained in a relatively short amount of time. We present deep, broadband spectral line surveys of 30 interstellar clouds using two broadband λ  = 1.3 mm receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This information can be used to probe the influence of physical environment on molecular complexity. We observed a wide variety of sources to examine the relative abundances of organic molecules as they relate to the physical properties of the source (i.e., temperature, density, dynamics, etc.). The spectra are highly sensitive, with noise levels ≤25 mK at a velocity resolution of ∼0.35 km s{sup −1}. In the initial analysis presented here, column densities and rotational temperatures have been determined for the molecular species that contribute significantly to the spectral line density in this wavelength regime. We present these results and discuss their implications for complex molecule formation in the interstellar medium.

  11. SCUBA-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey (STUDIES): Faint-end Counts at 450 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lim, Chen-Fatt; Smail, Ian; Chapman, Scott C.; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Shim, Hyunjin; Kodama, Tadayuki; Almaini, Omar; Ao, Yiping; Blain, Andrew W.; Bourne, Nathan; Bunker, Andrew J.; Chang, Yu-Yen; Chao, Dani C.-Y.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, David L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cowley, William I.; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunlop, James S.; Geach, James E.; Goto, Tomotsugu; Jiang, Linhua; Ivison, Rob J.; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kohno, Kotaro; Kong, Xu; Lee, Chien-Hsu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Minju; Michałowski, Michał J.; Oteo, Iván; Sawicki, Marcin; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Xin Wen; Simpson, James M.; Tee, Wei-Leong; Toba, Yoshiki; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Ran; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    The SCUBA-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey (STUDIES) is a three-year JCMT Large Program aiming to reach the 450 μm confusion limit in the COSMOS-CANDELS region to study a representative sample of the high-redshift far-infrared galaxy population that gives rise to the bulk of the far-infrared

  12. International Deep Planet Survey, 317 stars to determine the wide-separated planet frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicher, R.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Song, I.; Barman, T.; Patience, J.

    2013-09-01

    Since 2000, more than 300 nearby young stars were observed for the International Deep Planet Survey with adaptive optics systems at Gemini (NIRI/NICI), Keck (Nirc2), and VLT (Naco). Massive young AF stars were included in our sample whereas they have generally been neglected in first generation surveys because the contrast and target distances are less favorable to image substellar companions. The most significant discovery of the campaign is the now well-known HR 8799 multi-planet system. This remarkable finding allows, for the first time, an estimate of the Jovians planet population at large separations (further than a few AUs) instead of deriving upper limits. During my presentation, I will present the survey showing images of multiple stars and planets. I will then propose a statistic study of the observed stars deriving constraints on the Jupiter-like planet frequency at large separations.

  13. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the “Database of Taiwan’s Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/” as part of the “Fish Database of Taiwan,” can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity.

  14. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 29, Menlo Park, CA 94725 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai [Astronomy Department, Caltech 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Noeske, Kai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and 1295 groups at z > 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above {approx}300 km s{sup -1} to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  15. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai; Noeske, Kai; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin

    2012-01-01

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above ∼300 km s –1 to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  16. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, M/S 29, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Coil, Alison L., E-mail: bgerke@slac.stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.

  17. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2

  18. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Del-Moro, A.; Aird, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results and the source catalog from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS)—currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ≈30......V fluxes) span the range L10 40 keV (0.7 300) 10 erg s» - ´ 43 1 -- ,sampling below the “knee” of the X-ray luminosity function out to z ~ 0.8-1. Finally, we identify oneNuSTAR source that has neither a Chandra nor an XMM-Newton counterpart, but that shows evidence of nuclearactivity at infrared...

  19. Fiscal 1996 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 2/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1996 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In the study of deep-seated geothermal models for the Kakkonda area, a reservoir structure model, a thermal structure model, and a geothermal fluid/hydraulic structure model are deliberated. Then, after studying the relations of the said three structure models to fracture systems, the boundary between the geothermal fluid convection region and the thermal conduction region near the 3,100m-deep level, the existence of high-salinity fluids and the depth of gas inflow, the ranges of shallow-seated reservoirs and deep-seated reservoirs, the trend of reduction in reservoir pressure and the anisotropy in water permeability in shallow-seated reservoirs, etc., a latest reservoir model is constructed into which all the findings obtained so far are incorporated. As for guidelines for deep-seated thermal resources survey and development, it is so decided that deep-seated geothermal survey guidelines, deep-seated fluid production guidelines, and deep-seated well drilling guidelines be prepared and that assessment be made of their economic effectiveness. (NEDO)

  20. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  1. Uncovering extreme AGN variability in serendipitous X-ray source surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward C.; Garcia Soto, Aylin; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, Meg

    2018-01-01

    Constraints on the duty cycle and duration of accretion episodes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are vital for establishing how most AGNs are fueled, which is essential for a complete picture of black hole/galaxy co-evolution. Perhaps the best handle we have on these activity parameters is provided by AGNs that have displayed dramatic changes in their bolometric luminosities and, in some cases, spectroscopic classifications. Given that X-ray emission is directly linked to black-hole accretion, X-ray surveys should provide a straightforward means of identifying AGNs that have undergone dramatic changes in their accretion states. However, it appears that such events are very rare, so wide-area surveys separated in time by many years are needed to maximize discovery rates. We have cross-correlated the Einstein IPC Two-Sigma Catalog with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Faint Source Catalog to identify a sample of soft X-ray sources that varied by factors ranging from 7 to more than 100 over a ten year timescale. When possible, we have constructed long-term X-ray light curves for the sources by combining the Einstein and RASS fluxes with those obtained from serendipitous pointed observations by ROSAT, Chandra,XMM, and Swift. Optical follow-up observations indicate that many of the extremely variable sources in our sample are indeed radio-quiet AGNs. Interestingly, the majority of objects that dimmed between ~1980 and ~1990 are still (or are again) broad-line AGNs rather than“changing-look” candidates that have more subtle AGN signatures in their spectra — despite the fact that none of the sources examined thus far has returned to its highest observed luminosity. Future X-ray observations will provide the opportunity to characterize the X-ray behavior of these anonymous, extreme AGNs over a four decade span.

  2. THE SUBSTELLAR POPULATION OF {sigma} ORIONIS: A DEEP WIDE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Caballero, J. A.; Barrado, D. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Mundt, R.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L., E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: rrl@iac.es, E-mail: caballero@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: barrado@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mundt@mpia.de, E-mail: calj@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    We present a deep I, Z photometric survey covering a total area of 1.12 deg{sup 2} of the {sigma} Orionis cluster and reaching completeness magnitudes of I = 22 and Z = 21.5 mag. From I, I - Z color-magnitude diagrams we have selected 153 candidates that fit the previously known sequence of the cluster. They have magnitudes in the range I = 16-23 mag, which corresponds to a mass interval from 0.1 down to 0.008 M{sub Sun} at the most probable age of {sigma} Orionis (2-4 Myr). Using J-band photometry, we find that 124 of the 151 candidates within the completeness of the optical survey (82%) follow the previously known infrared photometric sequence of the cluster and are probably members. We have studied the spatial distribution of the very low mass stars and brown dwarf population of the cluster and found that there are objects located at distances greater than 30 arcmin to the north and west of {sigma} Orionis that probably belong to different populations of the Orion's Belt. For the 102 bona fide {sigma} Orionis cluster member candidates, we find that the radial surface density can be represented by a decreasing exponential function ({sigma}={sigma}{sub 0}e{sup -r/r{sub 0}}) with a central density of {sigma}{sub 0} = 0.23 {+-} 0.03 objects arcmin{sup -2} and a characteristic radius of r{sub 0} = 9.5 {+-} 0.7 arcmin. From a statistical comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the spatial distribution of the objects located at the same distance from the center of the cluster is compatible with a Poissonian distribution and, hence, that very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are not mainly forming aggregations or sub-clustering. Using near-infrared JHK-band data from Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey and mid-infrared data from Infrared Array Camera/Spitzer, we find that about 5%-9% of the brown dwarf candidates in the {sigma} Orionis cluster have K-band excesses and 30% {+-} 7% of them show mid-infrared excesses at

  3. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: ULTRA-DEEP J AND K{sub S} IMAGING IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    We present ultra-deep J and K{sub S} imaging observations covering a 30' Multiplication-Sign 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and K{sub S} , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin{sup 2} region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5{sigma}. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and K{sub S} data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and K{sub S} images and the J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  4. Using Gaia as an Astrometric Tool for Deep Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Schriefer, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Gaia DR1 positions are used to astrometrically calibrate three epochs' worth of Subaru SuprimeCam images in the fields of globular cluster NGC 2419 and the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Distortion-correction ``maps'' are constructed from a combination of offset dithers and reference to Gaia DR1. These are used to derive absolute proper motions in the field of NGC 2419. Notably, we identify the photometrically-detected Monoceros structure in the foreground of NGC 2419 as a kinematically-cold population of stars, distinct from Galactic-field stars. This project demonstrates the feasibility of combining Gaia with deep, ground-based surveys, thus extending high-quality astrometry to magnitudes beyond the limits of Gaia.

  5. Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barstow, M.A.; Fraser, G.W.; Milward, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the development of microchannel plate detectors for the Wide Field Camera (WFC) XUV (50-300 A) sky survey experiment on Rosat. A novel feature of the detector design is that the microchannel plates and their resistive anode readout are curved to the same radius as the WFC telescope focal surface. It is shown that curving the channel plates is not detrimental to gain uniformity. The paper describes the design of a curved resistive anode readout element and contrasts the present measurements of spatial resolution, global and local uniformity and temperature coefficient of resistance with the poor performance recently ascribed to resistive anodes in the literature. 18 references

  6. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  7. Tidal disruption events seen in the XMM-Newton slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Richard; Komossa, S.; Read, Andrew; Lira, Paulina; Alexander, Kate D.; Steele, Iain

    XMM-Newton performs a survey of the sky in the 0.2-12 keV X-ray band while slewing between observation targets. The sensitivity in the soft X-ray band is comparable with that of the ROSAT all-sky survey, allowing bright transients to be identified in near real-time by a comparison of the flux in both surveys. Several of the soft X-ray flares are coincident with galaxy nuclei and five of these have been interpreted as candidate tidal disruption events (TDE). The first three discovered had a soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with the classical model of TDE, where radiation is released during the accretion phase by thermal processes. The remaining two have an additional hard, power-law component, which in only one case was accompanied by radio emission. Overall the flares decay with the classical index of t -5/3 but vary greatly in the early phase.

  8. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15 = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  9. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  10. X-Rays from the Nearby Solitary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0030+0451 - the Final ROSAT Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, W; Bäcker, A N; Lommen, D; Becker, Werner; Tr"umper, Joachim; Backer, Andrea N.Lommen & Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the solitary 4.8 ms pulsar PSR J0030+0451. The pulsar was one of the last targets observed in DEC-98 by the ROSAT PSPC. X-ray pulses are detected on a $4.5\\sigma$ level and make the source the $11^{th}$ millisecond pulsar detected in the X-ray domain. The pulsed fraction is found to be $69\\pm18%$. The X-ray pulse profile is characterized by two narrow peaks which match the gross pulse profile observed at 1.4 GHz. Assuming a Crab-like spectrum the X-ray flux is in the range $f_x= 2-3\\times 10^{-13}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2} $ ($0.1-2.4$ keV), implying an X-ray efficiency of $L_x/\\dot{E}\\sim 0.5-5 \\times 10^{-3} (d/0.23 {kpc})^2$.

  11. Deep learning for studies of galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.

  12. LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z ≈ 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Papovich, Casey; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D.; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2012-01-01

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z ≈ 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z ≈ 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin 2 to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J 1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z ≈ 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z ≈ 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few × 10 9 M ☉ , from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z ≈ 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z ≈ 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  13. Finding counterparts for all-sky X-ray surveys with NWAY: a Bayesian algorithm for cross-matching multiple catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, M.; Buchner, J.; Budavári, T.; Dwelly, T.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Rau, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Nandra, K.

    2018-02-01

    We release the AllWISE counterparts and Gaia matches to 106 573 and 17 665 X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT 2RXS and XMMSL2 surveys with |b| > 15°. These are the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, but their position uncertainties and the sparse multi-wavelength coverage until now rendered the identification of their counterparts a demanding task with uncertain results. New all-sky multi-wavelength surveys of sufficient depth, like AllWISE and Gaia, and a new Bayesian statistics based algorithm, NWAY, allow us, for the first time, to provide reliable counterpart associations. NWAY extends previous distance and sky density based association methods and, using one or more priors (e.g. colours, magnitudes), weights the probability that sources from two or more catalogues are simultaneously associated on the basis of their observable characteristics. Here, counterparts have been determined using a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) colour-magnitude prior. A reference sample of 4524 XMM/Chandra and Swift X-ray sources demonstrates a reliability of ∼94.7 per cent (2RXS) and 97.4 per cent (XMMSL2). Combining our results with Chandra-COSMOS data, we propose a new separation between stars and AGN in the X-ray/WISE flux-magnitude plane, valid over six orders of magnitude. We also release the NWAY code and its user manual. NWAY was extensively tested with XMM-COSMOS data. Using two different sets of priors, we find an agreement of 96 per cent and 99 per cent with published Likelihood Ratio methods. Our results were achieved faster and without any follow-up visual inspection. With the advent of deep and wide area surveys in X-rays (e.g. SRG/eROSITA, Athena/WFI) and radio (ASKAP/EMU, LOFAR, APERTIF, etc.) NWAY will provide a powerful and reliable counterpart identification tool.

  14. ALFAZOA Deep HI Survey to Identify Galaxies in the ZOA 37° ≦ l ≦ 43° and -2.5° ≦ b ≦ 3°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Kelby; Robert Minchin, Monica Sanchez, Patricia Henning , Rhys Taylor

    2018-01-01

    The area where the galaxy lies, as viewed from the solar system, is called the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA). Due to extinction and confusion in the ZOA sources behind it appear to be blocked. This project is working with data from the Arecibo ALFAZOA Deep survey to identify galaxies in the ZOA amid 37° ≦ l ≦ 43° and -2.5° ≦ b ≦ 3° . The ALFAZOA Deep surveyed a part of the inner galaxy for the first time in the ZOA. The ALFAZOA Deep survey is a more sensitive survey than the previous survey the ALFAZOA Shallow. FRELLED and Miriad were used to identify and analyze the data in this region. With the data 57 sources where identified. Within these 57 sources, 51 were galaxies, which 3 were previously discovered galaxies; leaving 48 as new galaxies. The other 6 remaining sources from the 57, were follow-up sources. Two groups of galaxies were also identified, one lies around 1,500-3,200 km/s and the other between 10,600-11,700 km/s in redshift. The sources from the group in 10,600-11,700 km/s in redshift also need a follow up as they lie near the spectrum where the receiver signal starts to weaken.

  15. A Survey on Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, G.J.; Kooi, T.; Ehteshami Bejnordi, B.; Setio, A.A.A.; Ciompi, F.; Ghafoorian, M.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Ginneken, B. van; Sanchez, C.I.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared

  16. Near-bottom Multibeam Survey Capabilities in the US National Deep Submergence Facility (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; McCue, S. J.; Jason; Sentry Operations Groups

    2010-12-01

    The US National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) provides near-bottom multibeam mapping capabilities from the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry and the remotely operated vehicle Jason. These vehicles can be used to depths of 4500 and 6500m respectively. Both vehicles are equipped with Reson 7125 400khz multibeam sonars as well as compatible navigation equipment (inertial navigation systems, doppler velocity logs, and acoustic navigation systems). These vehicles have produced maps of rugged Mid-Ocean Ridge terrain in the Galapagos Rift, natural oil and gas seeps off the coast of Southern California, deep coral sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and sites for the Ocean Observing Initiative off the coast of Oregon. Multibeam surveys are conducted from heights between 20 and 80 meters, allowing the scientific user to select the tradeoff between resolution and coverage rate. In addition to conventional bathymetric mapping, the systems have used to image methane bubble plumes from natural seeps. This talk will provide summaries of these mapping efforts and describe the data processing pipeline used to produce maps shortly after each dive. Development efforts to reduce navigational errors and reconcile discrepancies between adjacent swaths will also be described.

  17. White Dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Data Release 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Freytag, B.; Bergeron, P.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s-1 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  18. Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be a common product of the hierarchal growth of galaxies and gravitational wave sources at nano-Hz frequencies. We have performed a systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey for periodically varying quasars, which are predicted manifestations of SMBHBs, and identified 26 candidates that are periodically varying on the timescale of ~300-1000 days over the 4-year baseline of MDS. We continue to monitor them with the Discovery Channel Telescope and the LCO network telescopes and thus are able to extend the baseline to 3-8 cycles and break false positive signals due to stochastic, normal quasar variability. From our imaging campaign, five candidates show persistent periodic variability and remain strong SMBHB candidates for follow-up observations. We calculate the cumulative number rate of SMBHBs and compare with previous work. We also compare the gravitational wave strain amplitudes of the candidates with the capability of pulsar timing arrays and discuss the future capabilities to detect periodic quasar and SMBHB candidates with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  19. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  20. White dwarfs in the UKIRT infrared deep sky survey data release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Freytag, B.; Bergeron, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s –1 ≤v tan ≤ 60 km s –1 . They are likely thick disk 10-11 Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v tan ∼ 155 km s –1 and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  1. The VANDELS ESO spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  2. Research on deep electromagnetic induction methods (Fy 1985)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Shin' ichi

    1987-06-01

    Geological Survey of Japan started from FY 1984 a research of deep electomagnetic induction methods as a part of the research on deep geothermal resources prospecting technology, the Sunshine Project. This article is the report of its second fiscal year. These methods are a generic term of the methods to survey specific resistance structure in the deep part of the earth by utilizing the technique of the electromagnetic induction method and the time domain CSMT method aiming to survey about estimated depth of 5Km as well as the CA method to estimate the general structure of the earth of the depth of 5Km or more are now being developed. This article reports the respective methods separately. Concerning the former, the reception of useful signals were successfully made during the FY 1984 field experiment and based on this, field experiments in a geothermal area were conducted in FY 1985 verifying its effectivenss. With regard to the latter, following FY 1984, CA observations were conducted in the northern part of Tohoku Region and the deep specific resistance structure in a wide area was surveyed. (43 figs, 1 tab, 11 refs)

  3. The VANDELS ESO public spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Fèvre, O. Le; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  4. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I_A_B = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  5. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - II. Gaussian processes and hybrid estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the first paper in this series (Duncan et al. 2018), we present a study investigating the performance of Gaussian process photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. A Gaussian process redshift code is used to produce photo-z estimates targeting specific subsets of both the AGN population - infrared, X-ray and optically selected AGN - and the general galaxy population. The new estimates for the AGN population are found to perform significantly better at z > 1 than the template-based photo-z estimates presented in our previous study. Our new photo-z estimates are then combined with template estimates through hierarchical Bayesian combination to produce a hybrid consensus estimate that outperforms both of the individual methods across all source types. Photo-z estimates for radio sources that are X-ray sources or optical/IR AGN are significantly improved in comparison to previous template-only estimates - with outlier fractions and robust scatter reduced by up to a factor of ˜4. The ability of our method to combine the strengths of the two input photo-z techniques and the large improvements we observe illustrate its potential for enabling future exploitation of deep radio continuum surveys for both the study of galaxy and black hole co-evolution and for cosmological studies.

  6. A catalogue of clusters of galaxies identified from all sky surveys of 2MASS, WISE, and SuperCOSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.; Yang, F.

    2018-03-01

    We identify 47 600 clusters of galaxies from photometric data of Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and SuperCOSMOS, among which 26 125 clusters are recognized for the first time and mostly in the sky outside the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) area. About 90 per cent of massive clusters of M500 > 3 × 1014 M⊙ in the redshift range of 0.025 < z < 0.3 have been detected from such survey data, and the detection rate drops down to 50 per cent for clusters with a mass of M500 ˜ 1 × 1014 M⊙. Monte Carlo simulations show that the false detection rate for the whole cluster sample is less than 5 per cent. By cross-matching with ROSAT and XMM-Newton sources, we get 779 new X-ray cluster candidates which have X-ray counterparts within a projected offset of 0.2 Mpc.

  7. Four faint T dwarfs from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Southern Stripe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kuenley; Liu, Michael C.; Jiang, Linhua; Allers, Katelyn N.; Stark, Daniel P.; Bunker, Andrew; Fan, Xiaohui; Glazebrook, Karl; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2008-03-01

    We present the optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of four faint T dwarfs newly discovered from the UKIDSS first data release. The sample, drawn from an imaged area of ~136 deg2 to a depth of Y = 19.9 (5σ, Vega), is located in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Equatorial Stripe, a region of significant future deep imaging potential. We detail the selection and followup of these objects, three of which are spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs ranging from type T2.5 to T7.5, and one is photometrically identified as early T. Their magnitudes range from Y = 19.01 to 19.88 with derived distances from 34 to 98 pc, making these among the coldest and faintest brown dwarfs known. The T7.5 dwarf appears to be single based on 0.05-arcsec images from Keck laser guide star adaptive optics. The sample brings the total number of T dwarfs found or confirmed by UKIDSS data in this region to nine, and we discuss the projected numbers of dwarfs in the future survey data. We estimate that ~240 early and late T dwarfs are discoverable in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, falling significantly short of published model projections and suggesting that initial mass functions and/or birth rates may be at the low end of possible models. Thus, deeper optical data have good potential to exploit the UKIDSS survey depth more fully, but may still find the potential Y dwarf sample to be extremely rare.

  8. Deep learning in neural networks: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.

  9. Large Astronomical Surveys, Catalogs and Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of all-sky and large astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-ray to radio, such as ROSAT in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS1/2 based catalogs (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in optical, 2MASS and WISE in NIR, IRAS and AKARI in MIR/FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range and others. Present astronomical archives contain billions of objects, Galactic as well as extragalactic, and the vast amount of data in them permit new studies and discoveries. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often, dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. Most of the modern databases currently provide VO access to the stored information. This permits not only open access but also fast analysis and managing of these data.

  10. A deep redshift survey of field galaxies. Comments on the reality of the Butcher-Oemler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, David C.; Kron, Richard G.

    1987-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of over 400 field galaxies has been completed in three fields for which we have deep UBVI photographic photometry. The galaxies typically range from B=20 to 22 and possess redshifts z from 0.1 to 0.5 that are often quite spiky in distribution. Little, if any, luminosity evolution is observed up to redshifts z approx 0.5. By such redshifts, however, an unexpectedly large fraction of luminous galaxies has very blue intrinsic colors that suggest extensive star formation; in contrast, the reddest galaxies still have colors that match those of present-day ellipticals.

  11. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  12. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [1-]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  13. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  14. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  15. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey COADD: 275 deg2 of deep Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging on stripe 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, James; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lin, Huan; Miknaitis, Gajus; Yanny, Brian; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Becker, Andrew C.; Ivezić, Željko; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the construction and characterization of the coaddition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 ugriz imaging data. This survey consists of 275 deg 2 of repeated scanning by the SDSS camera over –50° ≤ α ≤ 60° and –1.°25 ≤ δ ≤ +1.°25 centered on the Celestial Equator. Each piece of sky has ∼20 runs contributing and thus reaches ∼2 mag fainter than the SDSS single pass data, i.e., to r ∼ 23.5 for galaxies. We discuss the image processing of the coaddition, the modeling of the point-spread function (PSF), the calibration, and the production of standard SDSS catalogs. The data have an r-band median seeing of 1.''1 and are calibrated to ≤1%. Star color-color, number counts, and PSF size versus modeled size plots show that the modeling of the PSF is good enough for precision five-band photometry. Structure in the PSF model versus magnitude plot indicates minor PSF modeling errors, leading to misclassification of stars as galaxies, as verified using VVDS spectroscopy. There are a variety of uses for this wide-angle deep imaging data, including galactic structure, photometric redshift computation, cluster finding and cross wavelength measurements, weak lensing cluster mass calibrations, and cosmic shear measurements.

  16. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  17. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  18. SSGSS: THE SPITZER–SDSS–GALEX SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stéphane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z < 0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy, including ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Spitzer/SWIRE. Sample selection ensures an even coverage of the full range of normal galaxy properties, spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, color, and dust attenuation. In this paper we present the SSGSS data set, describe the science drivers, and detail the sample selection, observations, data reduction, and quality assessment. Also in this paper, we compare the shape of the thermal continuum and the degree of silicate absorption of these typical, star-forming galaxies to those of starburst galaxies. We investigate the link between star formation rate, infrared luminosity, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity, with a view to calibrating the latter for spectral energy distribution models in photometric samples and at high redshift. Last, we take advantage of the 5-40 μm spectroscopic and far-infrared photometric coverage of this sample to perform detailed fitting of the Draine et al. dust models, and investigate the link between dust mass and star formation history and active galactic nucleus properties.

  19. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  20. The KMOS Deep Survey: Dynamical Measurements of Star-Forming Galaxies at z 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Owen; Cirasuolo, Michele; Harrison, Chris; McLure, Ross; Dunlop, James; Swinbank, Mark; Johnson, Helen; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Sharples, Ray

    2017-07-01

    This poster present dynamical measurements from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Deep Survey (KDS), which is comprised of 78 typical star-forming galaxies at z = 3.5 in the mass range 9.0 isolated. The results suggest that the rotation-dominated galaxies in the sample are offset to lower velocities at fixed stellar mass and have higher velocity dispersions than star-forming galaxies in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Only 1/3 of the galaxies in the sample are dominated by rotation, which hints that random motions are playing an increasingly significant role in supporting the dynamical mass in the systems. When searching for evolution in scaling relations, such as the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation, it is important to take these random motions into account.

  1. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  2. Deepwater Program: Lophelia II, continuing ecological research on deep-sea corals and deep-reef habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Nizinski, Martha S.; Prouty, Nancy G.; Bourque, Jill R.; Galkiewicz, Julie P.; Gray, Michael A.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Coykendall, D. Katharine; Miller, Andrew; Rhode, Mike; Quattrini, Andrea; Ames, Cheryl L.; Brooke, Sandra D.; McClain Counts, Jennifer; Roark, E. Brendan; Buster, Noreen A.; Phillips, Ryan M.; Frometa, Janessy

    2017-12-11

    The deep sea is a rich environment composed of diverse habitat types. While deep-sea coral habitats have been discovered within each ocean basin, knowledge about the ecology of these habitats and associated inhabitants continues to grow. This report presents information and results from the Lophelia II project that examined deep-sea coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. The Lophelia II project focused on Lophelia pertusa habitats along the continental slope, at depths ranging from 300 to 1,000 meters. The chapters are authored by several scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, University of North Carolina Wilmington, and Florida State University who examined the community ecology (from microbes to fishes), deep-sea coral age, growth, and reproduction, and population connectivity of deep-sea corals and inhabitants. Data from these studies are presented in the chapters and appendixes of the report as well as in journal publications. This study was conducted by the Ecosystems Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey to meet information needs identified by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.

  3. JAMSTEC E-library of Deep-sea Images (J-EDI) Realizes a Virtual Journey to the Earth's Unexplored Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Azuma, S.; Matsuda, S.; Nagayama, A.; Ogido, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) archives a large amount of deep-sea research videos and photos obtained by JAMSTEC's research submersibles and vehicles with cameras. The web site "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep-sea Images : J-EDI" (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/e/) has made videos and photos available to the public via the Internet since 2011. Users can search for target videos and photos by keywords, easy-to-understand icons, and dive information at J-EDI because operating staffs classify videos and photos as to contents, e.g. living organism and geological environment, and add comments to them.Dive survey data including videos and photos are not only valiant academically but also helpful for education and outreach activities. With the aim of the improvement of visibility for broader communities, we added new functions of 3-dimensional display synchronized various dive survey data with videos in this year.New Functions Users can search for dive survey data by 3D maps with plotted dive points using the WebGL virtual map engine "Cesium". By selecting a dive point, users can watch deep-sea videos and photos and associated environmental data, e.g. water temperature, salinity, rock and biological sample photos, obtained by the dive survey. Users can browse a dive track visualized in 3D virtual spaces using the WebGL JavaScript library. By synchronizing this virtual dive track with videos, users can watch deep-sea videos recorded at a point on a dive track. Users can play an animation which a submersible-shaped polygon automatically traces a 3D virtual dive track and displays of dive survey data are synchronized with tracing a dive track. Users can directly refer to additional information of other JAMSTEC data sites such as marine biodiversity database, marine biological sample database, rock sample database, and cruise and dive information database, on each page which a 3D virtual dive track is displayed. A 3D visualization of a dive

  4. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. X. X-ray variability of bright sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Comastri, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Ranalli, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We aim to study the variability properties of bright hard X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range between 0.3 and 1.6 detected in the Chandra Deep Field South (XMM-CDFS) by a long ( 3 Ms) XMM observation. Methods: Taking advantage of the good count statistics in the XMM CDFS, we search for flux and spectral variability using the hardness ratio (HR) techniques. We also investigate the spectral variability of different spectral components (photon index of the power law, column density of the local absorber, and reflection intensity). The spectra were merged in six epochs (defined as adjacent observations) and in high and low flux states to understand whether the flux transitions are accompanied by spectral changes. Results: The flux variability is significant in all the sources investigated. The HRs in general are not as variable as the fluxes, in line with previous results on deep fields. Only one source displays a variable HR, anti-correlated with the flux (source 337). The spectral analysis in the available epochs confirms the steeper when brighter trend consistent with Comptonisation models only in this source at 99% confidence level. Finding this trend in one out of seven unabsorbed sources is consistent, within the statistical limits, with the 15% of unabsorbed AGN in previous deep surveys. No significant variability in the column densities, nor in the Compton reflection component, has been detected across the epochs considered. The high and low states display in general different normalisations but consistent spectral properties. Conclusions: X-ray flux fluctuations are ubiquitous in AGN, though in some cases the data quality does not allow for their detection. In general, the significant flux variations are not associated with spectral variability: photon index and column densities are not significantly variable in nine out of the ten AGN over long timescales (from three to six and a half years). Photon index variability is

  5. The Canada-France deep fields survey-II: Lyman-break galaxies and galaxy clustering at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucaud, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Brodwin, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Crampton, D.; Mellier, Y.

