WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep slot cutting

  1. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT A DESHMUKH

    2017-07-15

    Jul 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Broadband microstrip antenna using variations of U-slot has been widely reported. However, in most of the reported work, an in-depth explanation about the mode introduced by U-slot and procedure to design. U-slot cut antennas at any given frequency is not explained. In this paper, first an ...

  2. Vapor-melt Ratio in Laser Fine Cutting of Slot Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuyue; Meng Qingxuan; Kang Renke; Xu Wenji; Guo Dongming; Wang Lianji

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve cut quality for slot arrays, a new method of laser fine cutting under the consideration of the ratio of vapor to melt is presented. Laser cutting of 6063 aluminum alloy sheet, 0.5 mm in thickness, was carried out on a JK701H Nd:YAG pulse laser cutting system. The effects of vapor-melt ratio on kerf width, surface roughness and recast layer were studied which relate cutting qualities. Observation on the cut samples with different vapor-melt ratios (0.687, 1.574, 3.601 varied with laser power increasing, and 1.535, 3.601, 7.661 with decreasing of beam cutting speed) shows that high vapor-melt ratio improves laser cut quality clearly. Kerf width 0.2 mm of smooth area on kerf top area and thickness 2.03 μm of recast layer are obtained. No dross was found on the kerf bottom and the percentage of the smooth area is up to 40% out of whole kerf side. The research on vapor-melt ratio provides a deeper understanding of laser cutting and improves laser cut quality effectively.

  3. A DEEP CUT ELLIPSOID ALGORITHM FOR CONVEX-PROGRAMMING - THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRENK, JBG; GROMICHO, J; ZHANG, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  4. A Deep Cut Ellipsoid Algorithm for convex Programming: theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.B.G.; Gromicho Dos Santos, J.A.; Zhang, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  5. A deep cut ellipsoid algorithm for convex programming : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim); S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules

  6. S-parameters for weakly excited slots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...

  7. Performance comparison of CO2 and diode lasers for deep-section concrete cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, Philip L.; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.

    2004-01-01

    Layer-by-layer laser machining with mechanical removal of vitrified dross between passes is a new technique with a demonstrated capability for deep-section cutting, not only of concrete, but of ceramic and refractory materials in general. For this application fairly low power densities are required. A comparison of experimental results using high-power CO 2 and diode lasers under roughly equivalent experimental conditions, cutting to depths of >100 mm, is presented. A marked improvement in cutting depth per pass is observed for the case of the diode laser. The increased cutting rate is rationalized in terms of the combined effects of coupling efficiency and beam shape

  8. Hybrid rib-slot-rib plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength mode confinement and long propagation length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid plasmonic waveguide where a combined rib-slot-rib structure is added on the metal substrate within a low-index gap region. The optical properties of the quasi-TM fundamental mode are numerically calculated using the finite element method. Compared to the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide, our designed waveguiding structure can support modes with tighter confinement and longer propagation length, by properly adjusting the geometry of the rib-slot-rib structure and the gap height. In details, it can provide the hybrid mode with mode area λ2/12000 and reasonable propagation distance 23.78 μm, simultaneously. Its excellent optical performance can facilitate potential applications in ultra-compact nanophotonic devices and circuits.

  9. The use of the Deep Kerfer for thick, steel-reinforced concrete cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzimenti, D.M.; Vlad, P.M.; Landau, B.

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes the project during which cutting operations were performed on thick, steel-reinforced concrete structures using the Deep Carfare System. The project involved making modifications to the Equipment Decontamination Room, a cell in the former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, as one phase of the Vitrification Facility Construction. 23 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  11. Influence of Closed Stator Slots on Cogging Torque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ion, Trifu; Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    Cogging torque results due interaction of magnetic field of magnets and stator slots, and have negative effects on permanent magnet machines such as vibrations, noise, torque ripples and problems during turbine start-up and cut-in. In order to reduce cogging torque this paper presents a study...... of influence of closed stator slots on cogging torque using magnetic slot wedges....

  12. Radiation from a Slot System in the Coaxial Line Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrich, V. A.; Lyashchenko, V. A.; Medvedev, N. V.

    2012-06-01

    The problem of electromagnetic wave excitation, scattering and radiation by the system of transverse slots, cut in the outer conductor of an infinite coaxial line, is solved by the magnetomotive forces method. The radiation and reflection coefficients of the circular and arc slot systems are investigated in dependence on slot sizes and feeder parameters. The processes of radiation into lossy material media are studied. The researches have been carried out with the interconnection between slots of internal and external regions considered.

  13. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  14. Optimal Seamline Detection for Orthoimage Mosaicking by Combining Deep Convolutional Neural Network and Graph Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When mosaicking orthoimages, especially in urban areas with various obvious ground objects like buildings, roads, cars or trees, the detection of optimal seamlines is one of the key technologies for creating seamless and pleasant image mosaics. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect optimal seamlines for orthoimage mosaicking with the use of deep convolutional neural network (CNN and graph cuts. Deep CNNs have been widely used in many fields of computer vision and photogrammetry in recent years, and graph cuts is one of the most widely used energy optimization frameworks. We first propose a deep CNN for land cover semantic segmentation in overlap regions between two adjacent images. Then, the energy cost of each pixel in the overlap regions is defined based on the classification probabilities of belonging to each of the specified classes. To find the optimal seamlines globally, we fuse the CNN-classified energy costs of all pixels into the graph cuts energy minimization framework. The main advantage of our proposed method is that the pixel similarity energy costs between two images are defined using the classification results of the CNN based semantic segmentation instead of using the image informations of color, gradient or texture as traditional methods do. Another advantage of our proposed method is that the semantic informations are fully used to guide the process of optimal seamline detection, which is more reasonable than only using the hand designed features defined to represent the image differences. Finally, the experimental results on several groups of challenging orthoimages show that the proposed method is capable of finding high-quality seamlines among urban and non-urban orthoimages, and outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms and the commercial software based on the visual comparison, statistical evaluation and quantitative evaluation based on the structural similarity (SSIM index.

  15. G-Tunnel pressurized slot-testing preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National laboratories elected to conduct a development program on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of the potentials of pressurized slot strength testing. This report describes the preparations leading to the measurements and evaluations

  16. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA Statement guideline to gather the existing knowledge on the use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for DVT. Studies were extracted from Medline and the Cochrane Library. The search period ended...

  17. Modelling the potential to achieve deep carbon emission cuts in existing UK social housing: The case of Peabody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Andrew; Taylor, Simon; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As part of the UK's effort to combat climate change, deep cuts in carbon emissions will be required from existing housing over the coming decades. The viability of achieving such emission cuts for the UK social housing sector has been explored through a case study of Peabody, a housing association operating in London. Various approaches to stock refurbishment were modelled for Peabody's existing stock up to the year 2030, incorporating insulation, communal heating and micro-generation technologies. Outputs were evaluated under four future socio-economic scenarios. The results indicate that the Greater London Authority's target of a 60% carbon emission cut by 2025 can be achieved if extensive stock refurbishment is coupled with a background of wider societal efforts to reduce carbon emissions. The two key external requirements identified are a significant reduction in the carbon intensity of grid electricity and a stabilisation or reduction in householder demand for energy. A target of achieving zero net carbon emissions across Peabody stock by 2030 can only be achieved if grid electricity becomes available from entirely zero-carbon sources. These results imply that stronger action is needed from both social landlords and Government to enable deep emission cuts to be achieved in UK social housing.

  18. Energy characteristics of the double slot in the narrow wall of a rectangular waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Martynenko, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on approximation of the half-wave field distribution in the slots, an expression is derived for internal mutual conductance of closely-spaced slots, which form a double inclined slot in the narrow wall of a rectangular waveguide. The narrow wall has cut-outs reaching the broad wall. With the use of the method of induced magnetomotive forces, a mathematical model is devised for calculating the energy characteristics of the double slot. The impact of angle of inclination of the slots, dim...

  19. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna.

  20. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  1. Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and

  2. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  3. Cutting the Umbilical: New Technological Perspectives in Benthic Deep-Sea Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Brandt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are very active in marine research and operate their own research fleets. In this decade, a number of research vessels have been renewed and equipped with the most modern navigation systems and tools. However, much of the research gear used for biological sampling, especially in the deep-sea, is outdated and dependent on wired operations. The deployment of gear can be very time consuming and, thus, expensive. The present paper reviews wire-dependent, as well as autonomous research gear for biological sampling at the deep seafloor. We describe the requirements that new gear could fulfil, including the improvement of spatial and temporal sampling resolution, increased autonomy, more efficient sample conservation methodologies for morphological and molecular studies and the potential for extensive in situ real-time studies. We present applicable technologies from robotics research, which could be used to develop novel autonomous marine research gear, which may be deployed independently and/or simultaneously with traditional wired equipment. A variety of technological advancements make such ventures feasible and timely. In proportion to the running costs of modern research vessels, the development of such autonomous devices might be already paid off after a discrete number of pioneer expeditions.

  4. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  5. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  6. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....

  7. Abrasive-waterjet cutting of thick concrete and waterjet cleaning for nuclear facility decommissioning and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echert, D.C.; Hashish, M.; Marvin, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Two tools have been developed for use by the nuclear industry: the Deep Kerf tool and the Cleaner/Scarifier tool. The Deep Kerf tool is designed to cut through thick, reinforced concrete structures to facilitate their decommissioning. It employs the abrasive-waterjet (AWJ) cutting technology. The basis of the system is a rotary nozzle that makes a slot in the concrete wide enough to accommodate the cutting tool as it advances. In this program, concrete as thick as 1.5 m was cut through from one side. A shroud and vacuum system covers the opening of the slot during cutting to contain the spoils with greater than 99% efficiency. The Cleaner/Scarifier tool was designed for removing the surface layers of contaminated concrete and decontaminating metal surfaces. It uses ultrahigh-pressure waterjets mounted on a rotating arm to remove or clean the target surface. Spoils recovery with a shroud and vacuum system is over 99% complete for both horizontal and vertical surfaces

  8. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    May 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to: TECHNOLOGY...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed...to connect across slot 14. [0005] In United States Patent No. 6,127,983 to Rivera and Josypenko, it has been shown that the slotted cylinder

  9. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  10. G-tunnel pressurized slot-testing evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National Laboratories elected to conduct a development program to enhance mechanical-type measurements. The program was focused on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of pressurized slot strength testing results and methods. This report contains data interpretation and evaluations. Included are recommendations for future efforts. This third report contains the interpretations of the testing with emphasis on the measurement results as they apply to describing rock behavior. In particular, emphases are placed on (1) normal stress determinations using the flatjack cancellation (FC) method, (2) modulus of deformation determinations, and (3) high pressure investigations. Most of the material in the first two reports is not repeated here. Appropriate data are repeated in tabular form

  11. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is

  12. Gamma-ray analysis for U, Th and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish Subbasin and the North German Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovborg, L.

    1987-07-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wireline logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radioelement profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that: (1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth; (2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorbed by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers; (3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time

  13. A piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor using a slotted stator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Cheol-Ho; Watson, Brett; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2010-08-01

    A novel ultrasonic micro linear motor that uses 1st longitudinal and 2nd bending modes, derived from a bartype stator with a rectangular slot cut through the stator length, has been proposed and designed for end-effect devices of microrobotics and bio-medical applications. The slot structure plays an important role in the motor design, and can be used not only to tune the resonance frequency of the two vibration modes but also to reduce the undesirable longitudinal coupling displacement caused by bending vibration at the end of the stator. By using finite element analysis, the optimal slot dimension to improve the driving tip motion was determined, resulting in the improvement of the motor performance. The trial linear motor, with a weight of 1.6 g, gave a maximum driving velocity of 1.12 m/s and a maximum driving force of 3.4 N. A maximum mechanical output power of 1.1 W was obtained at force of 1.63 N and velocity of 0.68 m/s. The output mechanical power per unit weight was 688 W/kg.

  14. Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) named Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). The SSG is a WEC of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level in which the water of incoming waves is store...... on sloping walls constituting the structure. The research is intended to be of direct use to engineers analyzing design and stability of this peculiar kind of coastal structure....

  15. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  16. Results of pressurized-slot measurements in the G-Tunnel underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Mann, K.L.; Dodds, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    A rock-mechanics field-testing program is underway at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the YMP. SNL has the responsibility for assessing the repository design and performance as well as characterizing the geomechanical behavior of the rock. SNL has conducted field experiments in G-Tunnel in Rainier Mesa at the NTS, where tuffs similar to those at Yucca Mountain, the potential repository site, are found. Later experiments are planned as part of the YMP Exploratory Shaft investigations at Yucca Mountain. Major geomechanical factors in repository developments are determinations of the stress state and the deformability of the rock mass (described by the modulus of deformation). One feature of SNL's rock-mechanics program was the development of a testing program for cutting thin slots in a jointed welded tuff and utilizing flatjacks for pressurizing these thin-slots on a relatively, large scale. Objectives in the pressurized-slot testing in G-Tunnel have been to apply and possibly improve methods for (1) utilizing the flatjack cancellation (FC) method for measuring stresses normal to the slot and (2) measuring the modulus of deformation of the jointed rock surrounding the slot. This paper discusses the results of field measurements in and around a single slot and evaluates potential applications and limitations. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  18. Gamma-ray analysis for U, TH and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish subbasin and the North German basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth Nielsen, B.; Loevborg, L.; Soerensen, P.; Mose, E.

