WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep space transportation

  1. Strategic Technologies for Deep Space Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Deep space transportation capability for science and exploration is fundamentally limited by available propulsion technologies. Traditional chemical systems are performance plateaued and require enormous Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) whereas solar electric propulsion systems are power limited and unable to execute rapid transits. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, key deep space transport mission capability objectives are reviewed in relation to STMD technology portfolio needs, and the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape is examined including open questions, technical challenges, and developmental prospects. Options for potential future investment across the full compliment of STMD programs are presented based on an informed awareness of complimentary activities in industry, academia, OGAs, and NASA mission directorates.

  2. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  3. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  4. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  5. Synthetic torpor: A method for safely and practically transporting experimental animals aboard spaceflight missions to deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri; Regan, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space. However, new technologies will be required to integrate experimental animals into spacecraft design and transport them beyond LEO in a safe and practical way. In this communication, we propose the use of metabolic control technologies to reversibly depress the metabolic rates of experimental animals while in transit aboard the spacecraft. Compared to holding experimental animals in active metabolic states, the advantages of artificially inducing regulated, depressed metabolic states (called synthetic torpor) include significantly reduced mass, volume, and power requirements within the spacecraft owing to reduced life support requirements, and mitigated radiation- and microgravity-induced negative health effects on the animals owing to intrinsic physiological properties of torpor. In addition to directly benefitting animal research, synthetic torpor-inducing systems will also serve as test beds for systems that may eventually hold human crewmembers in similar metabolic states on long-duration missions. The technologies for inducing synthetic torpor, which we discuss, are at relatively early stages of development, but there is ample evidence to show that this is a viable idea and one with very real benefits to spaceflight programs. The increasingly ambitious goals of world's many spaceflight programs will be most quickly and safely achieved with the help of animal research systems transported beyond LEO; synthetic torpor may

  6. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  7. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  8. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  9. Deep Space Gateway Science Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, C. D.; Charles, J. B.; Hamill, Doris; Sidney, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Life Sciences Research Capabilities Team (LSRCT) has been discussing deep space research needs for the last two years. NASA's programs conducting life sciences studies - the Human Research Program, Space Biology, Astrobiology, and Planetary Protection - see the Deep Space Gateway (DSG) as affording enormous opportunities to investigate biological organisms in a unique environment that cannot be replicated in Earth-based laboratories or on Low Earth Orbit science platforms. These investigations may provide in many cases the definitive answers to risks associated with exploration and living outside Earth's protective magnetic field. Unlike Low Earth Orbit or terrestrial locations, the Gateway location will be subjected to the true deep space spectrum and influence of both galactic cosmic and solar particle radiation and thus presents an opportunity to investigate their long-term exposure effects. The question of how a community of biological organisms change over time within the harsh environment of space flight outside of the magnetic field protection can be investigated. The biological response to the absence of Earth's geomagnetic field can be studied for the first time. Will organisms change in new and unique ways under these new conditions? This may be specifically true on investigations of microbial communities. The Gateway provides a platform for microbiology experiments both inside, to improve understanding of interactions between microbes and human habitats, and outside, to improve understanding of microbe-hardware interactions exposed to the space environment.

  10. Deep Space Gateway "Recycler" Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Fries, M.; Hamilton, J.; Landis, R.; John, K.; O'Hara, W.

    2018-02-01

    Use of the Deep Space Gateway provides a hub for a reusable planetary sample return vehicle for missions to gather star dust as well as samples from various parts of the solar system including main belt asteroids, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars moon.

  11. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  12. The Gateway Garden — A Prototype Food Production Facility for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, R. F.; Romeyn, M. W.; Massa, G.

    2018-02-01

    CIS-lunar space provides a unique opportunity to perform deep space microgravity crop science research while also addressing and advancing food production technologies that will be deployed on the Deep Space Transport.

  13. Deep space test bed for radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Milton, Martha; Myers, Jeremy; O'Brien, Sue; Seaquist, Jim; Smith, Edward A.; Smith, Guy; Warden, Lance; Watts, John

    2007-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation, flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status

  14. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  15. Quantitative Visualization of Dynamic Tracer Transportation in the Extracellular Space of Deep Brain Regions Using Tracer-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Wei; Quan, Xianyue; Liang, Wen; Li, Zhiming; Han, Hongbin; Chen, Deji

    2017-01-01

    Background This study assessed an innovative tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to visualize the dynamic transportation of tracers in regions of deep brain extracellular space (ECS) and to measure transportation ability and ECS structure. Material/Methods Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was the chosen tracer and was injected into the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Real-time dynamic transportation of Gd-DTPA in ECS was observed and the results were verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Using Transwell assay across the blood-brain barrier, a modified diffusion equation was further simplified. Effective diffusion coefficient D* and tortuosity λ were calculated. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to investigate the extracellular matrix contributing to ECS structure. Results Tracers injected into the caudate nucleus were transported to the ipsilateral frontal and temporal cortices away from the injection points, while both of them injected into the thalamus were only distributed on site. Although the caudate nucleus was closely adjacent to the thalamus, tracer transportation between partitions was not observed. In addition, D* and the λ showed statistically significant differences between partitions. ECS was shown to be a physiologically partitioned system, and its division is characterized by the unique distribution territory and transportation ability of substances located in it. Versican and Tenascin R are possible contributors to the tortuosity of ECS. Conclusions Tracer-based MRI will improve our understanding of the brain microenvironment, improve the techniques for local delivery of drugs, and highlight brain tissue engineering fields in the future. PMID:28866708

  16. Quantitative Visualization of Dynamic Tracer Transportation in the Extracellular Space of Deep Brain Regions Using Tracer-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Wei; Quan, Xianyue; Liang, Wen; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Deji; Han, Hongbin

    2017-09-03

    BACKGROUND This study assessed an innovative tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to visualize the dynamic transportation of tracers in regions of deep brain extracellular space (ECS) and to measure transportation ability and ECS structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was the chosen tracer and was injected into the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Real-time dynamic transportation of Gd-DTPA in ECS was observed and the results were verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Using Transwell assay across the blood-brain barrier, a modified diffusion equation was further simplified. Effective diffusion coefficient D* and tortuosity λ were calculated. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to investigate the extracellular matrix contributing to ECS structure. RESULTS Tracers injected into the caudate nucleus were transported to the ipsilateral frontal and temporal cortices away from the injection points, while both of them injected into the thalamus were only distributed on site. Although the caudate nucleus was closely adjacent to the thalamus, tracer transportation between partitions was not observed. In addition, D* and the λ showed statistically significant differences between partitions. ECS was shown to be a physiologically partitioned system, and its division is characterized by the unique distribution territory and transportation ability of substances located in it. Versican and Tenascin R are possible contributors to the tortuosity of ECS. CONCLUSIONS Tracer-based MRI will improve our understanding of the brain microenvironment, improve the techniques for local delivery of drugs, and highlight brain tissue engineering fields in the future.

  17. Forecasting Space Weather Hazards for Astronauts in Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway provides a unique platform to develop, calibrate, and test a space weather forecasting system for interplanetary travel in a real life setting. We will discuss requirements and design of such a system.

  18. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  19. Clinical analysis of deep neck space infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Atsushi; Ui, Naoya; Shigeta, Yasushi; Iimura, Jiro; Rikitake, Masahiro; Endo, Tomonori; Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Deep neck space infections, which affect soft tissues and fascial compartments of the head and neck, can lead to lethal complications unless treated carefully and quickly, even with the advanced antibiotics available. We reviewed our seventeen patients with deep neck abscesses, analyzed their location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Deep neck space infections were classified according to the degree of diffusion of infection diagnosed by CT images. Neck space infection in two cases was localized to the upper neck space above the hyoid bone (Stage I). Neck space infection in 12 cases extended to the lower neck space (Stage II), and further extended to the mediastinum in one case (Stage III). The two cases of Stage I and the four cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage through a submental approach. The seven cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage parallel to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ''Dean'' approach. The one case of Stage III received treatment through transcervicotomy and anterior mediastinal drainage through a subxiphodal incision. The parapharyngeal space played an important role in that the inflammatory change can spread to the neck space inferiorly. The anterior cervical space in the infrahyoid neck was important for mediastinal extension of parapharyngeal abscesses. It is important to diagnose deep neck space infections promptly and treat them adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. The point is which kind of drainage has to be performed. If the surgical method of drainage is chosen according to the level of involvement in the neck space and mediastinum, excellent results may be obtained in terms of survival and morbidity. (author)

  20. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  1. Deep Space Detection of Oriented Ice Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.; Varnai, T.; Kostinski, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The deep space climate observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft resides at the first Lagrangian point about one million miles from Earth. A polychromatic imaging camera onboard delivers nearly hourly observations of the entire sun-lit face of the Earth. Many images contain unexpected bright flashes of light over both ocean and land. We constructed a yearlong time series of flash latitudes, scattering angles and oxygen absorption to demonstrate conclusively that the flashes over land are specular reflections off tiny ice crystals floating in the air nearly horizontally. Such deep space detection of tropospheric ice can be used to constrain the likelihood of oriented crystals and their contribution to Earth albedo.

  2. Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navagh, John

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.

  3. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  4. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.

  5. Dust Measurements Onboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Poppe, A.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Szalay, J.

    2018-02-01

    A dust instrument onboard the Deep Space Gateway will revolutionize our understanding of the dust environment at 1 AU, help our understanding of the evolution of the solar system, and improve dust hazard models for the safety of crewed and robotic missions.

  6. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  7. Deep space optical communication via relay satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Vilnrotter, V.; Gagliardi, R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of optical communications for a deep space link via an earth-orbiting relay satellite is discussed. The system uses optical frequencies for the free-space channel and RF links for atmospheric transmission. The relay satellite is in geostationary orbit and contains the optics necessary for data processing and formatting. It returns the data to earth through the RF terrestrial link and also transmits an optical beacon to the satellite for spacecraft return pointing and for the alignment of the transmitting optics. Future work will turn to modulation and coding, pointing and tracking, and optical-RF interfacing.

  8. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  9. Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.

  10. The deep space 1 extended mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Varghese, Philip

    2001-03-01

    The primary mission of Deep Space 1 (DS1), the first flight of the New Millennium program, completed successfully in September 1999, having exceeded its objectives of testing new, high-risk technologies important for future space and Earth science missions. DS1 is now in its extended mission, with plans to take advantage of the advanced technologies, including solar electric propulsion, to conduct an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly in September 2001. During the extended mission, the spacecraft's commercial star tracker failed; this critical loss prevented the spacecraft from achieving three-axis attitude control or knowledge. A two-phase approach to recovering the mission was undertaken. The first involved devising a new method of pointing the high-gain antenna to Earth using the radio signal received at the Deep Space Network as an indicator of spacecraft attitude. The second was the development of new flight software that allowed the spacecraft to return to three-axis operation without substantial ground assistance. The principal new feature of this software is the use of the science camera as an attitude sensor. The differences between the science camera and the star tracker have important implications not only for the design of the new software but also for the methods of operating the spacecraft and conducting the mission. The ambitious rescue was fully successful, and the extended mission is back on track.

  11. NASA space radiation transport code development consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the Univ. of Tennessee (lead institution), the Univ. of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking. (authors)

  12. Evaluating Space Weather Architecture Options to Support Human Deep Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Minow, J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Fry, D.; Semones, E.; Allen, J.; St Cyr, C.; Mertens, C.; Jun, I.; Onsager, T.; Hock, R.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Engineering and Space Center (NESC) is conducting an independent technical assessment of space environment monitoring and forecasting architecture options to support human and robotic deep space exploration.

  13. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  14. The Deep Space Network information system in the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, R. W.; Beswick, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), the largest, most sensitive scientific communications and radio navigation network in the world, is considered. Focus is made on the telemetry processing, monitor and control, and ground data transport architectures of the DSN ground information system envisioned for the year 2000. The telemetry architecture will be unified from the front-end area to the end user. It will provide highly automated monitor and control of the DSN, automated configuration of support activities, and a vastly improved human interface. Automated decision support systems will be in place for DSN resource management, performance analysis, fault diagnosis, and contingency management.

  15. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  16. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  17. TRI-Worthy Projects for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Strangman, G. E.; Donoviel, D.

    2018-02-01

    Preparations for exploration will require exposure to the actual deep space environment. The new TRI for Space Health proposes innovative projects using real space radiation to make medically-relevant measurements affecting human physiology.

  18. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  19. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  20. GMSK Modulation for Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to scarcity of spectrum at 8.42 GHz deep space Xband allocation, many deep space missions are now considering the use of higher order modulation schemes instead of the traditional binary phase shift keying (BPSK). One such scheme is pre-coded Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). GMSK is an excellent candidate for deep space missions. GMSK is a constant envelope, bandwidth efficien modulation whose frame error rate (FER) performance with perfect carrier tracking and proper receiver structure is nearly identical to that of BPSK. There are several issues that need to be addressed with GMSK however. Specificall, we are interested in the combined effects of spectrum limitations and receiver structure on the coded performance of the X-band link using GMSK. The receivers that are typically used for GMSK demodulations are variations on offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) receivers. In this paper we consider three receivers: the standard DSN OQPSK receiver, DSN OQPSK receiver with filte ed input, and an optimum OQPSK receiver with filte ed input. For the DSN OQPSK receiver we show experimental results with (8920, 1/2), (8920, 1/3) and (8920, 1/6) turbo codes in terms of their error rate performance. We also consider the tracking performance of this receiver as a function of data rate, channel code and the carrier loop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For the other two receivers we derive theoretical results that will show that for a given loop bandwidth, a receiver structure, and a channel code, there is a lower data rate limit on the GMSK below which a higher SNR than what is required to achieve the required FER on the link is needed. These limits stem from the minimum loop signal-to-noise ratio requirements on the receivers for achieving lock. As a result of this, for a given channel code and a given FER, there could be a gap between the maximum data rate that BPSK can support without violating the spectrum limits and the minimum data rate that GMSK can support

  1. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  2. Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

    2014-01-01

    Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

  3. Advances in Planetary Protection at the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, J. A.; Siegel, B.; Race, M.; Rummel, J. D.; Pugel, D. E.; Groen, F. J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C. A.; Carosso, N. J.

    2018-02-01

    Planetary protection knowledge gaps that can be addressed by science performed at the Deep Space Gateway in the areas of human health and performance, space biology, and planetary sciences that enable future exploration in deep space, at Mars, and other targets.

  4. Solar Stirling for deep space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multihundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources

  5. Imaging findings and significance of deep neck space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qixin; Gu Yifeng; Du Lianjun; Zhu Lili; Pan Yuping; Li Minghua; Yang Shixun; Shang Kezhong; Yin Shankai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of deep neck space cellulitis and abscess and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of deep neck space infection. Methods: CT and MRI findings of 28 cases with deep neck space infection proved by clinical manifestation and pathology were analyzed, including 11 cases of retropharyngeal space, 5 cases of parapharyngeal space infection, 4 cases of masticator space infection, and 8 cases of multi-space infection. Results: CT and MRI could display the swelling of the soft tissues and displacement, reduction, or disappearance of lipoid space in the cellulitis. In inflammatory tissues, MRI imaging demonstrated hypointense or isointense signal on T 1 WI, and hyperintense signal changes on T 2 WI. In abscess, CT could display hypodensity in the center and boundary enhancement of the abscess. MRI could display obvious hyperintense signal on T 2 WI and boundary enhancement. Conclusion: CT and MRI could provide useful information for deep neck space cellulitis and abscess

  6. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  7. Exoplanet Searches by Future Deep Space Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccone C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for exoplanets could benefit from gravitational lensing if we could get to 550 AU from the Sun and beyond. This is because the gravitational lens of the Sun would highly intensify there any weak electromagnetic wave reaching the solar system from distant planets in the Galaxy (see Maccone 2009. The gravitational lens of the Sun, however, has a drawback: the solar Corona. Electrons in the Corona make electromagnetic waves diverge and this pushes the focus out to distances higher than 550 AU. Jupiter is the second larger mass in the solar system after the Sun, but in this focal game not only the mass matters: rather, what really matters is the ratio between the radius of the body squared and the mass of the body. In this regard, Jupiter qualifies as the second best choice for a space mission, requiring the spacecraft to reach 6,077 AU. In this paper, we study the benefit of exoplanet searches by deep space missions.

  8. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  9. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  10. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  11. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems.  Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...

  12. Modular Architecture for the Deep Space Habitat Instrumentation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on developing a continually evolving modular backbone architecture for the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) instrumentation system by integrating new...

  13. Deep Space Navigation and Timing Architecture and Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will develop a deep space navigation and timing architecture and associated simulation, incorporating state-of-the art radiometric, x-ray pulsar, and laser...

  14. Magnetoshell Aerocapture for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is clear from past mission studies that a manned Mars mission, as well as deep space planetary orbiters will require aerobraking and aerocapture which use...

  15. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: Deep-Space Delivery for Smallsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Norris, George

    2017-01-01

    Designed for human exploration missions into deep space, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, enabling a wide variety of unique utilization opportunities. While primarily focused on launching the large systems needed for crewed spaceflight beyond Earth orbit, SLS also offers a game-changing capability for the deployment of small satellites to deep-space destinations, beginning with its first flight. Currently, SLS is making rapid progress toward readiness for its first launch in two years, using the initial configuration of the vehicle, which is capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). On its first flight test of the Orion spacecraft around the moon, accompanying Orion on SLS will be small-satellite secondary payloads, which will deploy in cislunar space. The deployment berths are sized for "6U" CubeSats, and on EM-1 the spacecraft will be deployed into cislunar space following Orion separate from the SLS Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. Payloads in 6U class will be limited to 14 kg maximum mass. Secondary payloads on EM-1 will be launched in the Orion Stage Adapter (OSA). Payload dispensers will be mounted on specially designed brackets, each attached to the interior wall of the OSA. For the EM-1 mission, a total of fourteen brackets will be installed, allowing for thirteen payload locations. The final location will be used for mounting an avionics unit, which will include a battery and sequencer for executing the mission deployment sequence. Following the launch of EM-1, deployments of the secondary payloads will commence after sufficient separation of the Orion spacecraft to the upper stage vehicle to minimize any possible contact of the deployed CubeSats to Orion. Currently this is estimated to require approximately 4 hours. The allowed deployment window for the CubeSats will be from the time the upper stage disposal maneuvers are complete to up to 10 days after launch. The upper stage

  17. Discovery deep space optical communications (DSOC) transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. Thomas

    2017-02-01

    NASA's 22 cm diameter Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Transceiver is designed to provide a bidirectional optical link between a spacecraft in the inner solar system and an Earth-based optical ground station. This design, optimized for operation across a wide range of illumination conditions, is focused on minimizing blinding from stray light, and providing reliable, accurate attitude information to point its narrow communication beam accurately to the future location of the ground terminal. Though our transceiver will transmit in the 1550 nm waveband and receive in the 1064 nm waveband, the system design relies heavily on reflective optical elements, extending flexibility to be modified for use at different wavebands. The design makes use of common path propagation among transmit, receive and pointing verification optical channels to maintain precise alignment among its components, and to naturally correct for element misalignment resulting from launch or thermal element perturbations. This paper presents the results of trade studies showing the evolution of the design, unique operational characteristics of the design, elements that help to maintain minimal stray light contamination, and preliminary results from development and initial testing of a functional aluminum test model.

  18. Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

  19. Space Biology Model Organism Research on the Deep Space Gateway to Pioneer Discovery and Advance Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K. Y.; Tomko, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Quincy, C. D.; Rayl, N. A.; Sowa, M. B.; Taylor, E. M.; Sun, S. C.; Kundrot, C. E.

    2018-02-01

    Model organisms are foundational for conducting physiological and systems biology research to define how life responds to the deep space environment. The organisms, areas of research, and Deep Space Gateway capabilities needed will be presented.

  20. Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.

  1. Transport processes in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth's magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth's magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth's magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior

  2. Starshade Assembly Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunsfeld, J. M.; Siegler, N.; Mukherjee, R.

    2018-02-01

    A starshade is a large external coronagraph which will allow the direct imaging and analysis of planets around nearby stars. We present how the Deep Space Gateway would enable the robotic/astronaut construction of a starshade.

  3. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks...... and the costs of the deep space missions. Navigation is the Achilles' heel of deep space. Being performed on ground, it imposes considerable constraints on the system and the operations, it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, above all, it is not failure tolerant...... to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, on-board and without any a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust, elegant and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performances obtained during the ground tests. The results are very positive and encouraging....

  4. Transport theory of deep-inelastic collisions between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.; Noerenberg, W.; Schuermann, B.

    1975-01-01

    In collisions between heavy nuclei, the major part of the total cross-section is due to deep-inelastic processes. These processes have been studied within a quantum-statistical approach leading to transport equations of the Fokker-Planck type (generalized diffusion equation). Transport coefficients have been studied within a model. (orig./WL) [de

  5. Characterization of Outer Space Radiation Induced Changes in Extremophiles Utilizing Deep Space Gateway Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Wang, C.; Smith, D.; Mason, C.; Landry, K.; Rettberg, P.

    2018-02-01

    Extremophilic microbial survival, adaptation, biological functions, and molecular mechanisms associated with outer space radiation can be tested by exposing them onto Deep Space Gateway hardware (inside/outside) using microbiology and molecular biology techniques.

  6. Nonlinear transport of dynamic system phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1993-01-01

    The inverse transform of any order solution of the differential equation of general nonlinear dynamic systems is derived, realizing theoretically the nonlinear transport for the phase space of nonlinear dynamic systems. The result is applicable to general nonlinear dynamic systems, with the transport of accelerator beam phase space as a typical example

  7. Ion transport in deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Initial assessment of the ability of deep-sea clays to contain nuclear waste is optimistic. Yet, the investigators have no delusions about the complexity of the natural geochemical system and the perturbations that may result from emplacement of thermally-hot waste cannisters. Even though they may never be able to predict the exact nature of all these perturbations, containment of the nuclides by the waste form/cannister system until most of the heat has decayed, and burial of the waste to a sufficient depth that the altered zone can be treated as a black box source of dissolved nuclides to the enclosing unperturbed sediment, encourage them to believe that ion migration in the deep seabed can be modeled accurately and that our preliminary estimates of migration rates are likely to be reasonably realistic

  8. Radioactive waste transport to a Nirex deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.; Appleton, P.R.; Eastman, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nirex is addressing the transport of radioactive wastes, repository construction materials, personnel and spoil as part of their development of a deep repository. An integrated transport system will be developed for wastes which may involve, road, rail and sea transport. The possible application and the scale of operation of the transport system is described. Environmental impact assessments will be carried out, and the proposed approach to these is described. A methodology for the assessment of transport safety has been established and the results of a preliminary assessment are given. (author)

  9. Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Benjamin, T.; Scozzafava, J.; Khatri, F.; Sharma, J.; Parvin, B.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of different options at Earth to provide Deep Space optical communication services. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It also reports preliminary conclusions from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  10. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  11. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Regulations, notice is hereby given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has... matters concerning the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. The [[Page 70348

  12. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  13. 76 FR 78329 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of a teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  14. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  15. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  16. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  17. Deep Space Cryocooler System (DSCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA missions continue to extend the horizon beyond near-Earth missions, higher performance systems must evolve to address the challenges of reduced power...

  18. Deep Space Cryogenic Power Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technology Application, Inc. (TAI) is proposing to demonstrate feasibility of implementing silicon germanium (SiGe) strained-gate technology in the power...

  19. Resonance controlled transport in phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton

    2018-02-01

    We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.

  20. NASA deep space network operations planning and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities and structural organization of the Operations Planning Group of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations are outlined. The Operations Planning group establishes an early interface with a user's planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations for deep space tracking support. A team of one or two individuals works through all phases of the spacecraft launch and also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters. Coordinating interface is also provided for nonflight projects such as radio astronomy and VLBI experiments. The group is divided into a Long Range Support Planning element and a Near Term Operations Coordination element.

  1. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  2. Odontogenic versus nonodontogenic deep neck space infections: CT manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Eui Dong; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Eui Gee; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate computed tomographic (CT) findings of deep neck space infection (DNSI) with particular attention to the differences in the spaces involved and in complications between odontogenic and nonodontogenic groups. Forty-four patients (21 odontogenic and 23 nonodontogenic) were included in this study. Among odontogenic DNSIs, 15 had the dental infection in the second or third mandibular molar. We compared the CT features between odontogenic and nonodontogenic DNSIs with special emphasis on the differences in the spaces involved and in the rate and type of complications. In all patients, CT clearly differentiated abscess from cellulitis. The most common spaces involved in 21 patients with odontogenic DNSI were the parapharyngeal (n = 18), the submandibular (n = 18), the anterior visceral (n = 13), the masticator (n = 9), and the sublingual (n 7) spaces. In contrast, in 23 patients with nonodontogenic DNSI, the anterior visceral space (n = 14) was most frequently involved. The parapharyngeal, the submandibular, and the masticator spaces were statistically more frequently involved in odontogenic than in nonodontogenic DNSI (ρ < .05). Twenty-two patients had one or more complications shown by CT, of which airway compromise was more frequent and severe in odontogenic than in nonodontogenic DNSI. We conclude that the parapharyngeal, the submandibular, and the masticator spaces are more significantly vulnerable in odontogenic DNSI than in nonodontogenic DNSI. The predilection for certain spaces of the neck in odontogenic DNSI seems to originate from the intimate relationship of the mandibular molars to the adjacent deep neck spaces

  3. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  4. Reliable avionics design for deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  5. Nonlinear transport of accelerator beam phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1995-01-01

    Based on the any order analytical solution of accelerator beam dynamics, the general theory for nonlinear transport of accelerator beam phase space is developed by inverse transformation method. The method is general by itself, and hence can also be applied to the nonlinear transport of various dynamic systems in physics, chemistry and biology

  6. Automating Deep Space Network scheduling and conflict resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Clement, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a central part of NASA's infrastructure for communicating with active space missions, from earth orbit to beyond the solar system. We describe our recent work in modeling the complexities of user requirements, and then scheduling and resolving conflicts on that basis. We emphasize our innovative use of background 'intelligent' assistants' that carry out search asynchrnously while the user is focusing on various aspects of the schedule.