    2003-10-01

    We present a large sample of z ~ 3 U-band dropout galaxies extracted from the Canada-France deep fields survey (CFDF). Our catalogue covers an effective area of ~ 1700 arcmin2 divided between three large, contiguous fields separated widely on the sky. To IAB=24.5, the survey contains 1294 Lyman-break candidates, in agreement with previous measurements by other authors, after appropriate incompleteness corrections have been applied to our data. Based on comparisons with spectroscopic observations and simulations, we estimate that our sample of Lyman-break galaxies is contaminated by stars and interlopers (lower-redshift galaxies) at no more than { ~ } 30%. We find that omega (theta ) is well fitted by a power-law of fixed slope, gamma =1.8, even at small (theta University of Hawaii, and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Mayall 4-meter Telescopes, divisions of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  6. The Evolution of Stellar Dynamos; Survey for Low Mass Members of NGC2232; An X-Ray Survey of the Open Cluster CR140; Towards a Better Understanding of the Rotation-Activity Relation for Solar-Type Members of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John R.; Petre, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This grant was originally awarded to Dr. Charles Prosser, who died tragically in a car accident in Tucson in 1998. We had hoped to finish the work Charles had started, which involved analysis of ROSAT data for three programs (observations of the clusters NGC2232, Crl4O and the Pleiades) and also analysis of optical data for each cluster in order to allow interpretation of the ROSAT observations. The Pleiades portion of the program was completed during the past year, and a paper published. We have obtained optical imaging of the other two clusters, and those data are being analyzed. Dr. Brian Patten intends to complete analysis of the ROSAT observations and to combine those data with the optical photometry, but progress on those efforts has been slow due to the press of other work (Dr. Patten is responsible for the pipeline processing of data from SWAS). We intend to publish those results as soon as we can, but it will now be completed without further support from this grant.

  7. The Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP Survey: Overview and survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; Arimoto, Nobuo; Armstrong, Robert; Arnouts, Stéphane; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bickerton, Steven; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Capak, Peter L.; Chan, James H. H.; Chiba, Masashi; Coupon, Jean; Egami, Eiichi; Enoki, Motohiro; Finet, Francois; Fujimori, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Seiji; Furusawa, Hisanori; Furusawa, Junko; Goto, Tomotsugu; Goulding, Andy; Greco, Johnny P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Gunn, James E.; Hamana, Takashi; Harikane, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Takashi; Hayashi, Masao; Hayashi, Yusuke; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G.; Higuchi, Ryo; Hikage, Chiaki; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Huang, Kuiyun; Huang, Song; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Akio K.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Iwata, Ikuru; Jaelani, Anton T.; Jian, Hung-Yu; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Kayo, Issha; Koda, Jin; Koike, Michitaro; Kojima, Takashi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Konno, Akira; Koshida, Shintaro; Koyama, Yusei; Kusakabe, Haruka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert H.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Mineo, Sogo; Miyama, Shoken; Miyatake, Hironao; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Momose, Rieko; More, Anupreeta; More, Surhud; Moritani, Yuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Mukae, Shiro; Murata, Ryoma; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nakata, Fumiaki; Niida, Mana; Niikura, Hiroko; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Oguri, Masamune; Oishi, Yukie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Sakurako; Okura, Yuki; Ono, Yoshiaki; Onodera, Masato; Onoue, Masafusa; Osato, Ken; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Sako, Masao; Sawicki, Marcin; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Shimono, Atsushi; Shirasaki, Masato; Silverman, John D.; Simet, Melanie; Speagle, Joshua; Spergel, David N.; Strauss, Michael A.; Sugahara, Yuma; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Suto, Yasushi; Suyu, Sherry H.; Suzuki, Nao; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yoko; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Terashima, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Toshikawa, Jun; Turner, Edwin L.; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Umetsu, Keiichi; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Urata, Yuji; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wong, Kenneth C.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Yeh, Sherry; Yonehara, Atsunori; Yuma, Suraphong

    2018-01-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is a wide-field imaging camera on the prime focus of the 8.2-m Subaru telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. A team of scientists from Japan, Taiwan, and Princeton University is using HSC to carry out a 300-night multi-band imaging survey of the high-latitude sky. The survey includes three layers: the Wide layer will cover 1400 deg2 in five broad bands (grizy), with a 5 σ point-source depth of r ≈ 26. The Deep layer covers a total of 26 deg2 in four fields, going roughly a magnitude fainter, while the UltraDeep layer goes almost a magnitude fainter still in two pointings of HSC (a total of 3.5 deg2). Here we describe the instrument, the science goals of the survey, and the survey strategy and data processing. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, which includes a large number of technical and scientific papers describing results from the early phases of this survey.

  8. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85725 (United States); Howell, Steve B., E-mail: ridgway@noao.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, P.O. Box 1, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ∼10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ∼3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ∼1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  9. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A.; Howell, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ∼10 5 high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ∼3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ∼1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10 5 per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  10. Report on the results of the Sunshine Project - Verification survey for geothermal exploration technology, etc. Summary. Survey of deep geothermal resource; Chinetsu tansa gijutsu tou kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa sokatsu seika hokokusho (Yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    As to the development of deep geothermal resource which is expected to contribute to increasing the capacity of future power generation in Japan, investigational study was made from FY 1992 to FY 2000, and the results were summed up. The investigational study was conducted for the hydrothermal convection type deep geothermal resource with a thermal conducting heating mechanism, of which Kakkonda is typical, including the drilling of deep exploration well using the existing technology. As a result, new information/knowledge were acquired about the thermal structure, reservoir structure and hydrothermal supply structure of the depths, and a deep geothermal model was made. Based on the model, a detailed simulation was made possible, and a whole image of the hydrothermal convection type deep geothermal resource with the thermal conducting heating mechanism was made clear. In the surface survey, observation of microearthquakes, high-accuracy MT method, etc. were carried out, and a grasp of the shape of a new granite body from the surface was made possible. Concerning the drilling technology, the geologic stratum with a temperature over 500 degrees C was successfully drilled down to a depth of 3,729m by prolonging the life of bit at the time of drilling by introducing the top drive system, the closed mud cooling device, etc. (NEDO)

  11. A Survey: Time Travel in Deep Learning Space: An Introduction to Deep Learning Models and How Deep Learning Models Evolved from the Initial Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haohan; Raj, Bhiksha

    2015-01-01

    This report will show the history of deep learning evolves. It will trace back as far as the initial belief of connectionism modelling of brain, and come back to look at its early stage realization: neural networks. With the background of neural network, we will gradually introduce how convolutional neural network, as a representative of deep discriminative models, is developed from neural networks, together with many practical techniques that can help in optimization of neural networks. On t...

  12. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  13. Deep Learning in the Automotive Industry: Applications and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Luckow, Andre; Cook, Matthew; Ashcraft, Nathan; Weill, Edwin; Djerekarov, Emil; Vorster, Bennie

    2017-01-01

    Deep Learning refers to a set of machine learning techniques that utilize neural networks with many hidden layers for tasks, such as image classification, speech recognition, language understanding. Deep learning has been proven to be very effective in these domains and is pervasively used by many Internet services. In this paper, we describe different automotive uses cases for deep learning in particular in the domain of computer vision. We surveys the current state-of-the-art in libraries, ...

  14. ROSAT observations of the x ray binary HD 154791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.

    1994-01-01

    We have been surveying the Taurus dark cloud for young stars using a variety of techniques. Two optical proper motion surveys identified 8 new pre-main sequence stars; an IRAS-based program discovered 6 new embedded sources and 4-6 new T Tauri stars. Finally, an optical objective prism survey found 12 new T Tauri stars. Our goal in this project is to examine and compare star formation in the dark clouds: Heiles cloud 2 (HCL2), L1537, L1538, and L1544. HCL2 is a very dense region actively forming young stars and contains 5-6 very young, deeply embedded sources; L1537 and L1538 have no known pre-main sequence stars; L1544 contains 7 optically visible T Tauri stars. These clouds appear roughly similar on optical sky survey plates. We would like to know why some of the clouds are active and why some are not. The first goal of the project is to survey the regions using IR photometry to identify very red pre-main sequence stars and X-ray imaging to identify solar-type young stars missed in the near-IR survey. We will follow up these observations with molecular line surveys to compare the conditions in various clouds with their star formation efficiencies.

  15. Erbium-doped fiber lasers as deep-sea hydrophones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a hydrophone prototype for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base-sensitive element is a single-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The high sensitivity of these sensors makes them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological and marine mammals surveys and above all as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos

  16. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR PERIODICALLY VARYING QUASARS IN PAN-STARRS1: AN EXTENDED BASELINE TEST IN MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY FIELD MD09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Burgett, W. [GMTO Corp, 465 N. Halstead St, Suite 250, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Chambers, K.; Hodapp, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N., E-mail: tingting@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-10

    We present a systematic search for periodically varying quasars and supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey’s MD09 field. From a color-selected sample of 670 quasars extracted from a multi-band deep-stack catalog of point sources, we locally select variable quasars and look for coherent periods with the Lomb–Scargle periodogram. Three candidates from our sample demonstrate strong variability for more than ∼3 cycles, and their PS1 light curves are well fitted to sinusoidal functions. We test the persistence of the candidates’ apparent periodic variations detected during the 4.2 years of the PS1 survey with archival photometric data from the SDSS Stripe 82 survey or new monitoring with the Large Monolithic Imager at the Discovery Channel Telescope. None of the three periodic candidates (including PSO J334.2028+1.4075) remain persistent over the extended baseline of 7–14 years, corresponding to a detection rate of <1 in 670 quasars in a search area of ≈5 deg{sup 2}. Even though SMBHBs should be a common product of the hierarchal growth of galaxies, and periodic variability in SMBHBs has been theoretically predicted, a systematic search for such signatures in a large optical survey is strongly limited by its temporal baseline and the “red noise” associated with normal quasar variability. We show that follow-up long-term monitoring (≳5 cycles) is crucial to our search for these systems.

  17. Survey report of NOAA Ship McArthur II cruises AR-04-04, AR-05-05 and AR-06-03: habitat classification of side scan sonar imagery in support of deep-sea coral/sponge explorations at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelmann, Steven S.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Bowlby, C. Edward; Brancato, Mary Sue; Hyland, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Habitat mapping and characterization has been defined as a high-priority management issue for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS), especially for poorly known deep-sea habitats that may be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As a result, a team of scientists from OCNMS, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and other partnering institutions initiated a series of surveys to assess the distribution of deep-sea coral/sponge assemblages within the sanctuary and to look for evidence of potential anthropogenic impacts in these critical habitats. Initial results indicated that remotely delineating areas of hard bottom substrate through acoustic sensing could be a useful tool to increase the efficiency and success of subsequent ROV-based surveys of the associated deep-sea fauna. Accordingly, side scan sonar surveys were conducted in May 2004, June 2005, and April 2006 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur II to: (1) obtain additional imagery of the seafloor for broader habitat-mapping coverage of sanctuary waters, and (2) help delineate suitable deep-sea coral-sponge habitat, in areas of both high and low commercial-fishing activities, to serve as sites for surveying-in more detail using an ROV on subsequent cruises, Several regions of the sea floor throughout the OCNMS were surveyed and mosaicked at 1-meter pixel resolution. Imagery from the side scan sonar mapping efforts was integrated with other complementary data from a towed camera sled, ROVs, sedentary samples, and bathymetry records to describe geological and biological (where possible) aspects of habitat. Using a hierarchical deep-water marine benthic classification scheme (Greene et al. 1999), we created a preliminary map of various habitat polygon features for use in a geographical information system (GIS). This report provides a description of the mapping and groundtruthing efforts as well as results of the image classification procedure for each of the areas surveyed.

  18. Deep learning for galaxy surface brightness profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Dimauro, P.

    2018-03-01

    Numerous ongoing and future large area surveys (e.g. Dark Energy Survey, EUCLID, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) will increase by several orders of magnitude the volume of data that can be exploited for galaxy morphology studies. The full potential of these surveys can be unlocked only with the development of automated, fast, and reliable analysis methods. In this paper, we present DeepLeGATo, a new method for 2-D photometric galaxy profile modelling, based on convolutional neural networks. Our code is trained and validated on analytic profiles (HST/CANDELS F160W filter) and it is able to retrieve the full set of parameters of one-component Sérsic models: total magnitude, effective radius, Sérsic index, and axis ratio. We show detailed comparisons between our code and GALFIT. On simulated data, our method is more accurate than GALFIT and ˜3000 time faster on GPU (˜50 times when running on the same CPU). On real data, DeepLeGATo trained on simulations behaves similarly to GALFIT on isolated galaxies. With a fast domain adaptation step made with the 0.1-0.8 per cent the size of the training set, our code is easily capable to reproduce the results obtained with GALFIT even on crowded regions. DeepLeGATo does not require any human intervention beyond the training step, rendering it much automated than traditional profiling methods. The development of this method for more complex models (two-component galaxies, variable point spread function, dense sky regions) could constitute a fundamental tool in the era of big data in astronomy.

  19. Deep groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.; Axelsen, K.; Fredlund, F.

    1987-06-01

    Starting in 1977 and up till now a number of places in Sweden have been investigated in order to collect the necessary geological, hydrogeological and chemical data needed for safety analyses of repositories in deep bedrock systems. Only crystalline rock is considered and in many cases this has been gneisses of sedimentary origin but granites and gabbros are also represented. Core drilled holes have been made at nine sites. Up to 15 holes may be core drilled at one site, the deepest down to 1000 m. In addition to this a number of boreholes are percussion drilled at each site to depths of about 100 m. When possible drilling water is taken from percussion drilled holes. The first objective is to survey the hydraulic conditions. Core drilled boreholes and sections selected for sampling of deep groundwater are summarized. (orig./HP)

  20. Survey of methods used to determine if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis: An exploratory research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, John D; Farris, James W

    2017-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is encouraged in the physical therapy profession, but integrating evidence into practice can be difficult for clinicians because of lack of time and other constraints. To survey physical therapy clinical instructors and determine the methods they use for screening for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a type of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the lower extremities. Exploratory survey. Twelve survey questions written specifically for this study were sent to a convenience sample of clinical instructors associated with seven universities across 43 states. Eight hundred fifty clinical instructors (22.4% response rate) completed the survey. Of those who responded, 80.5% were taught to use Homans sign to screen for a possible DVT in their entry-level education and 67.9% continued to use Homans sign in clinical practice. Regardless of post-graduate education, respondents were more likely to choose Homans sign than a clinical decision rule (CDR) to screen for a suspected DVT. Additionally, nearly two-thirds of respondents failed to correctly identify one or more of the major risk factors for developing a DVT/VTE. The response rate was 22.4% and therefore may not fully represent the population of physical therapy clinical instructors in the United States. Results from this exploratory survey indicated that approximately two-thirds of physical therapy clinical instructors used outdated DVT/VTE screening methods that they were taught in their entry-level education and nearly two-thirds did not identify the major risk factors associated with DVT/VTE. These results suggest that change is necessary in physical therapy education, clinical practice, and continuing professional development to ensure a more evidenced-based identification of DVT and VTE.

  1. Development of Deep-tow Autonomous Cable Seismic (ACS) for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Shutaro; Lee, Sangkyun; Tara, Kenji; Kato, Masafumi; Jamali Hondori, Ehsan; Sumi, Tomonori; Kadoshima, Kazuyuki; Kose, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Within the EEZ of Japan, numerous surveys exploring ocean floor resources have been conducted. The exploration targets are gas hydrates, mineral resources (manganese, cobalt or rare earth) and especially seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) deposits. These resources exist in shallow subsurface areas in deep waters (>1500m). For seismic explorations very high resolution images are required. These cannot be effectively obtained with conventional marine seismic techniques. Therefore we have been developing autonomous seismic survey systems which record the data close to the seafloor to preserve high frequency seismic energy. Very high sampling rate (10kHz) and high accurate synchronization between recording systems and shot time are necessary. We adopted Cs-base atomic clock considering its power consumption. At first, we developed a Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) system that uses hydrophone arrays moored vertically from the ocean bottom to record close to the target area. This system has been successfully applied to SMS exploration. Specifically it fixed over known sites to assess the amount of reserves with the resultant 3D volume. Based on the success of VCS, we modified the VCS system to use as a more efficient deep-tow seismic survey system. Although there are other examples of deep-tow seismic systems, signal transmission cables present challenges in deep waters. We use our autonomous recording system to avoid these problems. Combining a high frequency piezoelectric source (Sub Bottom Profiler:SBP) that automatically shots with a constant interval, we achieve the high resolution deep-tow seismic without data transmission/power cable to the board. Although the data cannot be monitored in real-time, the towing system becomes very simple. We have carried out survey trial, which showed the systems utility as a high-resolution deep-tow seismic survey system. Furthermore, the frequency ranges of deep-towed source (SBP) and surface towed sparker are 700-2300Hz and 10-200Hz

  2. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  3. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  4. The UV galaxy luminosity function at z = 3-5 from the CFHT Legacy Survey Deep fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, R. F. J.; Hildebrandt, H.; Erben, T.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We measure and study the evolution of the UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z = 3-5 from the largest high-redshift survey to date, the Deep part of the CFHT Legacy Survey. We also give accurate estimates of the SFR density at these redshifts. Methods: We consider ~100 000 Lyman-break galaxies at z ≈ 3.1, 3.8 and 4.8 selected from very deep ugriz images of this data set and estimate their rest-frame 1600 Å luminosity function. Due to the large survey volume, cosmic variance plays a negligible role. Furthermore, we measure the bright end of the LF with unprecedented statistical accuracy. Contamination fractions from stars and low-z galaxy interlopers are estimated from simulations. From these simulations the redshift distributions of the Lyman-break galaxies in the different samples are estimated, and those redshifts are used to choose bands and calculate k-corrections so that the LFs are compared at the same rest-frame wavelength. To correct for incompleteness, we study the detection rate of simulated galaxies injected to the images as a function of magnitude and redshift. We estimate the contribution of several systematic effects in the analysis to test the robustness of our results. Results: We find the bright end of the LF of our u-dropout sample to deviate significantly from a Schechter function. If we modify the function by a recently proposed magnification model, the fit improves. For the first time in an LBG sample, we can measure down to the density regime where magnification affects the shape of the observed LF because of the very bright and rare galaxies we are able to probe with this data set. We find an increase in the normalisation, ϕ*, of the LF by a factor of 2.5 between z ≈ 5 and z ≈ 3. The faint-end slope of the LF does not evolve significantly between z ≈ 5 and z ≈ 3. We do not find a significant evolution of the characteristic magnitude in the studied redshift interval, possibly because of insufficient knowledge of the source

  5. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  6. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas; Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike; Treister, Ezequiel; Cobb, Bethany E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lira, Paulina; Murayama, Takashi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumikawa, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the ∼30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find ∼40,000 galaxies with R AB 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1σ scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that ∼20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  7. Deep Water Coral (HB1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cruise will survey and collect samples of deep-sea corals and related marine life in the canyons in the northern Gulf of Maine in U.S. and Canadian waters. The...

  8. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  9. Geological evidence for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield and its periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijun; Huang Hongkun; Zeng Wenwei; Wu Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discussed the ore-controlling role of deep structure, the origin of metallogenic matter and fluid, the relation of diabase to silicification zone, then summarized the achievement of Geophysical survey and drilling, and finally analysed the potential for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield.(authors)

  10. Study on the Geological Structure around KURT Using a Deep Borehole Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    To characterize geological features in study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drilling since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep borehole of 500 m depths was drilled to confirm and validate the geological model at the left research module of the KURT. The objective of this research was to identify the geological structures around KURT using the data obtained from the deep borehole investigation. To achieve the purpose, several geological investigations such as geophysical and borehole fracture surveys were carried out simultaneously. As a result, 7 fracture zones were identified in deep borehole located in the KURT. As one of important parts of site characterization on KURT area, the results will be used to revise the geological model of the study area

  11. Discovering Interacting Binaries with Halpha Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witham, A.; Knigge, C.; Drew, J.; Groot, P.J.; Greimel, R.; Parker, Q.

    2005-01-01

    A deep (R ~ 19.5) photographic Halpha Survey of the southern Galactic Plane was recently completed using the UK Schmidt Telescope at the AAO. In addition, we have recently started a similar, CCD-based survey of the northern Galactic Plane using the Wide Field Camera on the INT. Both surveys aim to

  12. Protective Benefits of Deep Tube Wells Against Childhood Diarrhea in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer Jane; Escamilla, Veronica; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Carrel, Margaret; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether deep tube wells installed to provide arsenic-free groundwater in rural Bangladesh have the added benefit of reducing childhood diarrheal disease incidence. Methods. We recorded cases of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years in 142 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh, during monthly community health surveys in 2005 and 2006. We surveyed the location and depth of 12 018 tube wells and integrated these data with diarrhea data and other data in a geographic information system. We fit a longitudinal logistic regression model to measure the relationship between childhood diarrhea and deep tube well use. We controlled for maternal education, family wealth, year, and distance to a deep tube well. Results. Household clusters assumed to be using deep tube wells were 48.7% (95% confidence interval = 27.8%, 63.5%) less likely to have a case of childhood diarrhea than were other household clusters. Conclusions. Increased access to deep tube wells may provide dual benefits to vulnerable populations in Matlab, Bangladesh, by reducing the risk of childhood diarrheal disease and decreasing exposure to naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater. PMID:23409905

  13. Deep learning—Accelerating Next Generation Performance Analysis Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Brock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep neural network architectures show superior performance in recognition and prediction tasks of the image, speech and natural language domains. The success of such multi-layered networks encourages their implementation in further application scenarios as the retrieval of relevant motion information for performance enhancement in sports. However, to date deep learning is only seldom applied to activity recognition problems of the human motion domain. Therefore, its use for sports data analysis might remain abstract to many practitioners. This paper provides a survey on recent works in the field of high-performance motion data and examines relevant technologies for subsequent deployment in real training systems. In particular, it discusses aspects of data acquisition, processing and network modeling. Analysis suggests the advantage of deep neural networks under difficult and noisy data conditions. However, further research is necessary to confirm the benefit of deep learning for next generation performance analysis systems.

  14. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...... be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mathematical expressions as directed graphs. The latest version is available at http...

  15. COOL WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE OF THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodieu, N.; Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have paired the second data release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the fifth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify 10 cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these 10, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicate that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. The model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range of T eff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with T eff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that for the nine ∼ 6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white dwarfs from the existing data, and therefore we cannot constrain the total ages of the white dwarfs. The large cooling age for the coolest white dwarf in the sample, combined with its low estimated tangential velocity, suggests that it is an old member of the thin disk, or a member of the thick disk of the Galaxy, with an age of 10-11 Gyr. The warmer white dwarfs appear to have velocities typical of the thick disk or even halo; these may be very old remnants of low-mass stars, or they may be relatively young thin-disk objects with unusually high space motion.

  16. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi

    1999-02-01

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  17. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the EGS deep field - I. Deep number counts and the redshift distribution of the recovered cosmic infrared background at 450 and 850 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, J. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Geach, J. E.; Hughes, D. H.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Jenness, T.; Michałowski, M. J.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, J.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present deep observations at 450 and 850 μm in the Extended Groth Strip field taken with the SCUBA-2 camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the deep SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), achieving a central instrumental depth of σ450 = 1.2 mJy beam-1 and σ850 = 0.2 mJy beam-1. We detect 57 sources at 450 μm and 90 at 850 μm with signal-to-noise ratio >3.5 over ˜70 arcmin2. From these detections, we derive the number counts at flux densities S450 > 4.0 mJy and S850 > 0.9 mJy, which represent the deepest number counts at these wavelengths derived using directly extracted sources from only blank-field observations with a single-dish telescope. Our measurements smoothly connect the gap between previous shallower blank-field single-dish observations and deep interferometric ALMA results. We estimate the contribution of our SCUBA-2 detected galaxies to the cosmic infrared background (CIB), as well as the contribution of 24 μm-selected galaxies through a stacking technique, which add a total of 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.07 ± 0.01 MJy sr-1, at 450 and 850 μm, respectively. These surface brightnesses correspond to 60 ± 20 and 50 ± 20 per cent of the total CIB measurements, where the errors are dominated by those of the total CIB. Using the photometric redshifts of the 24 μm-selected sample and the redshift distributions of the submillimetre galaxies, we find that the redshift distribution of the recovered CIB is different at each wavelength, with a peak at z ˜ 1 for 450 μm and at z ˜ 2 for 850 μm, consistent with previous observations and theoretical models.

  18. CMU DeepLens: deep learning for automatic image-based galaxy-galaxy strong lens finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, François; Ma, Quanbin; Li, Nan; Collett, Thomas E.; Li, Chun-Liang; Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Póczos, Barnabás

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing can not only provide a valuable probe of the dark matter distribution of massive galaxies, but also provide valuable cosmological constraints, either by studying the population of strong lenses or by measuring time delays in lensed quasars. Due to the rarity of galaxy-scale strongly lensed systems, fast and reliable automated lens finding methods will be essential in the era of large surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope. To tackle this challenge, we introduce CMU DeepLens, a new fully automated galaxy-galaxy lens finding method based on deep learning. This supervised machine learning approach does not require any tuning after the training step which only requires realistic image simulations of strongly lensed systems. We train and validate our model on a set of 20 000 LSST-like mock observations including a range of lensed systems of various sizes and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). We find on our simulated data set that for a rejection rate of non-lenses of 99 per cent, a completeness of 90 per cent can be achieved for lenses with Einstein radii larger than 1.4 arcsec and S/N larger than 20 on individual g-band LSST exposures. Finally, we emphasize the importance of realistically complex simulations for training such machine learning methods by demonstrating that the performance of models of significantly different complexities cannot be distinguished on simpler simulations. We make our code publicly available at https://github.com/McWilliamsCenter/CMUDeepLens.

  19. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  20. Geological aspects of a deep underground disposal facility in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopovy, J.; Woller, F.

    1997-01-01

    The basic requirements for the geological situation at a deep underground radioactive waste disposal site are highlighted, a survey of candidate host sites worldwide is presented, and the situation in the Czech Republic is analyzed. A 'General Project of Geological Activities Related to the Development of a Deep Underground Disposal Site for Radioactive Wastes and Spent Fuel in the Czech Republic' has been developed by the Nuclear Research Institute and approved and financed by the authorities. The Project encompasses the following stages: (i) preliminary study and research; (ii) examination of the seismicity, neotectonics, and geodynamics; (iii) search and critical assessment of archived geological information; (iv) non-destructive survey; and (v) destructive survey. The Project should take about 30 years and its scope will be updated from time to time. (P.A.)

  1. Deep-sea coral research and technology program: Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Chris; Stone, Robert P.; Etnoyer, Peter; Conrath, Christina; Reynolds, Jennifer; Greene, H. Gary; Williams, Branwen; Salgado, Enrique; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Waller, Rhian G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems are widespread throughout most of Alaska’s marine waters. In some places, such as the central and western Aleutian Islands, deep-sea coral and sponge resources can be extremely diverse and may rank among the most abundant deep-sea coral and sponge communities in the world. Many different species of fishes and invertebrates are associated with deep-sea coral and sponge communities in Alaska. Because of their biology, these benthic invertebrates are potentially impacted by climate change and ocean acidification. Deepsea coral and sponge ecosystems are also vulnerable to the effects of commercial fishing activities. Because of the size and scope of Alaska’s continental shelf and slope, the vast majority of the area has not been visually surveyed for deep-sea corals and sponges. NOAA’s Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program (DSCRTP) sponsored a field research program in the Alaska region between 2012–2015, referred to hereafter as the Alaska Initiative. The priorities for Alaska were derived from ongoing data needs and objectives identified by the DSCRTP, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), and Essential Fish Habitat-Environmental Impact Statement (EFH-EIS) process.This report presents the results of 15 projects conducted using DSCRTP funds from 2012-2015. Three of the projects conducted as part of the Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative included dedicated at-sea cruises and fieldwork spread across multiple years. These projects were the eastern Gulf of Alaska Primnoa pacifica study, the Aleutian Islands mapping study, and the Gulf of Alaska fish productivity study. In all, there were nine separate research cruises carried out with a total of 109 at-sea days conducting research. The remaining projects either used data and samples collected by the three major fieldwork projects or were piggy-backed onto existing research programs at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC).