    1987-04-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wire-line logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radio element profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that 1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth. 2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorped by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers. 3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time. 33 refs. (author)

  19. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  20. Coupling slots without shunt impedance drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleyguier, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that coupling slots between adjacent cells in a π-mode structure reduce shunt impedance per unit length with respect to single cell cavities. To design optimized coupling slots, one has to answer the following question: for a given coupling factor, what shape, dimension, position and number of slots lead to the lowest shunt impedance drop? A numerical study using the 3D code MAFIA has been carried out. The aim was to design the 352 MHz cavities for the high intensity proton accelerator of the TRISPAL project. The result is an unexpected set of four 'petal' slots. Such slots should lead to a quasi-negligible drop in shunt impedance: about -1% on average, for particle velocity from 0.4 c to 0.8 c. (author)

  1. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien

    2016-04-10

    The present paper proposes and validates a new general design methodology that can be used to automatically find proper positions and orientations of waveguide-based radiating slots capable of realizing any given radiation beam profile. The new technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model is then used to implement a low-cost objective function within a global optimization scheme (here genetic algorithm.) The algorithm is then deployed to find optimum positions and orientations of clusters of radiating slots cut into the waveguide surface such that any desired beam pattern can be obtained. The method is verified using both full-wave numerical solution and experiment.

  2. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  3. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  4. A design procedure for a slotted waveguide with probe-fed slots radiating into plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, J.A.

    1989-11-01

    A design procedure is developed for slotted-waveguide antennas with probe-fed slots. Radiation into a gyrotropic, plane-stratified medium is considered, nonzero waveguide wall thickness is assumed, and noncosinusoidal slot fields and arbitrary slot length up to about one free-space wavelength are allowed. External mutual coupling is taken into account by matching the tangential fields at the antenna surface. The particular case of longitudinal slots in the broad face of rectangular guide is analyzed. The motivation for this work is the design of such radiators for plasma heating and current-drive on thermonuclear fusion experiments, but some of the analysis is applicable to the probeless slotted waveguide used for avionics and communications. 20 refs., 5 figs

  5. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  6. Pumping slots: impedances and power losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-08-01

    Contributions of pumping slots to the beam coupling impedances and power losses in a B-factory ring are considered. While their leading contribution is to the inductive impedance, for high-intensity machines with short bunches like e{sup +}e{sup -} B-factories the real part of the impedance and related loss factors are also important. Using an analytical approach we calculate the coupling impedances and loss factors due to slots in a ring with an arbitrary cross section of the vacuum chamber. Effects of the slot tilt on the beam impedance are also considered, and restrictions on the tilt angle are derived from limitations on the impedance increase. The power leakage through the slots is discussed briefly. The results are applied to the KEK B-factory. (author)

  7. Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tyrrell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.

  8. Research on TIG weld machine of the upper side ring slot of Gd-rod technology reconstruct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shixiang; Lan Zhibing; Cui Quhu

    2010-01-01

    The research on TIG weld machine of the upper side ring slot of Gd-rod existent matter: seal electrical source got up difficulty; control system had graveness aging; space between was adjusted precision lowness; welding torch lay mode and structure were not in reason. carried through all around technology reconstruct: had chosen the best of TIG weld machine; designed ignite arc device, designed optics imaging device, designed tungsten mighty axis direction auto conditioning, was provided with arc slot, adopted PLC to control the whole system and realization auto control. After TIG weld machine of the upper side ring slot of Gd-rod technology reconstruct research , provided with arc slot the first time in the Gd-rod of nuclear fuel, optimized the weld technics, improved welding line melt width and deep equality, stability, and great breadth advanced nuclear fuel product line technology and throughput. (authors)

  9. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  10. Effect of Slotted Anode on Gas Bubble Behaviors in Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meijia; Li, Baokuan; Li, Linmin; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Yaowu; Cheung, Sherman C. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the aluminum reduction cells, gas bubbles are generated at the bottom of the anode which eventually reduces the effective current contact area and the system efficiency. To encourage the removal of gas bubbles, slotted anode has been proposed and increasingly adopted by some industrial aluminum reduction cells. Nonetheless, the exact gas bubble removal mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. A three-dimensional (3D) transient, multiphase flow mathematical model coupled with magnetohydrodynamics has been developed to investigate the effect of slotted anode on the gas bubble movement. The Eulerian volume of fluid approach is applied to track the electrolyte (bath)-molten aluminum (metal) interface. Meanwhile, the Lagrangian discrete particle model is employed to handle the dynamics of gas bubbles with considerations of the buoyancy force, drag force, virtual mass force, and pressure gradient force. The gas bubble coalescence process is also taken into account based on the O'Rourke's algorithm. The two-way coupling between discrete bubbles and fluids is achieved by the inter-phase momentum exchange. Numerical predictions are validated against the anode current variation in an industrial test. Comparing the results using slotted anode with the traditional one, the time-averaged gas bubble removal rate increases from 36 to 63 pct; confirming that the slotted anode provides more escaping ways and shortens the trajectories for gas bubbles. Furthermore, the slotted anode also reduces gas bubble's residence time and the probability of coalescence. Moreover, the bubble layer thickness in aluminum cell with slotted anode is reduced about 3.5 mm (17.4 pct), so the resistance can be cut down for the sake of energy saving and the metal surface fluctuation amplitude is significantly reduced for the stable operation due to the slighter perturbation with smaller bubbles.

  11. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  12. Slotting allowances to coordinate manufacturers’ retail sales effort

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sand, Jan Yngve

    2007-01-01

    Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Although the main attention towards slotting allowances has been within the grocery industry, slotting allowances have also been applied within e.g. e-commerce and mobile telephony. In these industries we observe that distributors have large market power due to their control of access to customers. We analyse how shifting bargaining power from manufacturers to retailers and the use of slotting allowanc...

  13. Impedance of a slotted-pipe kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    1996-08-01

    This paper introduces the principle of a new slotted kicker simply, which is made by using vacuum pipe itself with proper slits as current conductors, and then, presents a rough estimation of its longitudinal and transverse impedance, respectively. Calculation shows that its impedance is reduced significantly compared to our present air-coil kicker. (author)

  14. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    . This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....

  15. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  16. Slotted coax as a beam electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.; Kim, K.J.; Voelker, F.V.

    1983-03-01

    The slot coupled TEM line has been employed at CERN as a pick up electrode in the GHz range. It is a compact and broad band device, and will be quite attractive if the coupling efficiency is competitive with an array of quarter wave loops. In this paper, we study various properties of such a structure

  17. A Waveguide Transverse Broad Wall Slot Radiating Between Baffles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael; Rengarajan, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the self impedance of waveguide-fed transverse slots radiating between baffles is presented. The region exterior to the slot is treated as a parallel plate (PP) waveguide which radiates into half space through an aperture in an infinite ground plane. The slot problem is analyzed...

  18. [Influence of slot size on torque control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Liu, Zhong-Hao; Zhang, Ding; Wu, Chuan-Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the influence of two slot size brackets on torque control when teeth interacted in the same arch. After the upper arch was aligned and leveled in Typodont study, the inclinations of upper teeth 5 +/- 5 were measured when 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm OPA-K brackets and 0.558 8 mmx0.711 2 mm OPA-K brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire. This experiment was duplicated 10 times. The inclin of each tooth were transformed to the absolute values of the torque play angle psi by computing program, and paired-t test was used. The two kinds of slot size brackets were different with statistical significance on torque control. When the brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire, the absolute values of the angle psi in 0.558 8 mm x 0.711 2 mm and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size brackets were 6.140 degrees +/- 3.758 degrees and 2.608 degrees +/- 1.479 degrees respectively, and the average difference of that between the two slot size brackets was 3.532 degrees. The absolute values of the angle psi in the upper left and right canine brackets were 2.560 degrees +/- 2.605 degrees, 4.230 degrees +/- 2.817 degrees, 1.260 degrees +/- 0.747 degrees and 2.070 degrees +/- 0.663 degrees respectively, and average differences between them were smaller than that in the other teeth. There was difference between the two kinds of slot size brackets on torque control, and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size bracket controls torque better when filled with the same size wire. In this study, the teeth interaction in the same arch probably caused the result that the difference of two slot size brackets on torque control was less than the study results of the theory calculations and material studys before.

  19. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters

  20. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  1. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  2. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  3. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  4. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  5. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  6. Slot-coupled CW standing wave accelerating cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaoheng; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2017-05-16

    A slot-coupled CW standing wave multi-cell accelerating cavity. To achieve high efficiency graded beta acceleration, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include different cell lengths. Alternatively, to achieve high efficiency with acceleration for particles with beta equal to 1, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include the same cell design. Coupling between the cells is achieved with a plurality of axially aligned kidney-shaped slots on the wall between cells. The slot-coupling method makes the design very compact. The shape of the cell, including the slots and the cone, are optimized to maximize the power efficiency and minimize the peak power density on the surface. The slots are non-resonant, thereby enabling shorter slots and less power loss.

  7. Slotted Waveguide and Antenna Study for HPM and RF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-25

    conventional rectangular slot arrays. The proposed CSR-SW A provided higher peak gain than the conventional lambda /4 rectangu lar slot array and a...more compact s ize (55% size reductjon) compared to the lambda /2 rectangular slot array. Both the theoretic and measured results suggest a return loss...in terms of scattering matrix S is: (I-8) With the scattering matrix S, we can compute the scattering field at any position. The resonance of SCCR

  8. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  9. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  10. The effect of sediment mimicking drill cuttings on deep water rhodoliths in a flow-through system: Experimental work and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Marcia A.O.; Eide, Ingvar; Reynier, Marcia; Villas-Bôas, Alexandre B.; Tâmega, Frederico T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Collection of rhodoliths and calcareous algae from Campos Basin, Brazil. • Impact of sediment mimicking drill cuttings on photosynthetic efficiency. • Exposure–response for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage. • Factorial design and multivariate regression used for a structured approach. - Abstract: The impact of sediment coverage on two rhodolith-forming calcareous algae species collected at 100 m water depth off the coast of Brazil was studied in an experimental flow-through system. Natural sediment mimicking drill cuttings with respect to size distribution was used. Sediment coverage and photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ϕ PSIImax ) were measured as functions of light intensity, flow rate and added amount of sediment once a week for nine weeks. Statistical experimental design and multivariate data analysis provided statistically significant regression models which subsequently were used to establish exposure–response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage. For example, at 70% sediment coverage the photosynthetic efficiency was reduced 50% after 1–2 weeks of exposure, most likely due to reduced gas exchange. The exposure–response relationship can be used to establish threshold levels and impact categories for environmental monitoring

  11. Rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguide with improved nonlinear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengzhi; Huang, Qingzhong; Wang, Yi; Xia, Jinsong

    2018-04-01

    Silicon slot waveguides have great potential in hybrid silicon integration to realize nonlinear optical applications. We propose a rectangular-cladding hybrid silicon slot waveguide. Simulation result shows that, with a rectangular-cladding, the slot waveguide can be formed by narrower silicon strips, so the two-photon absorption (TPA) loss in silicon is decreased. When the cladding material is a nonlinear polymer, the calculated TPA figure of merit (FOMTPA) is 4.4, close to the value of bulk nonlinear polymer of 5.0. This value confirms the good nonlinear performance of rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguides.

  12. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop AntennaPrinted Slot Loop Antenna (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due...

  13. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  14. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic device...

  15. Evaluation of two styles of slotted, flat-head screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Johnson, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed to evaluate the relative merits of two different flat-head screws fabricated from a uranium--6% niobium alloy. The screws tested were machined with both normal, straight-through slots in the head and with slots having radiused bottoms. Test results indicate that both designs easily surpass the required 20-inch-pound-proof torque

  16. FDTD Analysis of U-Slot Rectangular Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, K. M.; Tong, K. F.; Shum, S. M.; Lee, K. F.; Lee, R. Q.

    1997-01-01

    The U-slot rectangular patch antenna (Figure I) has been found experimentally to provide impedance and gain bandwidths of about 300 without the need of stacked or coplanar parasitic elements [1,2]. In this paper, simulation results of the U-slot patch using FDTD analysis are presented. Comparison with measured results are given.

  17. Slot Optimization Design of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiming; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Xiuhe

    2018-01-01

    Slot design of induction motor has a great influence on its performance. The RMxprt module based on magnetic circuit method can be used to analyze the influence of rotor slot type on motor characteristics and optimize slot parameters. In this paper, the authors take an induction motor of electric vehicle for a typical example. The first step of the design is to optimize the rotor slot by RMxprt, and then compare the main performance of the motor before and after the optimization through Ansoft Maxwell 2D. After that, the combination of optimum slot type and the optimum parameters are obtained. The results show that the power factor and the starting torque of the optimized motor have been improved significantly. Furthermore, the electric vehicle works at a better running status after the optimization.