  7. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer treatment. Application of proper space closure biomechanics strategies is necessary to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This cases report aimed to show the space closure biomechanics strategies that effectively control the overbite as well as posterior anchorage in deep overbite patients without increasing treatment time. Two patients who presented with class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with fixed orthodontic appliance. The primary strategies included extraction space closure on segmented arch that employed two-step space closure, namely single canine retraction simultaneously with incisors intrusion followed by enmasse retraction of four incisors by using differential moment concept. These strategies successfully closed the space, corrected deep overbite and controlled posterior anchorage simultaneously so that the treatment time was shortened. Biomechanics strategies that utilized were effective to achieve the desired treatment outcome.

  8. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  9. Application of nuclear photon engines for deep-space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, Andrey V.; Ivanov, Eugeny A.; Kukharchuk, Oleg F.; Poupko, Victor Ya.; Zrodnikov, Anatoly V.

    2001-01-01

    Conception of using the nuclear photon rocket engines for deep space exploration is proposed. Some analytical estimations have been made to illustrate the possibility to travel to 100-10000 AU using a small thrust photon engine. Concepts of high temperature nuclear reactors for the nuclear photon engines are also discussed

  10. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  11. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  12. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  13. ANISN-FONTENAY, 1-D Planar, Spherical, Cylindrical Neutron Transport and Gamma Transport with Deep Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.

    1973-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The ANISN system treats neutron and gamma transport in one-dimensional plane, spherical and cylinder geometry. The multigroup cross sections prepared by the programs LIANE and SUPERTOG are processed by the program RETTOG, which produces a binary library with Legendre expansions. The binary library can be updated and edited with the program LGR/B. The photon multigroup cross sections are created with the program GAMLEG/A. If the bulk of the data is too large, the program TAPEMA produces a special group-by-group library. The volume sources are calculated from a reduced set of input data and punched in a format suitable for input to ANISN, using the program PRESOU. The program ANISN calculates fluxes by groups, space intervals, angle and any number of reaction rates. The energy and space dependent fluxes are stored on tape and can be reprocessed, edited and plotted with the program ANISEX, which also permits to calculate supplementary reaction rates. The program ANISN can condense cross sections into a reduced number of groups. The ANISN system is used as a reference system for the evaluation of approximation methods (space-diffusion or point- kernel) or for the preparation of multigroup libraries for 2- dimensional transport codes (DOT). In particular it is used for shielding problems with high attenuation in water reactors and fast reactors. 2 - Method of solution: Method of discrete ordinates. The program has been designed to treat deep penetration with detailed calculation of spectrum as function of angle. Tests for pointwise convergence have also been introduced. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The complexity of the problem is limited by the storage size

  14. Achievable space elevators for space transportation and starship acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jerome

    1990-04-01

    Space elevator concepts for low-cost space launches are reviewed. Previous concepts suffered from requirements for ultra-high-strength materials, dynamically unstable systems, or from danger of collision with space debris. The use of magnetic grain streams solves these problems. Magnetic grain streams can support short space elevators for lifting payloads cheaply into Earth orbit, overcoming the material strength problem in building space elevators. Alternatively, the stream could support an international spaceport circling the Earth daily tens of miles above the equator, accessible to advanced aircraft. Mars could be equipped with a similar grain stream, using material from its moons Phobos and Deimos. Grain-stream arcs about the sun could be used for fast launches to the outer planets and for accelerating starships to near lightspeed for interstellar reconnaisance. Grain streams are essentially impervious to collisions, and could reduce the cost of space transportation by an order of magnitude.

  15. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  16. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  17. Deep space propagation experiments at Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Stanley A.

    1990-01-01

    Propagation experiments as essential components of the general plan to develop an operational deep space telecommunications and navigation capability at Ka-band (32 to 35 GHz) by the end of the 20th century are discussed. Significant benefits of Ka-band over the current deep space standard X-band (8.4 GHz) are an improvement of 4 to 10 dB in telemetry capacity and a similar increase in radio navigation accuracy. Propagation experiments are planned on the Mars Observer Mission in 1992 in preparation for the Cassini Mission to Saturn in 1996, which will use Ka-band in the search for gravity waves as well as to enhance telemetry and navigation at Saturn in 2002. Subsequent uses of Ka-band are planned for the Solar Probe Mission and the Mars Program.

  18. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  19. Challenges for deep space communications in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Larry N.; Hornstein, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) examines the evolving character of aerospace missions and the corresponding changes in the DSN architecture. Deep space missions are reviewed, and it is noted that the two 34-m and the 70-m antenna subnets of the DSN are heavily loaded and more use is expected. High operational workload and the challenge of network cross-support are the design drivers for a flexible DSN architecture configuration. Incorporated in the design are antenna arraying for aperture augmentation, beam-waveguide antennas for frequency agility, and connectivity with non-DSN sites for cross-support. Compatibility between spacecraft and ground-facility designs is important for establishing common international standards of communication and data-system specification.

  20. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  1. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  2. A Fortran Program for Deep Space Sensor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    used to help p maintain currency to the deep space satellite catelog? Research Question Can a Fortran program be designed to evaluate the effectiveness ...Range ( AFETR ) Range p Measurements Laboratory (RML) is located in Malibar, .- Florida. Like GEODSS, Malibar uses a 48 inch telescope with a...phased out. This mode will evaluate the effect of the loss of the 3 Baker-Nunn sites to mode 3 Mode 5 through Mode 8 Modes 5 through 8 are identical to

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  4. Acute suppurative parotitis with spread to the deep neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A; Docktor, J W

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the case of an elderly, diabetic woman who became dehydrated and developed acute suppurative parotitis, which caused marked swelling of her left face and neck. The parotid infection also extended by continuity into the lateral pharyngeal space and contiguous deep neck spaces, causing airway-threatening, extensive inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis and parapharyngeal soft tissues. The differential diagnosis and diagnostic rationale is discussed. The anatomy of the stylomandibular area is reviewed to explain how infection of the parotid can spread to the pharynx.

  5. Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.J.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed

  6. 76 FR 82031 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Risk Management Working Group Teleconference...

  7. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  8. 78 FR 14401 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  9. 77 FR 35102 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  10. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  11. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  12. Ultralightweight PV Array Materials for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photovoltaic arrays for future deep space NASA missions demand multiple functionalities. They must efficiently generate electrical power, have very large areas and...

  13. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  14. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  15. Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation

  16. Semi-Autonomous Rodent Habitat for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwood, J. S.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R.

    2018-01-01

    NASA has flown animals to space as part of trailblazing missions and to understand the biological responses to spaceflight. Mice traveled in the Lunar Module with the Apollo 17 astronauts and now mice are frequent research subjects in LEO on the ISS. The ISS rodent missions have focused on unravelling biological mechanisms, better understanding risks to astronaut health, and testing candidate countermeasures. A critical barrier for longer-duration animal missions is the need for humans-in-the-loop to perform animal husbandry and perform routine tasks during a mission. Using autonomous or telerobotic systems to alleviate some of these tasks would enable longer-duration missions to be performed at the Deep Space Gateway. Rodent missions performed using the Gateway as a platform could address a number of critical risks identified by the Human Research Program (HRP), as well as Space Biology Program questions identified by NRC Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, (2011). HRP risk areas of potentially greatest relevance that the Gateway rodent missions can address include those related to visual impairment (VIIP) and radiation risks to central nervous system, cardiovascular disease, as well as countermeasure testing. Space Biology focus areas addressed by the Gateway rodent missions include mechanisms and combinatorial effects of microgravity and radiation. The objectives of the work proposed here are to 1) develop capability for semi-autonomous rodent research in cis-lunar orbit, 2) conduct key experiments for testing countermeasures against low gravity and space radiation. The hardware and operations system developed will enable experiments at least one month in duration, which potentially could be extended to one year in duration. To gain novel insights into the health risks to crew of deep space travel (i.e., exposure to space radiation), results obtained from Gateway flight rodents can be compared to ground control groups and separate groups

  17. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure...-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of... Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. [FR Doc. 2013-14859 Filed 6-20-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910...

  18. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331, Washington, DC 20591, telephone.... Nield, Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. [FR Doc. 2011-8534 Filed 4-8-11; 8...

  19. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive

  20. Ramp time synchronization. [for NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietzke, W.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of intercontinental clock synchronization has been developed and proposed for possible use by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), using a two-way/three-way radio link with a spacecraft. Analysis of preliminary data indicates that the real-time method has an uncertainty of 0.6 microsec, and it is very likely that further work will decrease the uncertainty. Also, the method is compatible with a variety of nonreal-time analysis techniques, which may reduce the uncertainty down to the tens of nanosecond range.

  1. Evolution of the large Deep Space Network antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, William A.

    1991-12-01

    The evolution of the largest antenna of the US NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The design, performance analysis, and measurement techniques, beginning with its initial 64-m operation at S-band (2295 MHz) in 1966 and continuing through the present ka-band (32-GHz) operation at 70 m, is described. Although their diameters and mountings differ, these parabolic antennas all employ a Cassegrainian feed system, and each antenna dish surface is constructed of precision-shaped perforated-aluminum panels that are secured to an open steel framework

  2. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  3. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  4. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  5. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

  6. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  7. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  8. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  10. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  11. 'Complexity' and anomalous transport in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tom; Wu Chengchin

    2002-01-01

    'Complexity' has become a hot topic in nearly every field of modern physics. Space plasma is of no exception. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures are the origin of 'complexity' in space plasmas. The intermittent localized interactions, which generate the anomalous diffusion, transport, and evolution of the macroscopic state variables of the overall dynamical system, may be modeled by a triggered (fast) localized chaotic growth equation of a set of relevant order parameters. Such processes would generally pave the way for the global system to evolve into a 'complex' state of long-ranged interactions of fluctuations, displaying the phenomenon of forced and/or self-organized criticality. An example of such type of anomalous transport and evolution in a sheared magnetic field is provided via two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The coarse-grained dissipation due to the intermittent triggered interactions among the magnetic coherent structures induces a 'fluctuation-induced nonlinear instability' that reconfigures the sheared magnetic field into an X-point magnetic geometry (in the mean field sense), leading to the anomalous acceleration of the magnetic coherent structures. A phenomenon akin to such type of anomalous transport and acceleration, the so-called bursty bulk flows, has been commonly observed in the plasma sheet of the Earth's magnetotail

  12. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  13. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  14. Magma Transport from Deep to Shallow Crust and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.; Green, R. G.; Brandsdottir, B.; Hudson, T.; Woods, J.; Donaldson, C.; Ágústsdóttir, T.

    2016-12-01

    We have mapped magma transport paths from the deep (20 km) to the shallow (6 km) crust and in two cases to eventual surface eruption under several Icelandic volcanoes (Askja, Bardarbunga, Eyjafjallajokull, Upptyppingar). We use microearthquakes caused by brittle fracture to map magma on the move and tomographic seismic studies of velocity perturbations beneath volcanoes to map the magma storage regions. High-frequency brittle failure earthquakes with magnitudes of typically 0-2 occur where melt is forcing its way through the country rock, or where previously frozen melt is repeatedly re-broken in conduits and dykes. The Icelandic crust on the rift zones where these earthquakes occur is ductile at depths greater than 7 km beneath the surface, so the occurrence of brittle failure seismicity at depths as great as 20 km is indicative of high strain rates, for which magma movement is the most likely explanation. We suggest that high volatile pressures caused by the exsolution of carbon dioxide in the deep crust is driving the magma movement and seismicity at depths of 15-20 km. Eruptions from shallow crustal storage areas are likewise driven by volatile exsolution, though additional volatiles, and in particular water are also involved in the shallow crust.

  15. The Case for Deep Space Telecommunications Relay Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Charles W.; Miranda, Felix A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Each future mission to Jupiter and beyond must carry the traditional suite of telecommunications systems for command and control and for mission data transmission to earth. The telecommunications hardware includes the large antenna and the high-power transmitters that enable the communications link. Yet future spacecraft will be scaled down from the hallmark missions of Galileo and Cassini to Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. This implies that a higher percentage of the spacecraft weight and power must be dedicated to telecommunications system. The following analysis quantifies this impact to future missions and then explores the merits of an alternative approach using deep space relay stations for the link back to earth. It will be demonstrated that a telecommunications relay satellite would reduce S/C telecommunications weight and power sufficiently to add one to two more instruments.

  16. Optical subnet concepts for the deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, K.; Wonica, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes potential enhancements to the Deep Space Network, based on a subnet of receiving stations that will utilize optical communications technology in the post-2010 era. Two optical subnet concepts are presented that provide full line-of-sight coverage of the ecliptic, 24 hours a day, with high weather availability. The technical characteristics of the optical station and the user terminal are presented, as well as the effects of cloud cover, transmittance through the atmosphere, and background noise during daytime or nighttime operation on the communications link. In addition, this article identifies candidate geographic sites for the two network concepts and includes a link design for a hypothetical Pluto mission in 2015.

  17. Precision time distribution within a deep space communications complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Precision Time Distribution System (PTDS) at the Golstone Deep Space Communications Complex is a practical application of existing technology to the solution of a local problem. The problem was to synchronize four station timing systems to a master source with a relative accuracy consistently and significantly better than 10 microseconds. The solution involved combining a precision timing source, an automatic error detection assembly and a microwave distribution network into an operational system. Upon activation of the completed PTDS two years ago, synchronization accuracy at Goldstone (two station relative) was improved by an order of magnitude. It is felt that the validation of the PTDS mechanization is now completed. Other facilities which have site dispersion and synchronization accuracy requirements similar to Goldstone may find the PTDS mechanization useful in solving their problem. At present, the two station relative synchronization accuracy at Goldstone is better than one microsecond.

  18. Deep-Space Ka-Band Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency bands have become more congested in allocated bandwidth as there is increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Going to higher frequency bands offers significantly more bandwidth, allowing for the use of much higher data rates. However, Ka-band is more susceptible to weather effects than lower frequency bands currently used for most standard downlink telemetry operations. Future or prospective flight projects considering deep-space Ka-band (32-GHz) telemetry data links have expressed an interest in understanding past flight experience with received Ka-band downlink performance. Especially important to these flight projects is gaining a better understanding of weather effects from the experience of current or past missions that operated Ka-band radio systems. We will discuss the historical flight experience of several Ka-band missions starting from Mars Observer in 1993 up to present-day deep-space missions such as Kepler. The study of historical Ka-band flight experience allows one to recommend margin policy for future missions. Of particular interest, we will review previously reported-on flight experience with the Cassini spacecraft Ka-band radio system that has been used for radio science investigations as well as engineering studies from 2004 to 2015, when Cassini was in orbit around the planet Saturn. In this article, we will focus primarily on the Kepler spacecraft Ka-band link, which has been used for operational telemetry downlink from an Earth trailing orbit where the spacecraft resides. We analyzed the received Ka-band signal level data in order to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis of Kepler and Cassini flight data, we found that a 4-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions ensures that we achieve at least a 95 percent data return.

  19. Deep Space Networking Experiments on the EPOXI Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications & Navigation Program within the Space Operations Directorate is operating a program to develop and deploy Disruption Tolerant Networking [DTN] technology for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. DTN is an enabling element of the Interplanetary Internet where terrestrial networking protocols are generally unsuitable because they rely on timely and continuous end-to-end delivery of data and acknowledgments. In fall of 2008 and 2009 and 2011 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of DTN technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. These experiments, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET 1) were performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. The DINET 1 software was installed on the backup software partition on the backup flight computer for DINET 1. For DINET 1, the spacecraft was at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) from Earth. During DINET 1 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. The first DINET 1 experiment successfully validated many of the essential elements of the DTN protocols. DINET 2 demonstrated: 1) additional DTN functionality, 2) automated certain tasks which were manually implemented in DINET 1 and 3) installed the ION SW on nodes outside of JPL. DINET 3 plans to: 1) upgrade the LTP convergence-layer adapter to conform to the international LTP CL specification, 2) add convergence-layer "stewardship" procedures and 3) add the BSP security elements [PIB & PCB]. This paper describes the planning and execution of the flight experiment and the

  20. An Array of Optical Receivers for Deep-Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Chi-Wung; Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    An array of small optical receivers is proposed as an alternative to a single large optical receiver for high-data-rate communications in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). Because the telescope for a single receiver capable of satisfying DSN requirements must be greater than 10 m in diameter, the design, building, and testing of the telescope would be very difficult and expensive. The proposed array would utilize commercially available telescopes of 1-m or smaller diameter and, therefore, could be developed and verified with considerably less difficulty and expense. The essential difference between a single-aperture optical-communications receiver and an optical-array receiver is that a single-aperture receiver focuses all of the light energy it collects onto the surface of an optical detector, whereas an array receiver focuses portions of the total collected energy onto separate detectors, optically detects each fractional energy component, then combines the electrical signal from the array of detector outputs to form the observable, or "decision statistic," used to decode the transmitted data. A conceptual block diagram identifying the key components of the optical-array receiver suitable for deep-space telemetry reception is shown in the figure. The most conspicuous feature of the receiver is the large number of small- to medium-size telescopes, with individual apertures and number of telescopes selected to make up the desired total collecting area. This array of telescopes is envisioned to be fully computer- controlled via the user interface and prediction-driven to achieve rough pointing and tracking of the desired spacecraft. Fine-pointing and tracking functions then take over to keep each telescope pointed toward the source, despite imperfect pointing predictions, telescope-drive errors, and vibration caused by wind.

  1. BioSentinel: Biosensors for Deep-Space Radiation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, Melissa P.; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission will be deployed on NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. We will use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biosensor to study the effect of deep-space radiation on living cells. The BioSentinel mission will be the first investigation of a biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. Radiation can cause damage such as double stand breaks (DSBs) on DNA. The yeast cell was chosen for this mission because it is genetically controllable, shares homology with human cells in its DNA repair pathways, and can be stored in a desiccated state for long durations. Three yeast strains will be stored dry in multiple microfluidic cards: a wild type control strain, a mutant defective strain that cannot repair DSBs, and a biosensor strain that can only grow if it gets DSB-and-repair events occurring near a specific gene. Growth and metabolic activity of each strain will be measured by a 3-color LED optical detection system. Parallel experiments will be done on the International Space Station and on Earth so that we can compare the results to that of deep space. One of our main objectives is to characterize the microfluidic card activation sequence before the mission. To increase the sensitivity of yeast cells as biosensors, desiccated yeast in each card will be resuspended in a rehydration buffer. After several weeks, the rehydration buffer will be exchanged with a growth medium in order to measure yeast growth and metabolic activity. We are currently working on a time-course experiment to better understand the effects of the rehydration buffer on the response to ionizing radiation. We will resuspend the dried yeast in our rehydration medium over a period of time; then each week, we will measure the viability and ionizing radiation sensitivity of different yeast strains taken from this rehydration buffer. The data obtained in this study will be useful in finalizing the card activation sequence for

  2. Investigation of Lithium Metal Hydride Materials for Mitigation of Deep Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Atwell, William

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure to crew, electronics, and non-metallic materials is one of many concerns with long-term, deep space travel. Mitigating this exposure is approached via a multi-faceted methodology focusing on multi-functional materials, vehicle configuration, and operational or mission constraints. In this set of research, we are focusing on new multi-functional materials that may have advantages over traditional shielding materials, such as polyethylene. Metal hydride materials are of particular interest for deep space radiation shielding due to their ability to store hydrogen, a low-Z material known to be an excellent radiation mitigator and a potential fuel source. We have previously investigated 41 different metal hydrides for their radiation mitigation potential. Of these metal hydrides, we found a set of lithium hydrides to be of particular interest due to their excellent shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. Given these results, we will continue our investigation of lithium hydrides by expanding our data set to include dose equivalent and to further understand why these materials outperformed polyethylene in a heavy ion environment. For this study, we used HZETRN 2010, a one-dimensional transport code developed by NASA Langley Research Center, to simulate radiation transport through the lithium hydrides. We focused on the 1977 solar minimum Galactic Cosmic Radiation environment and thicknesses of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 g/cm2 to stay consistent with our previous studies. The details of this work and the subsequent results will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Software for Allocating Resources in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester; Zendejas, Silvino; Baldwin, John

    2003-01-01

    TIGRAS 2.0 is a computer program designed to satisfy a need for improved means for analyzing the tracking demands of interplanetary space-flight missions upon the set of ground antenna resources of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and for allocating those resources. Written in Microsoft Visual C++, TIGRAS 2.0 provides a single rich graphical analysis environment for use by diverse DSN personnel, by connecting to various data sources (relational databases or files) based on the stages of the analyses being performed. Notable among the algorithms implemented by TIGRAS 2.0 are a DSN antenna-load-forecasting algorithm and a conflict-aware DSN schedule-generating algorithm. Computers running TIGRAS 2.0 can also be connected using SOAP/XML to a Web services server that provides analysis services via the World Wide Web. TIGRAS 2.0 supports multiple windows and multiple panes in each window for users to view and use information, all in the same environment, to eliminate repeated switching among various application programs and Web pages. TIGRAS 2.0 enables the use of multiple windows for various requirements, trajectory-based time intervals during which spacecraft are viewable, ground resources, forecasts, and schedules. Each window includes a time navigation pane, a selection pane, a graphical display pane, a list pane, and a statistics pane.

  4. The Public Health Impact of Pediatric Deep Neck Space Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Eelam; Tarshish, Yael; Roberson, David; Jang, Jisun; Licameli, Greg; Kenna, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    There is little consensus about the best management of pediatric deep neck space infections (DNSIs) and limited information about the national disease burden. The purpose of this study is to examine the health care burden, management, and complications of DNSIs from a national perspective. Retrospective administrative data set review. National pediatric admission database. Pediatric patients diagnosed with a parapharyngeal space and/or retropharyngeal abscess were identified from the 2009 KIDS' Inpatient Database. Patient demographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics were compared between patients who received surgical and nonsurgical management. All results for the analyses were weighted, clustered, and stratified appropriately according to the sampling design of the KIDS' Inpatient Database. The prevalence of DNSIs was 3444 in 2009, and the estimated incidence was 4.6 per 100,000 children. The total hospital charges were >$75 million. The patients who were drained surgically had a 22% longer length of stay (mean = 4.19 days) than that of those who were managed without surgery (mean = 3.44 days). Mean hospital charges for patients who were drained surgically were almost twice those of patients who were managed medically ($28,969 vs $17,022); 165 patients (4.8%) had a complication. There are >3400 admissions for pediatric DNSIs annually, and they account for a significant number of inpatient days and hospital charges. A randomized controlled trial of management may be indicated from a public health perspective. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  6. Exercise Equipment Usability Assessment for a Deep Space Concept Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Brooke M.; Reynolds, David W.

    2015-01-01

    With international aspirations to send astronauts to deep space, the world is now faced with the complex problem of keeping astronauts healthy in unexplored hostile environments for durations of time never before attempted by humans. The great physical demands imparted by space exploration compound the problem of astronaut health, as the astronauts must not only be healthy, but physically fit upon destination arrival in order to perform the scientific tasks required of them. Additionally, future deep space exploration necessitates the development of environments conducive to long-duration habitation that would supplement propulsive vehicles. Space Launch System (SLS) core stage barrel sections present large volumes of robust structure that can be recycled and used for long duration habitation. This assessment will focus on one such conceptual craft, referred to as the SLS Derived Habitat (SLS-DH). Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has formulated a high-level layout of this SLS-DH with parameters such as floor number and orientation, floor designations, grid dimensions, wall placement, etc. Yet to be determined, however, is the layout of the exercise area. Currently the SLS-DH features three floors laid out longitudinally, leaving 2m of height between the floor and ceilings. This short distance between levels introduces challenges for proper placement of exercise equipment such as treadmills and stationary bicycles, as the dynamic envelope for the 95th percentile male astronauts is greater than 2m. This study aims to assess the optimal equipment layout and sizing for the exercise area of this habitat. Figure 1 illustrates the layout of the DSH concept demonstrator located at MSFC. The exercise area is located on the lower level, seen here as the front half of the level occupied by a crew member. This small volume does not allow for numerous or bulky exercise machines, so the conceptual equipment has been limited to a treadmill and

  7. Visual Odometry for Autonomous Deep-Space Navigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; Pedrotty, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) is a critical need for manned spaceflight, especially in deep space where communication delays essentially leave crews on their own for critical operations like docking. Previously developed AR&D sensors have been large, heavy, power-hungry, and may still require further development (e.g. Flash LiDAR). Other approaches to vision-based navigation are not computationally efficient enough to operate quickly on slower, flight-like computers. The key technical challenge for visual odometry is to adapt it from the current terrestrial applications it was designed for to function in the harsh lighting conditions of space. This effort leveraged Draper Laboratory’s considerable prior development and expertise, benefitting both parties. The algorithm Draper has created is unique from other pose estimation efforts as it has a comparatively small computational footprint (suitable for use onboard a spacecraft, unlike alternatives) and potentially offers accuracy and precision needed for docking. This presents a solution to the AR&D problem that only requires a camera, which is much smaller, lighter, and requires far less power than competing AR&D sensors. We have demonstrated the algorithm’s performance and ability to process ‘flight-like’ imagery formats with a ‘flight-like’ trajectory, positioning ourselves to easily process flight data from the upcoming ‘ISS Selfie’ activity and then compare the algorithm’s quantified performance to the simulated imagery. This will bring visual odometry beyond TRL 5, proving its readiness to be demonstrated as part of an integrated system.Once beyond TRL 5, visual odometry will be poised to be demonstrated as part of a system in an in-space demo where relative pose is critical, like Orion AR&D, ISS robotic operations, asteroid proximity operations, and more.