  2. Stakeholder perspectives on the importance of rare-species research for deep-sea environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Phillip J.; Campbell, Lisa M.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2017-07-01

    The apparent prevalence of rare species (rarity) in the deep sea is a concern for environmental management and conservation of biodiversity. Rare species are often considered at risk of extinction and, in terrestrial and shallow water environments, have been shown to play key roles within an ecosystem. In the deep-sea environment, current research focuses primarily on abundant species and deep-sea stakeholders are questioning the importance of rare species in ecosystem functioning. This study asks whether deep-sea stakeholders (primarily scientists) view rare-species research as a priority in guiding environmental management. Delphi methodology (i.e., an iterative survey approach) was used to understand views about whether or not 'deep-sea scientists should allocate more resources to research on rare species in the deep sea, even if this means less resources might be available for abundant-species research.' Results suggest little consensus regarding the prioritization of resources for rare-species research. From Survey 1 to Survey 3, the average participant response shifted toward a view that rare-species research is not a priority if it comes at a cost to research on abundant species. Participants pointed to the need for a balanced approach and highlighted knowledge gaps about even the most fundamental questions, including whether rare species are truly 'rare' or simply under-sampled. Participants emphasized the lack of basic biological knowledge for rare and abundant species, particularly abundant meio- and microscopic species, as well as uncertainty in the roles rare and abundant species play in ecosystem processes. Approaches that jointly consider the role of rare and abundant species in ecosystem functioning (e.g., biological trait analysis) may help to clarify the extent to which rare species need to be incorporated into deep-sea environment management in order to maintain ecosystem functioning.

  3. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zcolor selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).MUSE Ultra Deep Field redshift catalogs (Full Table A.1) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http

  4. Photometric Variability of Four Coronally Active Stars J. C. Pandey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ray surveys with the Einstein and the ROSAT observatories and found to be associated with bright late- type stars. Many of these stars have not been studied in detail for their chromospheric and coronal activity, and their nature is not fully ...

  5. A wide deep infrared look at the Pleiades with UKIDSS: new constraints on the substellar binary fraction and the low-mass initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P.D.; Deacon, N.R.; Hodgkin, S.T.; Hambly, N.C.; Jameson, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a deep wide-field near-infrared survey of 12 deg2 of the Pleiades conducted as part of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). We have extracted over 340 high-probability proper motion (PM)

  6. Digitally Inspired Thinking: Can Social Media Lead to Deep Learning in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Peretz, Debbie; Dvorkin Camiel, Lana; Teeley, Karen; Banerjee, Gouri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students from a variety of disciplines, who were enrolled in six courses that incorporate the use of social media, were surveyed to evaluate their perception of how the integration of social-media tools supports deep approaches to learning. Students reported that social media supports deep learning both directly and indirectly,…

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  8. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  9. Microbial ecology of deep-water mid-Atlantic canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The research described in this fact sheet will be conducted from 2012 to 2014 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) Program. This integrated, multidisciplinary effort will be investigating a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level. One goal is to improve understanding, at the microbiological scale, of the benthic communities (including corals) that reside in and around mid-Atlantic canyon habitats and their associated environments. Specific objectives include identifying and characterizing the microbial associates of deep-sea corals, characterizing the microbial biofilms on hard substrates to better determine their role in engineering the ecosystem, and adding a microbial dimension to benthic community structure and function assessments by characterizing micro-eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea in deep-sea sediments.

  10. Characterization of majority and minority carrier deep levels in p-type GaN:Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy using deep level optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.; Caudill, J.; Ringel, S. A.; Corrion, A.; Poblenz, C.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Deep level defects in p-type GaN:Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy were characterized using steady-state photocapacitance and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). Low frequency capacitance measurements were used to alleviate dispersion effects stemming from the deep Mg acceptor. Use of DLOS enabled a quantitative survey of both deep acceptor and deep donor levels, the latter being particularly important due to the limited understanding of minority carrier states for p-type GaN. Simultaneous electron and hole photoemissions resulted in a convoluted deep level spectrum that was decoupled by emphasizing either majority or minority carrier optical emission through control of the thermal filling time conditions. In this manner, DLOS was able to resolve and quantify the properties of deep levels residing near both the conduction and valence bandedges in the same sample. Bandgap states through hole photoemission were observed at E v +3.05 eV, E v +3.22 eV and E v +3.26 eV. Additionally, DLOS revealed levels at E c -3.24 eV and E c -2.97 eV through electron emission to the conduction band with the former attributed to the Mg acceptor itself. The detected deep donor concentration is less than 2% of activated [Mg] and demonstrates the excellent quality of the film

  11. M DWARF ACTIVITY IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY: FIRST CATALOG AND ROTATION PERIODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kado-Fong, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, A. W. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: erin.fong@tufts.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We report on an ongoing project to investigate activity in the M dwarf stellar population observed by the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1-MDS). Using a custom-built pipeline, we refine an initial sample of ∼4 million sources in PS1-MDS to a sample of 184,148 candidate cool stars using color cuts. Motivated by the well-known relationship between rotation and stellar activity, we use a multiband periodogram analysis and visual vetting to identify 270 sources that are likely rotating M dwarfs. We derive a new set of polynomials relating M dwarf PS1 colors to fundamental stellar parameters and use them to estimate the masses, distances, effective temperatures, and bolometric luminosities of our sample. We present a catalog containing these values, our measured rotation periods, and cross-matches to other surveys. Our final sample spans periods of ≲1–130 days in stars with estimated effective temperatures of ∼2700–4000 K. Twenty-two of our sources have X-ray cross-matches, and they are found to be relatively X-ray bright as would be expected from selection effects. Our data set provides evidence that Kepler -based searches have not been sensitive to very slowly rotating stars ( P {sub rot} ≳ 70 day), implying that the observed emergence of very slow rotators in studies of low-mass stars may be a systematic effect. We also see a lack of low-amplitude (<2%) variability in objects with intermediate (10–40 day) rotation periods, which, considered in conjunction with other observational results, may be a signpost of a loss of magnetic complexity associated with a phase of rapid spin-down in intermediate-age M dwarfs. This work represents just a first step in exploring stellar variability in data from the PS1-MDS and, in the farther future, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, Mark C.; Russell, Glenn P.; Perry, Frank V.; Kelley, Richard E.; Champenois, Sean T.

    2017-01-01

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  13. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  14. ALMACAL I: FIRST DUAL-BAND NUMBER COUNTS FROM A DEEP AND WIDE ALMA SUBMILLIMETER SURVEY, FREE FROM COSMIC VARIANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ UK (United Kingdom); Zwaan, M. A.; Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Smail, I., E-mail: ivanoteogomez@gmail.com [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE UK (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ∼25 μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5 σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S {sub 1.2} m {sub m} ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μ m and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  15. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia: patient selection and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, J. D.; Contarino, M. F.; Schuurman, P. R.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; de Bie, R. M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In a literature survey, 341 patients with primary and 109 with secondary dystonias treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were identified. In general, the outcomes for primary dystonias were more favourable compared to the secondary forms. For

  16. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia : Patient selection and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, J. D.; Contarino, M. F.; Schuurman, P. R.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; de Bie, R. M. A.

    In a literature survey, 341 patients with primary and 109 with secondary dystonias treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were identified. In general, the outcomes for primary dystonias were more favourable compared to the secondary forms. For

  17. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Rietjens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians’ degree of palliative training. Methods Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient’s death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent), and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: ‘Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs’. Results After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%), its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%). Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family. Conclusion Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of

  18. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzo Robijn

    Full Text Available Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians' degree of palliative training.Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient's death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent, and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: 'Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs'.After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%, its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%. Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family.Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of patients and relatives in the

  19. The Experience of Deep Learning by Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin; Baskerville, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how to support accounting students to experience deep learning. A sample of 81 students in a third-year undergraduate accounting course was studied employing a phenomenographic research approach, using ten assessed learning tasks for each student (as well as a focus group and student surveys) to measure their experience of how…

  20. Does the Underground Sidewall Station Survey Method Meet MHSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hendrik

    The underground survey network in a deep level platinum mine in ... The time duration for peg installation during the initial phase of learning the method was ..... changes to the survey “hardware” including prisms, stems and attachment points ...

  1. Diel effects on bottom-trawl survey catch rates of shallow- and deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing in depths shallower than 400 m outside daylight hours should therefore be avoided in order to reduce bias and ensure consistency in abundance estimates from surveys. Keywords: Benguela Current system, consistency of survey indices, efficiency of bottom-trawl surveys, negative binomial GAM, transect survey ...

  2. Comprehensive survey of deep learning in remote sensing: theories, tools, and challenges for the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Chan, Chee Seng

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, deep learning (DL), a rebranding of neural networks (NNs), has risen to the top in numerous areas, namely computer vision (CV), speech recognition, and natural language processing. Whereas remote sensing (RS) possesses a number of unique challenges, primarily related to sensors and applications, inevitably RS draws from many of the same theories as CV, e.g., statistics, fusion, and machine learning, to name a few. This means that the RS community should not only be aware of advancements such as DL, but also be leading researchers in this area. Herein, we provide the most comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art RS DL research. We also review recent new developments in the DL field that can be used in DL for RS. Namely, we focus on theories, tools, and challenges for the RS community. Specifically, we focus on unsolved challenges and opportunities as they relate to (i) inadequate data sets, (ii) human-understandable solutions for modeling physical phenomena, (iii) big data, (iv) nontraditional heterogeneous data sources, (v) DL architectures and learning algorithms for spectral, spatial, and temporal data, (vi) transfer learning, (vii) an improved theoretical understanding of DL systems, (viii) high barriers to entry, and (ix) training and optimizing the DL.

  3. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg 2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4 G Hz = 1.3 x 10 20 W Hz -1 . The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with M r r r ∼ sun yr -1 .

  4. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  5. Deep-HiTS: Rotation Invariant Convolutional Neural Network for Transient Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Vives, Guillermo; Reyes, Ignacio; Förster, Francisco; Estévez, Pablo A.; Maureira, Juan-Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We introduce Deep-HiTS, a rotation-invariant convolutional neural network (CNN) model for classifying images of transient candidates into artifacts or real sources for the High cadence Transient Survey (HiTS). CNNs have the advantage of learning the features automatically from the data while achieving high performance. We compare our CNN model against a feature engineering approach using random forests (RFs). We show that our CNN significantly outperforms the RF model, reducing the error by almost half. Furthermore, for a fixed number of approximately 2000 allowed false transient candidates per night, we are able to reduce the misclassified real transients by approximately one-fifth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time CNNs have been used to detect astronomical transient events. Our approach will be very useful when processing images from next generation instruments such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. We have made all our code and data available to the community for the sake of allowing further developments and comparisons at https://github.com/guille-c/Deep-HiTS. Deep-HiTS is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v3.0.

  6. Knowledge and practice of prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... Kesieme, et al.: Knowledge and practice of prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis: A survey. 171. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Mar-Apr 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 2. Introduction. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among surgical patients.

  7. Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) during a one-year survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.

  8. Revealing Holobiont Structure and Function of Three Red Sea Deep-Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have long been regarded as cold-water coral; however a reevaluation of their habitat limitations has been suggested after the discovery of deep-sea coral in the Red Sea where temperatures exceed 20˚C. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals at these temperatures, the work in this PhD employed a holotranscriptomic approach, looking at coral animal host and bacterial symbiont gene expression in Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus sp. sampled from the deep Red Sea. Bacterial community composition was analyzed via amplicon-based 16S surveys and cultured bacterial strains were subjected to bioprospecting in order to gauge the pharmaceutical potential of coralassociated microbes. Coral host transcriptome data suggest that coral can employ mitochondrial hypometabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and surface cilia to enhance mass transport rates to manage the low oxygen and highly oligotrophic Red Sea waters. In the microbial community associated with these corals, ribokinases and retron-type reverse transcriptases are abundantly expressed. In its first application to deep-sea coral associated microbial communities, 16S-based next-generation sequencing found that a single operational taxonomic unit can comprise the majority of sequence reads and that a large number of low abundance populations are present, which cannot be visualized with first generation sequencing. Bioactivity testing of selected bacterial isolates was surveyed over 100 cytological parameters with high content screening, covering several major organelles and key proteins involved in a variety of signaling cascades. Some of these cytological profiles were similar to those of several reference pharmacologically active compounds, which suggest that the bacteria isolates produce compounds with similar mechanisms of action as the reference compounds. The sum of this work offers several mechanisms by which Red Sea deep-sea corals cope with environmental

  9. A Literature Survey of Early Time Series Classification and Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Tiago; Kern, Roman

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current literature on time series classification approaches, in particular of early time series classification. A very common and effective time series classification approach is the 1-Nearest Neighbor classier, with different distance measures such as the Euclidean or dynamic time warping distances. This paper starts by reviewing these baseline methods. More recently, with the gain in popularity in the application of deep neural networks to the eld of...

  10. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with langzrang = 0.55 derived from 400 deg2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ≈ 0.05 clusters...

  11. Sleuthing the Dynamo: the Final Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies are opening new windows into the Sun;from its hidden interior to the far reaches of its turbulentouter envelope: rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; theGONG project for helioseismology; SOHO for high-resolutionXUV spectroscopy, and YOHKOH for coronal X-ray imaging. Atthe same time, a fleet of space observatories--ROSAT, EUVE,ASCA, and HST itself--are providing unprecedented views ofthe vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galacticneighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are infact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellarphysics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: thelink between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and theviolent state of its outermost coronal layers. As solarphysicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagneticDynamo deep inside the Sun, we and others have beendocumenting the early evolution of the Dynamo and itsassociated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, wehave obtained HST/FOS spectra of ten young solar-type starsin three nearby open clusters--the Hyades, Pleiades, andAlpha Persei--ranging in age from 50 Myr to 600 Myr. We havesupplemented the HST spectroscopy with deep ROSAT pointings, and ground-based studies. Here, we will continue the HSTside of our project by obtaining FUV spectra of two AlphaPerseids from our original program (but not yet observed),and high-S/N follow-up measurements of the hyperactive PleiadH II 314.

  12. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  13. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  14. An ASCA Survey of GeV Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Kawai, N.

    1999-04-01

    We present an ASCA survey of GeV selected EGRET sources with E>1 GeV gamma -ray photon flux >5.0 x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) . A combination of archival and new data covers ~ 75% of the sky contained within the 95% confidence position contours of these sources, and additional data obtained during the current observing cycle will increase this coverage to ~ 90%. We start with flat-fielded 2-10 keV images from the GIS data, and fit power-law spectra to potential counterparts. SIS, ROSAT, and Einstein data are used to confirm source detections and extend survey coverage. We then use the X-ray sources to identify radio counterparts in continuum survey data. Of the 26 GeV sources above our flux threshhold (Lamb and Macomb, 1997), 3 of the 4 at high galactic latitudes (bga 10(deg) ) are known blazars, while 5 of the low latitude sources are young pulsars. Of the remaining sources, 5 are plausibly associated with known young pulsars and/or plerionic SNR, one is at the Galactic center, and one may be associated with LSI+61 303. We focus here on the remaining 11 sources. By comparison with the known radio and X-ray properties of blazars and pulsars, we can identify potential members of these source classes, and potential new classes of gamma -ray emitters. We also estimate source luminosities using distances inferred from nearby tracers of star formation (Yadigaroglu and Romani, 1997). Data from several fields are consistent with these sources being synchrotron nebulae surrounding radio-quiet `Geminga-like' pulsars. These data provide incentives for further searches for pulsations at high energies and in the radio. In other fields identification is more problematic. We compare our results to models of the relative beaming fractions inferred from the radio and gamma -ray ray pulse shapes. The fraction of `pulsar candidate' detections is shown to provide useful constraints on pulsar luminosity evolution and beaming statistics.

  15. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  16. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey first data release: Spectra and spectroscopic redshifts of 698 objects up to zspec 6 in CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ribeiro, B.; Thomas, R.; Moreau, C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Schaerer, D.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Pforr, J.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the first data release (DR1) of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). The VUDS-DR1 is the release of all low-resolution spectroscopic data obtained in 276.9 arcmin2 of the CANDELS-COSMOS and CANDELS-ECDFS survey areas, including accurate spectroscopic redshifts zspec and individual spectra obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT. A total of 698 objects have a measured redshift, with 677 galaxies, two type-I AGN, and a small number of 19 contaminating stars. The targets of the spectroscopic survey are selected primarily on the basis of their photometric redshifts to ensure a broad population coverage. About 500 galaxies have zspec > 2, 48of which have zspec > 4; the highest reliable redshifts reach beyond zspec = 6. This data set approximately doubles the number of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z > 3 in these fields. We discuss the general properties of the VUDS-DR1 sample in terms of the spectroscopic redshift distribution, the distribution of Lyman-α equivalent widths, and physical properties including stellar masses M⋆ and star formation rates derived from spectral energy distribution fitting with the knowledge of zspec. We highlight the properties of the most massive star-forming galaxies, noting the wide range in spectral properties, with Lyman-α in emission or in absorption, and in imaging properties with compact, multi-component, or pair morphologies. We present the catalogue database and data products. All VUDS-DR1 data are publicly available and can be retrieved from a dedicated query-based database. Future VUDS data releases will follow this VUDS-DR1 to give access to the spectra and associated measurement of 8000 objects in the full 1 square degree of the VUDS survey. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791. http://cesam.lam.fr/vuds

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SEA WRECK USS INDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Symons

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of ongoing efforts to better understand the nature of shipwrecks in National Marine Sanctuaries which may pose some level of pollution risk, and in this case, to definitively locate what is likely the only shipwreck in a sanctuary involved in both nuclear testing and nuclear waste disposal, NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries collaborated with NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and The Boeing Company, which provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS in March 2015. The presence of the deep-sea scuttled radioactive aircraft carrier USS Independence off the California coast has been the source of consistent media speculation and public concern for decades. The survey confirmed that a sonar target charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck, and revealed no detectable levels of radioactivity. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence’s use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. While further surveys may reveal more, physical assessment and focused archival work has demonstrated that the level of concern and speculation of danger from either a radioactive or oil pollution threat posed may be exaggerated.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystem Studies, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Most people are familiar with tropical coral reefs, located in warm, well-illuminated, shallow waters. However, corals also exist hundreds and even thousands of meters below the ocean surface, where it is cold and completely dark. These deep-sea corals, also known as cold-water corals, have become a topic of interest due to conservation concerns over the impacts of trawling, exploration for oil and gas, and climate change. Although the existence of these corals has been known since the 1800s, our understanding of their distribution, ecology, and biology is limited due to the technical difficulties of conducting deep-sea research. DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) is a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) program focused on deep-water coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. This integrated, multidisciplinary, international effort investigates a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level, including components of microbiology, population genetics, paleoecology, food webs, taxonomy, community ecology, physical oceanography, and mapping.

  19. Student Deep Learning in Bachelor English Programs within Pakistani Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Khazima

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contrast undergraduate students' descriptions about transformational teaching practices, and student deep learning in bachelor English programs in selected universities within Pakistan. This study utilized a survey to gather responses from five hundred and twenty three students. A paired sample t test was utilized…

  20. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  1. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  2. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) w...

  3. UltraVISTA : a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fevre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHK(s) and

  4. A New Infrared Color Criterion for the Selection of 0 < z < 7 AGNs: Application to Deep Fields and Implications for JWST Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, H.; Afonso, J.; Salvato, M.; Mobasher, B.; Hopkins, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    It is widely accepted that observations at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths enable the selection of galaxies with nuclear activity, which may not be revealed even in the deepest X-ray surveys. Many mid-IR color-color criteria have been explored to accomplish this goal and tested thoroughly in the literature. Besides missing many low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one of the main conclusions is that, with increasing redshift, the contamination by non-active galaxies becomes significant (especially at z >~ 2.5). This is problematic for the study of the AGN phenomenon in the early universe, the main goal of many of the current and future deep extragalactic surveys. In this work new near- and mid-IR color diagnostics are explored, aiming for improved efficiency—better completeness and less contamination—in selecting AGNs out to very high redshifts. We restrict our study to the James Webb Space Telescope wavelength range (0.6-27 μm). The criteria are created based on the predictions by state-of-the-art galaxy and AGN templates covering a wide variety of galaxy properties, and tested against control samples with deep multi-wavelength coverage (ranging from the X-rays to radio frequencies). We show that the colors Ks - [4.5], [4.5] - [8.0], and [8.0] - [24] are ideal as AGN/non-AGN diagnostics at, respectively, z ~ 2.5-3. However, when the source redshift is unknown, these colors should be combined. We thus develop an improved IR criterion (using Ks and IRAC bands, KI) as a new alternative at z 50%-90% level of successful AGN selection). We also propose KIM (using Ks , IRAC, and MIPS 24 μm bands, KIM), which aims to select AGN hosts from local distances to as far back as the end of reionization (0 ~ 2.5. Overall, KIM shows a ~30%-40% completeness and a >70%-90% level of successful AGN selection. KI and KIM are built to be reliable against a ~10%-20% error in flux, are based on existing filters, and are suitable for immediate use.

  5. Report on fiscal 2000 survey for geothermal exploration technology verification. Survey of deep-seated geothermal resources; 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    To promote the development of deep-seated geothermal resources in a rationalized way, studies are conducted about deep-seated geothermal resource assessment techniques, development guidelines, and the like. Data were collected at the Sumikawa-Onuma district, Ogiri district, Mori district, Yanaizu-Nishiyama district, and the Onikobe district, and compiled into a database to be open to the public. Studies were made about methods for estimating parameters for deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. The resultant findings indicate that, in the Uenotai and Sumikawa-Onuma districts where geothermal reservoirs are governed mainly by a fracture network, the relaxation method and extrapolation will be effective for deep-seated reservoir temperature estimation, and the ascending current analysis method and extrapolation for permeability estimation. The findings also indicate that the expanse of deep-seated reservoirs will be suitably estimated using a method similar to that applied to shallow-seated reservoirs. In the study of the estimation of the amount of deep-seated geothermal resources, it is concluded that the simplified model A will be effective in dealing with a geothermal district where there is a well-developed fracture network and the simplified model B in dealing with a geothermal district where supply of deep-seated fluid governed by an extensive fault prevails. (NEDO)

  6. Report on fiscal 1999 survey for geothermal exploration technology verification. Survey of deep-seated geothermal resources; 1999 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    To promote the development of deep-seated geothermal resources in a rationalized way, studies were conducted about deep-seated geothermal resource assessment techniques, development guidelines, and the like. For the development of techniques for estimating deep-seated geothermal reservoir parameters, the Uenotai district, Akita Prefecture, and the Hatchobaru district, Oita Prefecture, were designated as model fields, and a geothermal system conceptual model was fabricated. Data of the two districts were registered in a database. Using these data, verification was performed of the validity of stochastic estimation techniques, large area flow simulation, rock/water equilibrium reaction simulation, and the like. As for the technique of deep-seated resource amount estimation, a simplified reservoir model was experimentally constructed based on parameters determined by the stochastic estimation of deep-seated reservoirs and on the conceptual model, and a method was studied for TOUGH2-based production prediction. Studies were also made about deep-seated geothermal resource development guidelines, such as exploration guidelines, exploration well boring guidelines, and geothermal fluid production guidelines. (NEDO)

  7. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D 4 in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m F475W = 28.0 mag, m F606W = 27.3 mag, and m F814W = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  8. Brown dwarfs in wide-field surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodieu N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this invited talk, I briefly summarise early photometric and proper motion surveys carried out in the nearest and youngest open clusters to introduce the motivation behind the Galactic Cluster component of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. Afterwards, I focus on the latest results that we obtained in the Upper Sco association and in the Pleiades. To finish, I show a comparison of the luminosity and mass functions obtained in the Upper Sco association, the Pleiades cluster, and σ Orionis from the homogeneous set of data publicly available from the Galactic Clusters Survey.

  9. BV RI CCD photometry of 361,281 objects in the field of M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, E. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Van Paradijs, J.; Hasinger, G.; Jain, A.; Pietsch, W.; Truemper, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deep BV RI CCD photometry was performed on a 1 sq deg region of M 31. A catalog of photometry and astrometry of a total of 361,281 stars is presented, with typical completion limits of BV RI = (22.3, 22.2, 22.2, 20.9). Photometric accuracy is about 2 percent at V = 19. This catalog allows detailed studies of stellar populations and reddening. The data are currently being used to assist in finding the optical counterparts of Einstein and ROSAT X-ray sources.

  10. Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    R.Anita; V.Ganga Bharani; N.Nityanandam; Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases. The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper, Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based app...

  11. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M sun , diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10 4 AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10 4 cm -3 , all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10 4 AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  12. Deep and accurate near-infrared photometry of the Galactic globular cluster omega Cen .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Corsi, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Koester, D.; Nonino, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Romaniello, M.

    We present deep and accurate Near-Infrared (NIR) photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster omega Cen . Data were collected using the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) mounted on the VLT (ESO). We combined the NIR photometry with optical space data collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) for the same region of the cluster. Our deep optical-NIR CMD indicates that the spread in age among the different stellar populations in omega Cen is at most of the order of 2 Gyr.

  13. SELECTION OF BURST-LIKE TRANSIENTS AND STOCHASTIC VARIABLES USING MULTI-BAND IMAGE DIFFERENCING IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Rest, A.; Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S.; Foley, R. J.; Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G.; Lawrence, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g P1 , r P1 , i P1 , and z P1 . We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host galaxy offsets, to

  14. Larval transport modeling of deep-sea invertebrates can aid the search for undiscovered populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Yearsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many deep-sea benthic animals occur in patchy distributions separated by thousands of kilometres, yet because deep-sea habitats are remote, little is known about their larval dispersal. Our novel method simulates dispersal by combining data from the Argo array of autonomous oceanographic probes, deep-sea ecological surveys, and comparative invertebrate physiology. The predicted particle tracks allow quantitative, testable predictions about the dispersal of benthic invertebrate larvae in the south-west Pacific. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a test case presented here, using non-feeding, non-swimming (lecithotrophic trochophore larvae of polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons, we show that the likely dispersal pathways in a single generation are significantly shorter than the distances between the three known population centres in our study region. The large-scale density of chiton populations throughout our study region is potentially much greater than present survey data suggest, with intermediate 'stepping stone' populations yet to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a new method that is broadly applicable to studies of the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. This test case demonstrates the power and potential applications of our new method, in generating quantitative, testable hypotheses at multiple levels to solve the mismatch between observed and expected distributions: probabilistic predictions of locations of intermediate populations, potential alternative dispersal mechanisms, and expected population genetic structure. The global Argo data have never previously been used to address benthic biology, and our method can be applied to any non-swimming larvae of the deep-sea, giving information upon dispersal corridors and population densities in habitats that remain intrinsically difficult to assess.

  15. On Lunar Exospheric Column Densities and Solar Wind Access Beyond the Terminator from ROSAT Soft X-Ray Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the Rontgen satellite (ROSAT) position sensitive proportional counter soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges: two 19 deg wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 deg off the terminator toward the dark side and one wedge 38 deg wide centered on the antisolar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show significant limb brightening that is absent in the 38 deg wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears to be dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now, along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which SWCX has been observed.

  16. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for the unidentified Swift/BAT sources listed in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). These associations were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and the XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues.

  17. A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF PROTOCLUSTERS AT z ∼ 3–6 IN THE CFHTLS DEEP FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Overzier, Roderik [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ota, Kazuaki, E-mail: jun.toshikawa@nao.ac.jp [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    We present the discovery of three protoclusters at z ∼ 3–4 with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of z ∼ 3–6 Lyman-break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than 4 σ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than 76% of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of 10{sup 14} M {sub ⊙} at z = 0. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, Keck II/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at z = 3–4 with more than five members spectroscopically identified and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at z ∼ 5–6 require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A z = 3.67 protocluster, which has 11 spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region (<0.5 physical Mpc) and an outskirts region (∼1.0 physical Mpc). The Ly α equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift, while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at z ∼ 4 along with the growth of the protocluster structure. This study provides an important benchmark for our analysis of protoclusters in the upcoming Subaru/HSC imaging survey and its spectroscopic follow-up with the Subaru/PFS that will detect thousands of protoclusters up to z ∼ 6.

  18. The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey. Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000 K. About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2 m GTC telescope at La Palma confirmed the white dwarf status for all observed candidates. On-going work is being carried out to increase the sample of cool white dwarfs that will allow a more comprehensive study of the thick disk/halo white dwarf population.

  19. Deep-sea benthic community and environmental impact assessment at the Atlantic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, John D.