  18. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  19. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  20. Student-Led Objective Tutorial (SLOT) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy; Saraswathi, Simansalam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose - To assess an innovative tutoring program named 'Student-Led Objective Tutorial' (SLOT) among undergraduate medical students. Method - The program was conceptualized by the Pharmacology Unit of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Asian Institute of Medicine Science & Technology (AIMST), Malaysia and implemented in the middle of 2005. A cohort of 246 medical undergraduate students (spread across 5 consecutive batches) participated. Following a brief explanation on the purpose and nature of SLOT, each batch was divided into small groups and was given a reading assignment on 4 previously delivered lecture topics. Each group was asked to prepare 3-5 multiple choice questions (MCQs) of their own in PowerPoint format to be presented, in turns, to the whole class on the day of SLOT. The proceedings were facilitated by 2 lecturers. Student feedback on the efficacy and benefits were assessed through an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Results - About 76% (188) of the students favored SLOT. The acceptance rate of SLOT was higher among males. There was no significant difference between batches in their opinions on whether to pursue SLOT in future. The most prevalent positive comment was that SLOT enhanced learning skills, and the negative comment being, it consumed more time. Conclusions - SLOT is a novel tutorial method which can offset faculty shortage with advantages like enhanced interest among teachers and learners, uniform reach of content, opportunities for group learning, and involvement of visual aids as teaching-learning (T-L) method. SLOT unraveled the students' potential of peer tutoring both inside as well as outside the classroom. Consumer tutors (students) can be tapped as a resource for SLOT for all subjects and courses in healthcare teaching.

  1. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  2. Investigation of a slot nanoantenna in optical frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh kumar, V.; Asakawa, Kiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    Following the analogy of radio frequency slot antenna and its complementary dipole, we propose the implementation of a slot nanoantenna (SNA) in the optical frequency range. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the electromagnetic (EM) properties of a SNA formed in a thin gold film and compare the results with the properties of a gold dipole nanoantenna (DNA) of the same dimension as the slot. It is found that the response of the SNA is very similar to the DNA, like their counterparts in the radio frequency (RF) range. The SNA can enhance the near field intensity of incident field which strongly depends on its feedgap dimension. The resonance of the SNA is influenced by its slot length; for the increasing slot length, resonant frequency decreases whereas the sharpness of resonance increases. Besides, the resonance of the SNA is found sensitive to the thickness of metal film, when the latter is smaller than the skin depth. The effect of polarization of incident field on the EM response of the SNA was examined; the field enhancement is optimum when polarization is parallel to the feedgap. Finally, we calculate the radiation patterns of the DNA and SNA and compare them with those of the RF dipole antenna. The radiation pattern of the SNA is found to be independent of its slot length when excited at resonant frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on a slot antenna in the optical frequency.

  3. MHD-flow in slotted channels with conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, C.B.

    1994-07-01

    A review of experimental results is presented for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in rectangular channels with conducting walls and high aspect ratios (longer side parallel to the applied magnetic field), which are called slotted channels. The slotted channel concept was conceived at Efremov Institute as a method for reducing MHD pressure drop in liquid metal cooled blanket design. The experiments conducted by the authors were aimed at studying both fully developed MHD-flow, and the effect of a magnetic field on the hydrodynamics of 3-D flows in slotted channels. Tests were carried out on five models of the slotted geometry. A good agreement between test and theoretical results for the pressure drop in slotted channels was demonstrated. Application of a open-quotes one-electrode movable probeclose quotes for velocity measurement permitted measurement of the M-shape velocity profiles in the slotted channels. Suppression of 3-D inertial effects in slotted channels of complex geometry was demonstrated based on potential distribution data

  4. Metal membrane with dimer slots as a universal polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sergej; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, Christian; Chigrin, Dmitry; Tang, Peter T.; Jepsen, Peter U.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory for the electromagnetic response of an arbitrary dimer based on the Green functions approach. The theory confirms that a great variety of polarization properties, such as birefringence, chirality and elliptical dichroism, can be achieved in a metal layer with such slot-dimer patterning (i.e. in a metasurface). Optical properties of the metasurface can be extensively tuned by varying the geometry (shape and dimensions) of the dimer, for example, by adjusting the sizes and mutual placement of the slots (e.g. inter-slot distance and alignment angle). Three basic shapes of dimers are analyzed: II-shaped (parallel slots), V-shaped, and T-shaped. These particular shapes of dimers are found to be sensitive to variations of the slots lengths and orientation of elements. Theoretical results are well supported by full-wave three-dimensional simulations. Our findings were verified experimentally on the metal membranes fabricated using UV lithography with subsequent Ni growth. Such metasurfaces were characterized using time-domain THz spectroscopy. The samples exhibit pronounced optical activity (500 degrees per wavelength) and high transmission: even though the slots cover only 4.3 % of the total membrane area the amplitude transmission reaches 0.67 at the resonance frequency 0.56 THz.

  5. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  6. Energy dissipation of slot-type flip buckets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-hua; Li, Shu-fang; Ma, Fei

    2018-03-01

    The energy dissipation is a key index in the evaluation of energy dissipation elements. In the present work, a flip bucket with a slot, called the slot-type flip bucket, is theoretically and experimentally investigated by the method of estimating the energy dissipation. The theoretical analysis shows that, in order to have the energy dissipation, it is necessary to determine the sequent flow depth h 1 and the flow speed V 1 at the corresponding position through the flow depth h 2 after the hydraulic jump. The relative flow depth h 2 / h 。 is a function of the approach flow Froude number Fr 。, the relative slot width b/B 。, and the relative slot angle θ/β. The expression for estimating the energy dissipation is developed, and the maximum error is not larger than 9.21%.

  7. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. PMID:22164020

  8. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pavesi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies.

  9. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  10. Effects of geometry on slot-jet film cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyams, D.G.; McGovern, K.T.; Leylek, J.H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The physics of the film cooling process for shaped, inclined slot-jets with realistic slot-length-to-width ratios (L/s) is studied for a range of blowing ratio (M) and density ratio (DR) parameters typical of gas turbine operations. For the first time in the open literature, the effect of inlet and exit shaping of the slot-jet on both flow and thermal field characteristics is isolated, and the dominant mechanisms responsible for differences in these characteristics are documented. A previously documented computational methodology was applied for the study of four distinct configurations: (1) slot with straight edges and sharp corners (reference case); (2) slot with shaped inlet region; (3) slot with shaped exit region; and (4) slot with both shaped inlet and exit regions. Detailed field results as well as surface phenomena involving adiabatic film effectiveness ({eta}) and heat transfer coefficient (h) are presented. It is demonstrated that both {eta} and h results are vital in the proper assessment of film cooling performance. All simulations were carried out using a multi-block, unstructured/adaptive grid, fully explicit, time-marching solver with multi-grid, local time stepping, and residual smoothing type acceleration techniques. Special attention was paid to and full documentation provided for: (1) proper modeling of the physical phenomena; (2) exact geometry and high quality grid generation techniques; (3) discretization schemes; and (4) turbulence modeling issues. The key parameters M and DR were varied from 1.0 to 2.0 and 1.5 to 2.0, respectively, to show their influence. Simulations were repeated for slot length-to-width ratio (L/s) of 3.0 and 4.5 in order to explain the effects of this important parameter. Additionally, the performance of two popular turbulence models, standard k-F, and RNG k-E, were studied to establish their ability to handle highly elliptic jet/crossflow interaction type processes.

  11. Predictors of return rate discrimination in slot machine play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ewan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which accurate estimates of payback percentages and volatility combined with prior learning, enabled players to successfully discriminate between multi-line/multi-credit slot machines that provided differing rates of reinforcement. The aim was to determine if the capacity to discriminate structural characteristics of gaming machines influenced player choices in selecting 'favourite' slot machines. Slot machine gambling history, gambling beliefs and knowledge, impulsivity, illusions of control, and problem solving style were assessed in a sample of 48 first year undergraduate psychology students. Participants were subsequently exposed to a choice paradigm where they could freely select to play either of two concurrently presented PC-simulated slot machines programmed to randomly differ in expected player return rates (payback percentage) and win frequency (volatility). Results suggest that prior learning and cognitions (particularly gambler's fallacy) but not payback, were major contributors to the ability of a player to discriminate volatility between slot machines. Participants displayed a general tendency to discriminate payback, but counter-intuitively placed more bets on the slot machine with lower payback percentage rates.

  12. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  13. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  14. Humanizing machines: Anthropomorphization of slot machines increases gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Sacchi, Simona; Brambilla, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Do people gamble more on slot machines if they think that they are playing against humanlike minds rather than mathematical algorithms? Research has shown that people have a strong cognitive tendency to imbue humanlike mental states to nonhuman entities (i.e., anthropomorphism). The present research tested whether anthropomorphizing slot machines would increase gambling. Four studies manipulated slot machine anthropomorphization and found that exposing people to an anthropomorphized description of a slot machine increased gambling behavior and reduced gambling outcomes. Such findings emerged using tasks that focused on gambling behavior (Studies 1 to 3) as well as in experimental paradigms that included gambling outcomes (Studies 2 to 4). We found that gambling outcomes decrease because participants primed with the anthropomorphic slot machine gambled more (Study 4). Furthermore, we found that high-arousal positive emotions (e.g., feeling excited) played a role in the effect of anthropomorphism on gambling behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Our research indicates that the psychological process of gambling-machine anthropomorphism can be advantageous for the gaming industry; however, this may come at great expense for gamblers' (and their families') economic resources and psychological well-being. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Geothermal reservoirs. Position of slotted section of the tube casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, A.; Vanoli, L.; Casarosa, C.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the authors have verified the influence of the position of slotted section casing on heat rate drawn by plants for exploitation of geothermal reservoirs that use heat exchangers placed at the bottom of the well (DHE). This study have been done modelling numerically the aquifer, by means of finite element method, evaluating the heat rate drawn by the heat exchanger at different position of the slotted section of the tube casing. Numerical calculations have allowed to show the influence of the main characteristics of the aquifer and of the main characteristics of the aquifer and of the plant on design of the slotted section of the tube casing. In particular, the authors have studied the influence of i) equivalent conductivity and permeability of the aquifer, ii) mass flow rate and the inlet and outlet aquifer temperature difference in the well, iii) the ratio between the length of the slotted section and the thickness of the geothermal layer, varying the position of the slotted section of the tube casing in the aquifer [it

  16. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  17. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  18. Slot technique - an alternative method of scatter reduction in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    The most common method of scatter reduction in radiography is the use of an antiscatter grid. Its disadvantage is the absorption of a certain percentage of primary radiation in the lead strips of the grid and the fact that due to the limited thickness of the lead strips their scatter absorption is also limited. A possibility for avoiding this disadvantage is offered by the so-called slot technique, ie, the successive exposure of the subject with a narrow fan beam provided by slots in rather thick lead plates. The results of a comparison between grid and slot technique regarding dose to the patient, scatter reduction, image quality and the effect of automatic exposure control are reported. (author)

  19. Slotted Blades Savonius Wind Turbine Analysis by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alaimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap only. Parametric analyses are performed, for a fixed overlap ratio, by varying the slot position; the results show that for slot positioned near the blade root, the Savonius rotor improves performances at low tip speed ratio, evidencing a better starting torque. This circumstance is confirmed by static analyses performed on the slotted blades in order to investigate the starting characteristic of the proposed Savonius wind generator configuration.

  20. Low profile frequency agile MIMO slot antenna with TCM characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Ghalib, Asim

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) slot antenna is presented. The proposed design is low profile and compact with wide tunability range, covering several well-known frequency bands from 1800 MHz to 2450 MHz. The frequency reconfigurability is achieved by loading the annular slot with varactor diodes. The antenna system is also analyzed for MIMO performance metrics. Moreover, the effect of circular slot antenna on the chassis modes is also investigated using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM). The physical principle behind frequency reconfigurability is also investigated using TCM analysis. An interesting finding is observed using varactor diodes for frequency reconfigurability, that is the reactive impedance loading does not alter the modal significance (MS) plots but only aid in the input impedance matching at different frequency bands.

  1. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  2. Metal membrane with dimer slots as a universal polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory for the electr......In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory...

  3. Model Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of a preliminary experimental study of the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs has been used. Model tests have been performed using...... a scale model (length scale 1:15) of a SSG device to be installed on the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The model has been subjected to regular and irregular waves...... corresponding to typical conditions off shore from the intended installation site. The overtopping rates for the individual reservoirs have been measured and the potential energy in the overtopping water has been calculated....