  8. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal

  9. High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...

  10. Deep Space Network Antenna Monitoring Using Adaptive Time Series Methods and Hidden Markov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic; Mellstrom, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN)(designed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides end-to-end telecommunication capabilities between earth and various interplanetary spacecraft throughout the solar system.

  11. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...

  12. Minimally invasive trans-portal resection of deep intracranial lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, S.M.; Recinos, P.F.; Avendano, J.; Adams, H.; Jallo, G.I.; Quinones-Hinojosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The surgical management of deep intra-axial lesions still requires microsurgical approaches that utilize retraction of deep white matter to obtain adequate visualization. We report our experience with a new tubular retractor system, designed specifically for intracranial applications,

  13. University of Central Florida / Deep Space Industries Asteroid Regolith Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Daniel; Covey, Steven D.; Schultz, Cody

    2017-10-01

    Introduction: The University of Central Florida (UCF), in partnership with Deep Space Industries (DSI) are working under a NASA Phase 2 SBIR contract to develop and produce a family of asteroid regolith simulants for use in research, engineering, and mission operations testing. We base simulant formulas on the mineralogy, particle size, and physical characteristics of CI, CR, CM, C2, CV, and L-Chondrite meteorites. The advantage in simulating meteorites is that the vast majority of meteoritic materials are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. While formulas are guided by the meteorites our approach is one of constrained maximization under the limitations of safety, cost, source materials, and ease of handling. In all cases our goal is to deliver a safe, high fidelity analog at moderate cost.Source Materials, Safety, and Biohazards: A critical factor in any useful simulant is to minimize handling risks for biohazards or toxicity. All the terrestrial materials proposed for these simulants were reviewed for potential toxicity. Of particular interest is the organic component of volatile rich carbonaceous chondrites which contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known carcinogens and mutagens. Our research suggests that we can maintain rough chemical fidelity by substituting much safer sub-bituminous coal as our organic analog. A second safety consideration is the choice of serpentine group materials. While most serpentine polymorphs are quite safe we avoid fibrous chrysotile because of its asbestos content. Terrestrial materials identified as inputs for our simulants are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. These include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, smectite, serpentine, saponite, pyrite, and magnetite in amounts that are appropriate for each type. For CI's and CR’s, their olivines tend to be Fo100 which is rare on Earth. We have substituted Fo90 olivine

  14. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  15. The Deep Space Network: The challenges of the next 20 years - The 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L. N.; Edwards, C. D.; Hall, J. R.; Posner, E. C.

    1990-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the radio navigation and communications link between NASA's lunar and deep space missions for 30 years. In this paper, new mission opportunities over the next 20 years are discussed. The system design drivers and the DSN architectural concepts for those challenges are briefly considered.

  16. Adaptive sampling method in deep-penetration particle transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruihong; Ji Zhicheng; Pei Lucheng

    2012-01-01

    Deep-penetration problem has been one of the difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo method for several decades. In this paper, a kind of particle transport random walking system under the emission point as a sampling station is built. Then, an adaptive sampling scheme is derived for better solution with the achieved information. The main advantage of the adaptive scheme is to choose the most suitable sampling number from the emission point station to obtain the minimum value of the total cost in the process of the random walk. Further, the related importance sampling method is introduced. Its main principle is to define the importance function due to the particle state and to ensure the sampling number of the emission particle is proportional to the importance function. The numerical results show that the adaptive scheme under the emission point as a station could overcome the difficulty of underestimation of the result in some degree, and the adaptive importance sampling method gets satisfied results as well. (authors)

  17. Deep space propulsion a roadmap to interstellar flight

    CERN Document Server

    Long, K F

    2012-01-01

    As humans take their first tentative steps off our home planet, and debate the costs/benefits of sending people back to the Moon and perhaps on to Mars, we must also start to make plans for the day when we will venture forth as pioneers farther out into the Solar System and beyond - perhaps far, far beyond - to explore and settle new worlds around other stars. It is vital that we develop the deep space propulsion technologies that will take us there, first to explore with robotic probes, then to follow ourselves. This is necessary so that if anything catastrophic happened to Earth, our species would survive. And the possibilities for catastrophe are great. An impacting asteroid ended the reign of the dinosaurs, and today we have many other threats such as global war, climate change, pollution, resource limitations and overpopulation. In this book, Kelvin F. Long takes us on all the possible journeys - the mission targets, the technologies we might use to power such journeys, and what scientific knowledge we a...

  18. Deep space telecommunications, navigation, and information management. Support of the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin R.; Hastrup, Rolf C.

    The United States Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) calls for the charting of a new and evolving manned course to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This paper discusses key challenges in providing effective deep space telecommunications, navigation, and information management (TNIM) architectures and designs for Mars exploration support. The fundamental objectives are to provide the mission with means to monitor and control mission elements, acquire engineering, science, and navigation data, compute state vectors and navigate, and move these data efficiently and automatically between mission nodes for timely analysis and decision-making. Although these objectives do not depart, fundamentally, from those evolved over the past 30 years in supporting deep space robotic exploration, there are several new issues. This paper focuses on summarizing new requirements, identifying related issues and challenges, responding with concepts and strategies which are enabling, and, finally, describing candidate architectures, and driving technologies. The design challenges include the attainment of: 1) manageable interfaces in a large distributed system, 2) highly unattended operations for in-situ Mars telecommunications and navigation functions, 3) robust connectivity for manned and robotic links, 4) information management for efficient and reliable interchange of data between mission nodes, and 5) an adequate Mars-Earth data rate.

  19. Deep space telecommunications, navigation, and information management - Support of the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin R.; Hastrup, Rolf C.

    1990-10-01

    The principal challenges in providing effective deep space navigation, telecommunications, and information management architectures and designs for Mars exploration support are presented. The fundamental objectives are to provide the mission with the means to monitor and control mission elements, obtain science, navigation, and engineering data, compute state vectors and navigate, and to move these data efficiently and automatically between mission nodes for timely analysis and decision making. New requirements are summarized, and related issues and challenges including the robust connectivity for manned and robotic links, are identified. Enabling strategies are discussed, and candidate architectures and driving technologies are described.

  20. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  1. Power unit-cargo space link in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Zoran R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transportation technology regarding links between power unit and cargo space. These links can be divided into two groups: rigid and flexible. Rigid link, established between power unit and cargo space, is dominant in maritime and road transport (sea ships and trucks, and occasionally in transport on inland waterways (self- propelled barges. Flexible link is used in the railroad transport (systems with trailers and semi trailers, and in inland waterway transport (push - towing and pulling systems, and combinations of the systems. The main goal of this research is determination of possible link types and organization of the means of transportation.

  2. Space transportation systems within ESA programmes: Current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahais, Maurice

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the space transportation aspects of the ESA (European Space Agency) programs as they result from history, present status, and decisions taken at the ministerial level conference in Granada, Spain is presented. The new factors taken into consideration for the long term plan proposed in Munich, Germany, the three strategic options for the reorientation of the ESA long term plan, and the essential elements of space transportation in the Granada long term plan in three areas of space activities, scientific, and commercial launches with expendable launch vehicles, manned flight and in-orbit infrastructure, and future transportation systems are outlined. The new ESA long term plan, in the field of space transportation systems, constitutes a reorientation of the initial program contemplated in previous councils at ministerial level. It aims at balancing the new economic situation with the new avenues of cooperation, and the outcome will be a new implementation of the space transportation systems policy.

  3. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  4. Optimising abdominal space with deep neuromuscular blockade in gynaecologic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Gätke, M R; Springborg, H H

    2015-01-01

    was measured during deep NMB and without NMB at pneumoperitoneum 8 and 12 mmHg both. Additionally, we assessed surgical conditions while suturing the abdominal fascia using a 4-point subjective rating scale. Deep NMB was established with rocuronium and reversed with sugammadex. RESULTS: At 12 mm...

  5. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  6. Request-Driven Schedule Automation for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Tran, Daniel; Arroyo, Belinda; Call, Jared; Mercado, Marisol

    2010-01-01

    The DSN Scheduling Engine (DSE) has been developed to increase the level of automated scheduling support available to users of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). We have adopted a request-driven approach to DSN scheduling, in contrast to the activity-oriented approach used up to now. Scheduling requests allow users to declaratively specify patterns and conditions on their DSN service allocations, including timing, resource requirements, gaps, overlaps, time linkages among services, repetition, priorities, and a wide range of additional factors and preferences. The DSE incorporates a model of the key constraints and preferences of the DSN scheduling domain, along with algorithms to expand scheduling requests into valid resource allocations, to resolve schedule conflicts, and to repair unsatisfied requests. We use time-bounded systematic search with constraint relaxation to return nearby solutions if exact ones cannot be found, where the relaxation options and order are under user control. To explore the usability aspects of our approach we have developed a graphical user interface incorporating some crucial features to make it easier to work with complex scheduling requests. Among these are: progressive revelation of relevant detail, immediate propagation and visual feedback from a user s decisions, and a meeting calendar metaphor for repeated patterns of requests. Even as a prototype, the DSE has been deployed and adopted as the initial step in building the operational DSN schedule, thus representing an important initial validation of our overall approach. The DSE is a core element of the DSN Service Scheduling Software (S(sup 3)), a web-based collaborative scheduling system now under development for deployment to all DSN users.

  7. Deep Neck Space Infections: A Study of 76 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kataria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deep neck space infections (DNSI are serious diseases that involve several spaces in the neck. The common primary sources of DNSI are dental infections, tonsillar and salivary gland infections, malignancies, and foreign bodies. With widespread use of antibiotics, the prevalence of DNSI has been reduced. Common complications of DNSI include airway obstruction, jugular vein thrombosis, and sepsis. Treatment principally comprises airway management, antibiotic therapy, and surgical intervention. This study was conducted to investigate the age and sex distribution of patients, symptoms, presentation, sites involved, bacteriology, and management and complications of DNSI.   Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed from October 2010 to January 2013, and included 76 patients with DNSI. Patients of all age groups and gender were included. All parameters including age, gender, co-morbidities, presentation, site, bacteriology, complications, and required interventions were studied.   Results: In our study, the majority of patients were in the 31–50-year age group. Males accounted for 55.26% of the sample and females for 44.74%, with a male:female ratio of 1.23. Most of the patients were from a rural background. Diabetes was found as a co-morbid condition in 10.52% cases. Neck pain was the most common symptom, identified in 89.47% cases. The most common etiological factor was odontogenic infection (34.21%, followed by tonsillar and pharyngeal infection (27.63%. The most common presentation was Ludwig’s angina (28.94%, followed by peritonsillar abscess and submandibular abscess. In 50% of cases, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were found in the culture. Surgical intervention was carried out in 89.47% cases. Emergency tracheotomy was required in 5.26% cases.   Conclusion:  DNSI can be life-threatening in diabetic patients, the immunocompromised, and elderly patients, and special attention should therefore be given

  8. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  9. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  10. Downlink Fiber Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communication, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) roadmap, calls for an integrated network approach to communication and navigation needs for robotic and human space...

  11. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    ) Investigate the application of Kalman filter to the positioning reduction of deep space probes and develop related software systems. In summary, the progress in this dissertation is made in the positioning reduction of deep space probes tracked by VLBI concerning the algorithm study, software development, real observation processing and so on, while a further study is still urgent and arduous.

  12. 76 FR 42160 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Space Transportation Operations Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  13. 78 FR 70093 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  14. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  15. 76 FR 621 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of a teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  16. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  17. 76 FR 41323 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of a teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  18. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  19. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  20. 76 FR 4988 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of a teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  1. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  2. 77 FR 44707 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of three teleconferences of the Systems Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation...

  3. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special closed session will be an...

  4. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meetings will take place on...

  5. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  6. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  7. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  8. Enabling Global Lunar Sample Return and Life-Detection Studies Using a Deep-Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Eigenbrode, J. A.; Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Trainer, M. E.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway could uniquely enable a lunar robotic sampling campaign that would provide incredible science return as well as feed forward to Mars and Europa by testing instrument sterility and ability to distinguish biogenic signals.

  9. Communications Relay and Human-Assisted Sample Return from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Hopkins, J. B.; Bierhaus, B.; Murrow, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can enable or enhance exploration of the lunar surface through two capabilities: 1. communications relay, opening up access to the lunar farside, and 2. sample return, enhancing the ability to return large sample masses.

  10. Deep Space Spaceflight: The Challenge of Crew Performance in Autonomous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, S. S.; Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Antonsen, E. L.

    2018-02-01

    Distance from Earth and limited communications in future missions will increase the demands for crew autonomy and dependence on automation, and Deep Space Gateway presents an opportunity to study the impacts of these increased demands on human performance.

  11. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  12. The JPL optical communications telescope laboratory (OCTL) test bed for the future optical Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Page, N.; Wu, J.; Srinivasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Relative to RF, the lower power-consumption and lower mass of high bandwidth optical telecommunications make this technology extremely attractive for returning data from future NASA/JPL deep space probes.

  13. Lunar Heat Flux Measurements Enabled by a Microwave Radiometer Aboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M.; Ruf, C.; Putzig, N.; Morgan, G.; Hayne, P.; Paige, D.; Nagihara, S.; Weber, R.

    2018-02-01

    We would like to present a concept to use the Deep Space Gateway as a platform for constraining the geothermal heat production, surface, and near-surface rocks, and dielectric properties of the Moon from orbit with passive microwave radiometery.

  14. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  15. Basic and Applied Algal Life Support System Research on Board the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, T.; Zea, L.; Anthony, J.; Stodieck, L.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effect of long-term preservation methods on DNA damage of algal cultures for BLSS applications. In a secondary step, the Deep Space Gateway serves as a technology demonstration platform for algal photobioreactors in intermittently occupied habitats.

  16. Deployable solar energy generators for deep space cubesats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cubesats require highly compact technologies to maximize their effectiveness. As cubesats are expected to be low-cost and, relative to the space industry, mass...

  17. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  18. Radial transport of high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere observed by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is known that proton is main contributor of the ring current and oxygen ions can make significant contribution during major magnetic storms. Ions are supplied to the ring current by radial transport from the plasma sheet. Convective transport of lower-energy protons and diffusive transport of higher-energy protons were reported to contribute to the storm-time and quiet-time ring current respectively [e.g., Gkioulidou et al., 2016]. However, supply mechanisms of the oxygen ions are not clear. To characterize the supply of oxygen ions to the ring current during magnetic storms, we studied the properties of energetic proton and oxygen ion phase space densities (PSDs) for specific magnetic moment (μ) during the April 23-25, 2013, geomagnetic storm observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. We here report on radial transport of high-energy (μ ≥ 0.5 keV/nT) oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during the late main phase of the magnetic storm. Since protons show little change during this period, this oxygen radial transport is inferred to cause the development of the late main phase. Enhancement of poloidal magnetic fluctuations is simultaneously observed. We estimated azimuthal mode number ≤5 by using cross wavelet analysis with ground-based observation of IMAGE ground magnetometers. The fluctuations can resonate with drift and bounce motions of the oxygen ions. The results suggest that combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances is responsible for the radial transport of high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere. We also report on the radial transport of the high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during other magnetic storms.

  19. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive modifications

  20. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft.) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft.) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope, which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to minimize dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  1. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960's to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and the modifications were funded, by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink and, the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in the overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  2. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  3. Solid State Energy Conversion for Deep Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices employed in static radioisotope generators show great promise for highly efficient, reliable, and resilient power generation for...

  4. The adjoint space in heat transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical concept of adjoint operators is applied to the heat transport equation and an adjoint equation is defined with a detector function as source term. The physical meaning of the solutions for the latter equation is outlined together with an application in the field of perturbation analysis. (author)

  5. Transport in the shaping of space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the City of Johannesburg residents who drove to work spent about 27 million hours commuting, while those who used public transport spent about 82 million hours. Collectively, travel time to work translated into 62 000 work days per year...

  6. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  7. Minimally invasive trans-portal resection of deep intracranial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, S M; Recinos, P F; Avendano, J; Adams, H; Jallo, G I; Quinones-Hinojosa, A

    2011-02-01

    The surgical management of deep intra-axial lesions still requires microsurgical approaches that utilize retraction of deep white matter to obtain adequate visualization. We report our experience with a new tubular retractor system, designed specifically for intracranial applications, linked with frameless neuronavigation for a cohort of intraventricular and deep intra-axial tumors. The ViewSite Brain Access System (Vycor, Inc) was used in a series of 9 adult and pediatric patients with a variety of pathologies. Histological diagnoses either resected or biopsied with the system included: colloid cyst, DNET, papillary pineal tumor, anaplastic astrocytoma, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. The locations of the lesions approached include: lateral ventricle, basal ganglia, pulvinar/posterior thalamus and insular cortex. Post-operative imaging was assessed to determine extent of resection and extent of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory (based on T (2)/FLAIR and diffusion restriction/ADC signal). Satisfactory resection or biopsy was obtained in all patients. Radiographic analysis demonstrated evidence of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory in one patient. None of the patients experienced neurological deficits as a result of white matter retraction/manipulation. Based on a retrospective review of our experience, we feel that this access system, when used in conjunction with frameless neuronavigational systems, provides adequate visualization for tumor resection while permitting the use of standard microsurgical techniques through minimally invasive craniotomies. Our initial data indicate that this system may minimize white matter injury, but further studies are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Deep Space 1 arrives at KSC and processing begins in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft waits in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility for prelaunch processing. Targeted for launch on a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket on Oct. 15, 1998, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  9. Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The unique built-in design features of the proposed mini pulse tube cryocooler avoid all thermal expansion issues enabling it to operate within a cold, 150 K...

  10. LunarCube for Deep Space Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co., Inc. and Morehead State University propose to develop a 6U CubeSat capable of reaching a lunar orbit from GEO. The primary objective is to demonstrate...

  11. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... infrastructure system, which supports the National Space Policy and Congressional intent. Begun in 2010, the... funding for Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure projects. It must be noted that with the FY... deadline, pursuant to 49 United States Code (U.S.C.) Chapter 703 (to be recodified at 51 U.S.C. Chapter 511...

  12. The YES2 Experience : Towards Sustainable Space Transportation using Tethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heide, E.J.; Kruijff, M.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today there is no common vision on sustainable space transportation. Rockets expel gasses and solid rockets often small particles. These have negative effect on the environment, but it is not understood to what extent. With ever growing demand for access to space, sustainable technology developments

  13. A Path Space Extension for Robust Light Transport Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Pantaleoni, Jacopo; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2012-01-01

    We present a new sampling space for light transport paths that makes it possible to describe Monte Carlo path integration and photon density estimation in the same framework. A key contribution of our paper is the introduction of vertex perturbations, which extends the space of paths with loosely...

  14. User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included.

  15. 77 FR 71474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on the critical matters facing the U.S. commercial...

  16. Space Transportation Analysis and Design (Reissue A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-17

    RECOVERABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES ..................... 3-12 1. Domestic (STS Space Shuttle) ....................................... 3-12 2. Foreign (CIS Energia ...affects solar heating of the spacecraft and the availability of solar energy for generating spacecraft power. 2-1 Table 2-1. Typical Orbits and...Foreign (CIS Energia Buran) The CIS Energia , which became operational in 1987, was developed to launch a variety of heavy payloads including the Buran

  17. Food web transport of trace metals and radionuclides from the deep sea: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.

    1979-06-01

    This report summarizes aspects of the potential distribution pathways of metals and radionuclides, particularly Co and Ni, through a biological trophic framework after their deposition at 4000 to 5000 meters in the North Atlantic or North Pacific. It discusses (a) the basic, deep-sea trophic structure of eutrophic and oligotrophic regions; (b) the transport pathways of biologically available energy to and from the deep sea, pathways that may act as accumulators and vectors of radionuclide distribution, and (c) distribution routes that have come into question as potential carriers of radionuclides from the deep-sea bed to man

  18. 14 CFR 401.1 - The Office of Commercial Space Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. 401.1 Section 401.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.1 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation. The Office of...

  19. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  20. Astronomical Observations Astronomy and the Study of Deep Space

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Our Search for knowledge about the universe has been remarkable, heartbreaking, fantastical, and inspiring, and this search is just beginning. Astronomical Observations is part of a 7 book series that takes readers through a virtual time warp of our discovery. From the nascent space programs of the 1960's to today's space tourism and the promise of distant planet colonization, readers will be transfixed. Throughout this journey of the mind, Earth-bound explorers gain keen insight into the celestial phenomena that have fascinated humans for centuries. Thrilling narratives about indefatigable sc

  1. Remote In-Space Manufacturing Applied with the Science of Interplanetary Supply Chain Modeling for Deep Space Gateway Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, M. C.

    2018-02-01

    Three goals can be achieved by 2030: 1. NASA will have the capability for remote on-demand 3d printing of critical hardware using regolith material as feedstock, 2. Logistics footprint reduced by 35%, 3. Deep Space Gateway will become 75% self-sustaining.

  2. DD-Amp for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN MMICs on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 60%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors will be...

  3. Wideband Integrated Lens Antennas for Terahertz Deep Space Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurduseven, O.

    2016-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) band is the portion of the spectrum that covers a frequency range from 300 GHz to 3 THz. The potential of this band has been proven for numerous type of applications including medical imaging, non-destructive testing, space observation, spectroscopy and security screening, thanks

  4. Reducing Human Radiation Risks on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    101 Figure 49. Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation System...2013). These same studies reveal that for astronauts returning home, this may result in significant loss of lifespan and quality of life due to...warnings to the satellites in orbit at either planet , or to spacecraft in transit (Phys.org 2010). C. IMPROVEMENTS TO MEASUREMENTS OF SPACE RADIATION

  5. Deep Space Detectives: Searching for Planets Suitable for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Damelin, Daniel; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the High-Adventure Science curriculum unit "Is There Life in Space?" This free online investigation, developed by The Concord Consortium, helps students see how scientists use modern tools to locate planets around distant stars and explore the probability of finding extraterrestrial life. This innovative curriculum…

  6. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  7. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  8. Space Transportation and the Computer Industry: Learning from the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, M. L.; Rasky, D.

    2002-01-01

    Since the space shuttle began flying in 1981, NASA has made a number of attempts to advance the state of the art in space transportation. In spite of billions of dollars invested, and several concerted attempts, no replacement for the shuttle is expected before 2010. Furthermore, the cost of access to space has dropped very slowly over the last two decades. On the other hand, the same two decades have seen dramatic progress in the computer industry. Computational speeds have increased by about a factor of 1000 and available memory, disk space, and network bandwidth has seen similar increases. At the same time, the cost of computing has dropped by about a factor of 10000. Is the space transportation problem simply harder? Or is there something to be learned from the computer industry? In looking for the answers, this paper reviews the early history of NASA's experience with supercomputers and NASA's visionary course change in supercomputer procurement strategy.

  9. The Importance of Conducting Life Sciences Experiments on the Deep Space Gateway Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades important information has been gathered by conducting life science experiments on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. It is now time to leverage that scientific knowledge, as well as aspects of the hardware that have been developed to support the biological model systems, to NASA's next frontier - the Deep Space Gateway. In order to facilitate long duration deep space exploration for humans, it is critical for NASA to understand the effects of long duration, low dose, deep space radiation on biological systems. While carefully controlled ground experiments on Earth-based radiation facilities have provided valuable preliminary information, we still have a significant knowledge gap on the biological responses of organisms to chronic low doses of the highly ionizing particles encountered beyond low Earth orbit. Furthermore, the combined effects of altered gravity and radiation have the potential to cause greater biological changes than either of these parameters alone. Therefore a thorough investigation of the biological effects of a cis-lunar environment will facilitate long term human exploration of deep space.

  10. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts

  11. Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazier, F.W. Jr.; Gardner, J.E.

    1993-02-01

    The Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop was held on September 23-26, 1991, in Newport News, Virginia. The workshop, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, was held to provide a forum for communication within the space materials and structures technology developer and user communities. Workshop participants were organized into a Vehicle Technology Requirements session and three working panels: Materials and Structures Technologies for Vehicle Systems, Propulsion Systems, and Entry Systems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report

  12. Software Graphics Processing Unit (sGPU) for Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Mary; Salazar, George; Steele, Glen

    2015-01-01

    A graphics processing capability will be required for deep space missions and must include a range of applications, from safety-critical vehicle health status to telemedicine for crew health. However, preliminary radiation testing of commercial graphics processing cards suggest they cannot operate in the deep space radiation environment. Investigation into an Software Graphics Processing Unit (sGPU)comprised of commercial-equivalent radiation hardened/tolerant single board computers, field programmable gate arrays, and safety-critical display software shows promising results. Preliminary performance of approximately 30 frames per second (FPS) has been achieved. Use of multi-core processors may provide a significant increase in performance.

  13. Energy consumption analysis of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    This report continues the energy consumption analysis and verification study of the tracking stations of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, and presents an audit of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS 13). Due to the non-continuous radioastronomy research and development operations at the station, estimations of energy usage were employed in the energy consumption simulation of both the 9-meter and 26-meter antenna buildings. A 17.9% decrease in station energy consumption was experienced over the 1979-1981 years under study. A comparison of the ECP computer simulations and the station's main watt-hour meter readings showed good agreement.

  14. Major technological innovations introduced in the large antennas of the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most sensitive scientific, telecommunications and radio navigation network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to provide communications, tracking, and science services to most of the world's spacecraft that travel beyond low Earth orbit. The network consists of three Deep Space Communications Complexes. Each of the three complexes consists of multiple large antennas equipped with ultra sensitive receiving systems. A centralized Signal Processing Center (SPC) remotely controls the antennas, generates and transmits spacecraft commands, and receives and processes the spacecraft telemetry.