    2001-05-01

    the oil industry-funded Atlantic Margin Environmental Study cruises in 1996 and 1998. A predominantly depth-related pattern in variability applies here as found elsewhere in the deep ocean, and just sufficient knowledge-based predictive power exists to make comprehensive, high-resolution grid surveys unnecessary for the purpose of broad-scale environmental assessment. But new, small-scale site surveys remain necessary because of local-scale variability. Site survey should be undertaken in the context of existing knowledge of the deep sea in the UK area of the Atlantic Frontier and beyond, and can itself usefully be structured as tests of a projection from the regional scale to reduce sampling effort. It is to the benefit of all stakeholders that environmental assessment aspires to the highest scientific standards and contributes meaningfully to context knowledge. By doing so it will reduce uncertainties in future impact assessments and hence contribute usefully to environmental risk management.

  20. 78 FR 33369 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... information on the study, their modeling process of the experiment in shallow, intermediate, and deep water... element operation and that it uses shallow-water sound propagation as a proxy for deep water propagation... geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, April to May 2013. DATES...

  1. Stellar Atmospheric Parameterization Based on Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-yang; Li, Xiang-ru

    2017-07-01

    Deep learning is a typical learning method widely studied in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. This work investigates the problem of stellar atmospheric parameterization by constructing a deep neural network with five layers, and the node number in each layer of the network is respectively 3821-500-100-50-1. The proposed scheme is verified on both the real spectra measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the theoretic spectra computed with the Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model, to make an automatic estimation for three physical parameters: the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravitational acceleration (lg g), and metallic abundance (Fe/H). The results show that the stacked autoencoder deep neural network has a better accuracy for the estimation. On the SDSS spectra, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 79.95 for Teff/K, 0.0058 for (lg Teff/K), 0.1706 for lg (g/(cm·s-2)), and 0.1294 dex for the [Fe/H], respectively; On the theoretic spectra, the MAEs are 15.34 for Teff/K, 0.0011 for lg (Teff/K), 0.0214 for lg(g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.0121 dex for [Fe/H], respectively.

  2. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  3. Kincardine deep geologic repository proposal and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, T.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In 2002, the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding the long-term management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The purpose of the MOU was for OPG, in consultation with Kincardine, to develop a plan for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste at OPG's Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) located on the Bruce site. An independent assessment, which included geotechnical feasibility and safety analyses, a community attitude survey and interviews with local residents, businesses and tourists, and economic modeling to determine the potential benefits and impacts, was completed in February 2004. Ultimately, Kincardine Council endorsed a resolution (Kincardine Council no. 2004-232) to: 'endorse the opinion of the Nuclear Waste Steering Committee and select the 'Deep Rock Vault' option as the preferred course of study in regards to the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste'. The surrounding municipalities of Saugeen Shores, Brockton, Arran-Elderslie, and Huron-Kinloss expressed their support for the Deep Geologic Repository proposal. This presentation discusses the history, major steps and public processes surrounding the Kincardine Deep Geologic Repository proposal. (author)

  4. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  5. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  6. What influences intentions to request physician-assisted euthanasia or continuous deep sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrens, Anne-Lore; Roelands, Marc; Van den Block, Lieve; Deforche, Benedicte; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2018-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of euthanasia in Belgium has been linked to changing attitudes. Using National health survey data (N = 9651), we investigated Belgian adults' intention to ask a physician for euthanasia or continuous deep sedation in the hypothetical scenario of a terminal illness and examined its connection to sociodemographic and health characteristics. Respectively, 38.3 and 25.8% could envisage asking for euthanasia and continuous deep sedation. Those with very bad to fair subjective health and with depression more likely had an intention to ask for euthanasia, which suggests need for attention in the evaluation of requests from specific patient groups.

  7. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  8. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  9. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2014-01-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF 32 to a minimum of 1.5 × 10 –7 for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU 185 . By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of α = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ≤ H ≤ 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power

  10. Quantum chromodynamics and deep inelastic e - N scattering at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, Taizo

    1979-04-01

    An introductory survey is given on the formulation of QCD in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scatterings. Typical predictions of QCD are presented in the kinematical region of TRISTAN, including detailed descriptions of the scaling violation, QCD correction to the current algebra sum rules, problem of quark masses and higher order effects. Some suggestions for experiments at TRISTAN are made. (author)

  11. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY—THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Dolch, Timothy; Strolger, Louis; Castellano, Marco; Dickinson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z ≈ 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ∼125 arcmin 2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ∼800 arcmin 2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  12. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD Hα SURVEY OF NEARBY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Moss, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field Hα imaging survey of eight nearby (z = 0.02-0.03) Abell clusters. We have measured Hα fluxes and equivalent widths for 465 galaxies, of which 360 are new detections. The survey was designed to obtain complete emission-line-selected inventories of star-forming galaxies in the inner regions of these clusters, extending to star formation rates below 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 . This paper describes the observations, data processing, and source identification procedures, and presents an Hα and R-band catalog of detected cluster members and other candidates. Future papers in the series will use these data to study the completeness of spectroscopically based star formation surveys, and to quantify the effects of cluster environment on the present-day populations of star-forming galaxies. The data will also provide a valuable foundation for imaging surveys of redshifted Hα emission in more distant clusters.

  13. Using Deep Learning to Analyze the Voices of Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Thomas Macaulay

    2018-01-01

    With several new large-scale surveys on the horizon, including LSST, TESS, ZTF, and Evryscope, faster and more accurate analysis methods will be required to adequately process the enormous amount of data produced. Deep learning, used in industry for years now, allows for advanced feature detection in minimally prepared datasets at very high speeds; however, despite the advantages of this method, its application to astrophysics has not yet been extensively explored. This dearth may be due to a lack of training data available to researchers. Here we generate synthetic data loosely mimicking the properties of acoustic mode pulsating stars and compare the performance of different deep learning algorithms, including Artifical Neural Netoworks, and Convolutional Neural Networks, in classifing these synthetic data sets as either pulsators, or not observed to vary stars.

  14. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for unidentified Swift/BAT sources in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). They were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues and optically identified as reported in Atel #11340.

  15. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1994); 1994 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. In the drilling work in fiscal 1994, 4000m-class rigs and the top drive system were planned to be used for drilling of 12-1/4 inch wells, but 9-5/8 inch liners were used for drilling down to depths of 2550m or deeper since the amount of lost circulation is large and the withdrawal of devices may be very difficult. And in 8-1/2 inch wells, the well was drilled down to a depth of 2950m. As to the deep resistivity exploration technology using electromagnetic method, studies were made of a multiple-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) method, a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) method, a joint analysis method, etc. Concerning the synthetic fluid inclusion logging technology, containers were lowered into the well and a comparison was made between data of the homogenization temperature analysis of the formed fluid inclusion and those of the temperature log analysis. With relation to the making of deep geothermal structural models, revision was made according to the determination of depths of Miocene formations, Pre-tertiary formations, and the Kakkonda granite. 65 refs., 268 figs., 79 tabs.

  16. Global diversity and biogeography of deep-sea pelagic prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar, Guillem

    2015-08-07

    The deep-sea is the largest biome of the biosphere, and contains more than half of the whole ocean\\'s microbes. Uncovering their general patterns of diversity and community structure at a global scale remains a great challenge, as only fragmentary information of deep-sea microbial diversity exists based on regional-scale studies. Here we report the first globally comprehensive survey of the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the bathypelagic ocean using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This work identifies the dominant prokaryotes in the pelagic deep ocean and reveals that 50% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belong to previously unknown prokaryotic taxa, most of which are rare and appear in just a few samples. We show that whereas the local richness of communities is comparable to that observed in previous regional studies, the global pool of prokaryotic taxa detected is modest (∼3600 OTUs), as a high proportion of OTUs are shared among samples. The water masses appear to act as clear drivers of the geographical distribution of both particle-attached and free-living prokaryotes. In addition, we show that the deep-oceanic basins in which the bathypelagic realm is divided contain different particle-attached (but not free-living) microbial communities. The combination of the aging of the water masses and a lack of complete dispersal are identified as the main drivers for this biogeographical pattern. All together, we identify the potential of the deep ocean as a reservoir of still unknown biological diversity with a higher degree of spatial complexity than hitherto considered.

  17. Global diversity and biogeography of deep-sea pelagic prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar, Guillem; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Á lvarez-Salgado, X. Antó n; Duarte, Carlos M.; Gasol, Josep M.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea is the largest biome of the biosphere, and contains more than half of the whole ocean's microbes. Uncovering their general patterns of diversity and community structure at a global scale remains a great challenge, as only fragmentary information of deep-sea microbial diversity exists based on regional-scale studies. Here we report the first globally comprehensive survey of the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the bathypelagic ocean using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This work identifies the dominant prokaryotes in the pelagic deep ocean and reveals that 50% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belong to previously unknown prokaryotic taxa, most of which are rare and appear in just a few samples. We show that whereas the local richness of communities is comparable to that observed in previous regional studies, the global pool of prokaryotic taxa detected is modest (∼3600 OTUs), as a high proportion of OTUs are shared among samples. The water masses appear to act as clear drivers of the geographical distribution of both particle-attached and free-living prokaryotes. In addition, we show that the deep-oceanic basins in which the bathypelagic realm is divided contain different particle-attached (but not free-living) microbial communities. The combination of the aging of the water masses and a lack of complete dispersal are identified as the main drivers for this biogeographical pattern. All together, we identify the potential of the deep ocean as a reservoir of still unknown biological diversity with a higher degree of spatial complexity than hitherto considered.

  18. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IX. Evolution of galaxy merger fraction since z ≈ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Epinat, B.; Brinchmann, J.; Bacon, R.; Inami, H.; Lam, D.; Drake, A.; Garel, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Pello, R.; Steinmetz, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Carollo, M.

    2017-11-01

    We provide, for the first time, robust observational constraints on the galaxy major merger fraction up to z ≈ 6 using spectroscopic close pair counts. Deep Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) are used to identify 113 secure close pairs of galaxies among a parent sample of 1801 galaxies spread over a large redshift range (0.2 separation limit of 109.5 M⊙ or the median value of stellar mass computed in each redshift bin. Overall, the major close pair fraction for low-mass and massive galaxies follows the same trend. These new, homogeneous, and robust estimates of the major merger fraction since z ≈ 6 are in good agreement with recent predictions of cosmological numerical simulations. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programmes 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).

  19. Spatial extent and dissipation of the deep chlorophyll layer in Lake Ontario during the Lake Ontario lower foodweb assessment, 2003 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. M.; Weidel, Brian M.; Rudstam, L. G.; Holek, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing water clarity in Lake Ontario has led to a vertical redistribution of phytoplankton and an increased importance of the deep chlorophyll layer in overall primary productivity. We used in situ fluorometer profiles collected in lakewide surveys of Lake Ontario in 2008 to assess the spatial extent and intensity of the deep chlorophyll layer. In situ fluorometer data were corrected with extracted chlorophyll data using paired samples from Lake Ontario collected in August 2008. The deep chlorophyll layer was present offshore during the stratified conditions of late July 2008 with maximum values from 4-13 μg l-1 corrected chlorophyll a at 10 to 17 m depth within the metalimnion. Deep chlorophyll layer was closely associated with the base of the thermocline and a subsurface maximum of dissolved oxygen, indicating the feature's importance as a growth and productivity maximum. Crucial to the deep chlorophyll layer formation, the photic zone extended deeper than the surface mixed layer in mid-summer. The layer extended through most of the offshore in July 2008, but was not present in the easternmost transect that had a deeper surface mixed layer. By early September 2008, the lakewide deep chlorophyll layer had dissipated. A similar formation and dissipation was observed in the lakewide survey of Lake Ontario in 2003.

  20. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Lyα NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-01-01

    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 ∼ 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈10 8 h –3 70 Mpc 3 , this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  1. Research and application of soil-mercury-surveys method for locating uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yunfei; Lu Shili; Jiao Zongrun

    1995-06-01

    Soil-Hg-Surveys method for locating uranium ore was presented. Soil-sampler of drilling bottom, the ability of surveying the deep uranium orebodies was raised by using this method. Application of minicomputer technology to pyrolytic-Hg-analysis raises the degree of automation and precision of the analysis. Application condition of optimum is Hg content of orebodies >1 x 10 -6 . Locating deep is about 100 m. The forecast of uranium orebodies achieved success in two unknown section that are 534 and 510 mining area, therefore two little size deposits expanded into middle size deposits. This method is as well applicable to locating gold, silver, copper, lead zinc and oil-gas natural resource and so on. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  2. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  3. Applications of Deep Learning and Reinforcement Learning to Biological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mufti; Kaiser, Mohammed Shamim; Hussain, Amir; Vassanelli, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Rapid advances in hardware-based technologies during the past decades have opened up new possibilities for life scientists to gather multimodal data in various application domains, such as omics, bioimaging, medical imaging, and (brain/body)-machine interfaces. These have generated novel opportunities for development of dedicated data-intensive machine learning techniques. In particular, recent research in deep learning (DL), reinforcement learning (RL), and their combination (deep RL) promise to revolutionize the future of artificial intelligence. The growth in computational power accompanied by faster and increased data storage, and declining computing costs have already allowed scientists in various fields to apply these techniques on data sets that were previously intractable owing to their size and complexity. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the application of DL, RL, and deep RL techniques in mining biological data. In addition, we compare the performances of DL techniques when applied to different data sets across various application domains. Finally, we outline open issues in this challenging research area and discuss future development perspectives.

  4. Assessing Deep Sea Communities Through Seabed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkin, A. G.; Cross, K.; Milititsky, M.

    2016-02-01

    The deep sea still remains virtually unexplored. Human activity, such as oil and gas exploration and deep sea mining, is expanding further into the deep sea, increasing the need to survey and map extensive areas of this habitat in order to assess ecosystem health and value. The technology needed to explore this remote environment has been advancing. Seabed imagery can cover extensive areas of the seafloor and investigate areas where sampling with traditional coring methodologies is just not possible (e.g. cold water coral reefs). Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are an expensive option, so drop or towed camera systems can provide a more viable and affordable alternative, while still allowing for real-time control. Assessment of seabed imagery in terms of presence, abundance and density of particular species can be conducted by bringing together a variety of analytical tools for a holistic approach. Sixteen deep sea transects located offshore West Africa were investigated with a towed digital video telemetry system (DTS). Both digital stills and video footage were acquired. An extensive data set was obtained from over 13,000 usable photographs, allowing for characterisation of the different habitats present in terms of community composition and abundance. All observed fauna were identified to the lowest taxonomic level and enumerated when possible, with densities derived after the seabed area was calculated for each suitable photograph. This methodology allowed for consistent assessment of the different habitat types present, overcoming constraints, such as specific taxa that cannot be enumerated, such as sponges, corals or bryozoans, the presence of mobile and sessile species, or the level of taxonomic detail. Although this methodology will not enable a full characterisation of a deep sea community, in terms of species composition for instance, itt will allow a robust assessment of large areas of the deep sea in terms of sensitive habitats present and community

  5. SELECTION OF BURST-LIKE TRANSIENTS AND STOCHASTIC VARIABLES USING MULTI-BAND IMAGE DIFFERENCING IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 21224 (United States); Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2015-03-20

    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, and z {sub P1}. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host

  6. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  7. Deep Super Learner: A Deep Ensemble for Classification Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Steven; Abdou, Tamer; Bener, Ayse

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning has become very popular for tasks such as predictive modeling and pattern recognition in handling big data. Deep learning is a powerful machine learning method that extracts lower level features and feeds them forward for the next layer to identify higher level features that improve performance. However, deep neural networks have drawbacks, which include many hyper-parameters and infinite architectures, opaqueness into results, and relatively slower convergence on smaller datase...

  8. DeepRT: deep learning for peptide retention time prediction in proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chunwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jiarui; Pei, Jianguo; Xu, Shaohang; Zhou, Ruo; Yu, Chang; Mo, Fan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of peptide retention times (RT) in liquid chromatography have many applications in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Herein, we present DeepRT, a deep learning based software for peptide retention time prediction. DeepRT automatically learns features directly from the peptide sequences using the deep convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model, which eliminates the need to use hand-crafted features or rules. After the feature learning, pr...

  9. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  10. HRI observations of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Caillault, J.-P.; Damiani, F.; Kashyap, V.; Micela, G.; Prosser, C.; Rosner, R.; Sciortino, S.; Stauffer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of the data from the first four Rosat high resolution imager (HRI) pointings provided many new faint Pleiades detections. The completion of the high resolution survey of the most source-confused regions of this open cluster will lead to the construction of proper X-ray luminosity functions and will yield a definitive assessment of the coronal emission of the Pleiades members.

  11. THE LUPUS TRANSIT SURVEY FOR HOT JUPITERS: RESULTS AND LESSONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Daniel D. R.; Sackett, Penny D.; Weldrake, David T. F.; Tingley, Brandon W.; Lewis, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a deep, wide-field transit survey targeting 'Hot Jupiter' planets in the Lupus region of the Galactic plane conducted over 53 nights concentrated in two epochs separated by a year. Using the Australian National University 40-inch telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO), the survey covered a 0.66 deg 2 region close to the Galactic plane (b = 11 0 ) and monitored a total of 110,372 stars (15.0 ≤ V ≤ 22.0). Using difference imaging photometry, 16,134 light curves with a photometric precision of σ < 0.025 mag were obtained. These light curves were searched for transits, and four candidates were detected that displayed low-amplitude variability consistent with a transiting giant planet. Further investigations, including spectral typing and radial velocity measurements for some candidates, revealed that of the four, one is a true planetary companion (Lupus-TR-3), two are blended systems (Lupus-TR-1 and 4), and one is a binary (Lupus-TR-2). The results of this successful survey are instructive for optimizing the observational strategy and follow-up procedure for deep searches for transiting planets, including an upcoming survey using the SkyMapper telescope at SSO.

  12. 3D seismic surveys for shallow targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Stewart, R.R.; Bertram, M.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    Although 3D seismic surveys are generally used to map deep hydrocarbon plays, this study demonstrated that they can be useful for characterizing shallow targets, such as oilsands deposits. A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow stratigraphy near Calgary, Alberta. The project demonstrated the efficacy of reflection seismic surveys for shallow targets ranging from 100 to 500 metres. The purpose of the program was to map shallow stratigraphy and structure to depths of up to 500m, and to investigate shallow aquifers in the study area. The results of the survey illustrated the opportunity that 3D seismic surveys provide for mapping shallow reflectors and the acquisition geometry needed to image them. Applications include mapping the distribution of shallow aquifers, delineating shallow coals and investigating oilsands deposits. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Analyses of the deep borehole drilling status for a deep borehole disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of disposal for radioactive wastes is not only to isolate them from humans, but also to inhibit leakage of any radioactive materials into the accessible environment. Because of the extremely high level and long-time scale radioactivity of HLW(High-level radioactive waste), a mined deep geological disposal concept, the disposal depth is about 500 m below ground, is considered as the safest method to isolate the spent fuels or high-level radioactive waste from the human environment with the best available technology at present time. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general status of deep drilling technologies was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal analyzed. In this paper, as one of key technologies of deep borehole disposal system, the general status of deep drilling technologies in oil industry, geothermal industry and geo scientific field was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, the very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal such as relation between depth and diameter, drilling time and feasibility classification was analyzed.

  14. Fall 2011 Small Pelagics Survey (PC1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the Fall 2011 Small Pelagics Survey were to sample the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico less than 500 meters deep with 90-ft high opening fish...

  15. Fall 2010 Small Pelagics Survey (PC1006, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the Fall 2010 Small Pelagics Survey were to sample the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico less than 500 meters deep with 90-ft high opening fish...

  16. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  17. Constraining dark energy and modified gravity with galaxy clusters, Oskar Klein Center for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Using measurements of the abundance of galaxy clusters we obtain constraints on dark energy and gravity at cosmological scales. Our data set consists of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations of 94 of those clusters. Using a new statistical...... framework we self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the linear growth index and the dark energy equation of state to take any constant values, we find...

  18. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  19. Report on the survey for electrostatic discharges on Mars using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Majid, W.; Geldzahler, B.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mars atmosphere has strong dust activity. It is suggested that the larger regional storms are capable of producing electric fields large enough to initiate electrostatic discharges. The storms have charging process similar to terrestrial dust devils and have hot cores and complicated vortex winds similar to terrestrial thunderstorms. However, due to uncertainties in our understanding of the electrical environment of the storms and absence of related in-situ measurements, the existence (or non-existence) of such electrostatic discharges on the planet is yet to be confirmed. Knowing about the electrical activity on Mars is essential for future human explorations of the planet. We have recently launched a long-term monitoring campaign at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) to search for powerful discharges on Mars. The search occurs during routine tracking of Mars orbiting spacecraft by Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescope. In this presentation, we will report on the result of processing and analysis of the data from the first six months of our campaign.

  20. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  1. MBARI Mapping AUV: A High-Resolution Deep Ocean Seafloor Mapping Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; McGill, P.; Thompson, D.; Sibenac, M.; Jensen, S.; Shane, F.; Hamilton, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is developing an autonomous seafloor mapping capability for deep ocean science applications. The MBARI Mapping AUV is a 0.53 m (21 in) diameter, 5.1 m (16.7 ft) long, Dorado-class vehicle designed to carry four mapping sonars. The primary sensor is a 200 kHz multibeam sonar producing swath bathymetry and sidescan. In addition, the vehicle carries 100 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonars, and a 2-16 kHz sweep chirp subbottom profiler. Navigation and attitude data are obtained from an inertial navigation system (INS) incorporating a ring laser gyro and a 300 kHz Doppler velocity log (DVL). The vehicle also includes acoustic modem, ultra-short baseline navigation, and long-baseline navigation systems. The Mapping AUV is powered by 6 kWhr of Li-polymer batteries, providing expected mission duration of 12 hours at a typical speed of 1.5 m/s. All components of the vehicle are rated to 6000 m depth, allowing MBARI to conduct high-resolution mapping of the deep-ocean seafloor. The sonar package is also be mountable on ROV Ventana, allowing surveys at altitudes less than 20 m at topographically challenging sites. The vehicle was assembled and extensively tested during 2004; this year we are commencing operations for MBARI science projects while continuing the process of testing and integrating the complete suite of sensors and systems. MBARI is beginning to use this capability to observe the changing morphology of dynamic systems such as submarine canyons and active slumps, to map deep-water benthic habitats at resolutions comparable to ROV and submersible observations, to provide basemaps for ROV dives, and to provide high resolution bathymetry and subbottom profiles as part of a variety of projects requiring knowledge of the seafloor. We will present initial results from surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, including high resolution repeat surveys of four sites along the canyon axis.

  2. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Deep learning? What deep learning? | Fourie | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In teaching generally over the past twenty years, there has been a move towards teaching methods that encourage deep, rather than surface approaches to learning. The reason for this being that students, who adopt a deep approach to learning are considered to have learning outcomes of a better quality and desirability ...

  4. Studying dark energy with galaxy cluster surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; O'Shea, Brian; Evrard, August E.; Bialek, John; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the density and nature of the dark energy. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle SZE or X-ray survey is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state. Accurate constraints at the 5% level on the dark energy equation of state require that systematic biases in the mass estimators must be controlled at better than the ∼10% level. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the availability of multiple, independent mass estimators suggests these precise measurements are possible. Using hydrodynamical simulations that include preheating, we show that the level of preheating required to explain local galaxy cluster structure has a dramatic effect on X-ray cluster surveys, but only a mild effect on SZE surveys. This suggests that SZE surveys may be optimal for cosmology while X-ray surveys are well suited for studies of the thermal history of the intracluster medium

  5. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. DeepInfer: open-source deep learning deployment toolkit for image-guided therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Pesteie, Mehran; Hetherington, Jorden; Behringer, Peter A.; Kapur, Tina; Wells, William M.; Rohling, Robert; Fedorov, Andriy; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration. However, deploying deep learning models often has a steep learning curve and requires detailed knowledge of various software packages. Thus, many deep models have not been integrated into the clinical research work ows causing a gap between the state-of-the-art machine learning in medical applications and evaluation in clinical research procedures. In this paper, we propose "DeepInfer" - an open-source toolkit for developing and deploying deep learning models within the 3D Slicer medical image analysis platform. Utilizing a repository of task-specific models, DeepInfer allows clinical researchers and biomedical engineers to deploy a trained model selected from the public registry, and apply it to new data without the need for software development or configuration. As two practical use cases, we demonstrate the application of DeepInfer in prostate segmentation for targeted MRI-guided biopsy and identification of the target plane in 3D ultrasound for spinal injections.

  8. Cyriax's deep friction massage application parameters: Evidence from a cross-sectional study with physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paula; Simões, Daniela; Paço, Maria; Pinho, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Deep friction massage is one of several physiotherapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinopathy. To determine the prevalence of deep friction massage use in clinical practice, to characterize the application parameters used by physiotherapists, and to identify empirical model-based patterns of deep friction massage application in degenerative tendinopathy. observational, analytical, cross-sectional and national web-based survey. 478 physiotherapists were selected through snow-ball sampling method. The participants completed an online questionnaire about personal and professional characteristics as well as specific questions regarding the use of deep friction massage. Characterization of deep friction massage parameters used by physiotherapists were presented as counts and proportions. Latent class analysis was used to identify the empirical model-based patterns. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. The use of deep friction massage was reported by 88.1% of the participants; tendinopathy was the clinical condition where it was most frequently used (84.9%) and, from these, 55.9% reported its use in degenerative tendinopathy. The "duration of application" parameters in chronic phase and "frequency of application" in acute and chronic phases are those that diverge most from those recommended by the author of deep friction massage. We found a high prevalence of deep friction massage use, namely in degenerative tendinopathy. Our results have shown that the application parameters are heterogeneous and diverse. This is reflected by the identification of two application patterns, although none is in complete agreement with Cyriax's description. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research performed from earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is one of research facilities on deep underground shown its importance in LPNE, and carries out some researches on the deep underground at a target of the sedimentary rocks. And also The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory confirms some technical reliability and support on stratum disposal shown in the 'Technical reliability on stratum disposal of the high level radioactive wastes. The Second Progress Report of R and D on geological disposal' summarized on November, 1999 by JNC through actual tests and researches at the deep stratum. The obtained results are intended to reflect to disposal business of The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and safety regulation and so on performed by the government, together with results of stratum science research, at the Tono Geoscience Center, of geological disposal R and D at the Tokai Works, or of international collaborations. For R and D at the The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory after 2000, following subjects are shown: 1) Survey technique on long-term stability of geological environment, 2) Survey technique on geological environment, 3) Engineering technique on engineered barrier and

  10. Predictive modeling of deep-sea fish distribution in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Hugo E.; Pham, Christopher K.; Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the link between fish and their habitat is essential for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. However, determining such relationship is challenging, especially for deep-sea species. In this study, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate presence-absence and relative abundance data of eight economically-important fish species to environmental variables (depth, slope, aspect, substrate type, bottom temperature, salinity and oxygen saturation). We combined 13 years of catch data collected from systematic longline surveys performed across the region. Overall, presence-absence GAMs performed better than abundance models and predictions made for the observed data successfully predicted the occurrence of the eight deep-sea fish species. Depth was the most influential predictor of all fish species occurrence and abundance distributions, whereas other factors were found to be significant for some species but did not show such a clear influence. Our results predicted that despite the extensive Azores EEZ, the habitats available for the studied deep-sea fish species are highly limited and patchy, restricted to seamounts slopes and summits, offshore banks and island slopes. Despite some identified limitations, our GAMs provide an improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of these commercially important fish species in the region.

  11. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  12. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  13. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  14. A MegaCam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. I. Description of the Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Côté, Patrick; Santana, Felipe A.; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.; Oyarzún, Grecco A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2018-06-01

    We describe a deep, systematic imaging study of satellites in the outer halo of the Milky Way. Our sample consists of 58 stellar overdensities—i.e., substructures classified as either globular clusters, classical dwarf galaxies, or ultra-faint dwarf galaxies—that are located at Galactocentric distances of R GC ≥ 25 kpc (outer halo) and out to ∼400 kpc. This includes 44 objects for which we have acquired deep, wide-field, g- and r-band imaging with the MegaCam mosaic cameras on the 3.6 m Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope and the 6.5 m Magellan-Clay telescope. These data are supplemented by archival imaging, or published gr photometry, for an additional 14 objects, most of which were discovered recently in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the scientific motivation for our survey, including sample selection, observing strategy, data reduction pipeline, calibration procedures, and the depth and precision of the photometry. The typical 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes for our MegaCam imaging—which collectively covers an area of ≈52 deg2—are g lim ≃ 25.6 and r lim ≃ 25.3 AB mag. These limits are comparable to those from the coadded DES images and are roughly a half-magnitude deeper than will be reached in a single visit with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Our photometric catalog thus provides the deepest and most uniform photometric database of Milky Way satellites available for the foreseeable future. In other papers in this series, we have used these data to explore the blue straggler populations in these objects, their density distributions, star formation histories, scaling relations, and possible foreground structures.

  15. Habitat Ecology Visual Surveys of Demersal Fishes and Habitats off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1992, the Habitat Ecology team has been conducting fishery independent, visual surveys of demersal fishes and associated habitats in deep water (20 to 900...