  4. Crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de cafeeiros Conilon propagados por estacas em tubetes Vegetative growth and productivity of Conilon coffee-trees proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings in plastic tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de cafeeiros conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, oriundos de mudas produzidas por estacas plantadas inicialmente em tubetes plásticos de 50 cm³ de capacidade. O experimento foi constituído de cinco tratamentos, que corresponderam aos tempos de permanência das estacas nos tubetes: 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Transcorridos esses tempos as mudas foram, sucessivamente, transplantadas para sacos de polietileno, contendo mistura de terra, esterco de curral e adubo químico, enviveiradas em um viveiro coberto com sombrite (50%, provido de micro aspersão automática. As mudas permaneceram no viveiro com micro aspersão automática por 150 dias, quando então foram transferidas para o viveiro de aclimatação, onde ficaram por mais 30 dias. Após esse período, em setembro de 1999, as mudas foram plantadas em condições de campo, na área experimental do CCA-UFES, em Alegre, Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. Foram feitas as seguintes medições: crescimento de ramos ortotrópicos e plagiotrópicos no segundo ano após o plantio e as quatro primeiras colheitas. A produção inicial de mudas de café conilon em tubetes não afetou o crescimento vegetativo, tampouco a produção de frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative growth and productivity of conilon coffee-tree (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings initially in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm³. The treatments were constituted of permanence period in plastic tube for 0; 15; 30; 45 and 60 days. After these periods the plants were transplanted for polyethylene bags filled with substrate (soil + sand + manure bovine and chemical fertilization maintained on the greenhouse with environment under shading canvas (50% and automatic micro aspersion during 150 days. After this time the plants were maintained during 30 days in

  5. Calculation of induced rotor current in induction motors using a slotted semi-analytical harmonic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Waarma, J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, strong improvements have been made in the applicability of harmonic modeling techniques for electrical machines with slotted structures. Various implementations for permanent magnet motors and actuators have been investigated and applied in design and optimization tools. For the slotted

  6. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  7. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  8. Probabilistic Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA for RFID Tag Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chuyen T.; Hayashi, Kazunori; Kaneko, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study radio frequency identification tag identification problems using framed slotted ALOHA protocol. Each tag will be assumed to participate in the contention with a certain probability. Then, the frame size and the probability will be dynamically controlled by the reader in ev...

  9. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  10. Broadband, Low Sidelobe, Zero Height, Slotted Circular Disk Antenna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rigorous mathematical theory for a rotationally symmetrical slotted circular disk antenna was developed. The theory applies the principle of "Gradient Invariance" of electromagnetic fields to determine the field components that are unique and single valued at any point in space. To detemine the radiation characteristics of ...

  11. Linearly tapered slot antenna circular array for mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of a conformal K-band circular array is presented. The array consists of sixteen linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA). It is fed by a 1:16 microstrip line power splitter via electromagnetic coupling. The array has an omni-directional pattern in the azimuth plane. In the elevation plane the beam is displaced above the horizon.

  12. Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…

  13. Constraint-based local search for container stowage slot planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller; Bebbington, Tom

    2012-01-01

    -sea vessels. This paper describes the constrained-based local search algorithm used in the second phase of this approach where individual containers are assigned to slots in each bay section. The algorithm can solve this problem in an average of 0.18 seconds per bay, corresponding to a 20 seconds runtime...

  14. ATLAS Cold Leg Top Slot Break Analysis using RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Haejung; Lee, Sang Ik; Park, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) has been reviewing the design certification application for APR1400 submitted by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The main concern about cold leg top slot break is that cladding temperature might be increased by core uncover due to four loop seal reformation following flooding of safety injection water. An integral effect test for cold leg top slot break was performed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), which is a scaled down experimental facility for APR1400. In this study, RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. Also, thermal hydraulic phenomena by four loop seals reformation is observed by RELAP5 result. The RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by the experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. The top slot break is described by offtake model, and the mass flow rate is fairly well estimated. The RELAP5 well predicts the correlation between general trend and four loop seal reformation. The pressure of the core region and the cladding temperature tends to increase during four loop seal reformation due to steam path blockage on four loop seals. It is presumed that the code cannot estimate two phase phenomena by loop seal clearing as same as experiments. In terms of cladding temperature, loop seal reformation due to loop seal elevation of APR1400 does not need to be the issue, since the void fraction at the active top core is maintained over 0.4.

  15. The Role of Auditory Features Within Slot-Themed Social Casino Games and Online Slot Machine Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2015-12-01

    Over the last few years playing social casino games has become a popular entertainment activity. Social casino games are offered via social media platforms and mobile apps and resemble gambling activities. However, social casino games are not classified as gambling as they can be played for free, outcomes may not be determined by chance, and players receive no monetary payouts. Social casino games appear to be somewhat similar to online gambling activities in terms of their visual and auditory features, but to date little research has investigated the cross over between these games. This study examines the auditory features of slot-themed social casino games and online slot machine games using a case study design. An example of each game type was played on three separate occasions during which, the auditory features (i.e., music, speech, sound effects, and the absence of sound) within the games were logged. The online slot-themed game was played in demo mode. This is the first study to provide a qualitative account of the role of auditory features within a slot-themed social casino game and an online slot machine game. Our results found many similarities between how sound is utilised within the two games. Therefore the sounds within these games may serve functions including: setting the scene for gaming, creating an image, demarcating space, interacting with visual features, prompting players to act, communicating achievements to players, providing reinforcement, heightening player emotions and the gaming experience. As a result this may reduce the ability of players to make a clear distinction between these two activities, which may facilitate migration between games.

  16. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  17. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  18. Slot Parameter Optimization for Multiband Antenna Performance Improvement Using Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Demircioglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses bandwidth enhancement for multiband microstrip patch antennas (MMPAs using symmetrical rectangular/square slots etched on the patch and the substrate properties. The slot parameters on MMPA are modeled using soft computing technique of artificial neural networks (ANN. To achieve the best ANN performance, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Differential Evolution (DE are applied with ANN’s conventional training algorithm in optimization of the modeling performance. In this study, the slot parameters are assumed as slot distance to the radiating patch edge, slot width, and length. Bandwidth enhancement is applied to a formerly designed MMPA fed by a microstrip transmission line attached to the center pin of 50 ohm SMA connecter. The simulated antennas are fabricated and measured. Measurement results are utilized for training the artificial intelligence models. The ANN provides 98% model accuracy for rectangular slots and 97% for square slots; however, ANFIS offer 90% accuracy with lack of resonance frequency tracking.

  19. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2012-01-01

    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  20. Cusp-Gun Sixth-Harmonic Slotted Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, R. C.; McDermott, D. B.; Hirata Luhmann, Y., Jr.; Gallagher, D. A.; Spencer, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    A high-harmonic slotted gyrotron has been constructed at UC Davis to be driven by a 70 kV, 3.5 A, axis-encircling electron beam from a Northrop Grumman Cusp gun. The 94 GHz, slotted sixth-harmonic gyrotron is predicted to generate 50 kW with an efficiency of 20%. Using the profile of the adiabatic field reversal from the UC Davis superconducting test-magnet, EGUN simulations predict that an axis-encircling electron beam will be generated with an axial velocity spread of Δ v_z/v_z=10% for the desired velocity ratio of α =v_z/v_z=1.5. The design will also be presented for an 8th-harmonic W-band gyrotron whose magnetic field can be supplied by a lightweight permanent magnet.

  1. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  2. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  3. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  5. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  6. Wave Pressures on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results on loading action on an innovative caisson breakwater for electricity production. The work reported here contributes to the European Union Sixth Framework programme priority 6.1 (Sustainable Energy System), contract 019831, titled "Full- scale demonstration of robust...... and high efficiency energy converter" (WAVESSG). Information on wave loading acting on Wave Energy Convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone GEnerator (SSG) exposed to extreme wave conditions are reported....

  7. broadband, low sidelobe, zero height, slotted circular disk antenna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of argument rr where J? = jwµ.(slot of the antenna can be obtained by substituting 'Tr', hack into the field equations. The results are given hy the ...

  8. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO 2 laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author)

  9. Transmission-enabled fiber Fabry-Perot cavity based on a deeply etched slotted micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad A; Sabry, Yasser M; Sadek, Mohamed; Nassar, Ismail M; Khalil, Diaa A

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report the analysis, fabrication, and characterization of an optical cavity built using a Bragg-coated fiber (BCF) mirror and a metal-coated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) slotted micromirror, where the latter allows transmission output from the cavity. Theoretical modeling, using Fourier optics analysis for the cavity response based on tracing the propagation of light back and forth between the mirrors, is presented. Detailed simulation analysis is carried out for the spectral response of the cavity under different design conditions. MEMS chips of the slotted micromirror are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching of a silicon-on-insulator substrate with different device-etching depths of 150 μm and 80 μm with aluminum and gold metal coating, respectively. The cavity is characterized as an optical filter using a BCF with reflectivity that is larger than 95% in a 300 nm range across the E-band and the L-band. Versatile filter characteristics were obtained for different values of the MEMS micromirror slit width and cavity length. A free spectral range (FSR) of about 33 nm and a quality factor of about 196 were obtained for a 5.5 μm width aluminum slit, while an FSR of about 148 nm and a quality factor of about 148 were obtained for a 1.5 μm width gold slit. The presented structure opens the door for wide spectral response transmission-type MEMS filters.

  10. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  11. Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2017-05-24

    In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.

  12. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Bashir Ahmed; Ashiq, M.G. B.; Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Rashid; Ahmed, Afaq

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials, which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser. The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed. For approximate cutting depth, a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed. Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy. There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s. An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting. It is inferred that as the laser power increases, cutting depth increases. The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results. This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting, scribing, trimming, engraving, and marking nonmetallic materials. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O; Wang, R; Tomasi, D

    2011-01-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  14. Flexural and Thermal Properties of Novel Energy Conservation Slotted Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional solid reinforced concrete (RC beams were modified to slotted beams for consideration as thermal insulation structural components. The slotted beam consisted of an outer and an inner beam, respectively, with a slot located near the middle of the beam along its width direction for filling thermal insulation material. Flexural and thermal behavior of the slotted beams were investigated. Three RC reference solid beams and six slotted beams were fabricated and tested under four-point bending tests. The test results indicated that the failure mode of both slotted beams and the solid beams was flexural failure. However, the damage process of the slotted beams was different from that of the solid beams at the final loading stage. The moment curvature analysis indicated that the tensile reinforcement ratio of the outer and inner beams had an important effect on the flexural behavior, especially the ductility of the slotted beams. Thermal study indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of the slotted beam was greatly reduced and the thermal inertia factor increased a lot, compared with the solid beam. In addition, FE simulation results showed that a new frame structure using slotted beams exhibited obvious and attractive thermal insulation property.

  15. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Wang, R; Tomasi, D, E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  16. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, S.E.; Tomasi, D.; Solis, S.E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A.O.

    2011-07-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  17. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  18. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. Measurement of the depth of narrow slotted sections in eddy current reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-gil; Ahn, Bongyoung; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The dimensions of the slots in eddy current (EC) reference standards are too narrow to be measured by general depth measurement methods such as the optical (laser) or stylus methods. However, measurement of the dimensions of the machined slots is a prerequisite to using the blocks as references. The present paper suggests a measurement method for the slotted section using an ultrasonic test. The width and depth of the slots measured in our study are roughly 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic wave was measured precisely. The ultrasonic velocity in the material of the EC reference standard was calculated with the measured values of the TOF and its thickness. Reflected waves from the tip of the slot and the bottom surface of the EC standard were successfully classified. Using this method we have successfully determined the depth of the slotted section.

  20. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  1. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys (Part 2)--Analyses of cutting force and spindle motor current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-12-01

    To establish a method of determining the machinability of dental materials for CAD/CAM systems, the machinability of titanium, two titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb), and free-cutting brass was evaluated through cutting force and spindle motor current. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and square end mills at four cutting conditions. Both the static and dynamic components of the cutting force represented well the machinability of the metals tested: the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb was worse than that of titanium, while that of free-cutting brass was better. On the other hand, the results indicated that the spindle motor current was not sensitive enough to detect the material difference among the titanium and its alloys.

  2. Mechanism Design for Multi-slot Ads Auction in Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Sun, Yang; Yin, Ming; Zhou, Yunhong

    In this paper, we study pricing models for multi-slot advertisements, where advertisers can bid to place links to their sales webpages at one or multiple slots on a webpage, called the multi-slot AD auction problem. We develop and analyze several important mechanisms, including the VCG mechanism for multi-slot ads auction, the optimal social welfare solution, as well as two weighted GSP-like protocols (mixed and hybrid). Furthermore, we consider that forward-looking Nash equilibrium and prove its existence in the weighted GSP-like pricing protocols.

  3. Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, C A; Sánchez, B; Gylfason, K B; Griol, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-05-28

    We report on the first demonstration of guiding light in vertical slot-waveguides on silicon nitride/silicon oxide material system. Integrated ring resonators and Fabry-Perot cavities have been fabricated and characterized in order to determine optical features of the slot-waveguides. Group index behavior evidences guiding and confinement in the low-index slot region at O-band (1260-1370nm) telecommunication wavelengths. Propagation losses of <20 dB/cm have been measured for the transverse-electric mode of the slot-waveguides.