  15. Is It Worth It? - the Economics of Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades billions of dollars have been invested by governments and private companies in the pursuit of lower cost access to space through earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation systems. Much of that investment has been focused on the development and operation of various forms of reusable transportation systems. From the Space Shuttle to current efforts by private commercial companies, the overarching belief of those making such investments has been that reusing system elements will be cheaper than utilizing expendable systems that involve throwing away costly engines, avionics, and other hardware with each flight. However, the view that reusable systems are ultimately a "better" approach to providing ETO transportation is not held universally by major stakeholders within the space transportation industry. While the technical feasibility of at least some degree of reusability has been demonstrated, there continues to be a sometimes lively debate over the merits and drawbacks of reusable versus expendable systems from an economic perspective. In summary, is it worth it? Based on our many years of direct involvement with the business aspects of several expendable and reusable transportation systems, it appears to us that much of the discussion surrounding reusability is hindered by a failure to clearly define and understand the financial and other metrics by which the financial "goodness" of a reusable or expandable approach is measured. As stakeholders, the different users and suppliers of space transportation have a varied set of criteria for determining the relative economic viability of alternative strategies, including reusability. Many different metrics have been used to measure the affordability of space transportation, such as dollars per payload pound (kilogram) to orbit, cost per flight, life cycle cost, net present value/internal rate of return, and many others. This paper will examine the key considerations that influence

  16. Considerations when analyzing investment in space transportation business ventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Greenberg, Joel

    2000-07-01

    Private sector investment in space transportation, as in most business situations, requires the development of realistic and believable business plans that demonstrate that if an investment is made that there is a reasonable chance that the indicated financial performance will attract the necessary financing. The business plan must also indicate the assumptions upon which the plan rests, and as has become almost second nature to the space transportation industry, the necessary role of the government in risk reduction and/or capital formation [i.e., government actions that are necessary to make the business venture financially attractive]. This paper discusses and describes several factors that must be considered, by both government and industry, when developing a business plan for obtaining financing for space transportation business ventures.

  17. Simulation of neutron transport equation using parallel Monte Carlo for deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekar, K. K.; Tombakoglu, M.; Soekmen, C. N.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron transport equation is simulated using parallel Monte Carlo method for deep penetration neutron transport problem. Monte Carlo simulation is parallelized by using three different techniques; direct parallelization, domain decomposition and domain decomposition with load balancing, which are used with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) software on LAN (Local Area Network). The results of parallel simulation are given for various model problems. The performances of the parallelization techniques are compared with each other. Moreover, the effects of variance reduction techniques on parallelization are discussed

  18. Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Yinhai

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Internet of Things (IoT), transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation.

  19. Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Ma

    Full Text Available Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS and Internet of Things (IoT, transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation.

  20. Random Access Frames (RAF): Alternative to Rack and Standoff for Deep Space Habitat Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Polit-Casillas, Raul

    2014-01-01

    A modular Random Access Frame (RAF) system is proposed as an alternative to the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) for internal module layout and outfitting in a Deep Space Habitat (DSH). The ISPR approach was designed to allow for efficient interchangeability of payload and experiments for the International Space Station (ISS) when frequent resupply missions were available (particularly the now-retired Space Shuttle). Though the standard interface approach to the ISPR system allowed integration of subsystems and hardware from a variety of sources and manufacturers, the heavy rack and standoff approach may not be appropriate when resupply or swap-out capabilities are not available, such as on deep space, long-duration missions. The lightweight RAF concept can allow a more dense packing of stowage and equipment, and may be easily broken down for repurposing or reuse. Several example layouts and workstations are presented.

  1. The efficient future of deep-space travel - electric rockets; Das Zeitalter der Elektrischen Raketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choueiri, Edgar Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Lab.

    2010-01-15

    Conventional rockets generate thrust by burning chemical fuel. Electric rockets propel space vehicles by applying electric or electromagnetic fields to clouds of charged particles, or plasmas, to accelerate them. Although electric rockets offer much lower thrust levels than their chemical cousins, they can eventually enable spacecraft to reach greater speeds for the same amount of propellant. Electric rockets' high-speed capabilities and their efficient use of propellant make them valuable for deep-space missions. (orig.)

  2. Near Earth Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near future the National Aeronautics and Space Administration anticipates a significant increase in demand for long-haul communications services from deep space to Earth. Distances will range from 0.1 to 40 AU, with data rate requirements in the 1's to 1000's of Mbits/second. The near term demand is driven by NASA's Space Science Enterprise which wishes to deploy more capable instruments onboard spacecraft and increase the number of deep space missions. The long term demand is driven by missions with extreme communications challenges such as very high data rates from the outer planets, supporting sub-surface exploration, or supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise beyond Earth orbit. Laser communications is a revolutionary communications technology that will dramatically increase NASA's ability to transmit information across the solar system. Lasercom sends information using beams of light and optical elements, such as telescopes and optical amplifiers, rather than RF signals, amplifiers, and antennas. This paper provides an overview of different network options at Earth to meet NASA's deep space lasercom requirements. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telesat Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  3. Final report of the SPS space transportation workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    After a brief description of space power system concepts and the current status of the SPS program, issues relevant to earth-surface-to-low-earth-orbit (ESLEO) and orbit-to-orbit transport are discussed. For ESLEO, vehicle concepts include shuttle transportation systems, heavy lift launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Orbit transfer vehicle missions include transport of cargo and the SPS module from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit as well as personnel transport. Vehicles discussed for such missions include chemical rocket orbital transfer vehicles, and electric orbital transfer vehicles. Further discussions include SPS station-keeping and attitude control, intra-orbit transport, and advanced propulsion and vehicle concepts. (LEW)

  4. Transport and matching of low energy space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    The transport and matching of low energy high intensity beams from the ion source to the subsequent accelerating structure are of considerable interest in recent years for variety of applications such as Accelerator driven system (ADSS), transmutation of nuclear waste, spallation neutron sources etc. It is essential to perform detailed simulations with experimentation to predict the beam evolution in the presence of nonlinear self as well as external fields before the design of the next accelerating structure is finalized. In order to study and settle various physics and technical issues related with transport of space charge dominated beams we have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave ion source at VECC which is now delivering more than 10 mA proton beam current at 80 keV. We have successfully transported well collimated 8 mA proton beam through the solenoid based 3 meter long transport line and studied various beam properties. We have also studied the transport of beam through spiral inflector at low beam current ∼ 1mA. In this article we will discuss the beam transport issues and describe a technique for simulation of beam envelopes in presence of linear space charge effects. We use canonical description of the motion of a single particle and then obtain first order differential equations for evolution of the moments of beam ensemble by assuming uniform distribution of the beam. We will also discuss the methodology used in the simulations to understand the observed beam behaviour during transport. (author)

  5. 76 FR 4743 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  6. 75 FR 51332 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  7. 77 FR 48585 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  8. 76 FR 15041 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  9. 76 FR 12211 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference (COMSTAC). SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  10. 76 FR 67018 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  11. 75 FR 38866 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  12. 75 FR 52058 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10...

  13. 77 FR 65443 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  14. Direct Characterization of Comets and Asteroids via Cosmic Dust Analysis from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Fisher, K.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can allow direct analysis of dust from over a dozen comets, using an instrument similar to the successful Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA). Long-term measurements are preferred. Compositions of over a dozen asteroids and comets can be obtained.

  15. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  16. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  17. The Gateway to Cosmic Dawn: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, K.; Burns, J. O.; Monsalve, R.; Rapetti, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest that, with a suitable antenna and receiver, the Deep Space Gateway can be used to measure the highly redshifted, global 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen, a spectral imprint of the history of the universe onto cosmic background radiation.

  18. Global Lunar Topography from the Deep Space Gateway for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Edmundson, K.; Stone, T.; Portree, D.; Keszthelyi, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway, in low lunar orbit, could be used to achieve a long standing goal of lunar science, collecting stereo images in two months to make a complete, uniform, high resolution, known accuracy, global topographic model of the Moon.

  19. Exploration of Near-Earth Objects from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Stakkestad, K.; Vedder, P.; McAdams, J.; Horsewood, J.; Genova, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    The paper will show how clever use of orbital dynamics can lower delta-V costs to enable scientifically interesting missions. The high-energy Deep Space Gateway orbits can be used to reach NEOs, a trans node for crews, or to deploy small sats. Examples are given.

  20. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  1. Transport regimes spanning magnetization-coupling phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    The manner in which transport properties vary over the entire parameter-space of coupling and magnetization strength is explored. Four regimes are identified based on the relative size of the gyroradius compared to other fundamental length scales: the collision mean free path, Debye length, distance of closest approach, and interparticle spacing. Molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion and temperature anisotropy relaxation spanning the parameter space are found to agree well with the predicted boundaries. Comparison with existing theories reveals regimes where they succeed, where they fail, and where no theory has yet been developed.

  2. Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years. Meeting the in-house and commercial launch demand for Communication and Remote Sensing spacecraft. Payload capability enhancement for expendable launch vehicles to meet the national needs.

  3. Space Transportation Technology Workshop: Propulsion Research and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Transportation Technology Workshop topics, including Propulsion Research and Technology (PR&T) project level organization, FY 2001 - 2006 project roadmap, points of contact, foundation technologies, auxiliary propulsion technology, PR&T Low Cost Turbo Rocket, and PR&T advanced reusable technologies RBCC test bed.

  4. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  5. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  6. Achieving deep reductions in US transport greenhouse gas emissions: Scenario analysis and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, David; Yang, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for making deep cuts in US transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the long-term (50-80% below 1990 levels by 2050). Scenarios are used to envision how such a significant decarbonization might be achieved through the application of advanced vehicle technologies and fuels, and various options for behavioral change. A Kaya framework that decomposes GHG emissions into the product of four major drivers is used to analyze emissions and mitigation options. In contrast to most previous studies, a relatively simple, easily adaptable modeling methodology is used which can incorporate insights from other modeling studies and organize them in a way that is easy for policymakers to understand. Also, a wider range of transportation subsectors is considered here-light- and heavy-duty vehicles, aviation, rail, marine, agriculture, off-road, and construction. This analysis investigates scenarios with multiple options (increased efficiency, lower-carbon fuels, and travel demand management) across the various subsectors and confirms the notion that there are no 'silver bullet' strategies for making deep cuts in transport GHGs. If substantial emission reductions are to be made, considerable action is needed on all fronts, and no subsectors can be ignored. Light-duty vehicles offer the greatest potential for emission reductions; however, while deep reductions in other subsectors are also possible, there are more limitations in the types of fuels and propulsion systems that can be used. In all cases travel demand management strategies are critical; deep emission cuts will not likely be possible without slowing growth in travel demand across all modes. Even though these scenarios represent only a small subset of the potential futures in which deep reductions might be achieved, they provide a sense of the magnitude of changes required in our transportation system and the need for early and aggressive action if long-term targets are to be met.

  7. Deep-Inelastic Final States in a Space-Time Description of Shower Development and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Geiger, Klaus; Kowalski, Henryk

    1996-01-01

    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time and momentum space to deep-inelastic $ep$ collisions, with particular reference to experiments at HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of colour-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the space-like initial-state shower and the time-like secondary partons are treated similarly, an...

  8. Building Better Biosensors for Exploration into Deep-Space, Using Humanized Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Lauren; Santa Maria, Sergio; Tieze, Sofia; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    1.BioSentinel is 1 of 13 secondary payloads hitching a ride beyond Low Earth Orbit on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), set to launch from NASAs Space Launch System in 2019. EM-1 is our first opportunity to investigate the effects of the deep space environment on a eukaryotic biological system, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Though separated by a billion years of evolution we share hundreds of genes important for basic cell function, including responses to DNA damage. Thus, yeast is an ideal biosensor for detecting typesextent of damage induced by deep-space radiation.We will fly desiccated cells, then rehydrate to wake them up when the automated payload is ready to initiate the experiment. Rehydration solution contains SC (Synthetic Complete) media and alamarBlue, an indicator for changes in growth and metabolism. Telemetry of LED readings will then allow us to detect how cells respond throughout the mission. The desiccation-rehydration process can be extremely damaging to cells, and can severely diminish our ability to accurately measure and model cellular responses to deep-space radiation. The aim of this study is to develop a better biosensor: yeast strains that are more resistant to desiccation stress. We will over-express known cellular protectants, including hydrophilin Sip18, the protein disaggregase Hsp104, and thioredoxin Trx2, a responder to oxidative stress, then measure cell viability after desiccation to determine which factors improve stress tolerance. Over-expression of SIP18 in wine yeast starter cultures was previously reported to increase viability following desiccation stress by up to 70. Thus, we expect similar improvements in our space-yeast strains. By designing better yeast biosensors we can better prepare for and mitigate the potential dangers of deep-space radiation for future missions.This work is funded by NASAs AES program.

  9. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  10. Learning Traffic as Images: A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Large-Scale Transportation Network Speed Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Dai, Zhuang; He, Zhengbing; Ma, Jihui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-04-10

    This paper proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based method that learns traffic as images and predicts large-scale, network-wide traffic speed with a high accuracy. Spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are converted to images describing the time and space relations of traffic flow via a two-dimensional time-space matrix. A CNN is applied to the image following two consecutive steps: abstract traffic feature extraction and network-wide traffic speed prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by taking two real-world transportation networks, the second ring road and north-east transportation network in Beijing, as examples, and comparing the method with four prevailing algorithms, namely, ordinary least squares, k-nearest neighbors, artificial neural network, and random forest, and three deep learning architectures, namely, stacked autoencoder, recurrent neural network, and long-short-term memory network. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms by an average accuracy improvement of 42.91% within an acceptable execution time. The CNN can train the model in a reasonable time and, thus, is suitable for large-scale transportation networks.

  11. On interpreting studies of tracer transport by deep cumulus convection and its effects on atmospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Global chemistry-transport models (CTMs and chemistry-GCMs (CGCMs generally simulate vertical tracer transport by deep convection separately from the advective transport by the mean winds, even though a component of the mean transport, for instance in the Hadley and Walker cells, occurs in deep convective updrafts. This split treatment of vertical transport has various implications for CTM simulations. In particular, it has led to a misinterpretation of several sensitivity simulations in previous studies in which the parameterized convective transport of one or more tracers is neglected. We describe this issue in terms of simulated fluxes and fractions of these fluxes representing various physical and non-physical processes. We then show that there is a significant overlap between the convective and large-scale mean advective vertical air mass fluxes in the CTM MATCH, and discuss the implications which this has for interpreting previous and future sensitivity simulations, as well as briefly noting other related implications such as numerical diffusion.

  12. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  13. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    The largest share of space missions is going to the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO); they have the highest commercial importance. The paper first shows the historic trend of specific transportation costs to GEO from 1963 to 2002. It started out with more than 500 000 /kg(2002-value) and has come down to 36 000 /kg. This reduction looks impressive, however, the reason is NOT improved technology or new techniques but solely the growth of GEO payloads`unit mass. The first GEO satellite in 1963 did have a mass of 36 kg mass (BoL) . This has grown to a weight of 1600 kg (average of all GEO satellites) in the year 2000. Mass in GEO after injection is used here instead of GTO mass since the GTO mass depends on the launch site latitude. The specific cost reduction is only due to the "law-of-scale", valid in the whole transportation business: the larger the payload, the lower the specific transportation cost. The paper shows the actual prices of launch services to GTO by the major launch vehicles. Finally the potential GEO transportation costs of future launch systems are evaluated. What is the potential reduction of specific transportation costs if reusable elements are introduced in future systems ? Examples show that cost reductions up to 75 % seem achievable - compared to actual costs - but only with launch systems optimized according to modern principles of cost engineering. 1. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, World Space Congress Houston 2. First Submission 3. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future 4. KOELLE, D.E. 5. IAA.1.1 Launch Vehicles' Cost Engineering and Economic Competitiveness 6. D.E. Koelle; A.E. Goldstein 7. One overhead projector and screen 8. Word file attached 9. KOELLE I have approval to attend the Congress. I am not willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  14. Update of KSC activities for the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is a status report on the facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that will support Space Shuttle launches. The conversion of KSC facilities to support efficient and economical checkout and launch operations in the era of the Space Shuttle is nearing completion. The driving force behind the KSC effort has been the necessity of providing adequate and indispensable facilities and support systems at minimum cost. This required the optimum utilization of existing buildings, equipment and systems, both at KSC and at Air Force property on Cape Canaveral, as well as the construction of two major new facilities and several minor ones. The entirely new structures discussed are the Shuttle Landing Facility and Orbiter Processing Facility. KSC stands ready to provide the rapid reliable economical landing-to-launch processing needed to ensure the success of this new space transportation system.

  15. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  16. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  17. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy as a Counter-Measure for Human Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Roach, A.-N.; Ramsahai, S.; Kim, B. C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Riley, D. A.; Gonda, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of deep space depends, in part, on our ability to counter severe/invasive disorders that astronauts experience in space environments. The known symptoms include hematological/cardiac abnormalities,bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, we have advanced a hypothesis that ome of the space-caused disorders maybe amenable to hematopoietis stem cell therapy(HSCT) so as to maintain promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia beta-thaiassemia) as well as spaceflight (hindlimb unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, in the case of HSCT for muscle loss, the beta-galactosidese marked HSCs were detected in the hindlimbs of unloaded mouse following transplantation by -X-gal wholemaunt staining procedure. Histochemicaland physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. HSCT for immunodeficiency was investigated ising beta-galactosidese gene-tagged Escherichia coli as the infectious agent. Results of the X-gal staining procedure indicated the rapeutic role of the HSCT. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  18. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  19. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  20. Relationship between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Prognosis in Patients with Deep Neck Space Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Şengül

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate if there is any relation between the neutrophil-to-lym­phocyte ratio and prognosis in patients with deep neck space infections Methods: One hundred eight patients who were interned and treated due to deep neck infection in department of otolaryngology between January 2010 and January 2015 were analyzed. Demographics, clini­cal data, complications and treatment results of patients were evaluated. Pediatric patients between the age of 0 and 14, the patients who had only peritonsillary abscess, infection secondary to trauma were excluded from study. During follow-up and treatment duration the patients with deep neck infections were divided into two groups ac­cording to whether they had any complication (group 1 or not (group 2. Results: Fourteen (13% patients with deep neck in­fections had life-threatening complications whereas 94 (87% did not have any complication during follow-up and treatment duration. The mean neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with complications was significantly high­er than the patients without any complications (p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio can be used as a cheap, easily obtained and predictive prognostic factor in patients with deep neck infections.

  1. Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time, and Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Käufl, H.U; ESO/VUB Conference

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the NASA Deep Impact space mission, comet 9P/Tempel1 has been at the focus of an unprecedented worldwide long-term multi-wavelength observation campaign. The comet was also studied throughout its perihelion passage by various sources including the Deep Impact mission itself, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, Rosetta, XMM and all major ground-based observatories in a wavelength band from cm-wave radio astronomy to x-rays. This book includes the proceedings of a meeting that brought together an audience of theoreticians and observers - across the electromagnetic spectrum and from different sites and projects - to make full use of the massive ground-based observing data set. The coherent presentation of all data sets illustrates and examines the various observational constraints on modelling the cometary nucleus, cometary gas, cometary plasma, cometary dust, and the comet's surface and its activity.

  2. Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Planning for the upgrade and/or replacement of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets that typically operate for forty or more years necessitates understanding potential customer needs as far into the future as possible. This paper describes the methodology Deep Space Network (DSN) planners use to develop this understanding, some key future mission trends that have emerged from application of this methodology, and the implications of the trends for the DSN's future evolution. For NASA's current plans out to 2030, these trends suggest the need to accommodate: three times as many communication links, downlink rates two orders of magnitude greater than today's, uplink rates some four orders of magnitude greater, and end-to-end link difficulties two-to-three orders of magnitude greater. To meet these challenges, both DSN capacity and capability will need to increase.

  3. Implementation of an Antenna Array Signal Processing Breadboard for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Large Array will replace/augment 34 and 70 meter antenna assets. The array will mainly be used to support NASA's deep space telemetry, radio science, and navigation requirements. The array project will deploy three complexes in the western U.S., Australia, and European longitude each with 400 12m downlink antennas and a DSN central facility at JPL. THis facility will remotely conduct all real-time monitor and control for the network. Signal processing objectives include: provide a means to evaluate the performance of the Breadboard Array's antenna subsystem; design and build prototype hardware; demonstrate and evaluate proposed signal processing techniques; and gain experience with various technologies that may be used in the Large Array. Results are summarized..

  4. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun

    2009-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code

  5. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code.

  6. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to better manage enormous amounts of administrative, engineering, and management data that is distributed worldwide, a study was conducted which identified the need for a network support system. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) will provide the Deep Space Network with the tools to provide an easily accessible source of valid information to support management activities and provide a more cost-effective method of acquiring, maintaining, and retrieval data.

  7. Surgical Space Conditions During Low-Pressure Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with Deep Versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    : In this assessor-blinded study, 48 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were administered rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade and randomized to either deep neuromuscular blockade (rocuronium bolus plus infusion maintaining a posttetanic count 0-1) or moderate neuromuscular blockade...... (rocuronium repeat bolus only for inadequate surgical conditions with spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function). Patients received anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. The primary outcome was the proportion of procedures with optimal surgical space conditions (assessed by the surgeon...

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2011-07-18

    In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.

  10. Space transportation. [user needs met by information derived from satellites and the interface with space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    User-oriented panels were formed to examine practical applications of information or services derived from earth orbiting satellites. Topics discussed include: weather and climate; uses of communication; land use planning; agriculture, forest, and range; inland water resources; retractable resources; environmental quality; marine and maritime uses; and materials processing in space. Emphasis was placed on the interface of the space transportation system (STS) with the applications envisioned by the user panels. User requirements were compared with expected STS capabilities in terms of availability, carrying payload to orbit, and estimated costs per launch. Conclusions and recommendations were reported.

  11. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Transportation Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Marshall's effort to sustain space transportation solutions through product lines that include: 1) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 2) Life Support Systems; and 3) and Earth and Space Science Spacecraft Systems, and Operations.

  12. A Status of the Advanced Space Transportation Program from Planning to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry; Griner, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    dramatically reduce the propellant and structural mass of orbit transfer and deep space systems. Flight demonstration of ion propulsion is progressing towards launch. Ion propulsion is the primary propulsion for Deep Space 1; a flyby of comet West-kohoutek-lkemura and asteroid 3352 McAuliffe. Testing of critical solar-thermal propulsion subsystems have been accomplished and planning is continuing for the flight demonstration of an electrodynamic tether orbit transfer system. The forth and final element of the program, Space Transportation Research, has progressed in several areas of propulsion research. This element of the program is focused at long-term (25 years) breakthrough concepts that could bring launch costs to a factor of one hundred below today's cost or dramatically expand planetary travel and enable interstellar travel.

  13. The Researches on Reasonable Well Spacing of Gas Wells in Deep and low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yu Bei; Hui, Li; Lin, Li Dong

    2018-06-01

    This Gs64 gas reservoir is a condensate gas reservoir which is relatively integrated with low porosity and low permeability found in Dagang Oilfield in recent years. The condensate content is as high as 610g/m3. At present, there are few reports about the well spacing of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad. Therefore, determining the reasonable well spacing of the gas reservoir is important for ensuring the optimal development effect and economic benefit of the gas field development. This paper discusses the reasonable well spacing of the deep and low permeability gas reservoir from the aspects of percolation mechanics, gas reservoir engineering and numerical simulation. considering there exist the start-up pressure gradient in percolation process of low permeability gas reservoir, this paper combined with productivity equation under starting pressure gradient, established the formula of gas well spacing with the formation pressure and start-up pressure gradient. The calculation formula of starting pressure gradient and well spacing of gas wells. Adopting various methods to calculate values of gas reservoir spacing are close to well testing' radius, so the calculation method is reliable, which is very important for the determination of reasonable well spacing in low permeability gas reservoirs.

  14. Identification of Novel Desiccation-Tolerant S. cerevisiae Strains for Deep Space Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieze, Sofia Massaro; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Liddell, Lauren; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    NASA's BioSentinel mission, a secondary payload that will fly on the Space Launch Systems first Exploration Mission (EM-1), utilizes the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to study the biological response to the deep space radiation environment. Yeast samples are desiccated prior to launch to suspend growth and metabolism while the spacecraft travels to its target heliocentric orbit beyond Low Earth Orbit. Each sample is then rehydrated at the desired time points to reactivate the cells. A major risk in this mission is the loss of cell viability that occurs in the recovery period following the desiccation and rehydration process. Cell survival is essential for the detection of the biological response to features in the deep space environment, including ionizing radiation.The aim of this study is to mitigate viable cell loss in future biosensors by identifying mutations and genes that confer tolerance to desiccation stress in rad51, a radiation-sensitive yeast strain. We initiated a screen for desiccation-tolerance after rehydrating cells that were desiccated for three years, and selected various clones exhibiting robust growth. To verify retention of radiation sensitivity in the isolated clonesa crucial feature for a successful biosensorwe exposed them to ionizing radiation. Finally, to elucidate the genetic and molecular bases for observed desiccation-tolerance, we will perform whole-genome sequencing of those rad51 clones that exhibit both robust growth and radiation sensitivity following desiccation. The identification and characterization of desiccation-tolerant strains will allow us to engineer a biological model that will be resilient in face of the challenges of the deep space environment, and will thus ensure the experimental success of future biosensor missions.