  16. The National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database: A Comprehensive Resource for United States Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornback, M.; Hourigan, T.; Etnoyer, P.; McGuinn, R.; Cross, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Research on deep-sea corals has expanded rapidly over the last two decades, as scientists began to realize their value as long-lived structural components of high biodiversity habitats and archives of environmental information. The NOAA Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges is a comprehensive resource for georeferenced data on these organisms in U.S. waters. The National Database currently includes more than 220,000 deep-sea coral records representing approximately 880 unique species. Database records from museum archives, commercial and scientific bycatch, and from journal publications provide baseline information with relatively coarse spatial resolution dating back as far as 1842. These data are complemented by modern, in-situ submersible observations with high spatial resolution, from surveys conducted by NOAA and NOAA partners. Management of high volumes of modern high-resolution observational data can be challenging. NOAA is working with our data partners to incorporate this occurrence data into the National Database, along with images and associated information related to geoposition, time, biology, taxonomy, environment, provenance, and accuracy. NOAA is also working to link associated datasets collected by our program's research, to properly archive them to the NOAA National Data Centers, to build a robust metadata record, and to establish a standard protocol to simplify the process. Access to the National Database is provided through an online mapping portal. The map displays point based records from the database. Records can be refined by taxon, region, time, and depth. The queries and extent used to view the map can also be used to download subsets of the database. The database, map, and website is already in use by NOAA, regional fishery management councils, and regional ocean planning bodies, but we envision it as a model that can expand to accommodate data on a global scale.

  17. DeepMitosis: Mitosis detection via deep detection, verification and segmentation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Xinggang; Liu, Wenyu; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2018-04-01

    Mitotic count is a critical predictor of tumor aggressiveness in the breast cancer diagnosis. Nowadays mitosis counting is mainly performed by pathologists manually, which is extremely arduous and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose an accurate method for detecting the mitotic cells from histopathological slides using a novel multi-stage deep learning framework. Our method consists of a deep segmentation network for generating mitosis region when only a weak label is given (i.e., only the centroid pixel of mitosis is annotated), an elaborately designed deep detection network for localizing mitosis by using contextual region information, and a deep verification network for improving detection accuracy by removing false positives. We validate the proposed deep learning method on two widely used Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histological Images (MITOSIS) datasets. Experimental results show that we can achieve the highest F-score on the MITOSIS dataset from ICPR 2012 grand challenge merely using the deep detection network. For the ICPR 2014 MITOSIS dataset that only provides the centroid location of mitosis, we employ the segmentation model to estimate the bounding box annotation for training the deep detection network. We also apply the verification model to eliminate some false positives produced from the detection model. By fusing scores of the detection and verification models, we achieve the state-of-the-art results. Moreover, our method is very fast with GPU computing, which makes it feasible for clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  19. EROSITA: AGN SCIENCE, BACKGROUND DETERMINATION, AND OPTICAL FOLLOW-UP SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Boller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years after the highly impacting ROSAT all-sky survey in the soft X-ray spectral range, we are close to the next major X-ray all/sky surveys with eROSITA. eROSITA will be the primary instrument on-board the Russian “Spectrum–Roentgen–Gamma” (SRG satellite which will be launched from Baikonur in 2014 and placed in an L2 orbit. It will perform the first imaging all-sky survey in the medium energy X-ray range up to 10 keV with an unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The eROSITA all sky X-ray survey will take place in a very different context than the ROSAT survey. There is now a wealth of complete, ongoing and planned surveys of the sky in broad range of wavelengths from the gamma, X-ray to the radio. A significant amount of science can be accomplished through the multi-frequency study of the eROSITA AGN and cluster sample, including optical confirmation and photometric redshift estimation of the eROSITA extended sources and AGNs. Optical spectroscopy has been, and will for the foreseeable future be, one of the main tools of astrophysics allowing studies of a large variety of astronomical objects over many fields of research. The fully capitalize on the eROSITA potential, a dedicated spectroscopic follow-up program is needed. 4MOST is the ideal instrument to secure the scientific success of the eROSITA X-ray survey and to overcome the small sample sizes together with selection biases that plagued past samples. The aim is to have the instrument commissioned in 2017, well matched to the data releases of eROSITA and Gaia. The design and implementation of the 4MOST facility simulator aimed to optimize the science output for eROSITA is described in necessary details.

  20. Subsea surveying: a guide for oilmen. Deep-tow and digital techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F M

    1977-05-01

    Hydrodynamically stable tow fishes into which the acoustic energy source is mounted are examined. The advantages of deep-towed devices extends beyond the use of bottom and subbottom profiling systems. When used with side-scan sonar devices any small seabed relief or feature is enhanced by towing the sonar close to the seabed. The distortion of the records which is produced by observing slant ranges as opposed to the true range is also reduced. The use of marine magnetometers can greatly improve detection capabilities when searching for objects which produce some magnetic disturbance. The amplitude of this magnetic ''anomaly'' increases as the range between the magnetic sensor and the object is decreased. Areas where digital processing of data can be of significant value include navigational positioning (both of surface and sub-surface vessels); signal processing of seismic profiling data; and data presentation of all forms.

  1. DeepPVP: phenotype-based prioritization of causative variants using deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2018-05-02

    Background: Prioritization of variants in personal genomic data is a major challenge. Recently, computational methods that rely on comparing phenotype similarity have shown to be useful to identify causative variants. In these methods, pathogenicity prediction is combined with a semantic similarity measure to prioritize not only variants that are likely to be dysfunctional but those that are likely involved in the pathogenesis of a patient\\'s phenotype. Results: We have developed DeepPVP, a variant prioritization method that combined automated inference with deep neural networks to identify the likely causative variants in whole exome or whole genome sequence data. We demonstrate that DeepPVP performs significantly better than existing methods, including phenotype-based methods that use similar features. DeepPVP is freely available at https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/phenomenet-vp Conclusions: DeepPVP further improves on existing variant prioritization methods both in terms of speed as well as accuracy.

  2. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David; Hess, Kelley M.; Pisano, D. J.; Kreckel, Kathryn; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Oosterloo, Tom; Chomiuk, Laura; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Henning, Patricia A.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Scoville, Nick

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' × 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  3. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hess, Kelley M. [Department of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pisano, D. J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Kreckel, Kathryn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Popping, Attila [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Verheijen, M. A. W. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Henning, Patricia A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Scoville, Nick, E-mail: ximena@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' Multiplication-Sign 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  5. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  6. The applications of deep neural networks to sdBV classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Thomas M.

    2017-12-01

    With several new large-scale surveys on the horizon, including LSST, TESS, ZTF, and Evryscope, faster and more accurate analysis methods will be required to adequately process the enormous amount of data produced. Deep learning, used in industry for years now, allows for advanced feature detection in minimally prepared datasets at very high speeds; however, despite the advantages of this method, its application to astrophysics has not yet been extensively explored. This dearth may be due to a lack of training data available to researchers. Here we generate synthetic data loosely mimicking the properties of acoustic mode pulsating stars and we show that two separate paradigms of deep learning - the Artificial Neural Network And the Convolutional Neural Network - can both be used to classify this synthetic data effectively. And that additionally this classification can be performed at relatively high levels of accuracy with minimal time spent adjusting network hyperparameters.

  7. The USNO-UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Scott; Bruursema, Justice; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Vrba, Fred J.; Dorland, Bryan; Dye, Simon; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Irwin, Mike; Lawrence, Andy; McLaren, Robert; Hodapp, Klaus; Hasinger, Guenther

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey (U2HS), currently underway using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) installed on UKIRT on Maunakea. U2HS is a collaborative effort undertaken by USNO, the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) and the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) in Edinburgh. The principal objective of the U2HS is to provide continuous northern hemisphere K-band coverage over a declination range of δ=0o – +60o by combining over 12,700 deg2 of new imaging with the existing UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). U2HS will achieve a 5-σ point source sensitivity of K~18.4 mag (Vega), over three magnitudes deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). In this contribution we discuss survey design, execution, data acquisition and processing, photometric calibration and quality control. The data obtained by the U2HS will be made publicly available through the Wide Field Science Archive (WSA) maintained by the WFAU.

  8. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  10. Twenty-Three High-Redshift Supernovae from the Institute for Astronomy Deep Survey: Doubling the Supernova Sample at z > 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Brian J.; Tonry, John L.; Blondin, Stéphane; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Holland, Stephen T.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Leibundgut, Bruno; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miknaitis, Gajus; Riess, Adam G.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Aussel, Hervé; Chambers, K. C.; Connelley, M. S.; Donovan, D.; Henry, J. Patrick; Kaiser, Nick; Liu, Michael C.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2004-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 23 high-redshift supernovae (SNe) spanning a range of z=0.34-1.03, nine of which are unambiguously classified as Type Ia. These SNe were discovered during the IfA Deep Survey, which began in 2001 September and observed a total of 2.5 deg2 to a depth of approximately m~25-26 in RIZ over 9-17 visits, typically every 1-3 weeks for nearly 5 months, with additional observations continuing until 2002 April. We give a brief description of the survey motivations, observational strategy, and reduction process. This sample of 23 high-redshift SNe includes 15 at z>=0.7, doubling the published number of objects at these redshifts, and indicates that the evidence for acceleration of the universe is not due to a systematic effect proportional to redshift. In combination with the recent compilation of Tonry et al. (2003), we calculate cosmological parameter density contours that are consistent with the flat universe indicated by the cosmic microwave background (Spergel et al. 2003). Adopting the constraint that Ωtotal=1.0, we obtain best-fit values of (Ωm,ΩΛ)=(0.33,0.67) using 22 SNe from this survey augmented by the literature compilation. We show that using the empty-beam model for gravitational lensing does not eliminate the need for ΩΛ>0. Experience from this survey indicates great potential for similar large-scale surveys while also revealing the limitations of performing surveys for z>1 SNe from the ground. CFHT: Based in part on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership

  11. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-12-23

    Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals. Results: Here we propose a deep learning based simulator, DeepSimulator, to mimic the entire pipeline of Nanopore sequencing. Starting from a given reference genome or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments performed across four species show that the signals generated by our context-dependent model are more similar to the experimentally obtained signals than the ones generated by the official context-independent pore model. In terms of the simulated reads, we provide a parameter interface to users so that they can obtain the reads with different accuracies ranging from 83% to 97%. The reads generated by the default parameter have almost the same properties as the real data. Two case studies demonstrate the application of DeepSimulator to benefit the development of tools in de novo assembly and in low coverage SNP detection. Availability: The software can be accessed freely at: https://github.com/lykaust15/DeepSimulator.

  12. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  13. The very deep hole concept - Geoscientific appraisal of conditions at great depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Wallroth, T.; Smellie, J.; Leijon, B.; Eliasson, T.; Ljunggren, C.; Beswick, J.

    1998-06-01

    One of the alternative systems for disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste being studied by SKB is the very deep hole (2000 - 4000 m) concept. As part of SKB's research programme a study has been carried out to increase the level of knowledge on the expected geological conditions in the depth interval 1000-5000 m in older crystalline rock. As a first step, existing data from relevant areas throughout the world have been compiled. The majority of the data come from deep boreholes, mines, and surface geophysical surveys. An attempt has been made to interpret these data in an integrated manner and to develop a conceptual geological model on the conditions in the Baltic Shield down to a depth of 5 km. One of the main features of the suggested model is that the upper 1 km of crust contains significantly more open fractures than the rock below. However, hydraulically conductive fractures and fracture zones may exist at great depth. In areas of low topography active groundwater circulation is primarily limited to the upper 1 km with the water below 1 km having high salinity. The high salinity reflects the near hydraulically stagnant conditions which exist relatively shallow in areas of low topography. In areas with greater topographic relief fresh water penetrates to great depth and near stagnant conditions are first encountered much deeper. The report also covers how the studied parameters which describe the geological conditions vary with depth. A number of recommendations are made on how the presented conceptual model can be tested and improved aside from obtaining data from new boreholes. These recommendations include the following geoscientific surveys and studies: Reflection and refraction seismics for mapping discrete sub-horizontal fracture zones and the upper more fractured part of the crust; Geoelectric methods for mapping the depth to saline water; Detailed hydrogeological measurements in existing deep boreholes; Isotope studies on fracture minerals

  14. The very deep hole concept - Geoscientific appraisal of conditions at great depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C. [Christopher Juhlin Consulting (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden); Smellie, J.; Leijon, B. [Conterra AB (Sweden); Eliasson, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden); Ljunggren, C. [Vattenfall Hydropower AB (Sweden); Beswick, J. [EDECO Petroleum Services Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    One of the alternative systems for disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste being studied by SKB is the very deep hole (2000 - 4000 m) concept. As part of SKB`s research programme a study has been carried out to increase the level of knowledge on the expected geological conditions in the depth interval 1000-5000 m in older crystalline rock. As a first step, existing data from relevant areas throughout the world have been compiled. The majority of the data come from deep boreholes, mines, and surface geophysical surveys. An attempt has been made to interpret these data in an integrated manner and to develop a conceptual geological model on the conditions in the Baltic Shield down to a depth of 5 km. One of the main features of the suggested model is that the upper 1 km of crust contains significantly more open fractures than the rock below. However, hydraulically conductive fractures and fracture zones may exist at great depth. In areas of low topography active groundwater circulation is primarily limited to the upper 1 km with the water below 1 km having high salinity. The high salinity reflects the near hydraulically stagnant conditions which exist relatively shallow in areas of low topography. In areas with greater topographic relief fresh water penetrates to great depth and near stagnant conditions are first encountered much deeper. The report also covers how the studied parameters which describe the geological conditions vary with depth. A number of recommendations are made on how the presented conceptual model can be tested and improved aside from obtaining data from new boreholes. These recommendations include the following geoscientific surveys and studies: Reflection and refraction seismics for mapping discrete sub-horizontal fracture zones and the upper more fractured part of the crust; Geoelectric methods for mapping the depth to saline water; Detailed hydrogeological measurements in existing deep boreholes; Isotope studies on fracture minerals

  15. Optical identifications of radio sources in the 5C 7 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, M.A.C.

    1979-01-01

    An identification procedure developed for the deep radio survey 5C 6 has been refined and applied to the 5C 7 survey. Positions and finding charts are presented for candidate identifications from deep plates taken with the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope. The identification statistics are in good agreement with the 5C 6 results, the accurate radio positions obtained at 1407 MHz defining a reasonably reliable and complete sample of associations with an identification rate of about 40 per cent. At 408 MHz the positional uncertainties are larger and the identifications are thus of lower reliability; the identification rate is about 20 per cent. The results are in good agreement with the assumptions that the optical identifications are coincident with the radio centroids, and that the identifications are not preferentially associated with faint clusters. (author)

  16. Recent developments in the thermophilic microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hot vents was actively studied over the last two decades. The ever growing interest is reflected in the exponentially increasing number of novel thermophilic genera described. The goal of this paper is to survey the progress in this field made in the years 2000-2005. In this period, representatives of several new taxa of hyperthermophilic archaea were obtained from deep-sea environments. Two of these isolates had phenotypic features new for this group of organisms: the presence of an outer cell membrane (the genus Ignicoccus) and the ability to grow anaerobically with acetate and ferric iron (the genus Geoglobus). Also, our knowledge on the diversity of thermophilic bacteria from deep-sea thermal environments extended significantly. The new bacterial isolates represented diverse bacterial divisions: the phylum Aquificae, the subclass Epsilonproteobacteria, the order Thermotogales, the families Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Thermaceae, and a novel bacterial phylum represented by the genus Caldithrix. Most of these isolates are obligate or facultative lithotrophs, oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of different types of anaerobic respiration or microaerobic growth. The existence and significant ecological role of some of new bacterial thermophilic isolates was initially established by molecular methods.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry of deep groundwaters of mafic and ultramafic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Lindberg, A.; Ahonen, L.; Frape, S.

    1996-12-01

    The present work reports and interprets the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data obtained from deep groundwaters in various mafic-ultramafic formations in Finland. The work is mainly based on the results of the research project 'Geochemistry of deep groundwaters' financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Geological Survey of Finland. Five sites were selected for this study: (1) Juuka, (2) Keminmaa, (3) Maentsaelae, (4) Ranua, and (5) Ylivieska. Keminmaa and Ranua are located in Early Proterozoic layered intrusions dated at 2.44 Ga. The Juuka site lies within the massive Miihkali serpentinite, which is thought to represent the ultramafic part of a Proterozoic (1.97 Ga) ophiolite complex. The Maentsaelae gabbro represents the deep parts of the Svecofennian volcanic sequence, while the Ylivieska mafic-ultramafic intrusion is one of a group of Svecokarelian Ni-potential intrusions 1.9 Ga in age. For reference, groundwaters from four other sites are also briefly described. Three of these sites are located within the nickel mining regions of Enonkoski, Kotalahti and Vammala, while the fourth is a small Ni mineralization at Hyvelae, Noormarkku. The four reference sites are all of Svecokarelian age. (refs.)

  18. Hydrogeochemistry of deep groundwaters of mafic and ultramafic rocks in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Lindberg, A.; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Frape, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    The present work reports and interprets the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data obtained from deep groundwaters in various mafic-ultramafic formations in Finland. The work is mainly based on the results of the research project `Geochemistry of deep groundwaters` financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Geological Survey of Finland. Five sites were selected for this study: (1) Juuka, (2) Keminmaa, (3) Maentsaelae, (4) Ranua, and (5) Ylivieska. Keminmaa and Ranua are located in Early Proterozoic layered intrusions dated at 2.44 Ga. The Juuka site lies within the massive Miihkali serpentinite, which is thought to represent the ultramafic part of a Proterozoic (1.97 Ga) ophiolite complex. The Maentsaelae gabbro represents the deep parts of the Svecofennian volcanic sequence, while the Ylivieska mafic-ultramafic intrusion is one of a group of Svecokarelian Ni-potential intrusions 1.9 Ga in age. For reference, groundwaters from four other sites are also briefly described. Three of these sites are located within the nickel mining regions of Enonkoski, Kotalahti and Vammala, while the fourth is a small Ni mineralization at Hyvelae, Noormarkku. The four reference sites are all of Svecokarelian age. (refs.).

  19. AzTEC on ASTE Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Hatsukade, B.; Nakanishi, K.; Iono, D.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Perera, T.; Austermann, J. E.; Scott, K. S.; Hughes, H.; Aretxaga, I.; Tanaka, K.; Oshima, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Matsuo, H.; Ezawa, H.; Kawabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have conducted an unprecedented survey of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) using the 144 pixel bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on the ASTE 10-m dish in Chile. We have already obtained many (>20) wide (typically 12' × 12' or wider) and deep (1 σ sensitivity of 0.5-1.0 mJy) 1.1 mm continuum images of known blank fields and over-density regions/protoclusters across a wide range of redshifts with a spatial resolution of ˜ 30''. It has resulted in the numerous (˜ a few 100, almost equivalent to the total number of the previously known SMGs) new and secure detections of SMGs. In this paper, we present initial results of two selected fields, SSA 22 and AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S). A significnat clustering of bright SMGs toward the density peak of LAEs is found in SSA 22. We derived the differential and cumulative number counts from the detected sources in ADF-S, which probe the faintest flux densities (down to ˜1 mJy) among 1-mm blank field surveys to date.

  20. NOAA's efforts to map extent, health and condition of deep sea corals and sponges and their habitat on the banks and island slopes of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnoyer, P. J.; Salgado, E.; Stierhoff, K.; Wickes, L.; Nehasil, S.; Kracker, L.; Lauermann, A.; Rosen, D.; Caldow, C.

    2015-12-01

    Southern California's deep-sea corals are diverse and abundant, but subject to multiple stressors, including corallivory, ocean acidification, and commercial bottom fishing. NOAA has surveyed these habitats using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) since 2003. The ROV was equipped with high-resolution cameras to document deep-water groundfish and their habitat in a series of research expeditions from 2003 - 2011. Recent surveys 2011-2015 focused on in-situ measures of aragonite saturation and habitat mapping in notable habitats identified in previous years. Surveys mapped abundance and diversity of fishes and corals, as well as commercial fisheries landings and frequency of fishing gear. A novel priority setting algorithm was developed to identify hotspots of diversity and fishing intensity, and to determine where future conservation efforts may be warranted. High density coral aggregations identified in these analyses were also used to guide recent multibeam mapping efforts. The maps suggest a large extent of unexplored and unprotected hard-bottom habitat in the mesophotic zone and deep-sea reaches of Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary.

  1. The Newberry Deep Drilling Project (NDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Schultz, A.; Sorle, C.; Asanuma, H.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Jaupart, C. P.; Moran, S. C.; de Natale, G.

    2017-12-01

    We present the arguments to drill a deep well to the ductile/brittle transition zone (T>400°C) at Newberry Volcano, central Oregon state, U.S.A. The main research goals are related to heat and mass transfer in the crust from the point of view of natural hazards and geothermal energy: enhanced geothermal system (EGS supercritical and beyond-brittle), volcanic hazards, mechanisms of magmatic intrusions, geomechanics close to a magmatic system, calibration of geophysical imaging techniques and drilling in a high temperature environment. Drilling at Newberry will bring additional information to a very promising field of research initiated by ICDP in the Deep Drilling project in Iceland with IDDP-1 on Krafla in 2009, followed by IDDP-2 on the Reykjanes ridge in 2016, and the future Japan Beyond-Brittle project and Krafla Magma Testbed. Newberry Volcano contains one of the largest geothermal heat reservoirs in the western United States, extensively studied for the last 40 years. All the knowledge and experience collected make this an excellent choice for drilling a well that will reach high temperatures at relatively shallow depths (< 5000 m). The large conductive thermal anomaly (320°C at 3000 m depth), has already been well-characterized by extensive drilling and geophysical surveys. This will extend current knowledge from the existing 3000 m deep boreholes at the sites into and through the brittle-ductile transition approaching regions of partial melt like lateral dykes. The important scientific questions that will form the basis of a full drilling proposal, have been addressed during an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held in Bend, Oregon in September 2017. They will be presented and discussed as well as the strategic plan to address them.

  2. Deep learning in TMVA Benchmarking Benchmarking TMVA DNN Integration of a Deep Autoencoder

    CERN Document Server

    Huwiler, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The TMVA library in ROOT is dedicated to multivariate analysis, and in partic- ular oers numerous machine learning algorithms in a standardized framework. It is widely used in High Energy Physics for data analysis, mainly to perform regression and classication. To keep up to date with the state of the art in deep learning, a new deep learning module was being developed this summer, oering deep neural net- work, convolutional neural network, and autoencoder. TMVA did not have yet any autoencoder method, and the present project consists in implementing the TMVA autoencoder class based on the deep learning module. It also includes some bench- marking performed on the actual deep neural network implementation, in comparison to the Keras framework with Tensorflow and Theano backend.

  3. Swift Observations of 2MASS J070931-353746

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Dirk Grupe Norbert; Komossa, S.

    2018-05-01

    We report of Swift observations of 2MASS J070931-353746 which was discovered as a bright X-ray source during an XMM slew on 2018-April-26. Compared with the flux seen during the ROSAT All Sky Survey (Voges et al. 1999) the source appeared to be brighter by a factor of about 16. We performed a short 1ks Swift observation of 2MASS J070931-353746 on 2018-May-18.

  4. CTIO, ROSAT HRI, and Chandra ACIS Observations of the Archetypical Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant W28 (G6.4–0.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Ernst, Sonny; Rho, Jeonghee; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Hare, Jeremy; Winkler, P. Frank; Keohane, Jonathan W.

    2017-01-01

    We present a joint analysis of optical emission-line and X-ray observations of the archetypical Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant (MMSNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1). MMSNRs comprise a class of sources whose shell-like radio morphology contrasts with a filled center in X-rays; the origin of these contrasting morphologies remains uncertain. Our CTIO images reveal enhanced [S ii] emission relative to H α along the northern and eastern rims of W28. Hydroxyl (OH) masers are detected along these same rims, supporting prior studies suggesting that W28 is interacting with molecular clouds at these locations, as observed for several other MMSNRs. Our ROSAT HRI mosaic of W28 provides almost complete coverage of the supernova remnant (SNR). The X-ray and radio emission is generally anti-correlated, except for the luminous northeastern rim, which is prominent in both bands. Our Chandra observation sampled the X-ray-luminous central diffuse emission. Spectra extracted from the bright central peak and from nearby annular regions are best fit with two overionized recombining plasma models. We also find that while the X-ray emission from the central peak is dominated by swept-up material, that from the surrounding regions shows evidence for oxygen-rich ejecta, suggesting that W28 was produced by a massive progenitor. We also analyze the X-ray properties of two X-ray sources (CXOU J175857.55−233400.3 and 3XMM J180058.5–232735) projected into the interior of W28 and conclude that neither is a neutron star associated with the SNR. The former is likely to be a foreground cataclysmic variable or a quiescent low-mass X-ray-binary, while the latter is likely to be a coronally active main-sequence star.

  5. CTIO, ROSAT HRI, and Chandra ACIS Observations of the Archetypical Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant W28 (G6.4–0.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Ernst, Sonny [Space Science Center, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Hare, Jeremy [Department of Physics, 214 Samson Hall, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Keohane, Jonathan W., E-mail: t.pannuti@moreheadstate.edu, E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: jrho@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: kargaltsev@gwu.edu, E-mail: alekzanderkos@ou.edu, E-mail: winkler@middlebury.edu, E-mail: jkeohane@hsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA 23943 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We present a joint analysis of optical emission-line and X-ray observations of the archetypical Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant (MMSNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1). MMSNRs comprise a class of sources whose shell-like radio morphology contrasts with a filled center in X-rays; the origin of these contrasting morphologies remains uncertain. Our CTIO images reveal enhanced [S ii] emission relative to H α along the northern and eastern rims of W28. Hydroxyl (OH) masers are detected along these same rims, supporting prior studies suggesting that W28 is interacting with molecular clouds at these locations, as observed for several other MMSNRs. Our ROSAT HRI mosaic of W28 provides almost complete coverage of the supernova remnant (SNR). The X-ray and radio emission is generally anti-correlated, except for the luminous northeastern rim, which is prominent in both bands. Our Chandra observation sampled the X-ray-luminous central diffuse emission. Spectra extracted from the bright central peak and from nearby annular regions are best fit with two overionized recombining plasma models. We also find that while the X-ray emission from the central peak is dominated by swept-up material, that from the surrounding regions shows evidence for oxygen-rich ejecta, suggesting that W28 was produced by a massive progenitor. We also analyze the X-ray properties of two X-ray sources (CXOU J175857.55−233400.3 and 3XMM J180058.5–232735) projected into the interior of W28 and conclude that neither is a neutron star associated with the SNR. The former is likely to be a foreground cataclysmic variable or a quiescent low-mass X-ray-binary, while the latter is likely to be a coronally active main-sequence star.

  6. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  7. The solar neighborhood. XXXIII. Parallax results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m program: trigonometric parallaxes of Nearby low-mass active and young systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Finch, Charlie T.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; White, Russel J.; Gies, Douglas R.; Dieterich, Sergio B.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Davison, Cassy L.; Subasavage, John P.; Malo, Lison; Rodriguez, David R.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Rice, Emily L.; Ianna, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    We present basic observational data and association membership analysis for 45 young and active low-mass stellar systems from the ongoing Research Consortium On Nearby Stars photometry and astrometry program at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Most of these systems have saturated X-ray emission (log (L X /L bol ) > –3.5) based on X-ray fluxes from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and many are significantly more luminous than main-sequence stars of comparable color. We present parallaxes and proper motions, Johnson-Kron-Cousins VRI photometry, and multiplicity observations from the CTIOPI program on the CTIO 0.9 m telescope. To this we add low-resolution optical spectroscopy and line measurements from the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, and interferometric binary measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors. We also incorporate data from published sources: JHK S photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog, X-ray data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and radial velocities from literature sources. Within the sample of 45 systems, we identify 21 candidate low-mass pre-main-sequence members of nearby associations, including members of β Pictoris, TW Hydrae, Argus, AB Doradus, two ambiguous ≈30 Myr old systems, and one object that may be a member of the Ursa Major moving group. Of the 21 candidate young systems, 14 are newly identified as a result of this work, and six of those are within 25 pc of the Sun.

  8. Reprint of - Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  9. DeepSurv: personalized treatment recommender system using a Cox proportional hazards deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Jared L; Shaham, Uri; Cloninger, Alexander; Bates, Jonathan; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval

    2018-02-26

    Medical practitioners use survival models to explore and understand the relationships between patients' covariates (e.g. clinical and genetic features) and the effectiveness of various treatment options. Standard survival models like the linear Cox proportional hazards model require extensive feature engineering or prior medical knowledge to model treatment interaction at an individual level. While nonlinear survival methods, such as neural networks and survival forests, can inherently model these high-level interaction terms, they have yet to be shown as effective treatment recommender systems. We introduce DeepSurv, a Cox proportional hazards deep neural network and state-of-the-art survival method for modeling interactions between a patient's covariates and treatment effectiveness in order to provide personalized treatment recommendations. We perform a number of experiments training DeepSurv on simulated and real survival data. We demonstrate that DeepSurv performs as well as or better than other state-of-the-art survival models and validate that DeepSurv successfully models increasingly complex relationships between a patient's covariates and their risk of failure. We then show how DeepSurv models the relationship between a patient's features and effectiveness of different treatment options to show how DeepSurv can be used to provide individual treatment recommendations. Finally, we train DeepSurv on real clinical studies to demonstrate how it's personalized treatment recommendations would increase the survival time of a set of patients. The predictive and modeling capabilities of DeepSurv will enable medical researchers to use deep neural networks as a tool in their exploration, understanding, and prediction of the effects of a patient's characteristics on their risk of failure.