  4. Dark Flow, Depression and Multiline Slot Machine Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Stange, Madison; Larche, Chanel J; Graydon, Candice; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Harrigan, Kevin A

    2018-03-01

    Multiline slot machines allow for a unique outcome type referred to as a loss disguised as a win (LDW). An LDW occurs when a player gains credits on a spin, but fewer credits than their original wager (e.g. 15-cent gain on a 20-cent wager). These outcomes alter the gambler's play experience by providing frequent, albeit smaller, credit gains throughout a playing session that are in fact net losses. Despite this negative overall value, research has shown that players physiologically respond to LDWs as if they are wins, not losses. These outcomes also create a "smoother" experience for the player that seems to promote a highly absorbing, flow-like state that we have called "dark flow". Past research has indicated that there may be a relationship between problem gambling status and dark flow, as well as between dark flow, depression, and gambling expectancies. In this study, we sought to further understand these relationships, while examining the influence of LDWs on game preference in the context of single versus multiline slots play. We used a realistic slot machine simulator equipped with a force transducer to measure how hard players pressed the spin button following different outcomes. This measure of arousal showed that LDWs were treated similarly to small wins. Participants overwhelmingly preferred the multiline game and experienced more positive affect while playing it, compared to the single-line game. Problem gambling severity index scores were related to dark flow in both games, but this relationship was stronger for the multiline game. Additionally, depression symptomatology and dark flow were strongly correlated in the multiline game, with significant relationships between depression and gambling expectancy, and gambling expectancy and dark flow ratings also emerging.

  5. Different optical properties in different periodic slot cavity geometrical morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Shen, Meng; Du, Lan; Deng, Caisong; Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, optical properties of two-dimensional periodic annular slot cavity arrays in hexagonal close-packing on a silica substrate are theoretically characterized by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation method. By simulating reflectance spectra, electric field distribution, and charge distribution, we confirm that multiple cylindrical surface plasmon resonances can be excited in annular inclined slot cavities by linearly polarized light, in which the four reflectance dips are attributed to Fabry-Perot cavity resonances in the coaxial cavity. A coaxial waveguide mode TE11 will exist in these annular cavities, and the wavelengths of these reflectance dips are effectively tailored by changing the geometrical pattern of slot cavity and the dielectric materials filled in the cavities. These resonant wavelengths are localized in annular cavities with large electric field enhancement and dissipate gradually due to metal loss. The formation of an absorption peak can be explained from the aspect of phase matching conditions. We observed that the proposed structure can be tuned over the broad spectral range of 600-4000 nm by changing the outer and inner radii of the annular gaps, gap surface topography. Meanwhile, different lengths of the cavity may cause the shift of resonance dips. Also, we study the field enhancement at different vertical locations of the slit. In addition, dielectric materials filling in the annular gaps will result in a shift of the resonance wavelengths, which make the annular cavities good candidates for refractive index sensors. The refractive index sensitivity of annular cavities can also be tuned by the geometry size and the media around the cavity. Annular cavities with novel applications can be implied as surface enhanced Raman spectra substrates, refractive index sensors, nano-lasers, and optical trappers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178044), the Natural Science Foundation

  6. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  7. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  8. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  9. Stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Yoshikuni; Liu, Jin; Noguchi, Shoichi

    1989-02-01

    The stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect is investigated under a general communication environment where terminals are divided into two groups (low-power and high-power) and the capture effect is modeled by capture probabilities. An approximate analysis is developed using catastrophe theory, in which the effects of system and user parameters on the stability are characterized by the cusp catastrophe. Particular attention is given to the low-power group, since it must bear the strain under the capture effect. The stability conditions of the two groups are given explicitly by bifurcation sets.

  10. Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Bañuls, María José; González-Pedro, Victoria; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Maquieira, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate label-free molecule detection by using an integrated biosensor based on a Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2) slot-waveguide microring resonator. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA molecular binding events on the sensor surface are monitored through the measurement of resonant wavelength shifts with varying biomolecule concentrations. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.2 nm/(ng/mm(2)) for the detection of anti-BSA and BSA, respectively. The estimated detection limits are 28 and 16 pg/mm(2) for anti-BSA and BSA, respectively, limited by wavelength resolution.

  11. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  12. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  13. Revisiting Street Intersections Using Slot-Based Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Tachet

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the end of the 19th century, traffic lights have been the primary mode of granting access to road intersections. Today, this centuries-old technology is challenged by advances in intelligent transportation, which are opening the way to new solutions built upon slot-based systems similar to those commonly used in aerial traffic: what we call Slot-based Intersections (SIs. Despite simulation-based evidence of the potential benefits of SIs, a comprehensive, analytical framework to compare their relative performance with traffic lights is still lacking. Here, we develop such a framework. We approach the problem in a novel way, by generalizing classical queuing theory. Having defined safety conditions, we characterize capacity and delay of SIs. In the 2-road crossing configuration, we provide a capacity-optimal SI management system. For arbitrary intersection configurations, near-optimal solutions are developed. Results theoretically show that transitioning from a traffic light system to SI has the potential of doubling capacity and significantly reducing delays. This suggests a reduction of non-linear dynamics induced by intersection bottlenecks, with positive impact on the road network. Such findings can provide transportation engineers and planners with crucial insights as they prepare to manage the transition towards a more intelligent transportation infrastructure in cities.

  14. Ultra-Wideband Printed Slot Radiators with Controllable Frequency Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of creating ultra-wideband (UWB antennas with controlled frequency response of matching based on the printed slot antenna Vivaldi by introducing controlled resonators directly into the structure of the radiator. In the area of irregular slotline there are printed switched resonators with variable capacitance (varactor model, which allow tuning the frequency characteristics for each state of switching cavities, providing bandpass and band-barrage properties of the antenna. The investigation of reconfigurable printed resonators in the system of reconfigurable resonators of a bandpass filter is conducted. The paper considers filter to provide restructuring in the band (3-9 GHz. Electrodynamic simulation of the device was carried out in the time domain using a finite integration method. A bandstop reconfigurable filter is also investigated. The filter located on the substrate opposite the slit is based on tunable L-shaped resonator that has one end connected to the short-circuitor through the board metallization; the other end remains open and is brought into the region of interaction with the slotline. Such filter provides an effective narrow-band suppression and can be easily tuned to the desired frequency channel. The combination of these two types of filters allows you to create a controlled print Vivaldi slot antenna with combined properties. The paper investigates parameters of the scattering and radiation pattern of the antenna in different modes.

  15. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  16. Losses Disguised as Wins Affect Game Selection on Multiline Slots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Candice; Stange, Madison; Dixon, Mike J

    2018-05-05

    Multiline slots are exciting games that contain features which make them alluring. One such feature is a loss disguised as a win (LDW); wherein, players win less than they wager (e.g., bet 2 dollars, win back 50 cents), but this net loss is disguised by flashing graphics and winning sounds. Research to date concludes that LDWs are both rewarding and reinforcing. Here, we investigated whether LDWs affect players' game selection. Thirty-two undergraduate students with experience playing slot machines played 100 spins on four games-two had positive payback percentages (115%) and two had negative payback percentages (85%) after 100 spins. For each payback percentage condition, there was a game with no LDWs and a game with a moderate number of LDWs. For the 100 spins, players could choose to play whichever game they wished. They then rated their preference for each game following the 100-spins and chose a game to continue playing. The majority of players preferred playing the positive payback percentage game with LDWs and chose to continue playing this game over the three other games. We conclude that in addition to LDWs being reinforcing and rewarding, LDWs do in fact influence game selection. We conclude that responsible gambling initiatives should educate players about LDWs.

  17. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  18. Slot-dimer babinet metamaterials as polarization shapers for terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study optical properties of free-standing metallic membranes patterned with an array of two-slot elements (dimers) comprising two rectangular slots of different dimensions and orientation. It is shown that these structures feature extraordinary optical transmission with strong...

  19. Tuning ZOR in ENZ waveguide using a single longitudinal slot and equivalent circuit parameter extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojnovic, Nebojsa; Jokanovic, Branka; Mitrovic, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of placing a longitudinal slot in the channel region of a rectangular waveguide ENZ structure, are analyzed. A following investigation showed that changing the length of this slot can be employed to achieve tuning of only the tunneling frequency. Maximum resonant freque...

  20. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough numerical analysis of a highly birefringent slotted porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The slot shaped air-holes break the symmetry of the porous-core which offers a very high birefringence whereas the compact geometry of the...

  1. 14 CFR 93.226 - Allocation of slots in low-demand periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of slots in low-demand periods. 93.226 Section 93.226 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... low-demand periods. (a) If there are available slots in the following time periods and there are no...

  2. Bead beavior in a non-continues slot die coating regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, A.; Senes, A.; Vries, I. de; Groen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Sheet-to-sheet slot die coating is a crucial intermediate technique to bring organic and large area electronics (e.g. OLED and Flexible OPV) towards mass roll-to-roll productions. The coating on substrate has to be uniform within nanometers. Additional settings are added to the slot die coater for a

  3. 14 CFR 93.218 - Slots for transborder service to and from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canada. 93.218 Section 93.218 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... service to and from Canada. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, international slots...'Hare in the Winter season. (c) Any modification to the slot base by the Government of Canada or the...

  4. Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.

  5. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  6. Slot opening optimization of surface mounted permanent magnet motor for cogging torque reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadeh, K.; Rezaee Alam, F.; Teshnehlab, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The slot opening shift method is an efficient method for cogging torque reduction. ► Using slot opening skew method, the trapezoidal waveform of back-emf is maintained. ► Using the conventional slot skewing, the wave shape of back-emf is sinusoidal. ► The novelty of paper is using of air–gap permeance harmonics as objective function. ► Other novelty of this paper is using the different optimization algorithms. - Abstract: In this paper, slot opening skew method is used for cogging torque reduction. A three layer stator model is considered for a six-pole PM-BLDC motor (a PM-BLDC motor with 18-slots, six-poles and length of 5 cm) and then a 2D dual model is extracted for this 3D slot opening skew model. The angular shifts of slot opening position in the first and third layers than middle layer are considered as optimization parameters. Slot opening shape is optimized by using different optimization algorithms, such as, the response surface methodology (RSM), the genetic algorithm (GA) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO). In order to using of GA and PSO, the analytical relationship is derived for the air–gap permeance function. The optimization results of these algorithms are being consistent with each other and are verified with FEA results. The results show the significant reduction of cogging torque about 77%.

  7. Cogging Torque Reduction by Slot-Opening Shift for Permanent Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ting; Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an effective cogging torque reduction method based on shifting the slot-openings is presented. Stator teeth are divided into groups and proper slot-opening shift is applied for each group. The cogging torque can then be greatly reduced while the back-EMF waveforms remain symmetrical...

  8. Slots in dielectric image line as mode launchers and circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, K.

    1981-01-01

    A planar resonator model is used to investigate slots in the ground plane of dielectric image lines. An equivalent circuit representation of the slot discontinuity is obtained, and the launching efficiency of the slot as a mode launcher is analyzed. Slots are also shown to be useful in the realization of dielectric image line array antennas. It is found that the slot discontinuity can be shown as a T-junction of the dielectric image line and a metal waveguide. The launching efficiency is found to increase with the dielectric constant of the dielectric image line, exhibiting a maximum value for guides whose height is slightly less than half a wavelength in the dielectric medium. The measured launching efficiencies of low permittivity dielectric image lines are found to be in good agreement with calculated values

  9. Examination report: Remote video examination of air slots under the primary tank at 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of remote video examination of air slots in the insulating concrete slab beneath the primary tank at 241-AN-107. Life Extension Equipment Engineering has selected tank 241-AN-107 for ultrasonic evaluation of tank wall, knuckle, and floor plates. Access to the primary tank floor plates is via the air slots which were formed into the insulating concrete slab during tank construction (reference drawings H-2-71105 and H-2-71160). Prior to deployment of the ultrasonic inspection equipment it is desirable to examine the air slots for obstructions and debris which could impede the ultrasonic equipment. The criteria, equipment description, deliverables, and responsibilities for examination of the air slots are described in HNF-1949, Rev. 0, ''Engineering Task Plan for Remote Video Examination of Air Slots Under the Primary Tank at 241-AN-107''

  10. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  13. Low Average Sidelobe Slot Array Antennas for Radiometer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam; Zawardzki, Mark S.; Hodges, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    In radiometer applications, it is required to design antennas that meet low average sidelobe levels and low average return loss over a specified frequency bandwidth. It is a challenge to meet such specifications over a frequency range when one uses resonant elements such as waveguide feed slots. In addition to their inherent narrow frequency band performance, the problem is exacerbated due to modeling errors and manufacturing tolerances. There was a need to develop a design methodology to solve the problem. An iterative design procedure was developed by starting with an array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, waveguide dimensions, etc. The array was designed using Elliott s technique with appropriate values of the total slot conductance in each radiating waveguide, and the total resistance in each feed waveguide. Subsequently, the array performance was analyzed by the full wave method of moments solution to the pertinent integral equations. Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to account for amplitude and phase errors introduced for the aperture distribution due to modeling errors as well as manufacturing tolerances. If the design margins for the average sidelobe level and the average return loss were not adequate, array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, and waveguide dimensions were varied in subsequent iterations. Once the design margins were found to be adequate, the iteration was stopped and a good design was achieved. A symmetric array architecture was found to meet the design specification with adequate margin. The specifications were near 40 dB for angular regions beyond 30 degrees from broadside. Separable Taylor distribution with nbar=4 and 35 dB sidelobe specification was chosen for each principal plane. A non-separable distribution obtained by the genetic algorithm was found to have similar characteristics. The element spacing was obtained to provide the required beamwidth and close to a null in the E

  14. Modeling arbitrarily directed slots that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to the FDTD spatial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1991-12-31

    The Hybrid Thin-Slot Algorithm (HTSA) integrates a transient integral-equation solution for an aperture in an infinite plane into a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code. The technique was introduced for linear apertures and was extended to include wall loss and lossy internal gaskets. A general implementation for arbitrary thin slots is briefly described here. The 3-D FDTD-code TSAR was selected for the implementation. The HTSA does not provide universal solutions to the narrow slot problem, but has merits appropriate for particular applications. The HTSA is restricted to planar slots, but can solve the important case that both the width and depth of the slot are narrow compared to the FDTD spatial cell. IN addition, the HTSA is not bound to the FDTD discrete spatial and time increments, and therefore, high-resolution solutions for the slot physics are possible. The implementation of the HTSA into TSAR is based upon a ``slot data file`` that includes the cell indices where the desired slots are exist within the FDTD mesh. For an HTSA-defined slot, the wall region local to the slot is shorted, and therefore, to change the slot`s topology simply requires altering the file to include the desired cells. 7 refs.