  15. Obstacle Detection for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Deep Stacked Autoencoder and k-Nearest Neighbor Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Dairi, Abdelkader; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Senouci, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Obstacle detection is an essential element for the development of intelligent transportation systems so that accidents can be avoided. In this study, we propose a stereovisionbased method for detecting obstacles in urban environment. The proposed method uses a deep stacked auto-encoders (DSA) model that combines the greedy learning features with the dimensionality reduction capacity and employs an unsupervised k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) to accurately and reliably detect the presence of obstacles. We consider obstacle detection as an anomaly detection problem. We evaluated the proposed method by using practical data from three publicly available datasets, the Malaga stereovision urban dataset (MSVUD), the Daimler urban segmentation dataset (DUSD), and Bahnhof dataset. Also, we compared the efficiency of DSA-KNN approach to the deep belief network (DBN)-based clustering schemes. Results show that the DSA-KNN is suitable to visually monitor urban scenes.

  16. Obstacle Detection for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Deep Stacked Autoencoder and k-Nearest Neighbor Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Dairi, Abdelkader

    2018-04-30

    Obstacle detection is an essential element for the development of intelligent transportation systems so that accidents can be avoided. In this study, we propose a stereovisionbased method for detecting obstacles in urban environment. The proposed method uses a deep stacked auto-encoders (DSA) model that combines the greedy learning features with the dimensionality reduction capacity and employs an unsupervised k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) to accurately and reliably detect the presence of obstacles. We consider obstacle detection as an anomaly detection problem. We evaluated the proposed method by using practical data from three publicly available datasets, the Malaga stereovision urban dataset (MSVUD), the Daimler urban segmentation dataset (DUSD), and Bahnhof dataset. Also, we compared the efficiency of DSA-KNN approach to the deep belief network (DBN)-based clustering schemes. Results show that the DSA-KNN is suitable to visually monitor urban scenes.

  17. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollington, D; Baird, J T; Sumner, T J; Wass, P J

    2015-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability. (paper)

  18. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  19. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  20. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  1. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  2. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  3. Developing a Fault Management Guidebook for Nasa's Deep Space Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.; Jacome, Raquel Weitl

    2015-01-01

    NASA designs and builds systems that achieve incredibly ambitious goals, as evidenced by the Curiosity rover traversing on Mars, the highly complex International Space Station orbiting our Earth, and the compelling plans for capturing, retrieving and redirecting an asteroid into a lunar orbit to create a nearby a target to be investigated by astronauts. In order to accomplish these feats, the missions must be imbued with sufficient knowledge and capability not only to realize the goals, but also to identify and respond to off-nominal conditions. Fault Management (FM) is the discipline of establishing how a system will respond to preserve its ability to function even in the presence of faults. In 2012, NASA released a draft FM Handbook in an attempt to coalesce the field by establishing a unified terminology and a common process for designing FM mechanisms. However, FM approaches are very diverse across NASA, especially between the different mission types such as Earth orbiters, launch vehicles, deep space robotic vehicles and human spaceflight missions, and the authors were challenged to capture and represent all of these views. The authors recognized that a necessary precursor step is for each sub-community to codify its FM policies, practices and approaches in individual, focused guidebooks. Then, the sub-communities can look across NASA to better understand the different ways off-nominal conditions are addressed, and to seek commonality or at least an understanding of the multitude of FM approaches. This paper describes the development of the "Deep Space Robotic Fault Management Guidebook," which is intended to be the first of NASA's FM guidebooks. Its purpose is to be a field-guide for FM practitioners working on deep space robotic missions, as well as a planning tool for project managers. Publication of this Deep Space Robotic FM Guidebook is expected in early 2015. The guidebook will be posted on NASA's Engineering Network on the FM Community of Practice

  4. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  5. Deciphering Equatorial Pacific Deep Sea Sediment Transport Regimes by Core-Log-Seismic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Marcantonio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating deep-sea sediment transportation and deposition regimes is a key to accurately understand implications from geological information recorded by pelagic sediments, e.g. climate signals. However, except for physical oceanographic particle trap experiments, geochemical analyses of in situsediments, and theoretical modeling of the relation between the bottom currents and sediment particle flux, it has remained a challenging task to document the movement of deep sea sediments, that takes place over time. We utilized high-resolution, multichannel reflection seismic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific region with drilling and logging results from two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) 7 (Site U1337) and 8 (Site U1338), to characterize sediment transportation regimes on 18-24 Ma oceanic crust. Site U1337, constructed by a series of distinct abyssal hills and abyssal basins; Site U1338, located 570 km SE from Site U1337 site and constructed by a series of ridges, seamounts, and abyssal hills. These sites are of particular interest due to their proximity to the equatorial productivity zone, areas with high sedimentation rates and preservation of carbonate-bearing sediment that provide invaluable insights on equatorial Pacific ecosystems and carbon cycle. We integrate downhole geophysical logging data as well as geochemistry and physical properties measurements on recovered cores from IODP Sites U1337 and U1338 to comprehensively examine the mobility of deep-sea sediments and sediment diagenesis over times in a quasi-3D manner. We also examine 1100 km of high resolution underway seismic surveys from site survey lines in between PEAT 7 and 8 in order to investigate changes in sediment transportation between both sites. Integrating detailed seismic interpretations, high resolution core data, and 230Th flux measurements we aim to create a detailed chronological sedimentation and sediment diagenesis history

  6. Development of emergency arrangements for the transport of radioactive waste to a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Hutchinson, D.L.; Burgess, M.H.; Higson, J.; Randall, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of the studies and discussions which have led to the recommendation that Nirex should adopt NIREP as the Emergency Plan for the proposed transport arrangements of radioactive waste to the proposed UK deep repository for the disposal of low level and intermediate level waste. Although NIREP is currently specific to the road transport of radioactive materials, it is in the process of being extended to cover their transport by rail. An extended version of NIREP, covering both road and rail transport, could be operational by the end of 1992. NIREP is an established plan which meets all the current legal requirements and is flexible enough to accommodate any likely changes in legislation in the future. It is compatible with the Planning Basis and meets the requirements of the Emergency Plan Specification. The extended version of NIREP will be subject to an annual full-scale exercise and the Plan should be well-proven by the time that transport of waste packages to the repository commences. (J.P.N.)

  7. Endodontic pathogens causing deep neck space infections: clinical impact of different sampling techniques and antibiotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Paul W; Crepaz, Valentina; Russmueller, Guenter; Seemann, Rudolf; Hirschl, Alexander M; Ewers, Rolf

    2011-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare microbial populations in patients suffering from deep neck space abscesses caused by primary endodontic infections by sampling the infections with aspiration or swabbing techniques and to determine the susceptibility rates of the isolated bacteria to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 89 patients with deep neck space abscesses caused by primary endodontic infections requiring extraoral incision and drainage under general anesthesia were included. Either aspiration or swabbing was used to sample microbial pus specimens. The culture of the microbial specimens and susceptibility testing were performed following standard procedures. A total of 142 strains were recovered from 76 patients. In 13 patients, no bacteria were found. The predominant bacteria observed were streptococci (36%), staphylococci (13%), Prevotella (8%), and Peptostreptococcus (6%). A statistically significant greater number of obligate anaerobes were found in the aspiration group. The majority of patients presented a mixed aerobic-anaerobic population of bacterial flora (62%). The antibiotic resistance rates for the predominant bacteria were 10% for penicillin G, 9% for amoxicillin, 0% for amoxicillin clavulanate, 24% for clindamycin, and 24% for erythromycin. The results of our study indicated that a greater number of anaerobes were found when sampling using the aspiration technique. Penicillin G and aminopenicillins alone are not always sufficient for the treatment of severe deep neck space abscesses; beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are more effective. Bacteria showed significant resistant rates to clindamycin. Thus, its single use in penicillin-allergic patients has to be carefully considered. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary design work on a DSN VLBI correlator. [Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.; Layland, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is in the process of fielding high-density digital instrumentation recorders for support of the Pioneer Venus 1978 entry experiment and other related tasks. It has long been obvious that these recorders would also serve well as the recording medium for very long base interferometry (VLBI) experiments with relatively weak radio sources, provided that a suitable correlation processor for these tape recordings could be established. The overall design and current status of a VLBI correlator designed to mate with these tape recorders are described.

  9. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.

    2017-11-01

    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  10. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  11. The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

  12. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER IN DEEP SPACE: A Framework to Leverage Advanced Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    the Casimir force—which is analogous to a pressure imbalance created by a reduction in air density ( think Bernoulli’s principle).53 Because the...many bets ” scenario. If the bets are well vetted, like the BPP model, then even a null or sub-optimal result is a valuable 37 pay-off in terms of...we must think of deep space exploration as imperative–too important to be relegated to simple political interest. 115 “Worldometers” on Worldometers

  13. Topographic signatures and a general transport law for deep-seated landslides in a landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Adam M.; Roering, Josh J.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental goal of studying earth surface processes is to disentangle the complex web of interactions among baselevel, tectonics, climate, and rock properties that generate characteristic landforms. Mechanistic geomorphic transport laws can quantitatively address this goal, but no widely accepted law for landslides exists. Here we propose a transport law for deep-seated landslides in weathered bedrock and demonstrate its utility using a two-dimensional numerical landscape evolution model informed by study areas in the Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand, and the Eel River catchment, California. We define a non-dimensional landslide number, which is the ratio of the horizontal landslide flux to the vertical tectonic flux, that characterizes three distinct landscape types. One is dominated by stochastic landsliding, whereby discrete landslide events episodically erode material at rates exceeding the long-term uplift rate. Another is characterized by steady landsliding, in which the landslide flux at any location remains constant through time and is greatest at the steepest locations in the catchment. The third is not significantly affected by landsliding. In both the "stochastic landsliding" and "steady landsliding" regimes, increases in the non-dimensional landslide number systematically reduce catchment relief and widen valley spacing, producing long, low angle hillslopes despite high uplift rates. The stochastic landsliding regime captures the frequent observation that deep-seated landslides produce large sediment fluxes from small areal extents while being active only a fraction of the time. We suggest that this model is adaptable to a wide range of geologic settings and is useful for interpreting climate-driven changes in landslide behavior.

  14. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  15. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  16. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  17. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  18. Beyond emission targets: how to decarbonize the passenger transport sector? Results from the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project for Transport (DDPP-T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    Reaching the ambitious climate objective of the Paris Agreement requires decreasing significantly sectoral emissions from the transport sector. However, the ambition pledged for the transport sector under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) remains very limited. The DDPP-T analyzes Paris-compatible sectoral strategies for the passenger transport that can serve to inform the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue and the preparation of future, more ambitious, NDCs by 2020. In a context of an expected steep increase in global mobility demand, deep decarbonization will require a mix of different 'well-known' options: the rapid diffusion of low-carbon vehicles and low-carbon fuels and the modal shift towards low-carbon modes like public transport and non-motorized transport (cycling and walking). However, while crucial, these options are not 'silver bullets' that on their own meet the decarbonization challenge, given their intrinsic individual limitations. The project adopts an integrated approach of sectoral deep decarbonization strategies articulating the diffusion of low-carbon technologies with the future of mobility and all its drivers, such as the demographic and economic situation, the localization of population centers, the transport and urban planning, the lifestyles and the features of mobility services. The strategies are context-specific in order to capture different country circumstances, and consider a long-term horizon to inform the short-term conditions enabling structural changes of the transport system. Building on four country analyses (France, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom), this Issue Brief derives five cross-cutting messages for a deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector. Key messages: - Deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector requires strong actions on four pillars of transformation. Only a consistent articulation of these synergistic pillars allows an effective deep decarbonization. - Deep

  19. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  20. Uplink-Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network, 1957-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgway, Douglas J.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In these pages, the informed reader will discover a simple description of what the Deep Space Network (DSN) is about, and how it works an aspect of NASA's spectacular planetary program that seldom found its way into the popular media coverage of those major events. Future historical researchers will find a complete record of the origin and birth of the DSN, its subsequent development and expansion over the ensuing four decades, and a description of the way in which the DSN was used to fulfill the purpose for which it was created. At the same time, the specialist reader is provided with an abundant source of technical references that address every aspect of the advanced telecommunications technology on which the success of the DSN depended. And finally, archivists, educators, outreach managers, and article writers will have ready recourse to the inner workings of the DSN and how they related to the more publicly visible events of the planetary space program.

  1. Direct Characterization of Comets and Asteroids via Cosmic Dust Analysis from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Fisher, K.

    2018-01-01

    The Deep Space Gateway (DSG) may provide a platform for direct sampling of a large number of comets and asteroids, through employment of an instrument for characterizing dust from these bodies. Every year, the Earth traverses through debris streams of dust and small particles from comets and asteroids in Earth-crossing orbits, generating short-lived outbursts of meteor activity commonly known as "meteor showers" (Figure 1). The material in each debris stream originates from a distinct parent body, many of which have been identified. By sampling this material, it is possible to quantitatively analyze the composition of a dozen or more comets and asteroids (See Figure 2, following page) without leaving cislunar space.

  2. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  3. Beyond the usual mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Serafini, Jonathan; Sichoix, Lydie

    2014-05-01

    We describe here a new algorithm to model the water contents of the atmosphere (including ZWD) from GPS slant wet delays relative to a single receiver. We first make the assumption that the water vapor contents are mainly governed by a scale height (exponential law), and secondly that the departures from this decaying exponential can be mapped as a set of low degree 3D Zernike functions (w.r.t. space) and Tchebyshev polynomials (w.r.t. time.) We compare this new algorithm with previous algorithms known as mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking and give an example with data acquired over a one day time span at the Geodesy Observatory of Tahiti.

  4. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  5. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  6. Report on the survey for electrostatic discharges on Mars using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Majid, W.; Geldzahler, B.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mars atmosphere has strong dust activity. It is suggested that the larger regional storms are capable of producing electric fields large enough to initiate electrostatic discharges. The storms have charging process similar to terrestrial dust devils and have hot cores and complicated vortex winds similar to terrestrial thunderstorms. However, due to uncertainties in our understanding of the electrical environment of the storms and absence of related in-situ measurements, the existence (or non-existence) of such electrostatic discharges on the planet is yet to be confirmed. Knowing about the electrical activity on Mars is essential for future human explorations of the planet. We have recently launched a long-term monitoring campaign at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) to search for powerful discharges on Mars. The search occurs during routine tracking of Mars orbiting spacecraft by Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescope. In this presentation, we will report on the result of processing and analysis of the data from the first six months of our campaign.

  7. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  8. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  9. Deep-inelastic final states in a space-time description of shower development and hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1996-06-01

    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time and momentum space to deep-inelastic ep collisions, with particular reference to experiments at HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of colour-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the space-like initial-state shower and the time-like secondary partons are treated similarly, and cluster formation is treated using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a non-perturbative model for hadronization. We calculate the time evolution of particle distributions in rapidity, transverse and longitudinal space. We also compare the transverse hadronic energy flow and the distribution of observed hadronic masses with experimental data from HERA, finding encouraging results, and discuss the background to large-rapidity-gap events. The techniques developed in this paper may be applied in the future to more complicated processes such as eA, pp, pA and AA collisions. (orig.)

  10. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  11. University of Tennessee Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research had projects with space applications in six major areas: laser materials processing, artificial intelligence/expert systems, space transportation, computational methods, chemical propulsion, and electric propulsion. The closeout status of all these projects is addressed.

  12. University of Tennessee Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research had projects with space applications in six major areas: laser materials processing, artificial intelligence/expert systems, space transportation, computational methods, chemical propulsion, and electric propulsion. The closeout status of all these projects is addressed.

  13. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  14. Calibration and performance measurements for the nasa deep space network aperture enhancement project (daep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, Remi C.; Rochblatt, David J.

    2018-06-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has recently constructed two new 34-m antennas at the Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex (CDSCC). These new antennas are part of the larger DAEP project to add six new 34-m antennas to the DSN, including two in Madrid, three in Canberra and one in Goldstone (California). The DAEP project included development and implementation of several new technologies for the X, and Ka (32 GHz) -band uplink and downlink electronics. The electronics upgrades were driven by several different considerations, including parts obsolescence, cost reduction, improved reliability and maintainability, and capability to meet future performance requirements. The new antennas are required to support TT&C links for all of the NASA deep-space spacecraft, as well as for several international partners. Some of these missions, such as Voyager 1 and 2, have very limited link budgets, which results in demanding requirements for system G/T performance. These antennas are also required to support radio science missions with several spacecraft, which dictate some demanding requirements for spectral purity, amplitude stability and phase stability for both the uplink and downlink electronics. After completion of these upgrades, a comprehensive campaign of tests and measurements took place to characterize the electronics and calibrate the antennas. Radiometric measurement techniques were applied to characterize, calibrate, and optimize the performance of the antenna parameters. These included optical and RF high-resolution holographic and total power radiometry techniques. The methodology and techniques utilized for the measurement and calibration of the antennas is described in this paper. Lessons learned (not all discussed in this paper) from the commissioning of the first antenna (DSS-35) were applied to the commissioning of the second antenna (DSS-36). These resulted in achieving antenna aperture efficiency of 66% (for DSS-36), at Ka-Band (32-Ghz), which is

  15. Incorporating deep learning with convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices for identifying electron transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ho, Quang-Thai; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2017-09-05

    In several years, deep learning is a modern machine learning technique using in a variety of fields with state-of-the-art performance. Therefore, utilization of deep learning to enhance performance is also an important solution for current bioinformatics field. In this study, we try to use deep learning via convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices to identify electron transport proteins, which is an important molecular function in transmembrane proteins. Our deep learning method can approach a precise model for identifying of electron transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 94.4%, and accuracy of 92.3%, with MCC of 0.71 for independent dataset. The proposed technique can serve as a powerful tool for identifying electron transport proteins and can help biologists understand the function of the electron transport proteins. Moreover, this study provides a basis for further research that can enrich a field of applying deep learning in bioinformatics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In-Space Transportation for NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Thomas K.; McGuire, Melissa; Polsgrove, Tara

    2015-01-01

    As the nation embarks on a new and bold journey to Mars, significant work is being done to determine what that mission and those architectural elements will look like. The Evolvable Mars Campaign, or EMC, is being evaluated as a potential approach to getting humans to Mars. Built on the premise of leveraging current technology investments and maximizing element commonality to reduce cost and development schedule, the EMC transportation architecture is focused on developing the elements required to move crew and equipment to Mars as efficiently and effectively as possible both from a performance and a programmatic standpoint. Over the last 18 months the team has been evaluating potential options for those transportation elements. One of the key aspects of the EMC is leveraging investments being made today in missions like the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) mission using derived versions of the Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) propulsion systems and coupling them with other chemical propulsion elements that maximize commonality across the architecture between both transportation and Mars operations elements. This paper outlines the broad trade space being evaluated including the different technologies being assessed for transportation elements and how those elements are assembled into an architecture. Impacts to potential operational scenarios at Mars are also investigated. Trades are being made on the size and power level of the SEP vehicle for delivering cargo as well as the size of the chemical propulsion systems and various mission aspects including Inspace assembly and sequencing. Maximizing payload delivery to Mars with the SEP vehicle will better support the operational scenarios at Mars by enabling the delivery of landers and habitation elements that are appropriately sized for the mission. The purpose of this investigation is not to find the solution but rather a suite of solutions with potential application to the challenge of sending cargo and crew to Mars

  17. 14 CFR 401.3 - The Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... space transportation by the United States private sector. [Doc. No. FAA-2006-24197, 72 FR 17016, Apr. 6... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEFINITIONS § 401.3 The...

  18. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  19. (abstract) Spacecraft Doppler Tracking with the Deep Space Network in the Search for Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Renzetti, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network generates accurate radio science data observables for investigators who use radio links between spacecraft and the Earth to examine small changes in the phase and/or amplitude of the signal to study a wide variety of structures and phenomena in space. Several such studies are directed at aspects of the theory of general relativity such as gravitational redshift and gravitational waves. A gravitational wave is a propagating, polarized gravitational field, a ripple in the curvature of space-time. In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the waves are propagating solutions of the Einstein field equations. Their amplitudes are dimensionless strain amplitudes that change the fractional difference in distance between test masses and the rates at which separated clocks keep time. Predicted by all relativistic theories of gravity, they are extremely weak (the ratio of gravitational forces to electrical forces is about 10(sup -40)) and are generated at detectable levels only by astrophysical sources - very massive sources under violent dynamical conditions. The waves have never been detected but searches in the low-frequency band using Doppler tracking of many spacecraft have been conducted and others are being planned. Upper limits have been placed on the gravitational wave strength with the best sensitivities to date are for periodic waves being 7 x 10(sup -15).

  20. Deep-inelastic final states in a space-time description of shower development and hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Geiger, K.; Kowalski, H.

    1996-01-01

    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time, and momentum space to deep-inelastic ep collisions, with particular reference to experiments at DESY HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of color-singlet prehadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the spacelike initial-state shower and the timelike secondary partons are treated similarly, and cluster formation is treated using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a nonperturbative model for hadronization. We calculate the time evolution of particle distributions in rapidity, transverse, and longitudinal space. We also compare the transverse hadronic energy flow and the distribution of observed hadronic masses with experimental data from HERA, finding encouraging results, and discuss the background to large-rapidity-gap events. The techniques developed in this paper may be applied in the future to more complicated processes such as eA, pp, pA, and AA collisions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Autonomous orbit determination and its error analysis for deep space using X-ray pulsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Dongzhu; Yuan, Xiaoguang; Guo, Hehe; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous orbit determination (OD) is a complex process using filtering method to integrate observation and orbit dynamic model effectively and estimate the position and velocity of a spacecraft. As a novel technology for autonomous interplanetary OD, X-ray pulsar holds great promise for deep space exploration. The position and velocity of spacecraft should be estimated accurately during the OD process. However, under the same condition, the accuracy of OD can be greatly reduced by the error of the initial orbit value and the orbit mutation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel OD method, which is based on the X-ray pulsar measurement and Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF). The accuracy of OD can be improved obviously because the AUKF estimates the orbit of spacecraft using measurement residual. During the simulation, the orbit of Phoenix Mars Lander, Deep Impact Probe, and Voyager 1 are selected. Compared with Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed OD method based on AUKF can accurately determinate the velocity and position and effectively decrease the orbit estimated errors which is caused by the orbit mutation and orbit initial errors. (authors)

  2. A Survey: Time Travel in Deep Learning Space: An Introduction to Deep Learning Models and How Deep Learning Models Evolved from the Initial Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haohan; Raj, Bhiksha

    2015-01-01

    This report will show the history of deep learning evolves. It will trace back as far as the initial belief of connectionism modelling of brain, and come back to look at its early stage realization: neural networks. With the background of neural network, we will gradually introduce how convolutional neural network, as a representative of deep discriminative models, is developed from neural networks, together with many practical techniques that can help in optimization of neural networks. On t...

  3. 9969 Braille: Deep Space 1 infrared spectroscopy, geometric albedo, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B.J.; Britt, D.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hicks, M.D.; Boice, D.C.; Brown, R.H.; Meier, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Oberst, J.; Owen, T.C.; Rivkin, A.S.; Sandel, B.R.; Stern, S.A.; Thomas, N.; Yelle, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Spectra of Asteroid 9969 Braille in the 1.25-2.6 ??m region returned by the Deep Space 1 (DS1) Mission show a ???10% absorption band centered at 2 ??m, and a reflectance peak at 1.6 ??m. Analysis of these features suggest that the composition of Braille is roughly equal parts pyroxene and olivine. Its spectrum between 0.4 and 2.5 ??m suggests that it is most closely related to the Q taxonomic type of asteroid. The spectrum also closely matches that of the ordinary chondrites, the most common type of terrestrial meteorite. The geometric albedo of Braille is unusually high (pv = 0.34), which is also consistent with its placement within the rarer classes of stony asteroids, and which suggests it has a relatively fresh, unweathered surface, perhaps due to a recent collision. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  5. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  6. Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  8. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  9. The scheduling of tracking times for interplanetary spacecraft on the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a network of tracking stations, located throughout the globe, used to track spacecraft for NASA's interplanetary missions. This paper describes a computer program, DSNTRAK, which provides an optimum daily tracking schedule for the DSN given the view periods at each station for a mission set of n spacecraft, where n is between 2 and 6. The objective function is specified in terms of relative total daily tracking time requirements between the n spacecraft. Linear programming is used to maximize the total daily tracking time and determine an optimal daily tracking schedule consistent with DSN station capabilities. DSNTRAK is used as part of a procedure to provide DSN load forecasting information for proposed future NASA mission sets.

  10. Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, C.J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding transport of tritium (3H) in unsaturated zones is critical to evaluating options for waste isolation. Tritium typically is a large component of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada investigate 3H transport from a closed LLRW facility. Two boreholes are 100 and 160 m from the nearest waste trench and extend to the water table at 110 m. Soil-water vapor samples from the deep boreholes show elevated levels of 3H at all depths. The objectives of this study were to (i) test source thermal and gas-advection mechanisms driving 3H transport and (ii) evaluate model sensitivity to these mechanisms and to selected physical and hydraulic properties including porosity, tortuosity, and anisotropy. A two-dimensional numerical model incorporated a non-isothermal, heterogeneous domain of the unsaturated zone and instantaneous isotopic equilibrium. The TOUGH2 code was used; however, it required modification to account for temperature dependence of both the Henry's law equilibrium constant and isotopic fractionation with respect to tritiated water. Increases in source temperature, pressure, and porosity enhanced 3H migration, but failed to match measured 3H distributions. All anisotropic simulations with a source pressure component resembled, in shape, the upper portion of the 3H distribution of the nearest borehole. Isotopic equilibrium limited migration of 3H, while effects of radioactive decay were negligible. A 500 Pa pressure increase above ambient pressure in conjunction with a high degree of anisotropy (1:100) was necessary for simulated 3H transport to reach the nearest borehole.