  10. Pathogenesis of deep endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Stephan; Koninckx, Philippe; Brosens, Ivo

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiology of (deep) endometriosis is still unclear. As originally suggested by Cullen, change the definition "deeper than 5 mm" to "adenomyosis externa." With the discovery of the old European literature on uterine bleeding in 5%-10% of the neonates and histologic evidence that the bleeding represents decidual shedding, it is postulated/hypothesized that endometrial stem/progenitor cells, implanted in the pelvic cavity after birth, may be at the origin of adolescent and even the occasionally premenarcheal pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis in the adolescent is characterized by angiogenic and hemorrhagic peritoneal and ovarian lesions. The development of deep endometriosis at a later age suggests that deep infiltrating endometriosis is a delayed stage of endometriosis. Another hypothesis is that the endometriotic cell has undergone genetic or epigenetic changes and those specific changes determine the development into deep endometriosis. This is compatible with the hereditary aspects, and with the clonality of deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis. It explains the predisposition and an eventual causal effect by dioxin or radiation. Specific genetic/epigenetic changes could explain the various expressions and thus typical, cystic, and deep endometriosis become three different diseases. Subtle lesions are not a disease until epi(genetic) changes occur. A classification should reflect that deep endometriosis is a specific disease. In conclusion the pathophysiology of deep endometriosis remains debated and the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as the role of genetics and epigenetics in the process, still needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DeepSpark: A Spark-Based Distributed Deep Learning Framework for Commodity Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hanjoo; Park, Jaehong; Jang, Jaehee; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) has made it challenging to exploit existing large-scale data processing pipelines for handling massive data and parameters involved in DNN training. Distributed computing platforms and GPGPU-based acceleration provide a mainstream solution to this computational challenge. In this paper, we propose DeepSpark, a distributed and parallel deep learning framework that exploits Apache Spark on commodity clusters. To support parallel operation...

  12. The application of the csamt method in the tectonic transformation of the deep-level fore exploration in the shandongkeng area in Nanxiong basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhan

    2010-01-01

    With the national policy efforts on the strengthening of mining exploration, uranium exploration has also ushered in its second s pring . The topic of the new round exploration is P rospect the deeply minerals . Therefore, the changes of the deep structure of the mining area are the premise to carry out survey work. This article states briefly the working principle and characteristics of CSAMT method. The Application of the CSAMT Method in the Tectonic Transformation of The Deep-Level Exploration in the Shangdongkeng area in Nanxiong basin expresses that the method has a good application and effectiveness in research of deep geological objectives. It provides design basis for the mining exploration of deep-level area. (authors)

  13. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  14. Making Data Mobile: The Hubble Deep Field Academy iPad app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Cordes, K.; Davis, S.; Eisenhamer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Many school districts are purchasing iPads for educators and students to use as learning tools in the classroom. Educators often prefer these devices to desktop and laptop computers because they offer portability and an intuitive design, while having a larger screen size when compared to smart phones. As a result, we began investigating the potential of adapting online activities for use on Apple’s iPad to enhance the dissemination and usage of these activities in instructional settings while continuing to meet educators’ needs. As a pilot effort, we are developing an iPad app for the “Hubble Deep Field Academy” - an activity that is currently available online and commonly used by middle school educators. The Hubble Deep Field Academy app features the HDF-North image while centering on the theme of how scientists use light to explore and study the universe. It also includes features such as embedded links to vocabulary, images and videos, teacher background materials, and readings about Hubble’s other deep field surveys. It is our goal is to impact students’ engagement in STEM-related activities, while enhancing educators’ usage of NASA data via new and innovative mediums. We also hope to develop and share lessons learned with the E/PO community that can be used to support similar projects. We plan to test the Hubble Deep Field Academy app during the school year to determine if this new activity format is beneficial to the education community.

  15. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…

  16. DeepPVP: phenotype-based prioritization of causative variants using deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene; Kulmanov, Maxat; Schofield, Paul N; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2018-01-01

    phenotype-based methods that use similar features. DeepPVP is freely available at https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/phenomenet-vp Conclusions: DeepPVP further improves on existing variant prioritization methods both in terms of speed as well

  17. DeepARG: a deep learning approach for predicting antibiotic resistance genes from metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Argoty, Gustavo; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Heath, Lenwood S; Vikesland, Peter; Zhang, Liqing

    2018-02-01

    Growing concerns about increasing rates of antibiotic resistance call for expanded and comprehensive global monitoring. Advancing methods for monitoring of environmental media (e.g., wastewater, agricultural waste, food, and water) is especially needed for identifying potential resources of novel antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), hot spots for gene exchange, and as pathways for the spread of ARGs and human exposure. Next-generation sequencing now enables direct access and profiling of the total metagenomic DNA pool, where ARGs are typically identified or predicted based on the "best hits" of sequence searches against existing databases. Unfortunately, this approach produces a high rate of false negatives. To address such limitations, we propose here a deep learning approach, taking into account a dissimilarity matrix created using all known categories of ARGs. Two deep learning models, DeepARG-SS and DeepARG-LS, were constructed for short read sequences and full gene length sequences, respectively. Evaluation of the deep learning models over 30 antibiotic resistance categories demonstrates that the DeepARG models can predict ARGs with both high precision (> 0.97) and recall (> 0.90). The models displayed an advantage over the typical best hit approach, yielding consistently lower false negative rates and thus higher overall recall (> 0.9). As more data become available for under-represented ARG categories, the DeepARG models' performance can be expected to be further enhanced due to the nature of the underlying neural networks. Our newly developed ARG database, DeepARG-DB, encompasses ARGs predicted with a high degree of confidence and extensive manual inspection, greatly expanding current ARG repositories. The deep learning models developed here offer more accurate antimicrobial resistance annotation relative to current bioinformatics practice. DeepARG does not require strict cutoffs, which enables identification of a much broader diversity of ARGs. The

  18. Radon concentration distributions in shallow and deep groundwater around the Tachikawa fault zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunomori, Fumiaki; Shimodate, Tomoya; Ide, Tomoki; Tanaka, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater radon concentrations around the Tachikawa fault zone were surveyed. The radon concentrations in shallow groundwater samples around the Tachikawa fault segment are comparable to previous studies. The characteristics of the radon concentrations on both sides of the segment are considered to have changed in response to the decrease in groundwater recharge caused by urbanization on the eastern side of the segment. The radon concentrations in deep groundwater samples collected around the Naguri and the Tachikawa fault segments are the same as those of shallow groundwater samples. However, the radon concentrations in deep groundwater samples collected from the bedrock beside the Naguri and Tachikawa fault segments are markedly higher than the radon concentrations expected from the geology on the Kanto plane. This disparity can be explained by the development of fracture zones spreading on both sides of the two segments. The radon concentration distribution for deep groundwater samples from the Naguri and the Tachikawa fault segments suggests that a fault exists even at the southern part of the Tachikawa fault line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  20. DeepQA: improving the estimation of single protein model quality with deep belief networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renzhi; Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Hou, Jie; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-12-05

    Protein quality assessment (QA) useful for ranking and selecting protein models has long been viewed as one of the major challenges for protein tertiary structure prediction. Especially, estimating the quality of a single protein model, which is important for selecting a few good models out of a large model pool consisting of mostly low-quality models, is still a largely unsolved problem. We introduce a novel single-model quality assessment method DeepQA based on deep belief network that utilizes a number of selected features describing the quality of a model from different perspectives, such as energy, physio-chemical characteristics, and structural information. The deep belief network is trained on several large datasets consisting of models from the Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiments, several publicly available datasets, and models generated by our in-house ab initio method. Our experiments demonstrate that deep belief network has better performance compared to Support Vector Machines and Neural Networks on the protein model quality assessment problem, and our method DeepQA achieves the state-of-the-art performance on CASP11 dataset. It also outperformed two well-established methods in selecting good outlier models from a large set of models of mostly low quality generated by ab initio modeling methods. DeepQA is a useful deep learning tool for protein single model quality assessment and protein structure prediction. The source code, executable, document and training/test datasets of DeepQA for Linux is freely available to non-commercial users at http://cactus.rnet.missouri.edu/DeepQA/ .

  1. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington; Choi, Changsu; /Seoul Natl. U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, Darren L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hogan, Craig J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Marshall, Jennifer L.; /Ohio State U.; McGinnis,; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U.

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  2. A survey of volcano deformation in the central Andes using InSAR: Evidence for deep, slow inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.

    2001-12-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to survey about 50 volcanos of the central Andes (15-27o S) for deformation during the 1992-2000 time interval. Because of the remote location of these volcanos, the activity of most are poorly constrained. Using the ERS-1/2 C-band radars (5.6 cm), we observe good interferometric correlation south of about 21o S, but poor correlation north of that latitude, especially in southern Peru. This variation is presumably related to regional climate variations. Our survey reveals broad (10's of km), roughly axisymmetric deformation at 2 volcanic centers with no previously documented deformation. At Uturuncu volcano, in southwestern Bolivia, the deformation rate can be constrained with radar data from several satellite tracks and is about 1 cm/year between 1992 and 2000. We find a second source of volcanic deformation located between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre volcanos near the Chile/Argentina border. There is less radar data to constrain the deformation in this area, but the rate is also about 1 cm/yr between 1996 and 2000. While the spatial character of the deformation field appears to be affected by atmosphere at both locations, we do not think that the entire signal is atmospheric, because the signal is observed in several interferograms and nearby edifices do not show similar patterns. The deformation signal appears to be time-variable, although it is difficult to determine whether this is due to real variations in the deformation source or atmospheric effects. We model the deformation with both a uniform point-source source of inflation, and a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid, and compare both elastic half-space and layered-space models. We also explore the effects of local topography upon the deformation field using the method of Williams and Wadge (1998). We invert for source parameters using the global search Neighborhood Algorithm of Sambridge (1998). Preliminary results indicate that the sources at both

  3. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  4. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  5. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  6. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S) were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs) were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  7. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DeepBase: annotation and discovery of microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs from deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput deep-sequencing technology have produced large numbers of short and long RNA sequences and enabled the detection and profiling of known and novel microRNAs (miRNAs) and other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) at unprecedented sensitivity and depth. In this chapter, we describe the use of deepBase, a database that we have developed to integrate all public deep-sequencing data and to facilitate the comprehensive annotation and discovery of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from these data. deepBase provides an integrative, interactive, and versatile web graphical interface to evaluate miRBase-annotated miRNA genes and other known ncRNAs, explores the expression patterns of miRNAs and other ncRNAs, and discovers novel miRNAs and other ncRNAs from deep-sequencing data. deepBase also provides a deepView genome browser to comparatively analyze these data at multiple levels. deepBase is available at http://deepbase.sysu.edu.cn/.

  9. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  10. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  11. Optical colours of AGN in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Obscured black holes in early type galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Rovilos, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the optical colours of X-ray sources from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) using photometry from the COMBO-17 survey, aiming to explore AGN - galaxy feedback models. The X-ray sources populate both the ``blue'' and the ``red sequence'' on the colour-magnitude diagram. However, sources in the ``red sequence'' appear systematically more obscured. HST imaging from the GEMS survey demonstrates that the nucleus does not affect significantly the observed colours, and the...

  12. AGN Populations in Large-volume X-Ray Surveys: Photometric Redshifts and Population Types Found in the Stripe 82X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananna, Tonima Tasnin; Salvato, Mara; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Glikman, Eilat; Hamilton, Mark; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon T.; Timlin, John

    2017-11-01

    Multiwavelength surveys covering large sky volumes are necessary to obtain an accurate census of rare objects such as high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Stripe 82X is a 31.3 X-ray survey with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations overlapping the legacy Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field, which has a rich investment of multiwavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to the radio. The wide-area nature of this survey presents new challenges for photometric redshifts for AGNs compared to previous work on narrow-deep fields because it probes different populations of objects that need to be identified and represented in the library of templates. Here we present an updated X-ray plus multiwavelength matched catalog, including Spitzer counterparts, and estimated photometric redshifts for 5961 (96% of a total of 6181) X-ray sources that have a normalized median absolute deviation, σnmad=0.06, and an outlier fraction, η = 13.7%. The populations found in this survey and the template libraries used for photometric redshifts provide important guiding principles for upcoming large-area surveys such as eROSITA and 3XMM (in X-ray) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (optical).

  13. New DSH planetary nebulae and candidates from optical and infrared surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberger, Matthias; Jacoby, George H; Alves, Filipe; Patchick, Dana; Parker, Quentin A; Bojicic, Ivan; Frew, David J; Acker, Agnes; Eigenthaler, Paul; Harmer, Dianne; Reid, Warren; Schedler, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To date, the planetary nebula (PN) survey of the Deep Sky Hunters collaboration has led to the detection of more than 250 previously unknown candidate planetary nebulae (PNe). About 60% of them were found during the past two years and are expected to be true, likely or possible PNe because careful vetting has already thrown out more doubtful objects. The majority of the new PN candidates are located within the boundaries of the SHS and IPHAS Ha surveys and were discovered by combining MIR data from the WideField Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the IPHAS, SHS and DSS surveys, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX). (paper)

  14. YouTube as a potential source of information on deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademci, Mehmet Ş; Yazman, Serkan; Güneş, Tevfik; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Tayfur, Kaptanderya; Gokalp, Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Background No work has been reported on the use of video websites to learn about deep vein thrombosis and the value of education using them. We examined the characteristics and scientific accuracy of videos related to deep vein thrombosis on YouTube. Methods YouTube was surveyed using no filter and the key words 'deep vein thrombosis' and 'leg vein clot' in June 2016. The videos evaluated were divided into three groups in terms of their scientific content, accuracy, and currency: useful, partly useful, and useless. Results Of the 1200 videos watched, 715 (59.58%) were excluded with the exclusion criteria. Although most of the videos uploaded (22.9%, n = 111) were created by physicians, the number of views for website-based videos was significantly higher (p = 0.002). When the uploaded videos were assessed in terms of their usefulness, videos from physicians and hospitals were statistically more useful than other videos (p < 0.001). Conclusions For videos created by medical professionals to be of higher quality, we believe they should be more up-to-date and comprehensive, and contain animations about treatment modalities and early diagnosis in particular.

  15. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    Deep Vein Thrombosis: Risk Factors and Prevention in Surgical Patients. Deep Vein ... preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. ... the elderly.3,4 It is very rare before the age ... depends on the risk level; therefore an .... but also in the post-operative period. ... is continuing uncertainty regarding.

  16. Survey of siting practices for selected management projects in seven countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E.; Aahagen, H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper surveys siting practices for deep geologic disposal in seven countries, and attempts to formulate generalizations which could be useful for the upcoming review of the Swedish plan for siting the SFL repository (R and D 92). Comparison of projects in different countries is done with full appreciation of the technical, legal, and cultural differences. The seven countries were selected for experience with siting in crystalline rock, similarity of siting practices to Sweden, and the availability of published information. Local governments have demonstrated effective veto power in each of the seven countries surveyed, although this power is exercised in different ways. This paper shows how the siting strategy itself affects the ability and the inclination of localities to block the project. It shows by example that public involvement, parallel vs. sequential characterization, schedule for siting activities, and the existence of interim waste storage capability have an impact on the success of siting. The focus of this paper is deep geologic disposal. Shallow land disposal and non-radioactive wastes are not discussed in detail, with three exceptions: LLW disposal siting in the U.S. and Canada, and the SAKAB incinerator projects in Sweden. These provide insight into siting approaches and demonstrate that conclusions regarding deep geologic disposal are supported by other experience. (114 refs.) (au)

  17. Deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia. Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalchenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present there are 3 facilities (polygons) for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia, all of which were constructed in the mid60's. These facilities are operating successfully, and activities have started in preparation for decommissioning. Liquid radioactive waste is injected into deep porous horizons which act as 'collector-layers', isolated from the surface and from groundwaters by a relatively thick sequence of rock of low permeability. The collector-layers (also collector-horizons) contain salt waters or fresh waters of no practical application, lying beneath the main horizons containing potable waters. Construction of facilities for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste was preceded by geological surveys and investigations which were able to substantiate the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste injection, and to obtain initial data for facility design. Operation of the facilities was accompanied by monitoring which confirmed that the main safety requirement was satisfied i.e. localisation of radioactive waste within specified boundaries of the geologic medium. The opinion of most specialists in the atomic power industry in Russia favours deep-well injection as a solution to the problem of liquid radioactive waste management; during the period of active operation of defence facilities (atomic power industry of the former U.S.S.R.), this disposal method prevented the impact of radioactive waste on man and the environment. The experience accumulated concerning the injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia is of interest to scientists and engineers engaged in problems of protection and remediation of the environment in the vicinity of nuclear industry facilities; an example of the utilisation of the deep subsurface for solidified radioactive waste and the disposal of different types of nuclear materials. Information on the scientific principles and background for the development of facilities for the injection

  18. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  19. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  20. pDeep: Predicting MS/MS Spectra of Peptides with Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xie-Xuan; Zeng, Wen-Feng; Chi, Hao; Luo, Chunjie; Liu, Chao; Zhan, Jianfeng; He, Si-Min; Zhang, Zhifei

    2017-12-05

    In tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics, search engines rely on comparison between an experimental MS/MS spectrum and the theoretical spectra of the candidate peptides. Hence, accurate prediction of the theoretical spectra of peptides appears to be particularly important. Here, we present pDeep, a deep neural network-based model for the spectrum prediction of peptides. Using the bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM), pDeep can predict higher-energy collisional dissociation, electron-transfer dissociation, and electron-transfer and higher-energy collision dissociation MS/MS spectra of peptides with >0.9 median Pearson correlation coefficients. Further, we showed that intermediate layer of the neural network could reveal physicochemical properties of amino acids, for example the similarities of fragmentation behaviors between amino acids. We also showed the potential of pDeep to distinguish extremely similar peptides (peptides that contain isobaric amino acids, for example, GG = N, AG = Q, or even I = L), which were very difficult to distinguish using traditional search engines.

  1. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    /LIDAR), surveying instruments, and surveying benchmarks and optical survey points. Currently an array of single and multipoint extensometers monitors the Davis Campus. A facility-wide micro seismic monitoring system is anticipated to be deployed during the latter half of 2012. This system is designed to monitor minor events initiated within the historical mined out portions of the facility. The major science programs for the coming five years consist of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment; the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter search, the Center for Ultralow Background Experiments at DUSEL (CUBED), numerous geoscience installations, Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), a nuclear astrophysics program involving a low energy underground particle accelerator, second and third generation dark matter experiments, and additional low background counting facilities. The Sanford Lab facility is an active, U.S. based, deep underground research facility dedicated to science, affording the science community the opportunity to conduct unprecedented scientific research in a broad range of physics, biology and geoscience fields at depth. SURF is actively interested in hosting additional research collaborations and provides resources for full facility design, cost estimation, excavation, construction and support management services.

  2. HB1204: Deep-Sea Corals and Benthic Habitats in Northeast Deepwater Canyons on NOAA Ship Henry Bigelow between 20120703 and 20120718

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multi-disciplinary team of scientists on the Henry Bigelow HB1204 mission surveyed and ground-truthed known or suspected deep-sea coral habitats associated with...

  3. Deep breathing exercises performed 2 months following cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Urell, Charlotte; Jonsson, Marcus; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Hedenström, Hans; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative breathing exercises are recommended to cardiac surgery patients. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue exercises after discharge vary, and the significance of treatment needs to be determined. Our aim was to assess the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises performed with a positive expiratory pressure device for 2 months following cardiac surgery. The study design was a prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized trial. Patients performing breathing exercises 2 months after cardiac surgery (n = 159) were compared with a control group (n = 154) performing no breathing exercises after discharge. The intervention consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cm H2O), 5 times a day, during the first 2 months after surgery. The outcomes were lung function measurements, oxygen saturation, thoracic excursion mobility, subjective perception of breathing and pain, patient-perceived quality of recovery (40-Item Quality of Recovery score), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), and self-reported respiratory tract infection/pneumonia and antibiotic treatment. Two months postoperatively, the patients had significantly reduced lung function, with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second to 93 ± 12% (P< .001) of preoperative values. Oxygenation had returned to preoperative values, and 5 of 8 aspects in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were improved compared with preoperative values (P< .01). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the measured outcomes. No significant differences in lung function, subjective perceptions, or quality of life were found between patients performing home-based deep breathing exercises and control patients 2 months after cardiac surgery.

  4. A survey on object detection in optical remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    Object detection in optical remote sensing images, being a fundamental but challenging problem in the field of aerial and satellite image analysis, plays an important role for a wide range of applications and is receiving significant attention in recent years. While enormous methods exist, a deep review of the literature concerning generic object detection is still lacking. This paper aims to provide a review of the recent progress in this field. Different from several previously published surveys that focus on a specific object class such as building and road, we concentrate on more generic object categories including, but are not limited to, road, building, tree, vehicle, ship, airport, urban-area. Covering about 270 publications we survey (1) template matching-based object detection methods, (2) knowledge-based object detection methods, (3) object-based image analysis (OBIA)-based object detection methods, (4) machine learning-based object detection methods, and (5) five publicly available datasets and three standard evaluation metrics. We also discuss the challenges of current studies and propose two promising research directions, namely deep learning-based feature representation and weakly supervised learning-based geospatial object detection. It is our hope that this survey will be beneficial for the researchers to have better understanding of this research field.

  5. Gouge marks on deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean: Caused by Cuvier’s beaked whales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; David, L; Frantzis, A.; Hooker, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Enigmatic seafloor gouge marks at depths of 1700-2100 m have been observed from submersible during geological survey work studying mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The marks consist of a central groove (about 10 cm deep and 1-2 m long), superimposed on a broader bowl-shaped depression

  6. Searching for prostate cancer by fully automated magnetic resonance imaging classification: deep learning versus non-deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinggang; Yang, Wei; Weinreb, Jeffrey; Han, Juan; Li, Qiubai; Kong, Xiangchuang; Yan, Yongluan; Ke, Zan; Luo, Bo; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liang

    2017-11-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of death since ancient time documented in Egyptian Ptolemaic mummy imaging. PCa detection is critical to personalized medicine and varies considerably under an MRI scan. 172 patients with 2,602 morphologic images (axial 2D T2-weighted imaging) of the prostate were obtained. A deep learning with deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and a non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and bag-of-word (BoW), a representative method for image recognition and analysis, were used to distinguish pathologically confirmed PCa patients from prostate benign conditions (BCs) patients with prostatitis or prostate benign hyperplasia (BPH). In fully automated detection of PCa patients, deep learning had a statistically higher area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) than non-deep learning (P = 0.0007 deep learning method and 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.77) for non-deep learning method, respectively. Our results suggest that deep learning with DCNN is superior to non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and BoW model for fully automated PCa patients differentiation from prostate BCs patients. Our deep learning method is extensible to image modalities such as MR imaging, CT and PET of other organs.

  7. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  8. Fiscal 1997 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 2/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In the evaluation and study of reservoirs and the amount of resources, a reservoir simulation is conducted to grasp the characteristics of reservoirs and the amount of resources. For this purpose, the origin and history of the Kakkonda geothermal field are studied, with special attention paid to the origin of the difference in temperature between the shallow-seated and deep-seated reservoirs, the geometry of granite at Kakkonda, the region of recharge of meteoric water, the distribution of saline concentration in the natural state and the cause of the occurrence, the amount of supply of fluids and heat from the depth to the reservoirs, etc. In the evaluation and study of the economic effectiveness of the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, it is learned that, if a 50MW geothermal power station is to be built at a deep level (drilled depth of 3000m on the average) with a rate of 50% attained in drilling, the steam amount required at such a deep level (presumed to be 75t/h) will be more than twice that required at a shallow level (presumed to be 35/h). (NEDO)

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VI. (den Brok+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, M.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    2018-01-01

    We have used the data from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of the Coma cluster. A full description of the observations and data reduction can be found in Paper I (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C). We have derived colour gradients for a sample of confirmed or very likely Coma cluster members. (2 data files).

  10. Deep learning for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  11. Deep learning for computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Garrett B. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Hodas, Nathan O. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Vishnu, Abhinav [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354

    2017-03-08

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both the fields of computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on “deep” neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning the computer science domain, notably in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties as compared to traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including QSAR, virtual screening, protein structure modeling, QM calculations, materials synthesis and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network based models often exceeded the “glass ceiling” expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a useful tool and may grow into a pivotal role for various challenges in the computational chemistry field.

  12. Deep learning for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-06-15

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New constraints on the structure of Hess Deep from regional- and micro-bathymetry data acquired during RRS James Cook in Jan-Feb 2008 (JC021)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Cazenave, P. W.; Hurst, S. D.; Scientific Party, J.

    2008-12-01

    In January-February 2008, new geophysical and geological data were acquired in Hess Deep using the RRS James Cook and the British ROV Isis. Hess Deep provides a tectonic window into oceanic crust emplaced by fast seafloor spreading at the East Pacific Rise, thereby offering the opportunity to test competing hypotheses for oceanic crustal accretion. The goal of this cruise was to collect datasets that can constrain the structure and composition of the lower crustal section exposed in the south-facing slope of the Intrarift Ridge just north of the Deep, and thus provide insights into the emplacement of gabbroic lower crust at fast spreading rates. Additionally, the acquired datasets provide site survey data for IODP Proposal 551-Full. The following datasets were acquired during JC021: 1) regional multibeam bathymetry survey complemented with sub-bottom profiler (SBP) data (in selected areas), 2) two micro-bathymetry surveys, and 3) seafloor rock samples acquired with an ROV. Here we present grids of regional multibeam and microbathymetry data following post-cruise processing. Regional multibeam bathymetry were acquired using the hull-mounted Kongsberg Simrad EM120 system (12 kHz). These data provide new coverage of the northern flank of the rift as far east as 100°W, which show that it comprises of a series of 50- to 100-km-long en echelon segments. Both E-W and NE-SW striking features are observed in the immediate vicinity of the Deep, including in a newly covered region to the SW of the rift tip. Such features might arise due to the rotation of the Galapagos microplate(s), as proposed by other authors. The ROV Isis acquired micro-bathymetry data in two areas using a Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam sonar. Data were acquired at a nominal altitude of ~100 m and speed of 0.3 kts to facilitate high-resolution mapping of seabed features and also permit coverage of two relatively large areas. Swath widths were ~200- 350 m depending on noise and seabed characteristics

  14. Origin and distribution of the organic matter in the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan - A Rock-Eval survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, François; Stetten, Elsa; Schnyder, Johann; Charlier, Karine; Martinez, Philippe; Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence

    2017-08-01

    The Congo River, the second largest river in the world, is a major source of organic matter for the deep Atlantic Ocean because of the connection of its estuary to the deep offshore area by a submarine canyon which feeds a vast deep-sea fan. The lobe zone of this deep-sea fan is the final receptacle of the sedimentary inputs presently channelled by the canyon and covers an area of 2500 km². The quantity and the source of organic matter preserved in recent turbiditic sediments from the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan were assessed using Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses. Six sites, located at approximately 5000 m water-depth, were investigated. The mud-rich sediments of the distal lobe contain high amounts of organic matter ( 3.5 to 4% Corg), the origin of which is a mixture of terrestrial higher-plant debris, soil organic matter and deeply oxidized phytoplanktonic material. Although the respective contribution of terrestrial and marine sources of organic matter cannot be precisely quantified using Rock-Eval analyses, the terrestrial fraction is dominant according to similar hydrogen and oxygen indices of both suspended and bedload sediments from the Congo River and that deposited in the lobe complex. The Rock-Eval signature supports the 70% to 80% of the terrestrial fraction previously estimated using C/N and δ13Corg data. In the background sediment, the organic matter distribution is homogeneous at different scales, from a single turbiditic event to the entire lobe, and changes in accumulation rates only have a limited effect on the quantity and quality of the preserved organic matter. Peculiar areas with chemosynthetic bivalves and/or bacterial mats, explored using ROV Victor 6000, show a Rock-Eval signature similar to background sediment. This high organic carbon content associated to high sedimentation rates (> 2 to 20 mm.yr-1) in the Congo distal lobe complex implies a high burial rate for organic carbon. Consequently, the Congo deep-sea fan represents an

  15. On contemporary sedimentation at the titanic survey area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashin, V. N.