  15. A GRASP algorithm for the container stowage slot planning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parreno, Francisco; Pacino, Dario; Alvarez-Valdes, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    in clusters along the vessel. For each of those clusters a specific position for each container must be found. Compared to previous studies, we have introduced two new features: the explicit handling of rolled out containers and the inclusion of separations rules for dangerous cargo. We present a novel......This work presents a generalization of the Slot Planning Problem which raises when the liner shipping industry needs to plan the placement of containers within a vessel (stowage planning). State-of-the-art stowage planning relies on a heuristic decomposition where containers are first distributed...... integer programming formulation and a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) to solve the problem. The approach is able to find high-quality solution within 1 s. We also provide comparison with the state-of-the-art on an existing and a new set of benchmark instances. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd...

  16. Quad-Band U-Slot Antenna for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Ruiz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different planar quad-band antennas are designed, modeled, fabricated and measured. Subsequently, the antennas are redesigned using an electromagnetic band gap substrate (EBG. Those new planar antennas operate in four frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1 800 MHz (both GSM, 1 900 MHz (USA and 2 400 to 2 500 MHz (Bluetooth The antenna has four narrow U-shaped slots etched to the patch. Using software, CST Microwave Studio [1], Zeland IE3D [2], and FEMLAB [3], simulations have been carried out to investigate the antenna's performance and characteristics. The antennas designed have been also built and measured to compare the real results with those obtained from the simulations.

  17. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  18. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  19. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  20. Using arc voltage to locate the anode attachment in plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhouse, D J; Heberlein, J V R; Lindsay, J W

    2013-01-01

    Plasma arc cutting is a widely used industrial process in which an electric arc in the form of a high velocity plasma jet is used to melt and blow away metal. The arc attaches inside the resulting cut slot, or kerf, where it both provides a large heat flux and determines the flow dynamics of the plasma. Knowledge of the position of the arc attachment is essential for understanding the phenomena present at the work piece. This work presents a new method of measuring the location of the arc attachment in which the arc voltage is measured during the cutting of a range of work piece thicknesses. The attachment location is then interpreted from the voltages. To support the validity of this method, the kerf shape, dross particle size and dross adhesion to the work piece are also observed. While these do not conclusively give an attachment location, they show patterns which are consistent with the attachment location found from the voltage measurements. The method is demonstrated on the cutting of mild steel, where the arc attachment is found to be stationary in the upper portion of the cut slot and in reasonable agreement with existing published findings. For a process optimized for the cutting of 12.7 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 1.5–3.4 mm. For a slower process optimized for the cutting of 25.4 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 3.4–4.8 mm, which enhances heat transfer further down in the kerf, allowing cutting of the thicker work piece. The use of arc voltage to locate the position of the arc attachment is unique when compared with existing methods because it is entirely independent of the heat distribution and visualization techniques. (paper)

  1. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  2. Study on wake structure characteristics of a slotted micro-ramp with large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiangrui; Chen, Yaohui; Dong, Gang; Liu, Yixin, E-mail: cyh873@163.com [National Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, a novel slotted ramp-type micro vortex generator (slotted micro-ramp) for flow separation control is simulated in the supersonic flow of Ma = 1.5, based on large eddy simulation combined with the finite volume method. The wake structure characteristics and control mechanisms of both slotted and standard micro-ramps are presented and discussed. The results show that the wake of standard micro-ramp includes a primary counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair, a train of vortex rings, and secondary vortices. The slotted micro-ramp has more complicated wake structures, which contain a confluent counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair and additional streamwise vortices, with the same rotation generated by slot and the vortex rings enveloping the vortex pair. The additional vortices generated by the slot of the micro-ramp can mix with the primary counter-rotating vortex pair, extend the life time, and strengthen the vortex intensity of primary vortex pair. Moreover, the slot can effectively alleviate, or even eliminate the backflow and decrease the profile drag induced by the standard micro-ramp, therefore improving the efficiency of separation control. (paper)

  3. Cutting force model for high speed machining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, R. E.; Jimenez, J. E.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez-Coronado, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents cutting force-based models able to describe a high speed machining process. The model considers the cutting force as output variable, essential for the physical processes that are taking place in high speed machining. Moreover, this paper shows the mathematical development to derive the integral-differential equations, and the algorithms implemented in MATLAB to predict the cutting force in real time MATLAB is a software tool for doing numerical computations with matrices and vectors. It can also display information graphically and includes many toolboxes for several research and applications areas. Two end mill shapes are considered (i. e. cylindrical and ball end mill) for real-time implementation of the developed algorithms. the developed models are validated in slot milling operations. The results corroborate the importance of the cutting force variable for predicting tool wear in high speed machining operations. The developed models are the starting point for future work related with vibration analysis, process stability and dimensional surface finish in high speed machining processes. (Author) 19 refs

  4. [The characteristics of and social support for pathological gamblers among "pachinko" or "slot" users in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, there are one to two million people suspected of being pathological gamblers according to the definition in DSM-IV-TR. Almost all of them use "pachinko" or "slot," which are gambling stores, throughout Japan, that number 12,000 in total. However, the characteristics and ratio of pathological "pachinko" and "slot" gamblers have not been investigated. The author aimed to determine the characteristics, ratio, and social support available for these users. The author administered an internet survey for users of "pachinko" or "slot." Two hundred and fifty users visited "pachinko" or "slot" stores more than twice a week, and 250 users visited once a week or once a month. The Japanese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered, and gamblers were asked about their awareness of pathological gambling and the condition of their social support. The author observed that 70.2% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected pathological gamblers and 28.6% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were severe gamblers. A total of 39.3% of them were aware of their pathological gambling, and 6.5% of users who had awareness of pathological gambling had social support. However, most of their social support consisted of family and friends, and almost none of them attended psychiatric clinics, community health centers, or self-help groups like gamblers anonymous. Almost all "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected of being pathological or severe gamblers. However, they did not approach psychiatric facilities or self-help groups. The author strongly recommends the need for educational programs in junior or high school to prevent future pathological gambling, and create awareness of the dangers of pathological gambling through TV commercials and "pachinko" or "slot" stores. Pathological gambling is a disease that afflicts many people; hence, psychiatric and social welfare professionals should continue to stress the dangers of and offer prevention programs for "pachinko" or

  5. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  6. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  7. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  8. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  9. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  10. Failure mechanisms of superhard materials when cutting superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, A.E.; Westermann, F.E.; Ermi, A.; Yavelak, J.; Hoch, M.

    1975-01-01

    The present research studies the reasons for the failure of tungsten carbide tools while cutting superalloys. There is a continuous layer of the superalloy in the bottom of the crater which from time to time is torn away locally, taking tungsten carbide crystal with it. Under recommended cutting conditions a plateau (unworn cutting surface) separates the crater from the cutting edge of the tool when cutting AISI 4340. This plateau is totally absent in all cutting of Inconel 718, even in short, two-minute tests. The crater intersects the cutting edge--only a thin wedge of carbide is left which either breaks off or deforms and wears very rapidly. Temperature measurements carried out by use of an infrared detector aimed on the corner of the tungsten carbide indicate at recommended speeds a sharp rise of the temperature at the beginning of the cutting operation, then a steady-state very slow increase as the cutting continues, and finally just before tool failure a very rapid increase in the temperature again. Scanning and replica electron microscopy through the crater and flank face shows that both under the crater and in the back of the cutting edge a fairly deep layer of ''disturbed metal'' exists in which the tungsten carbide grains are much smaller and have much more rounded edges than in the original material. 10 figures, 4 tables

  11. FLOW VISUALIZATION OF RECTANGULAR SLOT AIR JET IMPINGEMENT ON FLAT SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesha V *1, B. K. Muralidhra2, Abhilash N3, C. K. Umesh4

    2018-01-01

    Jet impingement near the mid-chord of the gas turbine blade is treated as a flat plate. Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out for a single slot air jet impinging on flat surface for two different rectangular slots of dimension (3mm x 65 mm) and (5mm x 65 mm). Experimentation is done to study the flow pattern topography on the flat target plate, with varying the flow rate from 20 LPM to 50 LPM by varying the nozzle to plate distance from 9 mm to 24 mm for slot jet of 3mm an...

  12. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics

  13. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  14. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  15. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  17. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  18. Time evolution of propagating nonpremixed flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    alternating current electric fields to a gap between the upper and lower parts of a counterflow, annular slot burner and present the characteristics of the propagating nonpremixed edge-flames produced. Contrary to many other previous studies, flame

  19. Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and "Classical" gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, T

    1995-09-01

    German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers' gambling behaviour is financially more extensive. There were similarities regarding the emotional intensity of the gambling experience. However the casino gamblers show more pronounced symptoms of pathological gambling and the psychosocial consequences of their gambling behaviour are more severe. In spite of these differences, the data show that for young people slot machines can be as stimulating and therefore as dangerous as casino gambling. The young slot machine gambler runs a similar risk of acquiring a pathological gambling habit as the casino gambler.

  20. Development of high power models of four-slot Annular Coupled Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A π/2-mode standing-wave linac (f=1.296 GHz) of an Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) has been developed for the 1-GeV proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). This ACS has four coupling slots between accelerating and coupling cells in order to suppress higher order mode mixing with the π/2 coupling mode. High-β(β=v/c=0.78) and low-β(0.52) prototypes were constructed and tested up to each design RF power. Concerning the effect of the coupling slots on the fields of a coupled-cavity linac, it was found that the slot configuration of the side-coupled structure (SCS) tilts the accelerating field. On the other hand, the four-slot configuration of the ACS gives an almost axially symmetric accelerating field to the beam. (author)

  1. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien; Mikki, Said M.; Shamim, Atif; Antar, Yahia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model

  2. Hydraulic performance of a low specific speed centrifugal pump with Spanwise-Slotted Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, D X; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2013-01-01

    The hydraulic efficiency of a low specific speed centrifugal pump is low because of the long and narrow meridian flow passage, and the severe disk friction. Spanwise slotted blade flow control technology has been applied to the low specific speed centrifugal pump. This paper concluded that spanwise slotted blades can improve the pump performance in both experiments and simulations. In order to study the influence to the impeller and volute by spanwise slotted blade, impeller efficiency and volute efficiency were defined. The minimum volute efficiency and the maximum pump efficiency appear at the same time in the design flow condition in the unsteady simulation. The mechanism of spanwise slotted blade flow control technology should be researched furthermore

  3. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  4. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  5. Modeling fiber motion in a pulp pressure screen: the effect of slot shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.; Salcudean, M.; Gartshore, I.

    2003-01-01

    A pressure screen is a piece of equipment in the pulp and paper industry used either to remove contaminants from the pulp suspension or to separate fibers having different properties. Contaminants such as fiber bundles, bark and plastic specks are introduced when fibers are separated from the wood by mechanical or chemical pulping processes. Contaminants significantly affect the strength and smoothness of the paper and must be removed before the final paper is produced. The screen plate is a critical part of the pressure screen and its design is the key to screen performance. This paper uses a new and comprehensive CFD simulation tool to examine the flow and fiber behavior in a single slot screen having any reasonable slot shape. -This simulation tool includes three coupled models: first, the flow model solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation using the standard k - ε turbulence model to predict the flow field in the equipment. Second, a three-dimensional flexible fiber model is used to track the fiber trajectory in the screen. Third, a very general wall model is used to deal with the case when a fiber touches the equipment wall. The simulated results show that the slot shape has a critical influence on fiber behavior and screen performance. Three general slot shapes were investigated: the smooth slot, the step-step contour slot and slope-slope contour slot. Of these the slope-slope contour slot provides the best passage for the fibers with a length of 1mm and 3mm. (author)

  6. CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vasudeva Karanth; N. Yagnesh Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions ...

  7. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  8. Queueing models for token and slotted ring networks. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Jeffery H.

    1990-01-01

    Currently the end-to-end delay characteristics of very high speed local area networks are not well understood. The transmission speed of computer networks is increasing, and local area networks especially are finding increasing use in real time systems. Ring networks operation is generally well understood for both token rings and slotted rings. There is, however, a severe lack of queueing models for high layer operation. There are several factors which contribute to the processing delay of a packet, as opposed to the transmission delay, e.g., packet priority, its length, the user load, the processor load, the use of priority preemption, the use of preemption at packet reception, the number of processors, the number of protocol processing layers, the speed of each processor, and queue length limitations. Currently existing medium access queueing models are extended by adding modeling techniques which will handle exhaustive limited service both with and without priority traffic, and modeling capabilities are extended into the upper layers of the OSI model. Some of the model are parameterized solution methods, since it is shown that certain models do not exist as parameterized solutions, but rather as solution methods.