  11. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Artificial Gravity Impacts to Deep-Space Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2007-01-01

    Even after more than thirty years of scientific investigation, serious concerns regarding human physiological effects of long-duration microgravity exposure remain. These include loss of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle atrophy, and orthostatic hypertension, among others. In particular, "Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," states "loss of bone density, which apparently occurs at a rate of 1% per month in microgravity, is relatively manageable on the short-duration missions of the space shuttle, but it becomes problematic on the ISS [International Space Station]. ...If this loss is not mitigated, interplanetary missions will be impossible." While extensive investigations into potential countermeasures are planned on the ISS, the delay in attaining full crew complement and onboard facilities, and the potential for extending crews tours of duty threaten the timely (definitive design requirements, especially acceptable artificial gravity levels and rotation rates, the perception of high vehicle mass and performance penalties, the incompatibility of resulting vehicle configurations with space propulsion options (i.e., aerocapture), the perception of complications associated with de-spun components such as antennae and photovoltaic arrays, and the expectation of effective crew micro-gravity countermeasures. These perception and concerns may have been overstated, or may be acceptable alternatives to countermeasures of limited efficacy. This study was undertaken as an initial step to try to understand the implications of and potential solutions to incorporating artificial gravity in the design of human deep-space exploration vehicles. Of prime interest will be the mass penalties incurred by incorporating AG, along with any mission performance degradation.

  13. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  14. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  15. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  16. Human mobility in space from three modes of public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiong; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Xu; Yang, Liu

    2017-10-01

    The human mobility patterns have drew much attention from researchers for decades, considering about its importance for urban planning and traffic management. In this study, the taxi GPS trajectories, smart card transaction data of subway and bus from Beijing are utilized to model human mobility in space. The original datasets are cleaned and processed to attain the displacement of each trip according to the origin and destination locations. Then, the Akaike information criterion is adopted to screen out the best fitting distribution for each mode from candidate ones. The results indicate that displacements of taxi trips follow the exponential distribution. Besides, the exponential distribution also fits displacements of bus trips well. However, their exponents are significantly different. Displacements of subway trips show great specialties and can be well fitted by the gamma distribution. It is obvious that human mobility of each mode is different. To explore the overall human mobility, the three datasets are mixed up to form a fusion dataset according to the annual ridership proportions. Finally, the fusion displacements follow the power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. It is innovative to combine different transportation modes to model human mobility in the city.

  17. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  18. Modelling of radionuclide transport along the underground access structures of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [SAM Switzerland GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Hayek, M. [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The arrangement and sealing of the access routes to a deep geological repository for radioactive waste should ensure that any radionuclide release from the emplacement rooms during the post closure phase does not by-pass the geological barriers of the repository system to a significant extent. The base case of the present study, where realistic values for the hydraulic properties of the seals and the associated excavation damage zones were assumed, assesses to what extent this is actually the case for different layout variants (ramp and shaft access and shaft access only). Furthermore, as a test of robustness of system performance against uncertainties related to such seals and the associated excavation damage zones, the present study also considers a broad spectrum of calculation cases including the hypothetical possibility that the seals perform much more poorly than expected and to check whether, consequently, the repository tunnel system and the access structures may provide significant release pathways. The study considers a generic repository system for high-level waste (HLW repository) and for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW repository), both with Opalinus Clay as the host rock. It also considers the alternative possibilities of a ramp or a shaft as the access route for material transport (waste packages, etc.) to the underground facilities. Additional shafts, e.g. for the transport of persons and for ventilation, are included in both cases. The overall modelling approach consists of three broad steps: (a) the network of tunnels and access structures is implemented in a flow model, which serves to calculate water flow rates along the tunnels and through the host rock; (b) all relevant transport paths are implemented in a radionuclide release and transport model, the water flow rates being obtained from the preceding flow model calculations; (c) individual effective dose rates arising from the radionuclides released from the considered repository

  19. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  20. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  1. Beamspace dual signal space projection (bDSSP): a method for selective detection of deep sources in MEG measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi K.; Cai, Chang; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a well-recognized weakness at detecting deeper brain activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for selective detection of deep sources by suppressing interference signals from superficial sources in MEG measurements. Approach. The proposed algorithm combines the beamspace preprocessing method with the dual signal space projection (DSSP) interference suppression method. A prerequisite of the proposed algorithm is prior knowledge of the location of the deep sources. The proposed algorithm first derives the basis vectors that span a local region just covering the locations of the deep sources. It then estimates the time-domain signal subspace of the superficial sources by using the projector composed of these basis vectors. Signals from the deep sources are extracted by projecting the row space of the data matrix onto the direction orthogonal to the signal subspace of the superficial sources. Main results. Compared with the previously proposed beamspace signal space separation (SSS) method, the proposed algorithm is capable of suppressing much stronger interference from superficial sources. This capability is demonstrated in our computer simulation as well as experiments using phantom data. Significance. The proposed bDSSP algorithm can be a powerful tool in studies of physiological functions of midbrain and deep brain structures.

  2. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  3. Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning-Based Deep Neural Networks for Cognitive Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreria, Paulo Victor R.; Paffenroth, Randy; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Mortensen, Dale J.

    2017-01-01

    Future communication subsystems of space exploration missions can potentially benefit from software-defined radios (SDRs) controlled by machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid radio resource allocation management control algorithm that integrates multi-objective reinforcement learning and deep artificial neural networks. The objective is to efficiently manage communications system resources by monitoring performance functions with common dependent variables that result in conflicting goals. The uncertainty in the performance of thousands of different possible combinations of radio parameters makes the trade-off between exploration and exploitation in reinforcement learning (RL) much more challenging for future critical space-based missions. Thus, the system should spend as little time as possible on exploring actions, and whenever it explores an action, it should perform at acceptable levels most of the time. The proposed approach enables on-line learning by interactions with the environment and restricts poor resource allocation performance through virtual environment exploration. Improvements in the multiobjective performance can be achieved via transmitter parameter adaptation on a packet-basis, with poorly predicted performance promptly resulting in rejected decisions. Simulations presented in this work considered the DVB-S2 standard adaptive transmitter parameters and additional ones expected to be present in future adaptive radio systems. Performance results are provided by analysis of the proposed hybrid algorithm when operating across a satellite communication channel from Earth to GEO orbit during clear sky conditions. The proposed approach constitutes part of the core cognitive engine proof-of-concept to be delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center SCaN Testbed located onboard the International Space Station.

  4. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  5. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  6. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gerald; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for future human exploration missions to space, NASA evaluates habitat concepts to assess integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. The concept of a Food Production System utilizes fresh foods, such as vegetables and small fruits, harvested on a continuous basis, to improve the crew's diet and quality of life. The system would need to fit conveniently into the habitat and not interfere with other components or operations. To test this concept, a plant growing "atrium" was designed to surround the lift between the lower and upper modules of the Deep Space Habitat and deployed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) test site in 2011 and at NASA Johnson Space Center in 2012. With this approach, no-utilized volume provided an area for vegetable growth. For the 2011 test, mizuna, lettuce, basil, radish and sweetpotato plants were grown in trays using commercially available red I blue LED light fixtures. Seedlings were transplanted into the atrium and cared for by the. crew. Plants were then harvested two weeks later following completion of the test. In 2012, mizuna, lettuce, and radish plants were grown similarly but under flat panel banks of white LEDs. In 2012, the crew went through plant harvesting, including sanitizing tlie leafy greens and radishes, which were then consumed. Each test demonstrated successful production of vegetables within a functional hab module. The round red I blue LEDs for the 2011 test lighting cast a purple light in the hab, and were less uniformly distributed over the plant trays. The white LED panels provided broad spectrum light with more uniform distribution. Post-test questionnaires showed that the crew enjoyed tending and consuming the plants and that the white LED light in 2012 provided welcome extra light for the main HAB AREA.

  7. Results from the NASA Spacecraft Fault Management Workshop: Cost Drivers for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; McDougal, John; Barley, Bryan; Stephens Karen; Fesq, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    Fault Management, the detection of and response to in-flight anomalies, is a critical aspect of deep-space missions. Fault management capabilities are commonly distributed across flight and ground subsystems, impacting hardware, software, and mission operations designs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for five missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that four out of the five missions studied had significant overruns due to underestimating the complexity and support requirements for fault management. As a result of this and other recent experiences, the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD) commissioned a workshop to bring together invited participants across government, industry, and academia to assess the state of the art in fault management practice and research, identify current and potential issues, and make recommendations for addressing these issues. The workshop was held in New Orleans in April of 2008. The workshop concluded that fault management is not being limited by technology, but rather by a lack of emphasis and discipline in both the engineering and programmatic dimensions. Some of the areas cited in the findings include different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; unclear ownership of end-to-end fault management engineering; inadequate understanding of the impact of mission-level requirements on fault management complexity; and practices, processes, and tools that have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of mission requirements and spacecraft systems. This paper summarizes the

  8. O({alpha}{sub s}) heavy flavor corrections to charged current deep-inelastic scattering in Mellin space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Kovacikova, P.; Moch, S.

    2011-04-15

    We provide a fast and precise Mellin-space implementation of the O({alpha}{sub s}) heavy flavor Wilson coefficients for charged current deep inelastic scattering processes. They are of importance for the extraction of the strange quark distribution in neutrino-nucleon scattering and the QCD analyses of the HERA charged current data. Errors in the literature are corrected. We also discuss a series of more general parton parameterizations in Mellin space. (orig.)

  9. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  10. Future space transportation systems systems analysis study, phase 1 technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The requirements of projected space programs (1985-1995) for transportation vehicles more advanced than the space shuttle are discussed. Several future program options are described and their transportation needs are analyzed. Alternative systems approaches to meeting these needs are presented.

  11. A federated information management system for the Deep Space Network. M.S. Thesis - Univ. of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobinson, E.

    1982-01-01

    General requirements for an information management system for the deep space network (DSN) are examined. A concise review of available database management system technology is presented. It is recommended that a federation of logically decentralized databases be implemented for the Network Information Management System of the DSN. Overall characteristics of the federation are specified, as well as reasons for adopting this approach.

  12. Complex Cloud and Radiative Processes Unfolding at the Earth's Terminator: A Unique Perspective from the Proposed Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Marshak, A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway offers a unique vantage for Earth observation using reflected sunlight: day/night or night/day terminators slowly marching across the disc. It's an opportunity to improve our understanding of clouds at that key moment in their daily cycle.

  13. The Successful Conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: Important Results without a Flashy Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    2002-01-01

    Conceived in 1995, Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission of NASA s New Millennium program. Its purpose was to test high-risk, advanced technologies important for space and Earth science missions. DS1 s payload included ion propulsion, solar concentrator arrays, autonomous navigation and other autonomous systems, miniaturized telecommunications and microelectronic systems, and two highly integrated, compact science instruments. DS1 was launched in October 1998, only 39 months after the initial concept study began, and during its 11-month primary mission it exceeded its requirements. All technologies were rigorously exercised and characterized, thus reducing the cost and risk of subsequent science missions that could consider taking advantage of the capabilities offered by these new systems. Following its primary mission, DS1 embarked on an extended mission devoted to comet science, although it had not been designed for a comet encounter. Less than two months after the beginning of the extended mission, the spacecraft suffered a critical failure with the loss of its star tracker, its only source of 3-axis attitude knowledge. Although this was initially considered to be a catastrophic failure, the project completed an ambitious two-phase, seven-month recovery that included the development of extensive new software and new operations procedures. In September 2001, the spacecraft flawlessly completed a high-risk encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Using the two instruments included on the flight for technology tests as well as reprogrammed sensors originally intended for monitoring the effects of the ion propulsion system on the space environment, DS1 returned a rich harvest of data, with panchromatic images, infrared spectra, energy and angle distributions of electron and ion fluxes, ion compositions, and magnetic field and plasma wave measurements. These data constitute the most detailed view of a comet and offer surprising and exciting insights. In addition to the

  14. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Yeast Biosensor for Deep-space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Diana B.; Santa Maria, Sergio; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission was selected to launch as a secondary payload onboard NASA Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. In BioSentinel, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae will be used as a biosensor to measure the long-term impact of deep-space radiation to living organisms. In the 4U-payload, desiccated yeast cells from different strains will be stored inside microfluidic cards equipped with 3-color LED optical detection system to monitor cell growth and metabolic activity. At different times throughout the 12-month mission, these cards will be filled with liquid yeast growth media to rehydrate and grow the desiccated cells. The growth and metabolic rates of wild-type and radiation-sensitive strains in deep-space radiation environment will be compared to the rates measured in the ground- and microgravity-control units. These rates will also be correlated with measurements obtained from onboard physical dosimeters. In our preliminary long-term desiccation study, we found that air-drying yeast cells in 10% trehalose is the best method of cell preservation in order to survive the entire 18-month mission duration (6-month pre-launch plus 12-month full-mission periods). However, our study also revealed that desiccated yeast cells have decreasing viability over time when stored in payload-like environment. This suggests that the yeast biosensor will have different population of cells at different time points during the long-term mission. In this study, we are characterizing genomic and phenotypic changes in our yeast biosensor due to long-term storage and desiccation. For each yeast strain that will be part of the biosensor, several clones were reisolated after long-term storage by desiccation. These clones were compared to their respective original isolate in terms of genomic composition, desiccation tolerance and radiation sensitivity. Interestingly, clones from a radiation-sensitive mutant have better desiccation tolerance compared to their original isolate

  15. Longitudinal and transverse space charge limitations on transport of maximum power beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoe, T.K.; Martin, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The maximum transportable beam power is a critical issue in selecting the most favorable approach to generating ignition pulses for inertial fusion with high energy accelerators. Maschke and Courant have put forward expressions for the limits on transport power for quadrupole and solenoidal channels. Included in a more general way is the self consistent effect of space charge defocusing on the power limit. The results show that no limits on transmitted power exist in principal. In general, quadrupole transport magnets appear superior to solenoids except for transport of very low energy and highly charged particles. Longitudinal space charge effects are very significant for transport of intense beams

  16. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  17. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    In a deep geological repository for radioactive waste, in absence of oxygen and in presence of water, corrosion of various metals and alloys will lead to the formation of hydrogen. If present, organic materials may slowly degrade and generate carbon dioxide, methane and other gaseous species. Depending on local conditions, gaseous species can be consumed by chemical reactions and by microbial activity. If the resulting rate of gas generation exceeds the rate of migration of dissolved gas molecules in the pores of the engineered barriers or the host rock, the solubility limit of the gas will eventually be exceeded and the formation of a discrete gas phase will occur. Gases could continue to accumulate until the pressure becomes sufficient to be released in gaseous form. This report deals with the evolution of gas-related processes that can influence the long-term behaviour and safety of low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW) repositories in Opalinus Clay. The main aim is to present a synthesis of processes and phenomena related to repository-produced gases and to assess their influence on repository performance. A current overview of gas sources, reactions and interactions, generation, consumption, and transport is provided. Furthermore, current scientific understanding is used to define safety function indicators and criteria, which are employed to evaluate the potential influence of repository-generated gas on safety-relevant properties of engineered and natural barriers. The assessment of gas generation, consumption and transport is addressed separately for the HLW and the L/ILW deep geological repositories. The employed methodology, which is common for both repository types, consists of the description and quantification of the potential gas sources, which include the waste, barrier components such as disposal canisters and other gas-generating repository components, and of the processes and reactions leading to the generation or

  18. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-15

    In a deep geological repository for radioactive waste, in absence of oxygen and in presence of water, corrosion of various metals and alloys will lead to the formation of hydrogen. If present, organic materials may slowly degrade and generate carbon dioxide, methane and other gaseous species. Depending on local conditions, gaseous species can be consumed by chemical reactions and by microbial activity. If the resulting rate of gas generation exceeds the rate of migration of dissolved gas molecules in the pores of the engineered barriers or the host rock, the solubility limit of the gas will eventually be exceeded and the formation of a discrete gas phase will occur. Gases could continue to accumulate until the pressure becomes sufficient to be released in gaseous form. This report deals with the evolution of gas-related processes that can influence the long-term behaviour and safety of low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW) repositories in Opalinus Clay. The main aim is to present a synthesis of processes and phenomena related to repository-produced gases and to assess their influence on repository performance. A current overview of gas sources, reactions and interactions, generation, consumption, and transport is provided. Furthermore, current scientific understanding is used to define safety function indicators and criteria, which are employed to evaluate the potential influence of repository-generated gas on safety-relevant properties of engineered and natural barriers. The assessment of gas generation, consumption and transport is addressed separately for the HLW and the L/ILW deep geological repositories. The employed methodology, which is common for both repository types, consists of the description and quantification of the potential gas sources, which include the waste, barrier components such as disposal canisters and other gas-generating repository components, and of the processes and reactions leading to the generation or

  19. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, Claude Russell II; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  20. Thermal dimensioning of the deep repository. Influence of canister spacing, canister power, rock thermal properties and nearfield design on the maximum canister surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy

    2003-12-01

    The report addresses the problem of the minimum spacing required between neighbouring canisters in the deep repository. That spacing is calculated for a number of assumptions regarding the conditions that govern the temperature in the nearfield and at the surfaces of the canisters. The spacing criterion is that the temperature at the canister surfaces must not exceed 100 deg C .The results are given in the form of nomographic charts, such that it is in principle possible to determine the spacing as soon as site data, i.e. the initial undisturbed rock temperature and the host rock heat transport properties, are available. Results of canister spacing calculations are given for the KBS-3V concept as well as for the KBS-3H concept. A combination of numerical and analytical methods is used for the KBS-3H calculations, while the KBS-3V calculations are purely analytical. Both methods are described in detail. Open gaps are assigned equivalent heat conductivities, calculated such that the conduction across the gaps will include also the heat transferred by radiation. The equivalent heat conductivities are based on the emissivities of the different gap surfaces. For the canister copper surface, the emissivity is determined by back-calculation of temperatures measured in the Prototype experiment at Aespoe HRL. The size of the different gaps and the emissivity values are of great importance for the results and will be investigated further in the future

  1. A System for Fault Management and Fault Consequences Analysis for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano; Spirkovska, Liljana; Baskaran, Vijaykumar; Aaseng, Gordon; McCann, Robert S.; Ossenfort, John; Smith, Irene; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy

  2. PyGPlates - a GPlates Python library for data analysis through space and deep geological time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon; Cannon, John; Qin, Xiaodong; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    A fundamental consideration for studying the Earth through deep time is that the configurations of the continents, tectonic plates, and plate boundaries are continuously changing. Within a diverse range of fields including geodynamics, paleoclimate, and paleobiology, the importance of considering geodata in their reconstructed context across previous cycles of supercontinent aggregation, dispersal and ocean basin evolution is widely recognised. Open-source software tools such as GPlates provide paleo-geographic information systems for geoscientists to combine a wide variety of geodata and examine them within tectonic reconstructions through time. The availability of such powerful tools also brings new challenges - we want to learn something about the key associations between reconstructed plate motions and the geological record, but the high-dimensional parameter space is difficult for a human being to visually comprehend and quantify these associations. To achieve true spatio-temporal data-mining, new tools are needed. Here, we present a further development of the GPlates ecosystem - a Python-based tool for geotectonic analysis. In contrast to existing GPlates tools that are built around a graphical user interface (GUI) and interactive visualisation, pyGPlates offers a programming interface for the automation of quantitative plate tectonic analysis or arbitrary complexity. The vast array of open-source Python-based tools for data-mining, statistics and machine learning can now be linked to pyGPlates, allowing spatial data to be seamlessly analysed in space and geological "deep time", and with the ability to spread large computations across multiple processors. The presentation will illustrate a range of example applications, both simple and advanced. Basic examples include data querying, filtering, and reconstruction, and file-format conversions. For the innovative study of plate kinematics, pyGPlates has been used to explore the relationships between absolute

  3. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.H.; Shi, Y.; Chang, S.G.; Fisher, J.W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M.J.; Wignarajah, K.

    2001-12-21

    The use of the activated carbon produced from rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deep space missions has been demonstrated. The optimal carbonization temperature range was found to be between 600 C and 750 C. The burnoff of 61.8% was found at 700 C in pyrolysis and 750 C in activation. The BET surface area of the activated carbon from rice hulls was determined to be 172 m{sup 2}/g when prepared at 700 C. The presence of oxygen in flue gas is essential for effective adsorption of NO by the activated carbon. On the contrary, water vapor inhibits the adsorption efficiency of NO. Consequently, water vapor in flue gas should be removed by drying agents before adsorption to ensure high NO adsorption efficiency. All of NO in the flue gas was removed for more than one and a half hours when 10% oxygen was present and using a ratio of the carbon weight to the flue gas flow rate (W/F) of 15.4 g-min/L. The reduction of the adsorbed NO to form N{sub 2} can be effectively accomplished under anaerobic conditions at 550 C. For NO saturated activated carbon, the loss of carbon mass was determined to be about 0.16% of the activated carbon per cycle of regeneration. The reduction of the adsorbed NO also regenerates the activated carbon. The regenerated activated carbon exhibits improved NO adsorption efficiency.

  4. Table-driven configuration and formatting of telemetry data in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Evan

    1994-01-01

    With a restructured software architecture for telemetry system control and data processing, the NASA/Deep Space Network (DSN) has substantially improved its ability to accommodate a wide variety of spacecraft in an era of 'better, faster, cheaper'. In the new architecture, the permanent software implements all capabilities needed by any system user, and text tables specify how these capabilities are to be used for each spacecraft. Most changes can now be made rapidly, outside of the traditional software development cycle. The system can be updated to support a new spacecraft through table changes rather than software changes, reducing the implementation, test, and delivery cycle for such a change from three months to three weeks. The mechanical separation of the text table files from the program software, with tables only loaded into memory when that mission is being supported, dramatically reduces the level of regression testing required. The format of each table is a different compromise between ease of human interpretation, efficiency of computer interpretation, and flexibility.

  5. An Analysis of Database Replication Technologies with Regard to Deep Space Network Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Andrea M.

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has three communication facilities which handle telemetry, commands, and other data relating to spacecraft missions. The network requires these three sites to share data with each other and with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing and distribution. Many database management systems have replication capabilities built in, which means that data updates made at one location will be automatically propagated to other locations. This project examines multiple replication solutions, looking for stability, automation, flexibility, performance, and cost. After comparing these features, Oracle Streams is chosen for closer analysis. Two Streams environments are configured - one with a Master/Slave architecture, in which a single server is the source for all data updates, and the second with a Multi-Master architecture, in which updates originating from any of the servers will be propagated to all of the others. These environments are tested for data type support, conflict resolution, performance, changes to the data structure, and behavior during and after network or server outages. Through this experimentation, it is determined which requirements of the DSN can be met by Oracle Streams and which cannot.

  6. NATURAL LIGHTING OF DEEP ARCHITECTURAL SPACE: THE PERCEPTION OF NEW ZEALAND ARCHITECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barrett

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers aspects of a survey carried out amongst a group of registered New Zealand architects in order to establish their knowledge and experience in using core-daylighting systems and methods (Barrett, 2003. Core-daylighting comprises systems and methods for bringing natural light into deep architectural space where conventional methods (such as windows and skylights cannot readily be used. Examples of these methods are: atria (Matusiak, 1998, sun tracking heliostats, sun and light pipes, light scoops, Fresnel lenses, anidolic zenithal systems, prismatic daylight systems, light shelves, tapping mirrors, light reflectors and louvres (Littlefair, 1991, 1996 & 2000, lightwells, internal courts (Lam, 1986, fibre optic cable (Kay,1999, and other systems for light re-direction. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire as described below (Survey Methods. The findings were analysed, resulting in a clear indication that the respondents were not especially experienced or knowledgeable, and a majority felt this to be an area of their skill base in need of development. Whilst the survey was strictly intended to gather quantitative material, respondents were invited to comment freely as they progressed through to completion of the questionnaire. This paper draws on this qualitative data as an insight into several areas, including the attitudes of respondents towards their clients when making decisions about designing buildings for natural daylighting.

  7. Deep organ space infection after emergency bowel resection and anastomosis: The anatomic site does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Elizabeth; Siboni, Stefano; Haltmeier, Tobias; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2015-11-01

    Deep organ space infection (DOSI) is a serious complication after emergency bowel resection and anastomosis. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for the development of DOSI. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database study including patients who underwent large bowel or small bowel resection and primary anastomosis. The incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for DOSI were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 87,562 patients underwent small bowel, large bowel, or rectal resection and anastomosis. Of these, 14,942 (17.1%) underwent emergency operations and formed the study population. The overall mortality rate in emergency operations was 12.5%, and the rate of DOSI was 5.6%. A total of 18.0% required ventilatory support in more than 48 hours, and 16.0% required reoperation. Predictors of DOSI included age, steroid use, sepsis or septic shock on admission, severe wound contamination, and advanced American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. The anatomic location of resection and anastomosis was not significantly associated with DOSI. Patients undergoing emergency bowel resection and anastomosis have a high mortality, risk of DOSI, and systemic complications. Independent predictors of DOSI include wound and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, sepsis or septic shock on admission, and steroid use. The anatomic location of resection and anastomosis was not significantly associated with DOSI. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  8. Development, Demonstration and Validation of the Deep Space Orbit Determination Software Using Lunar Prospector Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep space orbit determination software (DSODS is a part of a flight dynamic subsystem (FDS for the Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO, a lunar exploration mission expected to launch after 2018. The DSODS consists of several sub modules, of which the orbit determination (OD module employs a weighted least squares algorithm for estimating the parameters related to the motion and the tracking system of the spacecraft, and subroutines for performance improvement and detailed analysis of the orbit solution. In this research, DSODS is demonstrated and validated at lunar orbit at an altitude of 100 km using actual Lunar Prospector tracking data. A set of a priori states are generated, and the robustness of DSODS to the a priori error is confirmed by the NASA planetary data system (PDS orbit solutions. Furthermore, the accuracy of the orbit solutions is determined by solution comparison and overlap analysis as about tens of meters. Through these analyses, the ability of the DSODS to provide proper orbit solutions for the KPLO are proved.