    2009-12-01

    The basic parameters of the sedimentation environment are considered: the Western Boundary Deep Current that transports sedimentary material and distributes it on the survey area; the nepheloid layer, its features, and the distribution of the concentrations and particulate standing crop in it; the distribution of the horizontal and vertical fluxes of the sedimentary material; and the bottom sediments and their absolute masses. The comparison of the vertical fluxes of the particulate matter and the absolute masses of the sediments showed that the contemporary fluxes of sedimentary material to the bottom provided the distribution of the absolute masses of the sediments in the survey area during the Holocene.

  16. What Really is Deep Learning Doing?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Chuyu

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has achieved a great success in many areas, from computer vision to natural language processing, to game playing, and much more. Yet, what deep learning is really doing is still an open question. There are a lot of works in this direction. For example, [5] tried to explain deep learning by group renormalization, and [6] tried to explain deep learning from the view of functional approximation. In order to address this very crucial question, here we see deep learning from perspect...

  17. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  18. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  19. deepTools2: a next generation web server for deep-sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Fidel; Ryan, Devon P; Grüning, Björn; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Kilpert, Fabian; Richter, Andreas S; Heyne, Steffen; Dündar, Friederike; Manke, Thomas

    2016-07-08

    We present an update to our Galaxy-based web server for processing and visualizing deeply sequenced data. Its core tool set, deepTools, allows users to perform complete bioinformatic workflows ranging from quality controls and normalizations of aligned reads to integrative analyses, including clustering and visualization approaches. Since we first described our deepTools Galaxy server in 2014, we have implemented new solutions for many requests from the community and our users. Here, we introduce significant enhancements and new tools to further improve data visualization and interpretation. deepTools continue to be open to all users and freely available as a web service at deeptools.ie-freiburg.mpg.de The new deepTools2 suite can be easily deployed within any Galaxy framework via the toolshed repository, and we also provide source code for command line usage under Linux and Mac OS X. A public and documented API for access to deepTools functionality is also available. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, with a single instrument, a wide-field spectral imager. SPHEREx will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power in two deep fields located near the ecliptic poles. Following in the tradition of all-sky missions such as IRAS, COBE and WISE, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey. SPHEREx will create spectra (0.75 – 4.2 um at R = 41; and 4.2 – 5 um at R = 135) with high sensitivity making background-limited observations using a passively-cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps that will serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community. With over a billion detected galaxies, hundreds of millions of high-quality stellar and galactic spectra, and over a million ice absorption spectra, the archive will enable diverse scientific investigations including studies of young stellar systems, brown dwarfs, high-redshift quasars, galaxy clusters, the interstellar medium, asteroids and comets. All aspects of the instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the

  1. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Yue, Q; Chen, Y H; Shen, M B; Wu, S Y

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory - China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  2. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  3. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects catalog (Colbert+, 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Ptak, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, intermediate-luminosity (LX[2-10keV]>=1039erg/s) X-ray objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz<=5000km/s from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. (2 data files).

  5. The solar neighborhood. XXXIII. Parallax results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m program: trigonometric parallaxes of Nearby low-mass active and young systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, The City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Finch, Charlie T. [Astrometry Department, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; White, Russel J.; Gies, Douglas R.; Dieterich, Sergio B.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Davison, Cassy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Subasavage, John P. [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Malo, Lison [Département de Physique et Observatoire du Mont-Megantic, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Rodriguez, David R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blunt, Sarah C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Ianna, Philip A., E-mail: ar494@hunter.cuny.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present basic observational data and association membership analysis for 45 young and active low-mass stellar systems from the ongoing Research Consortium On Nearby Stars photometry and astrometry program at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Most of these systems have saturated X-ray emission (log (L{sub X} /L {sub bol}) > –3.5) based on X-ray fluxes from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and many are significantly more luminous than main-sequence stars of comparable color. We present parallaxes and proper motions, Johnson-Kron-Cousins VRI photometry, and multiplicity observations from the CTIOPI program on the CTIO 0.9 m telescope. To this we add low-resolution optical spectroscopy and line measurements from the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, and interferometric binary measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors. We also incorporate data from published sources: JHK{sub S} photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog, X-ray data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and radial velocities from literature sources. Within the sample of 45 systems, we identify 21 candidate low-mass pre-main-sequence members of nearby associations, including members of β Pictoris, TW Hydrae, Argus, AB Doradus, two ambiguous ≈30 Myr old systems, and one object that may be a member of the Ursa Major moving group. Of the 21 candidate young systems, 14 are newly identified as a result of this work, and six of those are within 25 pc of the Sun.

  6. Surveying Small Streams with COTS UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, J. A.; Wright, C. W.; Tonina, D.

    2017-12-01

    We tested the ability to make high resolution surveys of stream bathymetry and exposed banks using a commercial off-the-shelf unmanned quadcopter equipped with a 12 megapixel, gimbal stabilized, RGB camera, and L1-code-only GPS.Our study site is a canyon-wall confined gravel bed river with pool-riffle morphology. The survey reach was 15 m wide and on average 0.3 m deep with a maximum water depth during survey of approximately 1.2 m. Streambed material ranged between pea gravel to boulders. For accuracy comparison we field-surveyed the reach with an RTK GPS. The survey mapped large boulders and cobbles, stream banks and bed morphology, as well as the center of each of 9 black/white photo targets with a surface area of 22" x 16" that were placed around the perimeter of the reach. The water was clear, and the bottom substrate reflectivity was highly variable and rich in texture Nearly 1,000 photos were captured, many with sub-centimeter pixels. The photos were processed using Agisoft Photoscan and the resulting point cloud linked to the GPS coordinate system via the surveyed photo targets. The submerged portion of the data was separated from the sub-aerial data, corrected for refraction using external software and then rejoined to produce a seamless point cloud. Comparison between the merged results and ground-survey point shows good agreement with less than 10cm rmse.

  7. DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.

  8. Invited talk: Deep Learning Meets Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Deep Learning has emerged as one of the most successful fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence with overwhelming success in industrial speech, text and vision benchmarks. Consequently it evolved into the central field of research for IT giants like Google, facebook, Microsoft, Baidu, and Amazon. Deep Learning is founded on novel neural network techniques, the recent availability of very fast computers, and massive data sets. In its core, Deep Learning discovers multiple levels of abstract representations of the input. The main obstacle to learning deep neural networks is the vanishing gradient problem. The vanishing gradient impedes credit assignment to the first layers of a deep network or to early elements of a sequence, therefore limits model selection. Major advances in Deep Learning can be related to avoiding the vanishing gradient like stacking, ReLUs, residual networks, highway networks, and LSTM. For Deep Learning, we suggested self-normalizing neural networks (SNNs) which automatica...

  9. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  10. Stable architectures for deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Eldad; Ruthotto, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Deep neural networks have become invaluable tools for supervised machine learning, e.g. classification of text or images. While often offering superior results over traditional techniques and successfully expressing complicated patterns in data, deep architectures are known to be challenging to design and train such that they generalize well to new data. Critical issues with deep architectures are numerical instabilities in derivative-based learning algorithms commonly called exploding or vanishing gradients. In this paper, we propose new forward propagation techniques inspired by systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) that overcome this challenge and lead to well-posed learning problems for arbitrarily deep networks. The backbone of our approach is our interpretation of deep learning as a parameter estimation problem of nonlinear dynamical systems. Given this formulation, we analyze stability and well-posedness of deep learning and use this new understanding to develop new network architectures. We relate the exploding and vanishing gradient phenomenon to the stability of the discrete ODE and present several strategies for stabilizing deep learning for very deep networks. While our new architectures restrict the solution space, several numerical experiments show their competitiveness with state-of-the-art networks.

  11. Spectroscopic Surveys with the ELT: A Gigantic Step into the Deep Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Gallego, J.; Sánchez, A.; García, L.; Iglesias, J.

    2018-03-01

    The Phase A design of MOSAIC, a powerful multi-object spectrograph intended for ESO's Extremely Large Telescope, concluded in late 2017. With the design complete, a three-day workshop was held last October in Toledo to discuss the breakthrough spectroscopic surveys that MOSAIC can deliver across a broad range of contemporary astronomy.

  12. Simulating deep surveys of the Galactic Plane with the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan; Digel, Seth

    2009-05-01

    The pioneering survey of the Galactic plane by H.E.S.S., together with the northern complement now underway with VERITAS, has shown the inner Milky Way to be rich in TeV-emitting sources; new source classes have been found among the H.E.S.S. detections and unidentified sources remain. In order to explore optimizations of the design of an Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)-like instrument for survey science, we constructed a model of the flux and size distributions of Galactic TeV sources, normalized to the H.E.S.S. sources but extrapolated to lower flux levels. We investigated potential outcomes from a survey with the order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and attendant improvement in angular resolution planned for AGIS. Studies of individual sources and populations found with such a sensitivity survey will advance understanding of astrophysical particle acceleration, source populations, and even high-energy cosmic rays via detection of the low-level TeV diffuse emission in regions of high cosmic-ray densitiy.

  13. Drilling of deep boreholes and associated geological investigations. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1983-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 metres in the winter of 1984. The choice of drilling method and equipment depends on the geological circumstances and the target of the investigation. The most common drilling methods used with the investigations of nuclear waste disposal are diamond core drilling and percussion drilling. The Precambrian bedrock outcropping in Finland exists also in Sweden and Canada, where deep boreholes have been done down to more than 1000 metres using diamond core drilling. This method can be also used in Finland and equipment for the drilling are available. One of the main targets of the investigation is to clarify the true strike and dip of fractures and other discontinuities. The methods used abroad are taking of oriented cores, borehole television survey and geophysical measurements. TV-survey and geophysical methods seem to be most favourable in deep boreholes. Also the accurate position (inclination, bearing) of the borehole is essential to know and many techniques are used for measuring of it. Investigations performed on the core samples include core logging and laboratory tests. For the core logging there is no uniform practice concerning the nuclear waste investigations. Different counries use their own classifications. All of these, however, are based on the petrography and fracture properties of the rock samples. Laboratory tests (petrographical and rock mechanical tests) are generally performed according to the recommendations of international standards. The large volumes of data obtained during investigations require computer techniques which allow more comprehensive collection, storage and processing of data. This kind of systems are already used in Sweden and Canada, for instance, and they could be utilize in Finland

  14. Deciphering Equatorial Pacific Deep Sea Sediment Transport Regimes by Core-Log-Seismic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Marcantonio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating deep-sea sediment transportation and deposition regimes is a key to accurately understand implications from geological information recorded by pelagic sediments, e.g. climate signals. However, except for physical oceanographic particle trap experiments, geochemical analyses of in situsediments, and theoretical modeling of the relation between the bottom currents and sediment particle flux, it has remained a challenging task to document the movement of deep sea sediments, that takes place over time. We utilized high-resolution, multichannel reflection seismic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific region with drilling and logging results from two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) 7 (Site U1337) and 8 (Site U1338), to characterize sediment transportation regimes on 18-24 Ma oceanic crust. Site U1337, constructed by a series of distinct abyssal hills and abyssal basins; Site U1338, located 570 km SE from Site U1337 site and constructed by a series of ridges, seamounts, and abyssal hills. These sites are of particular interest due to their proximity to the equatorial productivity zone, areas with high sedimentation rates and preservation of carbonate-bearing sediment that provide invaluable insights on equatorial Pacific ecosystems and carbon cycle. We integrate downhole geophysical logging data as well as geochemistry and physical properties measurements on recovered cores from IODP Sites U1337 and U1338 to comprehensively examine the mobility of deep-sea sediments and sediment diagenesis over times in a quasi-3D manner. We also examine 1100 km of high resolution underway seismic surveys from site survey lines in between PEAT 7 and 8 in order to investigate changes in sediment transportation between both sites. Integrating detailed seismic interpretations, high resolution core data, and 230Th flux measurements we aim to create a detailed chronological sedimentation and sediment diagenesis history

  15. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY Pi GHz SKY SURVEY. III. THE ELAIS-N1, COMA, AND LOCKMAN HOLE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Steve; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Whysong, David [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We present results from a total of 459 repeated 3.1 GHz radio continuum observations (of which 379 were used in a search for transient sources) of the ELAIS-N1, Coma, Lockman Hole, and NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey fields as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey. The observations were taken approximately once per day between 2009 May and 2011 April. Each image covers 11.8 square degrees and has 100'' FWHM resolution. Deep images for each of the four fields have rms noise between 180 and 310 {mu}Jy, and the corresponding catalogs contain {approx}200 sources in each field. Typically 40-50 of these sources are detected in each single-epoch image. This represents one of the shortest cadence, largest area, multi-epoch surveys undertaken at these frequencies. We compare the catalogs generated from the combined images to those from individual epochs, and from monthly averages, as well as to legacy surveys. We undertake a search for transients, with particular emphasis on excluding false positive sources. We find no confirmed transients, defined here as sources that can be shown to have varied by at least a factor of 10. However, we find one source that brightened in a single-epoch image to at least six times the upper limit from the corresponding deep image. We also find a source associated with a z = 0.6 quasar which appears to have brightened by a factor {approx}3 in one of our deep images, when compared to catalogs from legacy surveys. We place new upper limits on the number of transients brighter than 10 mJy: fewer than 0.08 transients deg{sup -2} with characteristic timescales of months to years; fewer than 0.02 deg{sup -2} with timescales of months; and fewer than 0.009 deg{sup -2} with timescales of days. We also plot upper limits as a function of flux density for transients on the same timescales.

  16. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Report on the survey of geothermal development at Okushiri Island, Hokkaido. Geochemical survey (Finger print method); Hokkaido Okushiritou chinetsu kaihatsu chosa chikagaku chosa (Finga print ho) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    The geochemical survey by the finger print method was carried out in the Okushiri Island area, Hokkaido, and places of fracture existence were extracted and districts of possible geothermal existence were estimated. The finger print method is a geochemical survey method of soil gas, and the soil gas was collected along the main roads and mountain streams at measuring intervals of 100-300m. The gas collector was buried 30cm deep from the ground surface for 17 days, and the soil gas that rose from deep underground was adsorbed/accumulated into activated carbon. The gas analysis was made by the high sensitivity Curie point pyrolysis/quadrupole mass spectrometer. As a result of the survey analysis, the existence of fracture zone was presumed in the district along the Shiromizusawa that is a branch of the Horonai River, district along the road of the Okushiri Island line and district 1.5km WSW from the 5.8K Pass. Further, out of all 12 specimens, 6 specimens of Type X were distributed in a group in the district 1km square in north, south, east and west with the top of Mt. Shokan almost as the center. The possible existence of geothermal reservoirs was presumed. (NEDO)

  18. An airborne gamma ray snow survey of a forest covered area with a deep snowpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, J.E.; Carroll, T.R.; Holman, P.B.; Grasty, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Problems arising from the airborne gamma ray measurement of snow water equivalent over a forest covered deep snowpack are examined. The principal sources of error are believed to be due to the radioactivity in the biomass and to variability in the snow cover. A theoretical model is developed to correct the airborne measurements for these sources of error. The application of the theory to data collected over the St. John River Basin, located in the eastern part of Canada and the United States, is found to significantly improve the airborne results

  19. Deep Seawater Intrusion Enhanced by Geothermal Through Deep Faults in Xinzhou Geothermal Field in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Ou, H.; Hu, B. X.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates abnormal sea water intrusion from deep depth, riding an inland-ward deep groundwater flow, which is enhanced by deep faults and geothermal processes. The study site Xinzhou geothermal field is 20 km from the coast line. It is in southern China's Guangdong coast, a part of China's long coastal geothermal belt. The geothermal water is salty, having fueled an speculation that it was ancient sea water retained. However, the perpetual "pumping" of the self-flowing outflow of geothermal waters might alter the deep underground flow to favor large-scale or long distant sea water intrusion. We studied geochemical characteristics of the geothermal water and found it as a mixture of the sea water with rain water or pore water, with no indication of dilution involved. And we conducted numerical studies of the buoyancy-driven geothermal flow in the deep ground and find that deep down in thousand meters there is favorable hydraulic gradient favoring inland-ward groundwater flow, allowing seawater intrude inland for an unusually long tens of kilometers in a granitic groundwater flow system. This work formed the first in understanding geo-environment for deep ground water flow.

  20. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation.

  2. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Moustakas, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.75 from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey, a spectroscopic survey of 7.6 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z){sup (0.54{+-}0.64)} for red galaxies and (1 + z){sup (1.64{+-}0.39)} for blue galaxies.

  4. The XXL Survey: First Results and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Ettori, S.; Evrard, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Giles, P.; Horellou, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The XXL survey currently covers two 25 deg2 patches with XMM observations of approximately 10 ks. We summarize the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL dataset, which occurred in mid-2016.We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray(zeta less than 2) cluster, (zeta less than 4) active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-lambda observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters, and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the zeta greater than1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.

  5. Survival of marine heterotrophic flagellates isolated from the surface and the deep sea at high hydrostatic pressure: Literature review and own experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živaljić, Suzana; Schoenle, Alexandra; Nitsche, Frank; Hohlfeld, Manon; Piechocki, Julia; Reif, Farina; Shumo, Marwa; Weiss, Alexandra; Werner, Jennifer; Witt, Madeleine; Voss, Janine; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-02-01

    Although the abyssal seafloor represents the most common benthic environment on Earth, eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths is still an uncharted territory. This is in striking contrast to their potential importance regarding the material flux and bacteria consumption in the deep sea. Flagellate genotypes determined from sedimentary DNA deep-sea samples might originate from vital deep-sea populations or from cysts of organisms sedimented down from surface waters. The latter one may have never been active under deep-sea conditions. We wanted to analyze the principal ability of cultivable heterotrophic flagellates of different phylogenetic groups (choanoflagellates, ancyromonads, euglenids, kinetoplastids, bicosoecids, chrysomonads, and cercozoans) to survive exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (up to 670 bar). We summarized our own studies and the few available data from literature on pressure tolerances of flagellates isolated from different marine habitats. Our results demonstrated that many different flagellate species isolated from the surface waters and deep-sea sediments survived drastic changes in hydrostatic pressure. Barophilic behavior was also recorded for several species isolated from the deep sea indicating their possible genetic adaptation to high pressures. This is in accordance with records of heterotrophic flagellates present in environmental DNA surveys based on clone libraries established for deep-sea environments.

  6. Extreme Longevity in Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Fallon, S J; Mucciarone, D A

    2009-02-09

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins world-wide at depths of 300 to {approx}3000 meters. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age date from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes glaberrima show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 {micro}m yr{sup -1} and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The management and conservation of deep sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea ecosystems.

  7. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  8. Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN) I: survey description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Michael L.; Gilbank, David G.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Cooper, Michael C.; Lidman, Chris; Biviano, Andrea; Demarco, Ricardo; McGee, Sean L.; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Old, Lyndsay; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Simpson, Rane; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ziparo, Felicia; Alonso, María Victoria; Bower, Richard G.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Muriel, Hernan; Parker, Laura C.; Rettura, Alessandro; Valotto, Carlos; Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new Large Program in progress on the Gemini North and South telescopes: Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN). This is an imaging and deep spectroscopic survey of 21 galaxy systems at 1 10 in halo mass. The scientific objectives include measuring the role of environment in the evolution of low-mass galaxies, and measuring the dynamics and stellar contents of their host haloes. The targets are selected from the SpARCS, SPT, COSMOS, and SXDS surveys, to be the evolutionary counterparts of today's clusters and groups. The new red-sensitive Hamamatsu detectors on GMOS, coupled with the nod-and-shuffle sky subtraction, allow simultaneous wavelength coverage over λ ˜ 0.6-1.05 μm, and this enables a homogeneous and statistically complete redshift survey of galaxies of all types. The spectroscopic sample targets galaxies with AB magnitudes z΄ < 24.25 and [3.6] μm < 22.5, and is therefore statistically complete for stellar masses M* ≳ 1010.3 M⊙, for all galaxy types and over the entire redshift range. Deep, multiwavelength imaging has been acquired over larger fields for most systems, spanning u through K, in addition to deep IRAC imaging at 3.6 μm. The spectroscopy is ˜50 per cent complete as of semester 17A, and we anticipate a final sample of ˜500 new cluster members. Combined with existing spectroscopy on the brighter galaxies from GCLASS, SPT, and other sources, GOGREEN will be a large legacy cluster and field galaxy sample at this redshift that spectroscopically covers a wide range in stellar mass, halo mass, and clustercentric radius.

  9. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  10. Studies on wide area deep geothermal resources reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In order to establish techniques for the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs of large extent and deep location, the Hachimandaira field was chosen as a model. Studies were carried out using the AFMT system, thermographic, remote sensing and geothermometric methods. In the AFMT study the equipment was custom manufactured. It included a five component receiver and a transmitter with an output current of 10 A. Calculations were made for the electromagnetic fields of each transmitting source using both electric and magnetic dipoles. In the thermographic study a thermo-camera was employed to survey springs in Fukushima prefecture as well as the Ofuka springs in Akita prefecture. These studies were made with the intention of deriving correlations between surface heat flow and subterranean structure.

  11. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  12. DeepMirTar: a deep-learning approach for predicting human miRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Cong, Peisheng; Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Hongmei; Li, Tonghua

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Because the underlying mechanisms associated with miRNA binding to mRNA are not fully understood, a major challenge of miRNA studies involves the identification of miRNA-target sites on mRNA. In silico prediction of miRNA-target sites can expedite costly and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most promising miRNA-target-site candidates. In this study, we reported the design and implementation of DeepMirTar, a deep-learning-based approach for accurately predicting human miRNA targets at the site level. The predicted miRNA-target sites are those having canonical or non-canonical seed, and features, including high-level expert-designed, low-level expert-designed, and raw-data-level, were used to represent the miRNA-target site. Comparison with other state-of-the-art machine-learning methods and existing miRNA-target-prediction tools indicated that DeepMirTar improved overall predictive performance. DeepMirTar is freely available at https://github.com/Bjoux2/DeepMirTar_SdA. lith@tongji.edu.cn, hongmeilu@csu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Localization techniques in resection of deep seated cavernous angiomas - review and reevaluation of frame based stereotactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotty, P J; Ewelt, C; Sarikaya-Seiwert, S; Steiger, H-J; Vesper, J; Hänggi, D

    2013-04-01

    Providing high accuracy is crucial in neurosurgery especially for resection of deep seated small cerebral pathologies such as cavernous angiomas. The goal of the present series was to reevaluate the feasibility, accuracy, efficacy and safety of frame-based, stereotactically guided resection for patients suffering from small deep-seated cavernous angiomas. Additionally a review of the literature on navigational tools in cavernoma surgery is provided comparing different navigation strategies. Ten patients with deep-seated, small intracranial, cavernous angiomas being subject to frame-based, stereotactically aided resection are included in this survey. Based on the stereotactic-fused image, set entry and target point aimed at the rim of the cavernoma were calculated. A minicraniotomy (Assets and drawbacks of the stereotactic-aided approach were evaluated, patients were analyzed for surgery-related neurological deficits and completeness of resection. Complete resection was achieved in all ten patients verified by post-surgery MRI imaging. The surgical procedure itself was only slightly aggravated by the stereotactic equipment. No adverse events such as bleedings or infections were observed in our series. Stereotactically guided, minimally invasive resection of deep seated and small cavernous angiomas is accurate and effective. The frame-based stereotactic guidance requires some additional time and effort which seems justified only for deep seated and small cavernous angiomas. Frameless neuronavigation is a common tool in cavernoma surgery and its spatial resolution is sufficient for the majority of cases.

  14. Deep Unfolding for Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Lee, Chao-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.

  15. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  16. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-15

    Oct 15, 2015 ... Reexpansion pulmonary edema after drainage of tension pneumothorax. Adriá Rosat1,&, Carmen Díaz1. 1Department of General Surgery, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Ctra, Del Rosario 145, 38010 Sta, Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. &Corresponding author: Adriá Rosat, Department of ...

  17. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  18. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From science drivers to reference design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivezić Ž.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next- generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2 field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg2 with δ < +34.5◦ , and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep- wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST

  19. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivezić, Ž.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pach'{o}n in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4, m (6.5, m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg$^2$ field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg$^2$ with $delta<+34.5^circ$, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, $ugrizy$, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90\\% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10\\% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We

  20. Detection of bars in galaxies using a deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sheelu; Aniyan, A. K.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Philip, N. S.; Vaghmare, Kaustubh

    2018-06-01

    We present an automated method for the detection of bar structure in optical images of galaxies using a deep convolutional neural network that is easy to use and provides good accuracy. In our study, we use a sample of 9346 galaxies in the redshift range of 0.009-0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which has 3864 barred galaxies, the rest being unbarred. We reach a top precision of 94 per cent in identifying bars in galaxies using the trained network. This accuracy matches the accuracy reached by human experts on the same data without additional information about the images. Since deep convolutional neural networks can be scaled to handle large volumes of data, the method is expected to have great relevance in an era where astronomy data is rapidly increasing in terms of volume, variety, volatility, and velocity along with other V's that characterize big data. With the trained model, we have constructed a catalogue of barred galaxies from SDSS and made it available online.

  1. Docker Containers for Deep Learning Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning is a powerful tool to solve problems in the area of image analysis. The dominant compute platform for deep learning is Nvidia’s proprietary CUDA, which can only be used together with Nvidia graphics cards. The nivida-docker project allows exposing Nvidia graphics cards to docker containers and thus makes it possible to run deep learning experiments in docker containers.In our department, we use deep learning to solve problems in the area of medical image analysis and use docker ...

  2. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  3. Accelerating Deep Learning with Shrinkage and Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ding, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Deep Learning is a very powerful machine learning model. Deep Learning trains a large number of parameters for multiple layers and is very slow when data is in large scale and the architecture size is large. Inspired from the shrinking technique used in accelerating computation of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and screening technique used in LASSO, we propose a shrinking Deep Learning with recall (sDLr) approach to speed up deep learning computation. We experiment shrinking Deep Lea...

  4. The big squeeze: ecosystem change and contraction of habitat for newly discovered deep-water reefs off the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickes, L.; Etnoyer, P. J.; Lauermann, A.; Rosen, D.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-water reefs are fragile, complex ecosystems that extend into the bathyal depths of the ocean, creating three dimensional structure and habitat for a diversity of deep-water invertebrates and fishes. The cold waters of the California Current support a diverse assemblage of these corals at relatively shallow depths close to shore. At these depths and locations the communities face a multitude of stressors, including low carbonate saturations, hypoxia, changing temperature, and coastal pollution. The current study employed ROV surveys (n=588, 2003-2015) to document the distribution of deep-sea corals in the Southern California Bight, including the first description of a widespread reef-building coral in the naturally acidified waters off the U.S. West Coast. We provide empirical evidence of species survival in the corrosive waters (Ωarag 0.67-1.86), but find loss of reef integrity. Recent publications have implied acclimation, resistance, and resilience of cold-water reef-building corals to ocean acidification, but results of this study indicate a cost to skeletal framework development with a subsequent loss of coral habitat. While ocean acidification and declines in oxygen are expected to further impinge on Lophelia at depth (𝑥̅=190 m), surface warming and coastal polution may affect shallower populations and mesophotic reef assemblages, resulting in a contraction of available coral habitat. Recent observations of die offs of gorgonians and antipatharians from surveys in shallow (50 m) and deep water (500 m) provide compelling evidence of ongoing ecosystem changes. Concurrent losses in habitat quality in deep and mesophotic waters suggest that corals may be "squeezed" into a more restricted depth range. New monitoring efforts aim to characterize the health and condition of deep corals with respect to gradients in carbonate chemistry, coastal pollution and changing temperatures, to assess vulnerability and both current and future habitat suitability.

  5. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with

  6. Deep Galaxy: Classification of Galaxies based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Nour Eldeen M.; Taha, Mohamed Hamed N.; Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Selim, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a deep convolutional neural network architecture for galaxies classification is presented. The galaxy can be classified based on its features into main three categories Elliptical, Spiral, and Irregular. The proposed deep galaxies architecture consists of 8 layers, one main convolutional layer for features extraction with 96 filters, followed by two principles fully connected layers for classification. It is trained over 1356 images and achieved 97.272% in testing accuracy. A c...