  9. A Dual Band Slotted Patch Antenna on Dielectric Material Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile, compact dual band slotted patch antenna has been designed using finite element method-based high frequency full-wave electromagnetic simulator. The proposed antenna fabricated using LPKF printed circuit board (PCB fabrication machine on fiberglass reinforced epoxy polymer resin material substrate and the performance of the prototype has been measured in a standard far-field anechoic measurement chamber. The measured impedance bandwidths of (reflection coefficient <-10 dB 12.26% (14.3–16.2 GHZ, 8.24% (17.4–18.9 GHz, and 3.08% (19.2–19.8 have been achieved through the proposed antenna prototype. 5.9 dBi, 3.37 dBi, and 3.32 dBi peak gains have been measured and simulated radiation efficiencies of 80.3%, 81.9%, and 82.5% have been achieved at three resonant frequencies of 15.15 GHz, 18.2 GHz, and 19.5 GHz, respectively. Minimum gain variation, symmetric, and almost steady measured radiation pattern shows that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ku and K band satellite applications.

  10. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  11. Development of an economical and ecological optimized multi slot fish bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.; Mader, H.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which came into force in 2000, represents a new framework governing water policies. The ecological objectives of the directive are sometimes in conflict with the historical use of waterbodies for hydropower generation. This paper discussed the mitigation of negative economical effects caused by outfitting hydropower plants with fish migration facilities claimed by the WFD. In particular, it reviewed the new modified version of the Vertical Slot Fishpass which reduces water discharge while maintaining or even enhancing the biological migration of aquatic species. Reducing the flow rate in the fish bypass results in more available water for hydropower generation, which is economically advantageous for operators. The available water resource is simply used more efficiently. The bypass was modified by adding additional slot baffles and guide walls in order to induce intended losses at roughness obstacles and to obtain isolated roughness current in the multi slot area. A Froude similarity model was used to obtain the results of the first phase of this project. Different arrangements of the slot baffles and locations were measured. The results of all trials revealed that the newly developed multi slot variants have clear advantages over conventional vertical slot fish passages. Discharge was reduced by up to 34 per cent while still maintaining the same water levels in the pools. As such, the general flow velocities were also reduced by about 10 per cent, thereby achieving the primary objective of the project. 7 refs., 18 figs

  12. Collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shangwen; Guo, Baohua; Xiao, Xuefei; Gao, Haichao

    2018-01-01

    To allocate the en-routes and slots to the flights with collaborative decision making, a collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was proposed. Evaluation indexes include flight delay costs, delay time and the number of turning points. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to determining index weights. Remark set for current two flights not yet obtained the en-route and slot in flight schedule is established. Then, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is performed, and the en-route and slot for the current two flights are determined. Continue selecting the flight not yet obtained an en-route and a slot in flight schedule. Perform fuzzy comprehensive evaluation until all flights have obtained the en-routes and slots. MatlabR2007b was applied to numerical test based on the simulated data of a civil en-route. Test results show that, compared with the traditional strategy of first come first service, the algorithm gains better effect. The effectiveness of the algorithm was verified.

  13. EFFECTS OF SLOTTED BLADING ON SECONDARY FLOW IN HIGHLY LOADED COMPRESSOR CASCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMZI MDOUKI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to increase allowable blade loadings and enlarge stable operating range in highly loaded compressor, this work is carried out in order to explore the potential of passive control via slotted bladings in linear cascade configurations under both design and stall conditions. Through an extensive 2D-numerical study, the effects of location, width and slope of slots were analysed and the best configuration was identified. Based on the optimal slot, the 3D aerodynamic performances of cascade were studied and the influence of slotted blading to control endwall flow was investigated. Both 2D and 3D calculations are performed on steady RANS solver with standard k-epsilon turbulence model and low Mach number regime. The total loss coefficient, turning angle and flow visualizations on the blade and end-wall surfaces are adopted to describe the different configurations. The obtained results show, for 2D situation, that a maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient had been reached and the flow turning was increased with approximately 5°. Concerning 3D flow fields the slots marked their benefit at large incoming flow angles which delays the separation on both end wall and blade suction surface at mid span. However, at design conditions, the slotted blades are not able to control secondary flows near the wall and so, lose their potential.

  14. Slotted cage resonator for high-field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrufo, O; Vasquez, F; Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O, E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    A variation of the high-frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. Circular slots were used instead of cavities to form the coil endplates and it was called the slotted cage resonator coil. The theoretical principles were validated via a coil equivalent circuit and also experimentally with a coil prototype. The radio frequency magnetic field, B1, produced by several coil configurations was numerically simulated using the finite-element approach to investigate their performances. A transceiver coil, 8 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter, and composed of 4 circular slots with a 15 mm diameter on both endplates, was built to operate at 300 MHz and quadrature driven. Experimental results obtained with the slotted cage resonator coil were presented and showed very good agreement with the theoretical expectations for the resonant frequency as a function of the coil dimensions and slots. A standard birdcage coil was also built for performance comparison purposes. Phantom images were then acquired to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of both coils showing an important improvement of the slotted cage coil over the birdcage coil. The whole-body images of the mouse were also obtained showing high-quality images. Volume resonator coils can be reliably built following the physical principles of the cavity resonator design for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications of rodents.

  15. Frequency Reconfigurable Circular Patch Antenna with an Arc-Shaped Slot Ground Controlled by PIN Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact frequency reconfigurable circular patch antenna with an arc-shaped slot loaded in the ground layer is proposed for multiband wireless communication applications. By controlling the ON/OFF states of the five PIN diodes mounted on the arc-shaped slot, the effective length of the arc-shaped slot and the effective length of antennas current are changed, and accordingly six-frequency band reconfiguration can be achieved. The simulated and measured results show that the antenna can operate from 1.82 GHz to 2.46 GHz, which is located in DCS1800 (1.71–1.88 GHz, UMTS (2.11–2.20 GHz, WiBro (2.3–2.4 GHz, and Bluetooth (2.4–2.48 GHz frequency bands and so forth. Compared to the common rectangular slot circular patch antenna, the proposed arc-shaped slot circular patch antenna not only has a better rotational symmetry with the circular patch and substrate but also has more compact size. For the given operating frequency at 1.82 GHz, over 55% area reduction is achieved in this design with respect to the common design with rectangular slot. Since the promising frequency reconfiguration, this antenna may have potential applications in modern multiband and multifunctional mobile communication systems.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  17. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  19. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  20. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  1. Classroom Cut Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  2. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  3. After the Ribbon Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...

  4. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  5. A fast semi-analytical model for the slotted structure of induction motors with 36/28 stator/rotor slot combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    A fast, semi-analyticalmodel for inductionmotors (IMs) with 36/28 stator/rotor slot combination is presented. In comparison to traditional analytical models for IMs, such as lumped parameter, magnetic equivalent circuit and anisotropic layer models, the presented model calculates a continuous

  6. Airport slots and slot allocation: driver for mismatch between airline network and city needs? : the case of Rotterdam The Hague Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, Marc; Mujica Mota, Miguel; Boosten, Geert; Hromádka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aviation increasingly faces capacity challenges exposing inefficiencies and shortcomings of aviation related processes and systems. The European slot allocation system was designed in an era with little to no capacity constraints, now resulting in regulations not fitting in today’s developments.

  7. Improvement The Transmission Efficiency For Wireless Packet Communication Systems Using Automatic Control for power And Time Slot Width Of Slotted Non persistent ISMA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Hardan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In packed communication systems which use a protocol, the protocol should perform the allocation of channels such that the transmission channel is used efficiently. Efficiency is usually measured in terms of channel throughput and the average transmission  delay. The Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol is one of random access protocols used in packed communication systems. In this research a Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol Model with automatic control for power and time slot is proposed. the suggested algorithm enable the base station(access point to control  the protocol time slot length and  transmission power in a dynamic way to control the normalized propagation delay d and to maintain all the uplink signals in the limit of captured power threshold (capture ratio in order to control the  throughput and the average transmission delay of the communication system by an automatic method. the computer simulation results  confirm the activity of the  proposed algorithm for increasing the  throughput and decreasing the average transmission delay by an accepted ratios.

  8. Development and Validation of a Sensitive Method for Trace Nickel Determination by Slotted Quartz Tube Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry After Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Şükran Melda; Fırat, Merve; Chormey, Dotse Selali; Büyükpınar, Çağdaş; Turak, Fatma; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was systematically optimized for the preconcentration of nickel after forming a complex with diphenylcarbazone. The measurement output of the flame atomic absorption spectrometer was further enhanced by fitting a custom-cut slotted quartz tube to the flame burner head. The extraction method increased the amount of nickel reaching the flame and the slotted quartz tube increased the residence time of nickel atoms in the flame to record higher absorbance. Two methods combined to give about 90 fold enhancement in sensitivity over the conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimized method was applicable over a wide linear concentration range, and it gave a detection limit of 2.1 µg L -1 . Low relative standard deviations at the lowest concentration in the linear calibration plot indicated high precision for both extraction process and instrumental measurements. A coal fly ash standard reference material (SRM 1633c) was used to determine the accuracy of the method, and experimented results were compatible with the certified value. Spiked recovery tests were also used to validate the applicability of the method.

  9. Numerical study of a confined slot impinging jet with nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca Oronzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat transfer enhancement technology concerns with the aim of developing more efficient systems to satisfy the increasing demands of many applications in the fields of automotive, aerospace, electronic and process industry. A solution for obtaining efficient cooling systems is represented by the use of confined or unconfined impinging jets. Moreover, the possibility of increasing the thermal performances of the working fluids can be taken into account, and the introduction of nanoparticles in a base fluid can be considered. Results In this article, a numerical investigation on confined impinging slot jet working with a mixture of water and Al2O3 nanoparticles is described. The flow is turbulent and a constant temperature is applied on the impinging. A single-phase model approach has been adopted. Different geometric ratios, particle volume concentrations and Reynolds number have been considered to study the behavior of the system in terms of average and local Nusselt number, convective heat transfer coefficient and required pumping power profiles, temperature fields and stream function contours. Conclusions The dimensionless stream function contours show that the intensity and size of the vortex structures depend on the confining effects, given by H/W ratio, Reynolds number and particle concentrations. Furthermore, for increasing concentrations, nanofluids realize increasing fluid bulk temperature, as a result of the elevated thermal conductivity of mixtures. The local Nusselt number profiles show the highest values at the stagnation point, and the lowest at the end of the heated plate. The average Nusselt number increases for increasing particle concentrations and Reynolds numbers; moreover, the highest values are observed for H/W = 10, and a maximum increase of 18% is detected at a concentration equal to 6%. The required pumping power as well as Reynolds number increases and particle concentrations grow, which is almost 4

  10. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  11. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  12. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  13. Incorporation of the stress concentration slots into the flexures for a high-performance microaccelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yulong; Sun Lu; Liu Yan; Wang Weizhong; Tian Bian

    2012-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a development of a high-performance piezoresistive microaccelerometer based on the slot etching in the quad flexures for the vibration detection of high speed spindle. The proposed structure consists of a proof mass supported by four thin flexures with slots etched in the middle. Boron diffused piezoresistors located near the stress concentration regions are used for sensing the localized stress resulting from the incorporation of the slots into the flexures. Theoretical analysis and finite element analysis show satisfactory results of an improved sensitivity and favorable natural frequency higher than 10 kHz, conforming to the initial design requirements. The microfabrication techniques are described to prototype the two accelerometer chips, one with slots and the other one without slots. The tested microaccelerometers with 3 V DC power supply show an average sensitivity of 0.424 mV/g normal to the proof mass plane, increased by 60.6% than the ones without slots. An average transverse sensitivity is found to be 9.2 μV/g along X axis and 14.2 μV/g along Y axis, either of which is less than 3.5% of prime-axis sensitivity. Concerning the resonant frequency, dynamic experiment shows about 12.46 kHz and is available for the proposed design with a tiny loss of 3.5% compared with the quad-beam design. When taking the product of sensitivity and natural frequency as judgment criteria, an inspiring increase by 28.6% of the figure of merit is accomplished for the proposed accelerometer. Overall, the findings of this study confirm the feasibility of incorporating slots into the conventional configurations to improve the sensor sensitivity while maintaining a comparatively high natural frequency.