  9. Service Quality Assessment for NASA's Deep Space Network: No Longer a Luxury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Erik; Wolgast, Paul; Zendejas, Silvino

    2010-01-01

    When NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) was established almost a half century ago, the concept of computer-based service delivery was impractical or infeasible due to the state of information technology As a result, the interface the DSN exposes to its customers tends to be equipment-centric, lacking a clear demarcation between the DSN and the mission operation systems (MOS) of its customers. As the number of customers has continued to increase, the need to improve efficiency and minimize costs has grown. This growth has been the impetus for a DSN transformation from an equipment-forrent provider to a provider of standard services. Service orientation naturally leads to requirements for service management, including proactive measurement of service quality and service levels as well as the efficiency of internal processes and the performance of service provisioning systems. DSN System Engineering has surveyed industry offerings to determine if commercial successes in decision support and Business Intelligence (BI) solutions can be applied to the DSN. A pilot project was initiated, and subsequently executed to determine the feasibility of repurposing a commercial Business Intelligence platform for engineering analysis in conjunction with the platform's intended business reporting and analysis functions.

  10. Time Analyzer for Time Synchronization and Monitor of the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven; Gonzalez, Jorge, Jr.; Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A software package has been developed to measure, monitor, and archive the performance of timing signals distributed in the NASA Deep Space Network. Timing signals are generated from a central master clock and distributed to over 100 users at distances up to 30 kilometers. The time offset due to internal distribution delays and time jitter with respect to the central master clock are critical for successful spacecraft navigation, radio science, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) applications. The instrument controller and operator interface software is written in LabView and runs on the Linux operating system. The software controls a commercial multiplexer to switch 120 separate timing signals to measure offset and jitter with a time-interval counter referenced to the master clock. The offset of each channel is displayed in histogram form, and "out of specification" alarms are sent to a central complex monitor and control system. At any time, the measurement cycle of 120 signals can be interrupted for diagnostic tests on an individual channel. The instrument also routinely monitors and archives the long-term stability of all frequency standards or any other 1-pps source compared against the master clock. All data is stored and made available for

  11. Planetary Radar Imaging with the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Uplink Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Tsao, P.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Jao, J.; Slade, M.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent Uplink Array consisting of two or three 34-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network has been developed for the primary purpose of increasing EIRP at the spacecraft. Greater EIRP ensures greater reach, higher uplink data rates for command and configuration control, as well as improved search and recovery capabilities during spacecraft emergencies. It has been conjectured that Doppler-delay radar imaging of lunar targets can be extended to planetary imaging, where the long baseline of the uplink array can provide greater resolution than a single antenna, as well as potentially higher EIRP. However, due to the well known R4 loss in radar links, imaging of distant planets is a very challenging endeavor, requiring accurate phasing of the Uplink Array antennas, cryogenically cooled low-noise receiver amplifiers, and sophisticated processing of the received data to extract the weak echoes characteristic of planetary radar. This article describes experiments currently under way to image the planets Mercury and Venus, highlights improvements in equipment and techniques, and presents planetary images obtained to date with two 34 meter antennas configured as a coherently phased Uplink Array.

  12. Propulsion Utilizing Laser-Driven Ponderomotive Fields for Deep-Space Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, George J.; Gilland, James H.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of large amplitude electric fields in plasmas by high-power lasers has been studied for several years in the context of high-energy particle acceleration. Fields on the order of GeV/m are generated in the plasma wake of the laser by non-linear ponderomotive forces. The laser fields generate longitudinal and translational electron plasma waves with phase velocities close to the speed of light. These fields and velocities offer the potential to revolutionize spacecraft propulsion, leading to extended deep space robotic probes. Based on these initial calculations, plasma acceleration by means of laser-induced ponderomotive forces appears to offer significant potential for spacecraft propulsion. Relatively high-efficiencies appear possible with proper beam conditioning, resulting in an order of magnitude more thrust than alternative concepts for high I SP (>10 5 s) and elimination of the primary life-limiting erosion phenomena associated with conventional electric propulsion systems. Ponderomotive propulsion readily lends itself to beamed power which might overcome some of the constraints of power-limited propulsion concepts. A preliminary assessment of the impact of these propulsion systems for several promising configurations on mission architectures has been conducted. Emphasizing interstellar and interstellar-precursor applications, performance and technical requirements are identified for a number of missions. The use of in-situ plasma and gas for propellant is evaluated as well.

  13. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  14. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for space transportation propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Moore, N.; Anis, C.; Newell, J.; Nagpal, V.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    Information on probabilistic structural analysis methods for space propulsion systems is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on deterministic certification methods, probability of failure, component response analysis, stress responses for 2nd stage turbine blades, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) structural durability, and program plans. .

  15. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  16. Dosimetry of a Deep-Space (Mars) Mission using Measurements from RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Guo, J.; Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G.

    2017-12-01

    The space radiation environment is one of the outstanding challenges of a manned deep-space mission to Mars. To improve our understanding and take us one step closer to enabling a human Mars to mission, the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been characterizing the radiation environment, both during cruise and on the surface of Mars for the past 5 years. Perhaps the most significant difference between space radiation and radiation exposures from terrestrial exposures is that space radiation includes a significant component of heavy ions from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). Acute exposures from Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are possible during and around solar maximum, but the energies from SEPs are generally lower and more easily shielded. Thus the greater concern for long duration deep-space missions is the GCR exposure. In this presentation, I will review the the past 5 years of MSL RAD observations and discuss current approaches to radiation risk estimation used by NASA and other space agencies.

  17. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J

    2014-11-25

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (Pacific Ocean, where dFe of 1.0-1.5 nmol/kg near 2,000 m depth (0.4-0.9 nmol/kg above typical deep-sea dFe concentrations) was determined to be hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  18. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  19. Economic Metrics for Commercial Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    baseline. Still, economic metrics for technology development in these Programs and projects remain fairly straightforward, being based on reductions in acquisition and operating costs of the Systems. One of the most challenging requirements that NASA levies on its Programs is to plan for the commercialization of the developed technology. Some NASA Programs are created for the express purpose of developing technology for a particular industrial sector, such as aviation or space transportation, in financial partnership with that sector. With industrial investment, another set of goals, constraints and expectations are levied on the technology program. Economic benefit metrics then expand beyond cost and cost savings to include the marketability, profit, and investment return requirements of the private sector. Commercial investment criteria include low risk, potential for high return, and strategic alignment with existing product lines. These corporate criteria derive from top-level strategic plans and investment goals, which rank high among the most proprietary types of information in any business. As a result, top-level economic goals and objectives that industry partners bring to cooperative programs cannot usually be brought into technical processes, such as systems engineering, that are worked collaboratively between Industry and Government. In spite of these handicaps, the top-level economic goals and objectives of a joint technology program can be crafted in such a way that they accurately reflect the fiscal benefits from both Industry and Government perspectives. Valid economic metrics can then be designed that can track progress toward these goals and objectives, while maintaining the confidentiality necessary for the competitive process.

  20. An Improved X-Band Maser System for Deep Space Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M.; Hanson, T.; Fernandez, J.

    2000-01-01

    An 8450-MHz (X-band) maser system utilizing a commercial Gifford--McMahon (GM) closed-cycle cryocooler (CCR) was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The CCR system was used to cool a maser operating at 8450 MHz. The prototype GM CCR system meets or exceeds all Deep Space Network requirements for maser performance. The two-stage GM CCR operates at 4.2 K; for comparison, the DSN's current three-stage cryocooler, which uses a Joule--Thompson cooling stage in addition to GM cooling, operates at 4.5 K. The new CCR withstands heat loads of 1.5 W at 4.2 K as compared to 1 W at 4.5 K for the existing DSN cryocooler used for cooling masers. The measured noise temperature, T_e, of the maser used for these tests is defined at the ambient connection to the antenna feed system. The T_e measured 5.0 K at a CCR temperature of 4.5 K, about 1.5 K higher than the noise temperature of a typical DSN Block II-A X-band traveling-wave maser (TWM). Reducing the temperature of the CCR significantly lowers the maser noise temperature and increases maser gain and bandwidth. The new GM CCR gives future maser systems significant operational advantages, including reduced maintenance time and logistics requirements. The results of a demonstration of this new system are presented. Advantages of using a GM-cooled maser and the effects of the reduced CCR temperature on maser performance are discussed.

  1. Biosentinel: Improving Desiccation Tolerance of Yeast Biosensors for Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Sawan; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Liddell, Lauren; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    BioSentinel is one of 13 secondary payloads to be deployed on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. We will use the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biosensor to determine how deep-space radiation affects living organisms and to potentially quantify radiation levels through radiation damage analysis. Radiation can damage DNA through double strand breaks (DSBs), which can normally be repaired by homologous recombination. Two yeast strains will be air-dried and stored in microfluidic cards within the payload: a wild-type control strain and a radiation sensitive rad51 mutant that is deficient in DSB repairs. Throughout the mission, the microfluidic cards will be rehydrated with growth medium and an indicator dye. Growth rates of each strain will be measured through LED detection of the reduction of the indicator dye, which correlates with DNA repair and the amount of radiation damage accumulated. Results from BioSentinel will be compared to analog experiments on the ISS and on Earth. It is well known that desiccation can damage yeast cells and decrease viability over time. We performed a screen for desiccation-tolerant rad51 strains. We selected 20 re-isolates of rad51 and ran a weekly screen for desiccation-tolerant mutants for five weeks. Our data shows that viability decreases over time, confirming previous research findings. Isolates L2, L5 and L14 indicate desiccation tolerance and are candidates for whole-genome sequencing. More time is needed to determine whether a specific strain is truly desiccation tolerant. Furthermore, we conducted an intracellular trehalose assay to test how intracellular trehalose concentrations affect or protect the mutant strains against desiccation stress. S. cerevisiae cell and reagent concentrations from a previously established intracellular trehalose protocol did not yield significant absorbance measurements, so we tested varying cell and reagent concentrations and determined proper concentrations for successful

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  3. Qualifications of Bonding Process of Temperature Sensors to Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard W., III; Sunada, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been examined for bonding a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) onto potential aerospace materials such as flat aluminum surfaces and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cables for flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a silver-plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while the sensor was attached with the braid to the base material for long-duration, deep-space missions. A1-1145/graphite composite (planar substrate) and copper tube have been used in this study to assess the reliability of PRT bonding materials. A flexible copper tube was chosen to simulate the coaxial cable to attach PRTs. The substrate materials were cleaned with acetone wipes to remove oils and contaminants. Later, the surface was also cleaned with ethyl alcohol and was air-dried. The materials were gently abraded and then were cleaned again the same way as previously mentioned. Initially, shielded (silver plated copper braid) PRT (type X) test articles were fabricated and cleaned. The base antenna material was pretreated and shielded, and CV-2566 NuSil silicone was used to attach the shielded PRT to the base material. The test articles were cured at room temperature and humidity for seven days. The resistance of the PRTs was continuously monitored during the thermal cycling, and the test articles were inspected prior to, at various intermediate steps during, and at the end of the thermal cycling as well. All of the PRTs survived three times the expected mission life for the JUNO project. No adhesion problems were observed in the PRT sensor area, or under the shielded PRT. Furthermore, the PRT resistance accurately tracked the thermal cycling of the chamber.

  4. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.

    2018-02-01

    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  5. En Route Care in Confined Spaces: Impact of Transport, Immobilization Practices, Space Constraints, and Medical Awareness Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    physical space , ergonomics , and enhancement of medical awareness. Outcomes of the project will provide significant information and tools that can be...This group of research projects was designed to look at various aspects of transport, immobilization, optimal physical space , ergonomics , and...Devereux, J. 2002. The nature of work -related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Applied Ergonomics . 33(3): 207-17. Chaffin, D.B

  6. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael

    1993-05-01

    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  7. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael

    1993-01-01

    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  8. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  9. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  10. Space allowance of young goats during transportation to slaughter = Beladingsdichtheid tijdens het wegtransport van jonge geiten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research was performed during long distance road transportations of young goats (6-8 weeks). Effects of three space allowances on physiological responses (blood parameters, heart rate and body temperature) were measured.

  11. Numerical design of electron guns and space charge limited transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of computer programs used to design electron guns and similarly space-charge limited transport systems. Examples of computer generated plots from several different types of gun problems are included

  12. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  13. New Method for Shallow and Deep Trap Distribution Analysis in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper Based on the Space Charge Detrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space charge has close relation with the trap distribution in the insulation material. The phenomenon of charges trapping and detrapping has attracted significant attention in recent years. Space charge and trap parameters are effective parameters for assessing the ageing condition of the insulation material qualitatively. In this paper, a new method for calculating trap distribution based on the double exponential fitting analysis of charge decay process and its application on characterizing the trap distribution of oil impregnated insulation paper was investigated. When compared with the common first order exponential fitting analysis method, the improved dual-level trap method could obtain the energy level range and density of both shallow traps and deep traps, simultaneously. Space charge decay process analysis of the insulation paper immersed with new oil and aged oil shows that the improved trap distribution calculation method can distinguish the physical defects and chemical defects. The trap density shows an increasing trend with the oil ageing, especially for the deep traps mainly related to chemical defects. The greater the energy could be filled by the traps, the larger amount of charges could be trapped, especially under higher electric field strength. The deep trap energy level and trap density could be used to characterize ageing. When one evaluates the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation using trap distribution parameters, the influence of oil performance should not be ignored.

  14. Surgical vs ultrasound-guided drainage of deep neck space abscesses: a randomized controlled trial: surgical vs ultrasound drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Vincent L; Kurien, George; Dziegielewski, Peter; Barber, Brittany; Seikaly, Hadi

    2013-02-26

    Deep neck space abscesses (DNAs) are relatively common otolaryngology-head and neck surgery emergencies and can result in significant morbidity with potential mortality. Traditionally, surgical incision and drainage (I&D) with antibiotics has been the mainstay of treatment. Some reports have suggested that ultrasound-guided drainage (USD) is a less invasive and effective alternative in select cases. To compare I&D vs USD of well-defined DNAs, using a randomized controlled clinical trial design. The primary outcome measure was effectiveness (length of hospital stay (LOHS) and safety), and the secondary outcome measure was overall cost to the healthcare system. Patients presenting to the University of Alberta Emergency Department with a well-defined deep neck space abscess were recruited in the study. Patients were randomized to surgical or US-guided drainage, placed on intravenous antibiotics and admitted with airway precautions. Following drainage with either intervention, abscess collections were cultured and drains were left in place until discharge. Seventeen patients were recruited in the study. We found a significant difference in mean LOHS between patients who underwent USD (3.1 days) vs I&D (5.2 days). We identified significant cost savings associated with USD with a 41% cost reduction in comparison to I&D. USD drainage of deep neck space abscesses in a certain patient population is effective, safe, and results in a significant cost savings to the healthcare system.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  16. Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research Fifth Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This Fifth Annual Technical Symposium, sponsored by the UT-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR), is organized to provide an overview of the technical accomplishments of the Center's five Research and Technology focus areas during the past year. These areas include chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, commerical space transportation, computational methods, and laser materials processing. Papers in the area of artificial intelligence/expert systems are also presented.

  17. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  18. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  19. Determination of albumin transport rate between plasma and peritoneal space in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (TERperit.space) was determined in eighteen patients with decompensated cirrhosis by sampling ascitic fluid after i.v. injection of 125I-labelled serum albumin. Median TERperit.space was 0.30% of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) per hour (range 0...

  20. 75 FR 71791 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... debris questions asked by the FAA; continuing the group's review of the Concept of Operation for Global Space Vehicle Debris Threat Management Report, and updating the list of top issues that should require... given of a teleconference of the Space Transportation Operations Working Group (STOWG) of the Commercial...

  1. HyPlane for Space Tourism and Business Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, R.

    In the present work a preliminary study on a small hypersonic airplane for a long duration space tourism mission is presented. It is also consistent with a point-to-point medium range (5000-6000 km) hypersonic trip, in the frame of the "urgent business travel" market segment. The main ideas is to transfer technological solutions developed for aeronautical and space atmospheric re-entry systems to the design of such a hypersonic airplane. A winged vehicle characterized by high aerodynamic efficiency and able to manoeuvre along the flight path, in all aerodynamic regimes encountered, is taken into consideration. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle engines are investigated to ensure higher performances in terms of flight duration and range. Different flight-paths are also considered, including sub-orbital parabolic trajectories and steady state hypersonic cruise. The former, in particular, takes advantage of the high aerodynamic efficiency during the unpowered phase, in combination with a periodic engine actuation, to guarantee a long duration oscillating flight path. These trajectories offer Space tourists the opportunity of extended missions, characterized by repeated periods of low-gravity at altitudes high enough to ensure a wide view of the Earth from Space.

  2. Low-energy beam transport using space-charge lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusel, O.; Bechtold, A.; Pozimski, J.; Ratzinger, U.; Schempp, A.; Klein, H.

    2005-01-01

    Space-charge lenses (SCL) of the Gabor type provide strong cylinder symmetric focusing for low-energy ion beams using a confined nonneutral plasma. They need modest magnetic and electrostatic field strength and provide a short installation length when compared to conventional LEBT-lenses like quadrupoles and magnetic solenoids. The density distribution of the enclosed space charge within the Gabor lens is given by the confinement in transverse and longitudinal directions. In the case of a positive ion beam, the space charge of the confined electron cloud may cause an overcompensation of the ion beam space-charge force and consequently focuses the beam. To investigate the capabilities of an SCL double-lens system for ion beam into an RFQ, a test injector was installed at IAP and put into operation successfully. Furthermore, to study the focusing capabilities of this lens at beam energies up to 500 keV, a high-field Gabor lens was built and installed downstream of the RFQ. Experimental results of the beam injection into the RFQ are presented as well as those of these first bunched beam-focusing tests with the 110 A keV He + beam

  3. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  4. Commercial Space Transportation and Approaches to landing sites over Maritime Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Space Transportation becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. Hence the integration of space vehicles in other airspace than the US NAS is an important topic to be considered. The Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) is preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe. The requirements are defined by the concept of the shared Business Trajectory and System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Space vehicle op...

  5. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  6. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  7. Wuhan University Deep-space Orbit Determination and Gravity Recovery System(WUDOGS and Its Application Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available WUDOGS(Wuhan University deep-space orbit determination and gravity recovery system is a software system designed for deep spacecraft precise orbit determination and planetary gravity recovery, developed independently at Wuhan University. WUDOGS now has the function for Lunar and Mars spacecraft precision orbit determination. Its design pattern and main function are briefly introduced. The cross verification test(CVT between WUDOGS and state of the art planetary precise orbit determination software GEODYN-Ⅱ are elaborated. The results show that:①for orbit propagation, with all the same forces and other configuration, the predicted orbit difference in R,T,N directions are less than 0.3 mm for one month arc, 5×10-3 mm for 2 days arc, compared with GEODYN-Ⅱ;②the difference RMS of computed values of observables for two-way range and two-way range rate is at levels of 0.06 mm and 0.002 mm/s respectively;③for Chinese Chang'E-1 POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and GEODYN-Ⅱ is at 2 cm level, for ESA MEX POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and ESA is at 25 m level. Current developing situation of WUDOGS and comparison with international research level show that WUDOGS has a good application prospect, which will be important for meeting the demand of Chinese future planetary exploration and the development of deep space spacecraft POD software.

  8. Space and Time Resolved Detection of Platelet Activation and von Willebrand Factor Conformational Changes in Deep Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Sampath, Kaushik; Cortez, Angel; Azhir, Alaleh; Gilad, Assaf A; Kickler, Thomas S; Obser, Tobias; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Katz, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Tracking cells and proteins' phenotypic changes in deep suspensions is critical for the direct imaging of blood-related phenomena in in vitro replica of cardiovascular systems and blood-handling devices. This paper introduces fluorescence imaging techniques for space and time resolved detection of platelet activation, von Willebrand factor (VWF) conformational changes, and VWF-platelet interaction in deep suspensions. Labeled VWF, platelets, and VWF-platelet strands are suspended in deep cuvettes, illuminated, and imaged with a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera, allowing detection using an exposure time of 1 ms. In-house postprocessing algorithms identify and track the moving signals. Recombinant VWF-eGFP (rVWF-eGFP) and VWF labeled with an FITC-conjugated polyclonal antibody are employed. Anti-P-Selectin FITC-conjugated antibodies and the calcium-sensitive probe Indo-1 are used to detect activated platelets. A positive correlation between the mean number of platelets detected per image and the percentage of activated platelets determined through flow cytometry is obtained, validating the technique. An increase in the number of rVWF-eGFP signals upon exposure to shear stress demonstrates the technique's ability to detect breakup of self-aggregates. VWF globular and unfolded conformations and self-aggregation are also observed. The ability to track the size and shape of VWF-platelet strands in space and time provides means to detect pro- and antithrombotic processes.

  9. Deep Space Gateway Support of Lunar Surface Ops and Tele-Operational Transfer of Surface Assets to the Next Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can support astronauts on the lunar surface, providing them a departure and returning rendezvous point, a communication relay from the lunar farside to Earth, and a transfer point to Orion for return to Earth.

  10. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) — Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; Tatum, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose the Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) instrument. The primary goal of the DLM is to optically monitor Earth's high-latitude (50° and poleward) total lightning not observed by current and planned spaceborne lightning mappers.

  11. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  12. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  13. Deep Space Gateway Facilitates Exploration of Planetary Crusts: A Human/Robotic Exploration Design Reference Campaign to the Lunar Orientale Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Scott, D. R.

    2018-02-01

    We outline an Orientale Basin Human/Robotic Architecture that can be facilitated by a Deep Space Gateway International Science Operations Center (DSG-ISOC) (like McMurdo/Antarctica) to address fundamental scientific problems about the Moon and Mars.

  14. Results of Using the Global Positioning System to Maintain the Time and Frequency Synchronization in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, P. A; Kirk, A; Unglaub, R

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network (DSN) consists of three tracking stations located in California, Australia, and Spain, each with two hydrogen maser clocks as the time and frequency standard...

  15. A Deep Penetration Problem Calculation Using AETIUS:An Easy Modeling Discrete Ordinates Transport Code UsIng Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh, Shared Memory Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Jong Woon; LEE, Young-Ouk

    2017-09-01

    As computing power gets better and better, computer codes that use a deterministic method seem to be less useful than those using the Monte Carlo method. In addition, users do not like to think about space, angles, and energy discretization for deterministic codes. However, a deterministic method is still powerful in that we can obtain a solution of the flux throughout the problem, particularly as when particles can barely penetrate, such as in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. Recently, a new state-of-the-art discrete-ordinates code, ATTILA, was developed and has been widely used in several applications. ATTILA provides the capabilities to solve geometrically complex 3-D transport problems by using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. Since 2009, we have been developing our own code by benchmarking ATTILA. AETIUS is a discrete ordinates code that uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh such as ATTILA. For pre- and post- processing, Gmsh is used to generate an unstructured tetrahedral mesh by importing a CAD file (*.step) and visualizing the calculation results of AETIUS. Using a CAD tool, the geometry can be modeled very easily. In this paper, we describe a brief overview of AETIUS and provide numerical results from both AETIUS and a Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of AETIUS for such calculations.

  16. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  17. Structures of the fractional spaces generated by the difference neutron transport operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Taskin, Abdulgafur

    2015-01-01

    The initial boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is considered. The first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of this problem are presented. Highly accurate difference schemes for neutron transport equation based on Padé approximation are constructed. In applications, stability estimates for solutions of difference schemes for the approximate solution of the neutron transport equation are obtained.The positivity of the neutron transport operator in Slobodeckij spaces is proved. Numerical techniques are developed and algorithms are tested on an example in MATLAB

  18. 224Ra distribution in surface and deep water of Long Island Sound: sources and horizontal transport rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; O'Donnell, J.; DeAngelo, E.; Turekian, K.K.; Turekian, V.C.; Tanaka, N.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of surface water and deep water 224 Ra(half-life 3.64 days) distributions in Long Island Sound (LIS) were conducted in July 1991. Because the pycnocline structure of LIS had been in place for about 50 days in July (long compared to the half-life of 224 Ra) in the surface water and the deep water operate as separate systems. In the surface water, the fine-grain sediments of nearshore and saltmarsh environments provide a strong source of 224 Ra, which is horizontally mixed away from the short to central LIS. A one-dimensional model of 224 Ra distribution suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity of 5-50 m 2 s -1 . In the deep water, the mid-LIS sediment flux of 224 Ra is enhanced by ∼ 2x relative to the periphery, and the horizontal eddy flux is from central LIS to the periphery. A second one-dimensional model suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity below the thermocline of 5-50 m 2 -1 . 224 Ra fluxes into the deep water of the central LIS are likely enhanced by (1) inhomogeneous sediment or (2) a reduced scavenging of 224 Ra in the sediments of central LIS brought about by low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) and the loss of the MnO 2 scavenging layer in the sediments. These rates of horizontal eddy dispersivity are significantly less than the estimate of 100-650 m 2 s -1 (Riley, 1967) but are consistent with the transport necessary to explain the dynamics of oxygen depletion in summer LIS. These results demonstrate the use of 224 Ra for quantifying the parameters needed to describe estuarine mixing and transport. (Author)

  19. Entanglement-assisted Communication System for NASA's Deep-Space Missions: Feasibility Test and Conceptual Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is involved with transferring information through the vast distances of space. The challenge is that it is difficult to get many photons from a...