  7. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  8. Long-Period Exoplanets from Photometric Transit Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Hugh

    2017-10-01

    Photometric transit surveys on the ground & in space have detected thousands of transiting exoplanets, typically by analytically combining the signals from multiple transits. This technique of exoplanet detection was exploited in K2 to detect nearly 200 candidate planets, and extensive follow-up was able to confirm the planet K2-110b as a 2.6±0.1R⊕, 16.7±3.2M⊙ planet on a 14d orbit around a K-dwarf. The ability to push beyond the time limit set by transit surveys to detect long-period transiting objects from a single eclipse was also studied. This was performed by developing a search technique to search for planets around bright stars in WASP and NGTS photometry, finding NGTS to be marginally better than WASP at detecting such planets with 4.14±0.16 per year compared to 1.43±0.15, and detecting many planet candidates for which follow-up is on-going. This search was then adapted to search for deep, long-duration eclipses in all WASP targets. The results of this survey are described in this thesis, as well as detailed results for the candidate PDS-110, a young T-Tauri star which exhibited ∼20d-long, 30%-deep eclipses in 2008 and 2011. Space-based photometers such as Kepler have the precision to identify small exoplanets and eclipsing binary candidates from only a single eclipse. K2, with its 75d campaign duration and high-precision photometry, is not only ideally suited to detect significant numbers of single-eclipsing objects, but also to characterise them from a single event. The Bayesian transit-fitting tool ("Namaste: An MCMC Analysis of Single Transit Exoplanets") was developed to extract planetary and orbital information from single transits, and was applied to 71 candidate events detected in K2 photometry. The techniques developed in this thesis are highly applicable to future transit surveys such as TESS & PLATO, which will be able to discover & characterise large numbers of long period planets in this way

  9. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  10. Fiscal 1989 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Geochemical survey report - No. 32: Hachijojima district); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Chikagaku chosa hokokusho - No.32 Hachijojima chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A geochemical survey was conducted by examining soil gas and hot spa water temperature for contributing to the clarification of the subsurface geothermal structure in the Hachijojima district, Tokyo. Mercury concentration, carbon dioxide gas concentration, and 1 m-deep temperature were measured at 155 sites; and chemical and isotope analyses were conducted for 10 specimens of hot spa water and 6 specimens of surface water. After examination, 5 significant locations were isolated at the regions of Yaene-Ogago, Taredo, the northern foot of Mt. Nishi to Weather Station, the southern foot of Mt. Higashi, and the region to the south of Mt. Higashi with hot spa distributed therein. The significant locations are situated in the vicinity of a mar that produced deposit by magma-steam eruption, an alteration zone, and the parasitic volcano in Mt. Higashi, and in an area with hot spa distributed therein. It is therefore concluded that they are closely related with volcanic activities. It is inferred that geothermal signs in the Mt. Nishi area reflect a relatively deep-seated structure. As for the mercury and carbon dioxide gas concentration levels in the Mt. Higashi area, it is inferred that they again represent geothermal signs reflecting a relatively deep-seated structure. (NEDO)

  11. Coral genetic - Taxonomic and genetic identification of deep-sea corals in bycatch and field surveys -linked to groundfish survey dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project will reside in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data Base. This proposal relates to a continuation and augmentation of our efforts...

  12. THE STAR FORMATION AND NUCLEAR ACCRETION HISTORIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES IN THE AGES SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Casey R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine J.; Kenter, Almus T.; Murray, Steve S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fazio, Giovani G.; Green, Paul J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    We combine IR, optical, and X-ray data from the overlapping, 9.3 deg 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and XBooetes Survey to measure the X-ray evolution of 6146 normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0.1 ∼ 3±1 , in agreement with the trends found for samples of bright, individually detectable starburst galaxies and AGN. Our work also corroborates the results of many previous stacking analyses of faint source populations, with improved statistics.

  13. The deep sea Acoustic Detection system AMADEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, Christopher Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system is an array of acoustical sensors designed to investigate the possibilities of acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the deep sea. The complete system will comprise a total of 36 acoustic sensors in six clusters on two of the ANTARES detector lines. With an inter-sensor spacing of about one metre inside the clusters and between 15 and 340 metres between the different clusters, it will cover a wide range of distances as will as provide a considerable lever arm for point source triangulation. Three of these clusters have already been deployed in 2007 and have been in operation since, currently yielding around 2GB of acoustic data per day. The remaining three clusters are scheduled to be deployed in May 2008 together with the final ANTARES detector line. Apart from proving the feasibility of operating an acoustic detection system in the deep sea, the main aim of this project is an in-depth survey of both the acoustic properties of the sea water and the acoustic background present at the detector site. It will also serve as a platform for the development and refinement of triggering, filtering and reconstruction algorithms for acoustic particle detection. In this presentation, a description of the acoustic sensor and read-out system is given, together with examples for the reconstruction and evaluation of the acoustic data.

  14. The discovery of deep-water seagrass meadows in a pristine Indian Ocean wilderness revealed by tracking green turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, N; Unsworth, R K F; Gourlay, J B Q; Hays, G C

    2018-03-21

    Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs). Subsequently we used in-situ SCUBA and baited video surveys to survey the day-time sites occupied by turtles and discovered extensive monospecific seagrass meadows of Thalassodendron ciliatum. At three sites that extended over 128 km, mean seagrass cover was 74% (mean range 67-88% across the 3 sites at depths to 29 m. The mean species richness of fish in seagrass meadows was 11 species per site (mean range 8-14 across the 3 sites). High fish abundance (e.g. Siganus sutor: mean MaxN.site -1  = 38.0, SD = 53.7, n = 5) and large predatory shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) (mean MaxN.site -1  = 1.5, SD = 0.4, n = 5) were recorded at all sites. Such observations of seagrass meadows with large top predators, are limited in the literature. Given that the Great Chagos Bank extends over approximately 12,500 km 2 and many other large deep submerged banks exist across the world's oceans, our results suggest that deep-water seagrass may be far more abundant than previously suspected. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  16. Potential contribution of surface-dwelling Sargassum algae to deep-sea ecosystems in the southern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip; Minzlaff, Ulrike; Schoenle, Alexandra; Schwabe, Enrico; Hohlfeld, Manon; Jeuck, Alexandra; Brenke, Nils; Prausse, Dennis; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Brix, Saskia; Frutos, Inmaculada; Jörger, Katharina M.; Neusser, Timea P.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Devey, Colin; Brandt, Angelika; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems, limited by their inability to use primary production as a source of carbon, rely on other sources to maintain life. Sedimentation of organic carbon into the deep sea has been previously studied, however, the high biomass of sedimented Sargassum algae discovered during the VEMA Transit expedition in 2014/2015 to the southern North Atlantic, and its potential as a regular carbon input, has been an underestimated phenomenon. To determine the potential for this carbon flux, a literature survey of previous studies that estimated the abundance of surface water Sargassum was conducted. We compared these estimates with quantitative analyses of sedimented Sargassum appearing on photos taken with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) directly above the abyssal sediment during the expedition. Organismal communities associated to Sargassum fluitans from surface waters were investigated and Sargassum samples collected from surface waters and the deep sea were biochemically analyzed (fatty acids, stable isotopes, C:N ratios) to determine degradation potential and the trophic significance within deep-sea communities. The estimated Sargassum biomass (fresh weight) in the deep sea (0.07-3.75 g/m2) was several times higher than that estimated from surface waters in the North Atlantic (0.024-0.84 g/m2). Biochemical analysis showed degradation of Sargassum occurring during sedimentation or in the deep sea, however, fatty acid and stable isotope analysis did not indicate direct trophic interactions between the algae and benthic organisms. Thus, it is assumed that components of the deep-sea microbial food web form an important link between the macroalgae and larger benthic organisms. Evaluation of the epifauna showed a diverse nano- micro-, meio, and macrofauna on surface Sargassum and maybe transported across the Atlantic, but we had no evidence for a vertical exchange of fauna components. The large-scale sedimentation of Sargassum forms an important trophic link

  17. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  18. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  19. How Stressful Is "Deep Bubbling"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrmi, Jaana; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2017-03-01

    Water resistance therapy by phonating through a tube into the water is used to treat dysphonia. Deep submersion (≥10 cm in water, "deep bubbling") is used for hypofunctional voice disorders. Using it with caution is recommended to avoid vocal overloading. This experimental study aimed to investigate how strenuous "deep bubbling" is. Fourteen subjects, half of them with voice training, repeated the syllable [pa:] in comfortable speaking pitch and loudness, loudly, and in strained voice. Thereafter, they phonated a vowel-like sound both in comfortable loudness and loudly into a glass resonance tube immersed 10 cm into the water. Oral pressure, contact quotient (CQ, calculated from electroglottographic signal), and sound pressure level were studied. The peak oral pressure P(oral) during [p] and shuttering of the outer end of the tube was measured to estimate the subglottic pressure P(sub) and the mean P(oral) during vowel portions to enable calculation of transglottic pressure P(trans). Sensations during phonation were reported with an open-ended interview. P(sub) and P(oral) were higher in "deep bubbling" and P(trans) lower than in loud syllable phonation, but the CQ did not differ significantly. Similar results were obtained for the comparison between loud "deep bubbling" and strained phonation, although P(sub) did not differ significantly. Most of the subjects reported "deep bubbling" to be stressful only for respiratory and lip muscles. No big differences were found between trained and untrained subjects. The CQ values suggest that "deep bubbling" may increase vocal fold loading. Further studies should address impact stress during water resistance exercises. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the DeepWind concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Borg, Michael; Gonzales Seabra, Luis Alberto

    The report describes the DeepWind 5 MW conceptual design as a baseline for results obtained in the scientific and technical work packages of the DeepWind project. A comparison of DeepWi nd with existing VAWTs and paper projects are carried out and the evaluation of the concept in terms of cost...

  1. Simulator Studies of the Deep Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice D.; Cooper, George E.

    1965-01-01

    Simulator studies of the deep-stall problem encountered with modern airplanes are discussed. The results indicate that the basic deep-stall tendencies produced by aerodynamic characteristics are augmented by operational considerations. Because of control difficulties to be anticipated in the deep stall, it is desirable that adequate safeguards be provided against inadvertent penetrations.

  2. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey and the discovery of new energetic radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, N.; Possenti, A.; Kaspi, V.M.; Manchester, R.N.; Bell, J.F.; Camilo, F.; Lyne, A.G.; Kramer, M.; Hobbs, G.; Stairs, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey is a deep search of the Galactic plane for pulsars. It uses a 13-beam receiver system operating at 1.4 GHz on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope. It has much higher sensitivity than any previous similar survey and is finding large numbers of previously unknown pulsars, many of which are relatively young and energetic. On the basis of an empirical comparison of their properties with other young radio pulsars, some of the new discoveries are expected to be observable as pulsed γ-ray sources. We describe the survey motivation, the experiment characteristics and the results achieved so far

  3. A Catalog of Candidate Intermediate-Luminosity X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Ptak, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, intermediate-luminosity (LX[2-10keV]>=1039.0 ergs s-1) X-ray objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz<=5000 km s-1 from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. We have defined the cutoff LX for IXOs so that it is well above the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4 Msolar black hole (1038.3 ergs s-1), so as not to confuse IXOs with ``normal'' black hole X-ray binaries. This catalog is intended to provide a baseline for follow-up work with Chandra and XMM-Newton, and with space- and ground-based survey work at wavelengths other than X-ray. We demonstrate that elliptical galaxies with IXOs have a larger number of IXOs per galaxy than nonelliptical galaxies with IXOs and note that they are not likely to be merely high-mass X-ray binaries with beamed X-ray emission, as may be the case for IXOs in starburst galaxies. Approximately half of the IXOs with multiple observations show X-ray variability, and many (19) of the IXOs have faint optical counterparts in DSS optical B-band images. Follow-up observations of these objects should be helpful in identifying their nature.

  4. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  5. The global distribution of deep-water Antipatharia habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesson, Chris; Bedford, Faye; Rogers, Alex D.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2017-11-01

    Antipatharia are a diverse group of corals with many species found in deep water. Many Antipatharia are habitat for associates, have extreme longevity and some species can occur beyond 8500 m depth. As they are major constituents of'coral gardens', which are Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs), knowledge of their distribution and environmental requirements is an important pre-requisite for informed conservation planning particularly where the expense and difficulty of deep-sea sampling prohibits comprehensive surveys. This study uses a global database of Antipatharia distribution data to perform habitat suitability modelling using the Maxent methodology to estimate the global extent of black coral habitat suitability. The model of habitat suitability is driven by temperature but there is notable influence from other variables of topography, surface productivity and oxygen levels. This model can be used to predict areas of suitable habitat, which can be useful for conservation planning. The global distribution of Antipatharia habitat suitability shows a marked contrast with the distribution of specimen observations, indicating that many potentially suitable areas have not been sampled, and that sampling effort has been disproportionate to shallow, accessible areas inside marine protected areas (MPAs). Although 25% of Antipatharia observations are located in MPAs, only 7-8% of predicted suitable habitat is protected, which is short of the Convention on Biological Diversity target to protect 10% of ocean habitats by 2020.

  6. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE α PERSEI CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott J.; Bruck Syal, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the α Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.

  7. Experimental investigation on multidisciplinary geophysical characterization of deep underground structure using multi-scale, multi-mode seismic profiling for the evaluation of ground motion and seismic model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in data acquisition and velocity estimation for multi-mode, multiscale seismic exploration were explained along with the basic concept of strategic geophysical surveys for NPP siting assessment. Then, as a case study using this concept, multidisciplinary geophysical characterization results pertaining to the deep underground structure beneath the JNES Kashiwazaki Center were explained in detail. At the site, reflection/refraction surveys and magnetotelluric/gravity surveys were also conducted. It was shown that these surveys can be used complementary because at the upsurge part, where clear images cannot be obtained by reflection/refraction surveys, magnetotelluric /gravity surveys can be used to obtain clear images. (author)

  8. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent and ongoing efforts to develop the land in the area around Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, are expected to change the volume of sediment moving toward and into the lake, as well as impact the water quality of the lake and its many tributaries. With increased development, there is an associated increased demand for groundwater and surface-water withdrawals, as well as boat access. Proposed dredging of the lake bottom to improve boat access has raised concerns about the adverse environmental effects such activities would have on the lake. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study during 2007 and 2008 to address these issues. This study was designed to address several objectives to support MDDNR?s management strategy for Deep Creek Lake. The objectives of this study were to: Determine the current physical shape of the lake through bathymetric surveys; Initiate flow and sediment monitoring of selected tributaries to characterize the stream discharge and sediment load of lake inflows; Determine sedimentation rates using isotope analysis of sediment cores; Characterize the degree of hydraulic connection between the lake and adjacent aquifer systems; and Develop an estimate of water use around Deep Creek Lake. Summary of Activities Data were collected in Deep Creek Lake and in selected tributaries from September 2007 through September 2008. The methods of investigation are presented here and all data have been archived according to USGS policy for future use. The material presented in this report is intended to provide resource managers and policy makers with a broad understanding of the bathymetry, surface water, sedimentation rates, groundwater, and water use in the study area. The report is structured so that the reader can access each topic separately using any hypertext markup (HTML) language reader. In order to establish a base-line water-depth map of

  9. DeepNAT: Deep convolutional neural network for segmenting neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Klein, Tassilo

    2018-04-15

    We introduce DeepNAT, a 3D Deep convolutional neural network for the automatic segmentation of NeuroAnaTomy in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. DeepNAT is an end-to-end learning-based approach to brain segmentation that jointly learns an abstract feature representation and a multi-class classification. We propose a 3D patch-based approach, where we do not only predict the center voxel of the patch but also neighbors, which is formulated as multi-task learning. To address a class imbalance problem, we arrange two networks hierarchically, where the first one separates foreground from background, and the second one identifies 25 brain structures on the foreground. Since patches lack spatial context, we augment them with coordinates. To this end, we introduce a novel intrinsic parameterization of the brain volume, formed by eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. As network architecture, we use three convolutional layers with pooling, batch normalization, and non-linearities, followed by fully connected layers with dropout. The final segmentation is inferred from the probabilistic output of the network with a 3D fully connected conditional random field, which ensures label agreement between close voxels. The roughly 2.7million parameters in the network are learned with stochastic gradient descent. Our results show that DeepNAT compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods. Finally, the purely learning-based method may have a high potential for the adaptation to young, old, or diseased brains by fine-tuning the pre-trained network with a small training sample on the target application, where the availability of larger datasets with manual annotations may boost the overall segmentation accuracy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Learning and Its Applications in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chensi; Liu, Feng; Tan, Hai; Song, Deshou; Shu, Wenjie; Li, Weizhong; Zhou, Yiming; Bo, Xiaochen; Xie, Zhi

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biological and medical technologies have been providing us explosive volumes of biological and physiological data, such as medical images, electroencephalography, genomic and protein sequences. Learning from these data facilitates the understanding of human health and disease. Developed from artificial neural networks, deep learning-based algorithms show great promise in extracting features and learning patterns from complex data. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of deep learning techniques and some of the state-of-the-art applications in the biomedical field. We first introduce the development of artificial neural network and deep learning. We then describe two main components of deep learning, i.e., deep learning architectures and model optimization. Subsequently, some examples are demonstrated for deep learning applications, including medical image classification, genomic sequence analysis, as well as protein structure classification and prediction. Finally, we offer our perspectives for the future directions in the field of deep learning. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Deep Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    the Deep Water project and participate in the NPAL Workshops, including Art Baggeroer (MIT), J. Beron- Vera (UMiami), M. Brown (UMiami), T...Kathleen E . Wage. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 134(4...estimate of the angle α during PhilSea09, made from ADCP measurements at the site of the DVLA. Sim. A B1 B2 B3 C D E F Prof. # 0 4 4 4 5 10 16 20 α

  12. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  13. Overview of deep learning in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The use of machine learning (ML) has been increasing rapidly in the medical imaging field, including computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), radiomics, and medical image analysis. Recently, an ML area called deep learning emerged in the computer vision field and became very popular in many fields. It started from an event in late 2012, when a deep-learning approach based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) won an overwhelming victory in the best-known worldwide computer vision competition, ImageNet Classification. Since then, researchers in virtually all fields, including medical imaging, have started actively participating in the explosively growing field of deep learning. In this paper, the area of deep learning in medical imaging is overviewed, including (1) what was changed in machine learning before and after the introduction of deep learning, (2) what is the source of the power of deep learning, (3) two major deep-learning models: a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) and a convolutional neural network (CNN), (4) similarities and differences between the two models, and (5) their applications to medical imaging. This review shows that ML with feature input (or feature-based ML) was dominant before the introduction of deep learning, and that the major and essential difference between ML before and after deep learning is the learning of image data directly without object segmentation or feature extraction; thus, it is the source of the power of deep learning, although the depth of the model is an important attribute. The class of ML with image input (or image-based ML) including deep learning has a long history, but recently gained popularity due to the use of the new terminology, deep learning. There are two major models in this class of ML in medical imaging, MTANN and CNN, which have similarities as well as several differences. In our experience, MTANNs were substantially more efficient in their development, had a higher performance, and required a

  14. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  15. TOPIC MODELING: CLUSTERING OF DEEP WEBPAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Muhunthaadithya C; Rohit J.V; Sadhana Kesavan; E. Sivasankar

    2015-01-01

    The internet is comprised of massive amount of information in the form of zillions of web pages.This information can be categorized into the surface web and the deep web. The existing search engines can effectively make use of surface web information.But the deep web remains unexploited yet. Machine learning techniques have been commonly employed to access deep web content.

  16. Star Formation at z ~ 6: The Hubble Ultra Deep Parallel Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Thompson, R. I.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Dickinson, M. E.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Fan, X.; Franx, M.; Meurer, G.; van Dokkum, P.

    2004-05-01

    We report on the i-dropouts detected in two exceptionally deep Advanced Camera for Surveys fields (B435, V606, i775, and z850 with 10σ limits of 28.8, 29.0, 28.5, and 27.8, respectively) taken in parallel with the Ultra Deep Field Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer observations. Using an i-z>1.4 cut, we find 30 i-dropouts over 21 arcmin2 down to z850,AB=28.1, or 1.4 i-dropouts arcmin-2, with significant field-to-field variation (as expected from cosmic variance). This extends i-dropout searches some ~0.9 mag further down the luminosity function than was possible in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, yielding a ~7 times increase in surface density. An estimate of the size evolution for UV-bright objects is obtained by comparing the composite radial flux profile of the bright i-dropouts (z850,ABdropouts. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-1.57+0.50-0.53 scaling in size (for fixed luminosity), extending lower redshift (1dropouts from both GOODS fields, we make incompleteness estimates and construct a z~6 luminosity function (LF) in the rest-frame continuum UV (~1350 Å) over a 3.5 mag baseline, finding a shape consistent with that found at lower redshift. To evaluate the evolution in the LF from z~3.8, we make comparisons against different scalings of a lower redshift B-dropout sample. Although a strong degeneracy is found between luminosity and density evolution, our best-fit model scales as (1+z)-2.8 in number and (1+z)0.1 in luminosity, suggesting a rest-frame continuum UV luminosity density at z~6 that is just 0.38+0.09-0.07 times that at z~3.8. Our inclusion of the size evolution makes the present estimate lower than previous z~6 estimates. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9803.

  17. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu; Han, Renmin; Bi, Chongwei; Li, Mo; Wang, Sheng; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments

  18. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; West, Richard G.; Goad, Michael R.; Jenkins, James S.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Christopher A.; Chazelas, Bruno; Eigmüller, Philipp; Lambert, Gregory; Genolet, Ludovic; McCormac, James; Walker, Simon; Armstrong, David J.; Bayliss, Daniel; Bento, Joao; Bouchy, François; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Cabrera, Juan; Casewell, Sarah L.; Chaushev, Alexander; Chote, Paul; Csizmadia, Szilárd; Erikson, Anders; Faedi, Francesca; Foxell, Emma; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Gillen, Edward; Grange, Andrew; Günther, Maximilian N.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Jackman, James; Jordán, Andrés; Louden, Tom; Metrailler, Lionel; Moyano, Maximiliano; Nielsen, Louise D.; Osborn, Hugh P.; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Raddi, Roberto; Raynard, Liam; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Soto, Maritza; Titz-Weider, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    We describe the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), which is a ground-based project searching for transiting exoplanets orbiting bright stars. NGTS builds on the legacy of previous surveys, most notably WASP, and is designed to achieve higher photometric precision and hence find smaller planets than have previously been detected from the ground. It also operates in red light, maximizing sensitivity to late K and early M dwarf stars. The survey specifications call for photometric precision of 0.1 per cent in red light over an instantaneous field of view of 100 deg2, enabling the detection of Neptune-sized exoplanets around Sun-like stars and super-Earths around M dwarfs. The survey is carried out with a purpose-built facility at Cerro Paranal, Chile, which is the premier site of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). An array of twelve 20 cm f/2.8 telescopes fitted with back-illuminated deep-depletion CCD cameras is used to survey fields intensively at intermediate Galactic latitudes. The instrument is also ideally suited to ground-based photometric follow-up of exoplanet candidates from space telescopes such as TESS, Gaia and PLATO. We present observations that combine precise autoguiding and the superb observing conditions at Paranal to provide routine photometric precision of 0.1 per cent in 1 h for stars with I-band magnitudes brighter than 13. We describe the instrument and data analysis methods as well as the status of the survey, which achieved first light in 2015 and began full-survey operations in 2016. NGTS data will be made publicly available through the ESO archive.

  19. Building Program Vector Representations for Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Lili; Li, Ge; Liu, Yuxuan; Peng, Hao; Jin, Zhi; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning has made significant breakthroughs in various fields of artificial intelligence. Advantages of deep learning include the ability to capture highly complicated features, weak involvement of human engineering, etc. However, it is still virtually impossible to use deep learning to analyze programs since deep architectures cannot be trained effectively with pure back propagation. In this pioneering paper, we propose the "coding criterion" to build program vector representations, whi...

  20. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Furlanetto, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field.

  1. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field

  2. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  3. Vertical structure, biomass and topographic association of deep-pelagic fishes in relation to a mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T. T.; Porteiro, F. M.; Heino, M.; Byrkjedal, I.; Langhelle, G.; Anderson, C. I. H.; Horne, J.; Søiland, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Godø, O. R.; Bergstad, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    The assemblage structure and vertical distribution of deep-pelagic fishes relative to a mid-ocean ridge system are described from an acoustic and discrete-depth trawling survey conducted as part of the international Census of Marine Life field project MAR-ECO . The 36-station, zig-zag survey along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Iceland to the Azores) covered the full depth range (0 to >3000 m), from the surface to near the bottom, using a combination of gear types to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the pelagic fauna. Abundance per volume of deep-pelagic fishes was highest in the epipelagic zone and within the benthic boundary layer (BBL; 0-200 m above the seafloor). Minimum fish abundance occurred at depths below 2300 m but above the BBL. Biomass per volume of deep-pelagic fishes over the MAR reached a maximum within the BBL, revealing a previously unknown topographic association of a bathypelagic fish assemblage with a mid-ocean ridge system. With the exception of the BBL, biomass per volume reached a water column maximum in the bathypelagic zone between 1500 and 2300 m. This stands in stark contrast to the general "open-ocean" paradigm that biomass decreases exponentially from the surface downwards. As much of the summit of the MAR extends into this depth layer, a likely explanation for this mid-water maximum is ridge association. Multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the dominant component of deep-pelagic fish biomass over the northern MAR was a wide-ranging bathypelagic assemblage that was remarkably consistent along the length of the ridge from Iceland to the Azores. Integrating these results with those of previous studies in oceanic ecosystems, there appears to be adequate evidence to conclude that special hydrodynamic and biotic features of mid-ocean ridge systems cause changes in the ecological structure of deep-pelagic fish assemblages relative to those at the same depths over abyssal plains. Lacking terrigenous input of

  4. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  5. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  6. Kinematic Reconstruction of a Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation by Geomorphic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Morelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On 4 November 2010, a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (North Italy reactivated with sudden ground movement. A 450,000 m2 mountainous area moved some metres downslope, but the undeniable signs were only connected to the triggering of a debris flow from the bulging area’s detrital cover and the presence of a continuous perimeter fracture near the crown area. Based on two detailed LiDAR surveys (2 m × 2 m performed just a few days before and after the event, a quantitative topographic analysis was performed in a GIS environment, integrating morphometric terrain parameters (slope, aspect, surface roughness, hill shade, and curvature. The DEMs analysis highlighted some morphological changes related to deeper as well as shallow movements. Both global and sectorial displacements were widely verified and discussed, finally inferring that the geometry, persistence, and layout of all movements properly justify each current morphostructure, which has the shape of a typical Sackung-type structure with impulsive kinematics. Moreover, a targeted field survey allowed specific clues to be found that confirmed the global deduced dynamics of the slope deformation. Finally, thanks to a ground-based interferometric radar system (GB-InSAR that was installed a few days after the reactivation, the residual deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD movements were also monitored. In the landslide lower bulging area, a localized material progression of small entities was observed for some months after the parossistic event, indicating a slow dissipation of forces in sectors more distant from the crown area.

  7. The deep ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  8. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  9. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  10. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  11. The one square meter hard X-ray (15-200 KeV) sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A long term program was started at I.A.S. since 1979 to perform a survey of the hard X-ray sky using multiwire high pressure Xenon filled Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (SPC). The first payload consisting of two very large area SPC (2,700 cm 2 each) was flown during summer 1980 from the Milo Base (Sicily, Italy). The instrument duplicated to reach 10,800 cm 2 geometric area is expected to fly from northern (1981), southern (1982) and equatorial (1983) bases to perform a deep sky survey

  12. How Clear and Organized Classroom Instruction and Deep Approaches to Learning Affect Growth in Critical Thinking and Need for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Sheng; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Ribera, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17-institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches…

  13. Survey on industrial applications of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Yoo, Young Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Awh, Ok Doo; Kim, Jun Hyung

    1986-12-01

    Current status and future feasibilities of industrial tracer applications in the Republic of Korea have been surveyed. Microleak detection using Krypton-85 in eight electronics industrial companies, and efficiency tests of steam generators in four nuclear power plants using Sodium-24 are the principal applications in Korea. Future applications are expected for mercury inventory in one soda industrial company, and alkali movement studies in two cement industrial companies. Korean industries expressed deep interest in leak detection in underground pipelines, abrasion/corrosion studies, mixing rate and residence time measurements. (Author)

  14. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  15. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  16. Secondary omental and pectoralis major double flap reconstruction following aggressive sternectomy for deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirasawa Bungo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery carries high morbidity and mortality. Our strategy for deep sternal wound infection is aggressive strenal debridement followed by vacuum-assisted closure (VAC therapy and omental-muscle flap reconstrucion. We describe this strategy and examine the outcome and long-term quality of life (QOL it achieves. Methods We retrospectively examined 16 patients treated for deep sternal wound infection between 2001 and 2007. The most recent nine patients were treated with total sternal resection followed by VAC therapy and secondary closure with omental-muscle flap reconstruction (recent group; whereas the former seven patients were treated with sternal preservation if possible, without VAC therapy, and four of these patients underwent primary closure (former group. We assessed long-term quality of life after DSWI by using the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, Version 2 (SF36v2. Results One patient died and four required further surgery for recurrence of deep sternal wound infection in the former group. The duration of treatment for deep sternal wound infection in the recent group was significantly shorter than that in previous group (63.4 ± 54.1 days vs. 120.0 ± 31.8 days, respectively; p = 0.039. Despite aggressive sternal resection, the QOL of patients treated for DSWI was only minimally compromised compared with age-, sex-, surgical procedures-matched patients without deep sternal wound infection. Conclusions Aggressive sternal debridement followed by VAC therapy and secondary closure with an omental-muscle flap is effective for deep sternal wound infection. In this series, it resulted in a lower incidence of recurrent infection, shorter hospitalization, and it did not compromise long-term QOL greatly.

  17. Radiation survey and management on the reconstructed radioactive work-site

    International Nuclear Information S