  20. Movement and Maneuver in Deep Space: A Framework to Leverage Advanced Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) .................................................... 20 Directed Energy-Driven Technology...power in space commensurate with the ambitions of private industry and peer competitors. In the commercial space industry, capital and capability are...opportunistic policies, intent, and actions of space-faring peer competitors such as China, Russia, and India, along with civil and commercial

  1. Optimal wall spacing for heat transport in thermal convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, Olga [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The simulation of RB flow for Ra up to 1 x 10{sup 10} is computationally expensive in terms of computing power and hard disk storage. Thus, we gratefully acknowledge the computational resources supported by Leibniz-Rechenzentrum Munich. Compared to Γ=1 situation, a new physical picture of heat transport is identified here at Γ{sub opt} for any explored Ra. Therefore, a detailed comparison between Γ=1 and Γ=Γ{sub opt} is valuable for our further research, for example, their vertical temperature and velocity profiles. Additionally, we plan to compare the fluid with different Pr under geometrical confinement, which are computationally expensive for the situations of Pr<<1 and Pr>>1.

  2. A deep knowledge architecture for intelligent support of nuclear waste transportation decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, D.; Bowen, W.M.; Hill, T.R.; Weeks, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of intelligent decision support has been discussed and explored in several recent papers, one of which has suggested the use of a Deep Knowledge Architecture. This paper explores this concept through application to a specific decision environment. The complex problems involved in nuclear waste disposal decisions provide an excellent test case. The resulting architecture uses an integrated, multi-level model base to represent the deep knowledge of the problem. Combined with the surface level knowledge represented by the database, the proposed knowledge base complements that of the decision-maker, allowing analysis at a range of levels of decisions which may also occur at a range of levels

  3. Modeling Non-Fickian Transport and Hyperexponential Deposition for Deep Bed Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An integral model of the deep bed filtration process has been developed. It incorporates pore and particle size distributions, as well as the particle residence time distribution in the framework of the continuous time random walk theory. Numerical modeling is carried out to study the factors...... influencing breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for the deep bed filtration systems. Results are compared with a large set of experimental observations. Our findings show that highly dispersed breakthrough curves, e.g. those with early arrivals and large ending tails, correspond to large dispersion...

  4. Use of the 37-38 GHz and 40-40.5 GHz Ka-bands for Deep Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David; Hastrup, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    This paper covers a wide variety of issues associated with the implementation and use of these frequency bands for deep space communications. Performance issues, such as ground station pointing stability, ground antenna gain, antenna pattern, and propagation effects such as due to atmospheric, charged-particle and space loss at 37 GHz, will be addressed in comparison to the 32 GHz Ka-band deep space allocation. Issues with the use of and competition for this spectrum also will be covered. The state of the hardware developed (or proposed) for operating in this frequency band will be covered from the standpoint of the prospects for achieving higher data rates that could be accommodated in the available bandwidth. Hardware areas to be explored include modulators, digital-to-analog converters, filters, power amplifiers, receivers, and antennas. The potential users of the frequency band will be explored as well as their anticipated methods to achieve the potential high data rates and the implications of the competition for bandwidth.

  5. Indian space transportation programme: Near term outlook and issues for commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Narayan Prasad

    2015-05-01

    The Indian space transportation programme has grown from strength to strength with the launching of sounding rockets in the 60's to the development of heavy lift vehicles for telecommunication satellites in the present decade. With the growing market confidence in Indian Space Research Organisation's ability to reliably deliver payloads to low Earth orbit with its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, there is an inherent opportunity for India to cater to the commercial market. The present work assesses the current launch capacity of India in retrospect of international launches and provides India's outlook for the space transportation in the current decade. Launch capacity correlation with the requirements within the Indian space programme as well as the current space transportation infrastructure have been considered to identify bottlenecks in catering to the current national requirements alongside securing a greater market share in the international launch market. The state of commercialisation of launch vehicle development has been presented to provide an overview of policy and organisational issues for commercialisation of space transportation in India.

  6. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  7. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  8. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  9. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  10. Larval transport modeling of deep-sea invertebrates can aid the search for undiscovered populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Yearsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many deep-sea benthic animals occur in patchy distributions separated by thousands of kilometres, yet because deep-sea habitats are remote, little is known about their larval dispersal. Our novel method simulates dispersal by combining data from the Argo array of autonomous oceanographic probes, deep-sea ecological surveys, and comparative invertebrate physiology. The predicted particle tracks allow quantitative, testable predictions about the dispersal of benthic invertebrate larvae in the south-west Pacific. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a test case presented here, using non-feeding, non-swimming (lecithotrophic trochophore larvae of polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons, we show that the likely dispersal pathways in a single generation are significantly shorter than the distances between the three known population centres in our study region. The large-scale density of chiton populations throughout our study region is potentially much greater than present survey data suggest, with intermediate 'stepping stone' populations yet to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a new method that is broadly applicable to studies of the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. This test case demonstrates the power and potential applications of our new method, in generating quantitative, testable hypotheses at multiple levels to solve the mismatch between observed and expected distributions: probabilistic predictions of locations of intermediate populations, potential alternative dispersal mechanisms, and expected population genetic structure. The global Argo data have never previously been used to address benthic biology, and our method can be applied to any non-swimming larvae of the deep-sea, giving information upon dispersal corridors and population densities in habitats that remain intrinsically difficult to assess.

  11. Transport, space and society in Copenhagen and Bogotá, 1940-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    This paper explores the way urban space, transportation networks and urban societies co-evolve and shape each other in time and how this process impacts the development of specific infrastructure projects in cities. To illustrate and analyse these processes, I examine the space design and transport...... as both the Metro and Transmilenio were promoted as high end means to move commuters out of their cars and into the public transport system. Based on the work of Ulrik Jørgensen, I propose that a city can be considered as an arena of development where different actor-networks interact and thus shape...... and are shaped by social processes such as the space development of the city, the enactment of certain discourse of self representation (cities as regional poles of development for instance) and the daily routines of city dwellers and their living choices, among others. This type of sociological analysis...

  12. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  13. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU......-Commission to exemplify the operationalisation of the concept Motorways of the Sea (European Commission, 2004). The policies of promoting Motorways of the Sea is aiming at revitalise the short-sea-shipping within Europe as a transport industry, but also to relieve the heavily congested road network in central regions...

  14. Visual astronomy under dark skies a new approach to observing deep space

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Modern astronomical telescopes, along with other advances in technology, have brought the deep sky - star clusters, nebulae and the galaxies - within reach of amateur astronomers. And it isn't even necessary to image many of these deep-sky objects in order to see them; they are within reach of visual observers using modern techniques and enhancement technology. The first requirement is truly dark skies; if you are observing from a light-polluted environment you need Tony Cooke's book, Visual Astronomy in the Suburbs. Given a site with clear, dark night skies everything else follows… this book will provide the reader with everything he needs to know about what to observe, and using some of today's state-of-the-art technique and commercial equipment, how to get superb views of faint and distant astronomical objects.

  15. The AMERE project: Enabling real-time detection of radiation effects in individual cells in deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Meesen, Geert; Szpirer, Cedric; Scohy, Sophie; Cherukuri, Chaitanya; Evrard, Olivier; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Beghuin, Didier

    2012-12-01

    A major concern for long-term deep space missions is the detrimental impact of cosmic radiation on human health. Especially the presence of high-energy particles of high atomic mass (HZE) represents a serious threat. To contribute to a fundamental understanding of space radiation effects and to help improving risk assessment for humans on the Moon, the ESA Lunar Lander mission model payload includes a package dedicated to cell-based radiobiology experiments in the form of an Autonomous Microscope for Examination of Radiation Effects (AMERE). The purpose of this setup is to enable real-time visualization of DNA damage repair in living cells after traversal of HZE particles on the Moon. To assess the feasibility of this challenging experiment, we have analysed the biological and technological demands. In this article, we discuss the experimental concept, the biological considerations and describe the implications for system design.

  16. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  17. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  18. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  19. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  20. Economic Analysis on the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) NASA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performed the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) to provide information to support end-of-the-decade decisions on possible near-term US Government (USG) investments in space transportation. To gain a clearer understanding of the costs and benefits of the broadest range of possible space transportation options, six teams, five from aerospace industry companies and one internal to NASA, were tasked to answer three primary questions: a) If the Space Shuttle system should be replaced; b) If so, when the replacement should take place and how the transition should be implemented; and c) If not, what is the upgrade strategy to continue safe and affordable flight of the Space Shuttle beyond 2010. The overall goal of the Study was "to develop investment options to be considered by the Administration for the President's FY2001 budget to meet NASA's future human space flight requirements with significant reductions in costs." This emphasis on government investment, coupled with the participation by commercial f'trms, required an unprecedented level of economic analysis of costs and benefits from both industry and government viewpoints. This paper will discuss the economic and market models developed by the in-house NASA Team to analyze space transportation architectures, the results of those analyses, and how those results were reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of the STAS NASA Team. Copyright 1999 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. No copyright is asserted in the United States under Title 17, U.$. Code. The U.S. Government has a royalty-free license to exercise all rights under the copyright claimed herein for Governmental purposes. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner.

  1. The perfect boring situation-Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peldszus, Regina; Dalke, Hilary; Pretlove, Stephen; Welch, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary orbital missions, workloads are so high and varied that crew may rarely experience stretches of monotony. However, in historical long duration missions, occurrences of monotony were, indeed, reported anecdotally by crew. Of the effective countermeasures that appear to be at hand, many rely on visual or logistical proximity to the Earth, and are not feasible in the remote context of an extended deep space mission scenario. There, particularly in- and outbound cruising stages would be characterised by longer, comparably uneventful periods of low workload, coupled with confinement and unchanging vehicle surroundings. While the challenge of monotony has been pointed out as an exploration-related research area, it has received less explicit attention from a habitation design perspective than other human behaviour and performance issues. The paper addresses this gap through a literature review of the theory and application of design-based mitigation strategies. It outlines models of emergence of monotony, situates the phenomenon in a remote mission context as a problem of sensory, social and spatio-temporal isolation, and discusses proposed countermeasures related to habitability. The scope of the literature is extended to primary sources in the form of a qualitative review of six onboard diaries from orbital and simulator missions, highlighting a range of habitat-related design themes. These are translated into the autonomous deep space setting with the overall rationale of integrating affordances into onboard habitation systems and placing emphasis on reinforcing positive situational characteristics.

  2. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  3. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.

  4. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  5. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  6. Inflatable Antennas for CubeSats Communication and Science in Deep Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work will be organized as a collaboration between JPL and two external partners: Arizona State University and Meteorological Product Inc. (Mylar manufacturer)....

  7. A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Plasma Magnetoshell works like a ballute, where plasma takes the place of inflated fabric. The primary drag-inducing interaction between the magnetically...

  8. CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster for LEO and Deep Space Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the CubeSat...

  9. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  10. Monitor and Control of the Deep-Space network via Secure Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarra, N.

    1997-01-01

    (view graph) NASA lead center for robotic space exploration. Operating division of Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Current missions, Voyagers, Galileo, Pathfinder, Global Surveyor. Upcoming missions, Cassini, Mars and New Millennium.

  11. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  12. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, George

    1986-01-01

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  13. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  14. Visualizing histopathologic deep learning classification and anomaly detection using nonlinear feature space dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Kevin; Xie, Quin; Han, Dominick; Goyle, Kartikay; Volynskaya, Zoya; Djuric, Ugljesa; Diamandis, Phedias

    2018-05-16

    There is growing interest in utilizing artificial intelligence, and particularly deep learning, for computer vision in histopathology. While accumulating studies highlight expert-level performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on focused classification tasks, most studies rely on probability distribution scores with empirically defined cutoff values based on post-hoc analysis. More generalizable tools that allow humans to visualize histology-based deep learning inferences and decision making are scarce. Here, we leverage t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) to reduce dimensionality and depict how CNNs organize histomorphologic information. Unique to our workflow, we develop a quantitative and transparent approach to visualizing classification decisions prior to softmax compression. By discretizing the relationships between classes on the t-SNE plot, we show we can super-impose randomly sampled regions of test images and use their distribution to render statistically-driven classifications. Therefore, in addition to providing intuitive outputs for human review, this visual approach can carry out automated and objective multi-class classifications similar to more traditional and less-transparent categorical probability distribution scores. Importantly, this novel classification approach is driven by a priori statistically defined cutoffs. It therefore serves as a generalizable classification and anomaly detection tool less reliant on post-hoc tuning. Routine incorporation of this convenient approach for quantitative visualization and error reduction in histopathology aims to accelerate early adoption of CNNs into generalized real-world applications where unanticipated and previously untrained classes are often encountered.

  15. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

  17. Getting together in deep space - The Rosetta space probe's long trek to Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The countdown to Rosetta’s rendezvous in space began on 1 March 1997. At the end of February 2004, seven years and not a few headaches later, the European Space Agency (ESA) probe will at last be setting off on its journey to meet Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The long-planned get-together will not however take place until the middle of 2014. A few months after arriving at the comet, Rosetta will release a small lander onto its surface. Then, for almost two years it will investigate Churyumov-Gerasimenko from close up. Dr Gerhard Schwehm, lead scientist for the Rosetta project, explains that, “With this mission we will be breaking new ground - this will be the first protracted cometary encounter.” The trip to the meeting place in space will certainly be a long one, located as it is some 4.5 astronomical units from the Sun, which translates into something like 675 million kilometres. Rosetta will be on the road for ten years, during which time it will clock up in excess of five billion kilometres. Launch in February 2004 Rosetta will be waved off on 26 February when it lifts off from the space centre in Kourou, French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5 launcher. Shortly after the spacecraft’s release, its solar panels will be deployed and turned towards the Sun to build up the necessary power reserves. Its various systems and experiments will be gradually brought into operation and tested. Just three months into the mission the first active phase will be over, followed by final testing of the experiments in October 2004. Rosetta will then spend the following years flying a lonely path to the comet, passing by the Earth, Mars, the Earth and the Earth again. There is no alternative to this detour, for even Ariane 5, the most powerful launcher on the market today, lacks the power to hurl the probe on a direct route to the comet. To get the required momentum, it will rely on swing-by manœuvres, using the gravitation pull of Mars (in 2007) and the Earth (three times, in

  18. Estimates of direct biological transport of radioactive waste in the deep sea with special reference to organic carbon budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, G.T.; Shepherd, J.; Needler, G.; Hargrave, B.; Marietta, M.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations can be made for the maximum theoretical transport of pollutants such as radionuclides by movement of organisms out of a deep-sea benthic boundary layer dump site based on a presumption of a steady state organic carbon budget and estimated biological concentration factors. A calculated flux rate depends on the difference between a limiting input of organic matter and that carbon used by the biota or accumulating in the sediment. On average, the potential biological mass transport is low compared to physical transport. Exceptions to this generalization are possible in the far field after spatial gradients are obliterated or if natural mass migrations or periodic spawning concentrations occur in the near field. Biologically mediated fluxes of contaminants due to mixing of sediments by bioturbation or vertical flux due to scavenging by sinking particles are significant for movements of pollutants to and from sediments. These pathways contribute to the direct input of contaminants into food webs which may contain harvestable species. These fluxes are unimportant for mass transfers in the ocean but they determine the exposure of critical groups to contaminants

  19. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  1. Ship space to database: emerging infrastructures for studies of the deep subseafloor biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Darch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An increasing array of scientific fields face a “data deluge.” However, in many fields data are scarce, with implications for their epistemic status and ability to command funding. Consequently, they often attempt to develop infrastructure for data production, management, curation, and circulation. A component of a knowledge infrastructure may serve one or more scientific domains. Further, a single domain may rely upon multiple infrastructures simultaneously. Studying how domains negotiate building and accessing scarce infrastructural resources that they share with other domains will shed light on how knowledge infrastructures shape science. Methods We conducted an eighteen-month, qualitative study of scientists studying the deep subseafloor biosphere, focusing on the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP and its successor, the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP2. Our methods comprised ethnographic observation, including eight months embedded in a laboratory, interviews (n = 49, and document analysis. Results Deep subseafloor biosphere research is an emergent domain. We identified two reasons for the domain’s concern with data scarcity: limited ability to pursue their research objectives, and the epistemic status of their research. Domain researchers adopted complementary strategies to acquire more data. One was to establish C-DEBI as an infrastructure solely for their domain. The second was to use C-DEBI as a means to gain greater access to, and reconfigure, IODP/IODP2 to their advantage. IODP/IODP2 functions as infrastructure for multiple scientific domains, which creates competition for resources. C-DEBI is building its own data management infrastructure, both to acquire more data from IODP and to make better use of data, once acquired. Discussion Two themes emerge. One is data scarcity, which can be understood only in relation to a domain

  2. Allocating city space to multiple transportation modes: A new modeling approach consistent with the physics of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Eric J.; Geroliminis, Nikolas; Cassidy, Michael J.; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic modeling approach is proposed for allocating a city’s road space among competing transport modes. In this approach, a city or neighborhood street network is viewed as a reservoir with aggregated traffic. Taking the number of vehicles (accumulation) in a reservoir as input, we show how one can reliably predict system performance in terms of person and vehicle hours spent in the system and person and vehicle kilometers traveled. The approach is used here to unveil two important ...

  3. Supporting a Deep Space Gateway with Free-Return Earth-Moon Periodic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A. L.; Dunham, D. W.; Hardgrove, C.

    2018-02-01

    Earth-Moon periodic orbits travel between the Earth and Moon via free-return circumlunar segments and can host a station that can provide architecture support to other nodes near the Moon and Mars while enabling science return from cislunar space.

  4. The wide perspective on Mars-500 as an analog of deep space exploration: the Czech monograh

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlíková, I.; Šolcová, Iva; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Mazehóová, Y.; Vinokhodova, A.; Gushin, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2013), s. 175-175 ISSN 0233-528X. [XIV. Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. 28.10.2013-30.10.2013, Moskva] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars-500 * group communication * resilience * motivation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: using large-eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers. (2) Electricity supply capabilities of solid cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akifumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This study has been carried out in series with the other study, 'Criticality of Low Enriched Uranium Fueled Core' to explore the possibilities of a solid reactor electricity generation system for supplying propulsion power of a deep space explorer. The design ranges of two different systems are determined with respect to the electric power, the radiator mass, and the operating temperatures of the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters. The two systems are the core surface cooling with heat-pipe system (CSHP), and the core direct cooling with heat-pipe system (CDHP). The evaluated electric powers widely cover the 1 to 100 kW range, which had long been claimed to be the range that lacked the power sources in space. Therefore, the concepts shown by this study may lead to a breakthrough of the human activities in space. The working temperature ranges of the main components, namely the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters, are wide and covers down to relatively low temperatures. This is desirable from the viewpoints of broadening the choices, reducing the development needs, and improving the reliabilities of the devices. Hence, it is advantageous for an early establishment of the concept. (author)

  7. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Large-eddy simulation reproduces two unsteady vortices seen in a lab experiment. • Reactive pollutants in an urban street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation. • O 3 production rate inferred by the NO x -O 3 -steady-state-defect approach is discussed. • Ground level sourced pollutants are largely trapped within the lower vortex. • A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed. - Reactive pollutants in a deep street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation driven by two unsteady vortices. A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed

  8. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  9. Drone swarm with free-space optical communication to detect and make deep decisions about physical problems for area surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazher, Wamidh Jalil; Ibrahim, Hadeel T.; Ucan, Osman N.; Bayat, Oguz

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to design a drone swarm network by employing free-space optical (FSO) communication for detecting and deep decision making of topological problems (e.g., oil pipeline leak), where deep decision making requires the highest image resolution. Drones have been widely used for monitoring and detecting problems in industrial applications during which the drone sends images from the on-air camera video stream using radio frequency (RF) signals. To obtain higher-resolution images, higher bandwidth (BW) is required. The current study proposed the use of the FSO communication system to facilitate higher BW for higher image resolution. Moreover, the number of drones required to survey a large physical area exceeded the capabilities of RF technologies. Our configuration of the drones is V-shaped swarm with one leading drone called mother drone (DM). The optical decode-and-forward (DF) technique is used to send the optical payloads of all drones in V-shaped swarm to the single ground station through DM. Furthermore, it is found that the transmitted optical power (Pt) is required for each drone based on the threshold outage probability of FSO link failure among the onboard optical-DF drones. The bit error rate of optical payload is calculated based on optical-DF onboard processing. Finally, the number of drones required for different image resolutions based on the size of the considered topological area is optimized.

  10. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    combination of requirements necessitates a redundant, fault tolerant, high- speed, low mass, low power network with a low Bit error Rate(1E-9- 1E-12). The ISIM systems team performed many studies of the various network architectures that meeting these requirements. The architecture selected uses the Spacewire protocol, with the addition of a new transport and network layer added to implement end-to-end reliable transport. The network and reliable transport mechanism must be implemented in hardware because of the high average information rate and the restriction on the ability of the detectors to buffer data due to power and size restrictions. This network and transport mechanism was designed to be compatible with existing Spacewire links and routers so that existing equipment and designs may be leveraged upon. The transport layer specification is being coordinated with European Space Agency (ESA), Spacewire Working Group and the Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) PlK Standard Onboard Interface (SOIF) panel, with the intent of developing a standard for reliable transport for Spacewire. Changes to the protocol presented are likely since negotiations are ongoing with these groups. A block of RTL VHDL that implements a multi-port Spacewire router with an external user interface will be developed and integrated with an existing Spacewire Link design. The external user interface will be the local interface that sources and sinks packets onto and off of the network (Figure 3). The external user interface implements the network and transport layer and handles acknowledgements and re-tries of packets for reliable transport over the network. Because the design is written in RTL, it may be ported to any technology but will initially be targeted to the new Actel Accelerator series (AX) part. Each link will run at 160 Mbps and the power will be about 0.165 Watt per link worst case in the Actel AX.

  11. Automated Morphological Classification in Deep Hubble Space Telescope UBVI Fields: Rapidly and Passively Evolving Faint Galaxy Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewahn, Stephen C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Driver, Simon P.; Keel, William C.

    1996-11-01

    We analyze deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in U, B, V, I using artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers, which are based on galaxy surface brightness and light profile (but not on color nor on scale length, rhl). The ANN distinguishes quite well between E/S0, Sabc, and Sd/Irr+M galaxies (M for merging systems) for BJ ~ 24 mag. The faint blue galaxy counts in the B band are dominated by Sd/Irr+M galaxies and can be explained by a moderately steep local luminosity function (LF) undergoing strong luminosity evolution. We suggest that these faint late-type objects (24 mag <~ BJ <~ 28 mag) are a combination of low-luminosity lower redshift dwarf galaxies, plus compact star-forming galaxies and merging systems at z ~= 1--3, possibly the building blocks of the luminous early-type galaxies seen today.

  12. Hand-held multi-DOF robotic forceps for neurosurgery designed for dexterous manipulation in deep and narrow space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takuro; Harada, Kanako; Fujii, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Nakatomi, Hirohumi; Sora, Sigeo; Morita, Akio; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise and dexterous manipulation of a surgical suture in narrow and deep spaces in the brain. This is necessary for surgical tasks such as the anastomosis of microscopic blood vessels and dura mater suturing. A hand-held multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic forceps was developed to aid the performance of such difficult tasks. The diameter of the developed robotic forceps is 3.5 mm, and its tip has three DOFs, namely, bending, rotation, and grip. Experimental results showed that the robotic forceps had an average needle insertion force of 1.7 N. Therefore, an increase in the needle insertion force is necessary for practical application of the developed device.

  13. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brum, A G V; Rodrigues, A P

    2013-01-01

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  14. State-space model with deep learning for functional dynamics estimation in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heung-Il; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-04-01

    Studies on resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) have shown that different brain regions still actively interact with each other while a subject is at rest, and such functional interaction is not stationary but changes over time. In terms of a large-scale brain network, in this paper, we focus on time-varying patterns of functional networks, i.e., functional dynamics, inherent in rs-fMRI, which is one of the emerging issues along with the network modelling. Specifically, we propose a novel methodological architecture that combines deep learning and state-space modelling, and apply it to rs-fMRI based Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) diagnosis. We first devise a Deep Auto-Encoder (DAE) to discover hierarchical non-linear functional relations among regions, by which we transform the regional features into an embedding space, whose bases are complex functional networks. Given the embedded functional features, we then use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to estimate dynamic characteristics of functional networks inherent in rs-fMRI via internal states, which are unobservable but can be inferred from observations statistically. By building a generative model with an HMM, we estimate the likelihood of the input features of rs-fMRI as belonging to the corresponding status, i.e., MCI or normal healthy control, based on which we identify the clinical label of a testing subject. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we performed experiments on two different datasets and compared with state-of-the-art methods in the literature. We also analyzed the functional networks learned by DAE, estimated the functional connectivities by decoding hidden states in HMM, and investigated the estimated functional connectivities by means of a graph-theoretic approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Lawless Frontier of Deep Space: Code as Law in EVE Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Zwart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the concepts of player agency with respect to governance and regulation of online games. It considers the unique example of the Council of Stellar Management in EVE Online, and explores the multifaceted role performed by players involved in that Council. In particular, it considers the interaction between code, rules, contracts, and play with respect to EVE Online. This is used as a means to better understand the relations of power generated in game spaces.

  16. Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASA's current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low Earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond low Earth orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

  17. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  19. STARS - Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System for the National Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Leroy J.; Doempke, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    The concept, implementation, and long-range goals of a Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System (STARS) for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) are discussed. The requirement was established as a direct result of the recommendations of the Rogers Commission investigation of the circumstances of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. STARS outlines the requirements for the supportability-trend data collection, analysis, and reporting requirements that each of the project offices supporting the Space Shuttle are required to provide to the NSTS program office. STARS data give the historic and predictive logistics information necessary for all levels of NSTS management to make safe and cost-effective decisions concerning the smooth flow of Space Shuttle turnaround.

  20. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method...... over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....