  14. Numerical study on non-locally reacting behavior of nacelle liners incorporating drainage slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Li, Xiaodong; Thiele, Frank

    2018-06-01

    For acoustic liners used in current commercial nacelles, in order to prevent any liquid accumulating in the resonators, drainage slots are incorporated on the partition walls between closely packed cavities. Recently, an experimental study conducted by Busse-Gerstengarbe et al. shown that the cell interaction introduced by drainage slots causes an additional dissipation peak which increases with the size of the slot. However, the variation of damping process due to drainage slots is still not fully understood. Therefore, a numerical study based on computational aeroacoustic methods is carried out to investigate the mechanism of the changed attenuation characteristics due to drainage slots in presence of grazing incident sound waves with low or high intensities. Different slot configurations are designed based on the generic non-locally reacting liner model adopted in the experimental investigation. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations of only slit resonators are carried out. Numerical results indicate that the extra peak is a result of a resonance excited in the second cavity at specific frequency. Under high sound pressure level incoming waves, the basic characteristics of the acoustic performance remain. However, vortex shedding transpires at the resonances around both the slits and the drainage slot. Vorticity contours show that the connection of two coupled cavities decreases the strength of vortex shedding around the basic Helmholtz resonance due to a higher energy reflection. Meanwhile, the cell interaction significantly increases the vorticity magnitude near the extra resonant frequency. Finally, a semi-empirical model is derived to predict the extra attenuation peak frequency.

  15. A numerical investigation on the effects of slot geometry on shock boundary layer interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazazzadeh, M.; Menshadi, M. D.; Karbasizadeh, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Esfahan (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    Slot is one of the features that control Shock wave-boundary layer interaction (SBLI), which is generally used to prevent strong interference from shockwaves to the boundary layer in supersonic flows. With this feature, the height of the triple point of λ shock significantly increases, and this increase causes a decline in shock power and pressure drop rate. In the current paper, the main focus is on the monitoring of the geometrical effect of slot as an influential parameter on the structure of the shock and flow characteristics by using numerical methods. Therefore, the averaged implicit Navier-Stokes equations and two equation standard k-ω turbulence models for the numerical simulation of the flow field have been used. Results indicate that the numerical results are fairly consistent with the experimental data. Because of the increase in the number of slots (n), and the leading leg of the λ shock is located within the slot, the height of the triple point increases. However, because of the increasing drops due to viscosity, the total pressure changes are negligible. In addition, with an increase in this parameter, changes in the static pressure caused by the leading leg of the shock have increased. By increasing the width of the slots, the height of the triple point has had an upward trend up to s = 8 mm and then had nearly constant values. In this mode, the static pressure changes resulting from the leading leg of the shock are negligible. For increasing the number or the width of slots, the re-expansion waves formed within the slot are removed because of the reduction in the severity of the changes in the boundary layer. To simulate and compare the results with the data obtained from the experimental tests, results from the Cambridge University's wind tunnel tests have been used.

  16. Dijet rates with symmetric Et cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Andrea; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2004-01-01

    We consider dijet production in the region where symmetric cuts on the transverse energy, E t , are applied to the jets. In this region next-to-leading order calculations are unreliable and an all-order resummation of soft gluon effects is needed, which we carry out. Although, for illustrative purposes, we choose dijets produced in deep inelastic scattering, our general ideas apply additionally to dijets produced in photoproduction or gamma-gamma processes and should be relevant also to the study of prompt di-photon E t spectra in association with a recoiling jet, in hadron-hadron processes. (author)

  17. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  18. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO{sub 2} laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro [Ohbayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO{sub 2} laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author).

  19. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  20. Cutting to the chase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on the development of the cost effective abrasive cutting Sabre system which came as a result of UWG's work on the decommissioning of the Phillips' Maureen wells and adds to UWG's 'total severance solution' tools. The advantages of the system are highlighted and include the ability to operate from a platform or diving support vessel, to cut internal cases, and to eliminate the use of environmentally damaging explosives and the need to operate from a rig. The new Mark II version of the Sabre designed to work at greater depths of water, the range of the severance tools, UWG's well abandonment hole assembly system, and its aim to enter the Gulf of Mexico market are discussed. Details are given of the decommissioning of the Schwedeneck-See platforms in Kiel Bay off Germany and the Phillips' UK decommissioning plans for the Maureen platform

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  2. Making the cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcshannon, G. [Hydra Mining Tools International Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    The paper explains how coal mines around the world can benefit from the use of cowless, radial shearer drums. Hydra Mining has designed and manufactured a range of shearer drums to combat problems ranging from dust, frictional ignitions, geological problems or low production rates. This allows the mine operator to maximise production efficiency. The company tailor-makes shearer drums for each longwall face to optimise the cutting performance of every installation. 8 figs.

  3. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  4. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  6. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  7. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  8. A model of gas flow with friction in a slotted seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses thermodynamic phenomena accompanying the flow of gas in a slotted seal. The analysis of the gas flow has been described based on an irreversible adiabatic transformation. A model based on the equation of total enthalpy balance has been proposed. The iterative process of the model aims at obtaining such a gas temperature distribution that will fulfill the continuity equation. The model allows for dissipation of the kinetic energy into friction heat by making use of the Blasius equation to determine the friction coefficient. Within the works, experimental research has been performed of the gas flow in a slotted seal of slot height 2 mm. Based on the experimental data, the equation of local friction coefficient was modified with a correction parameter. This parameter was described with the function of pressure ratio to obtain a mass flow of the value from the experiment. The reason for taking up of this problem is the absence of high accuracy models for calculating the gas flow in slotted seals. The proposed model allows an accurate determination of the mass flow in a slotted seal based on the geometry and gas initial and final parameters.

  9. Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Ring Slot Antenna for 5 GHz – 6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrun Osman, Mohamed; Rahim, Mohamad Helmi A.; Jusoh, Muzammil; Sabapathy, Thennarasan; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design of circularly polarized printed slot antenna operating at 5 – 6 GHz. The proposed antenna consists of L-shaped feedline on the top of structure and circular ring slot positioned at the ground plane underneath the substrate as a radiator. A radial and narrow slot in the ground plane provides coupling between the L-shaped feedline and circular ring slot. The circular polarization is realized by implementing the slits perturbation located diagonally to perturb the current flow on the slot structure. The antenna prototype is fabricated on FR4 substrate. The simulated and measured results are compared and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. Good measured of simulated results are obtained at the targeted operating frequency. The simulated -10dB reflection coefficient bandwidths and axial ratio are 750 MHz and 165 MHz, respectively. The investigation on the affect of the important parameters towards the reflection coefficient and axial are also presented. The proposed antenna is highly potential to be used for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless power transfer (WPT).

  10. Joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing of container sea–rail multimodal transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The container sea–rail multimodal transport system faces complex challenges with demand uncertainties for joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing. The challenge is formulated as a two-stage optimal model based on revenue management (RM as actual slots sale of multi-node container sea–rail multimodal transport usually includes contract sale to large shippers and free sale to scattered shippers. First stage in the model utilizes an origin-destination control approach, formulated as a stochastic integer programming equation, to settle long-term slot allocation in the contract market and empty container allocation. Second stage in the model is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear programming equation to solve a multiproduct joint dynamic pricing and inventory control problem for price settling and slot allocation in each period of free market. Considering the random nature of demand, the methods of chance constrained programming and robust optimization are utilized to transform stochastic models into deterministic models. A numerical experiment is presented to verify the availability of models and solving methods. Results of considering uncertain/certain demand are compared, which show that the two-stage optimal strategy integrating slot allocation with dynamic pricing considering random demand is revealed to increase the revenue for multimodal transport operators (MTO while concurrently satisfying shippers' demand. Research resulting from this paper will contribute to the theory and practice of container sea–rail multimodal transport revenue management and provide a scientific decision-making tool for MTO.

  11. Dynamic Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to optimize the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of dynamic SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can optimize all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.

  12. Airflow and Heat Transfer in the Slot-Vented Room with Radiant Floor Heating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Long Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiant floor heating has received increasing attention due to its diverse advantages, especially the energy saving as compared to the conventional dwelling heating system. This paper presents a numerical investigation of airflow and heat transfer in the slot-vented room with the radiant floor heating unit. Combination of fluid convection and thermal radiation has been implemented through the thermal boundary conditions. Spatial distributions of indoor air temperature and velocity, as well as the heat transfer rates along the radiant floor and the outer wall, have been presented and analyzed covering the domains from complete natural convection to forced convection dominated flows. The numerical results demonstrate that the levels of average temperature in the room with lateral slot-ventilation are higher than those without slot-ventilation, but lower than those in the room with ceiling slot-ventilation. Overall, the slot-ventilation room with radiant floor heating unit could offer better indoor air quality through increasing the indoor air temperature and fresh air exchanging rate simultaneously. Concerning the airborne pollutant transports and moisture condensations, the performance of radiant floor heating unit will be further optimized in our future researches.

  13. Ka-Band Slot-Microstrip-Covered and Waveguide-Cavity-Backed Monopulse Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A slot-microstrip-covered and waveguide-cavity-backed monopulse antenna array is proposed for high-resolution tracking applications at Ka-band. The monopulse antenna array is designed with a microstrip with 2×32 slots, a waveguide cavity, and a waveguide monopulse comparator, to make the structure simple, reduce the feeding network loss, and increase the frequency bandwidth. The 2×32 slot-microstrip elements are formed by a metal clad dielectric substrate and slots etched in the metal using the standard printed circuit board (PCB process with dimensions of 230 mm  ×  10 mm. The proposed monopulse antenna array not only maintains the advantages of the traditional waveguide slot antenna array, but also has the characteristics of wide bandwidth, high consistence, easy of fabrication, and low cost. From the measured results, it exhibits good monopulse characteristics, including the following: the maximum gains of sum pattern are greater than 24 dB, the 3 dB beamwidth of sum pattern is about 2.2 degrees, the sidelobe levels of the sum pattern are less than −18 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than −25 dB within the operating bandwidth between 33.65 GHz and 34.35 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2.

  14. Wideband, Low-Profile, Dual-Polarized Slot Antenna with an AMC Surface for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband dual-polarized slot antenna loaded with artificial magnetic conductor (AMC is proposed for WLAN/WIMAX and LTE applications. The slot antenna mainly consists of two pairs of arrow-shaped slots along the diagonals of the square patch. Stepped microstrip feedlines are placed orthogonally to excite the horizontal and vertical polarizations of the antenna. To realize unidirectional radiation and low profile, an AMC surface composed of 7 × 7 unit cells is designed underneath a distance of 0.09λ0 (λ0 being the wavelength in free space at 2.25 GHz from the slot antenna. Both the dual-polarized slot antenna and the AMC surface are fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed antenna achieves for both polarizations a wide impedance bandwidth (return loss 10 dB of 36.7%, operating from 1.96 to 2.84 GHz. The isolation between the two input ports keeps higher than 29 dB whereas the cross-polarization levels basically maintain lower than −30 dB across the entire frequency band. High front-to-back ratios better than 22 dB and a stable gain higher than 8 dBi are obtained over the whole band.

  15. Nonlinear theory of a cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier with outer-slotted-coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chunrong; Ouyang Zhengbiao; Zhang Shichang; Zhang Huibo; Jin Jianbo; Lai Yingxin

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier is presented, which includes the characteristic equation of the wave, coupling equation of the wave with the relativistic electron beam and the simulation model. The influences of the magnetic field, the slot depth and width are investigated. The interesting characteristic of the device is that the mode competition can be efficiently suppressed by slotting the outer wall of the coaxial waveguide. A typical example is given by the theoretical design of a 137 GHz outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide CARM amplifier by utilizing an electron beam with a voltage of 90 kV, current of 50 A, velocity pitch angle of 0.85 and a magnetic field of 43.0 kG. The nonlinear simulation predicts a power of 467.9 kW, an electronic efficiency of 10.4% and a saturated gain of 46.7 dB, if the electron beam has no velocity spread. However, the axial velocity spread deteriorates the device; for example, if the axial velocity spread is 2%, the peak power decreases to 332.4 kW with an efficiency of 7.4% and a saturated gain of 45.22 dB. Simulation shows that the efficiency of the outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide CARM amplifier may be increased from 10.4% to 29.6% by tapering the magnetic field

  16. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  17. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  18. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  19. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  20. Advanced hybrid query tree algorithm based on slotted backoff mechanism in RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiaohui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The merits of performance quality for a RFID system are determined by the effectiveness of tag anti-collision algorithm.Many algorithms for RFID system of tag identification have been proposed,but they all have obvious weaknesses,such as slow speed of identification,unstable and so on.The existing algorithms can be divided into two groups,one is based on ALOHA and another is based on query tree.This article is based on the hybrid query tree algorithm,combined with a slotted backoff mechanism and a specific encoding (Manchester encoding.The number of value“1” in every three consecutive bits of tags is used to determine the tag response time slots,which will greatly reduce the time slot of the collision and improve the recognition efficiency.

  1. Benefits and unexpected artifacts of biplanar digital slot-scanning imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Steven L. [Nemours/A.I duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States); Dinan, David [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Orlando, FL (United States); Grissom, Leslie E. [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Biplanar digital slot-scanning allows for relatively low-dose orthopedic imaging, an advantage in imaging children given the growing concerns regarding radiosensitivity. We have used this system for approximately 1 year for orthopedic imaging of the spine and lower extremities. We have noted advantages of using the digital slot-scanning system when compared with computed radiographic and standard digital radiographic imaging systems, but we also found unexpected but common imaging artifacts that are the direct result of the imaging method and that have not been reported. This pictorial essay serves to familiarize radiologists with the advantages of the digital slot-scanning system as well as imaging artifacts common with this new technology. (orig.)

  2. Studies on diversion cross-flow between two parallel channels communicating by a lateral slot. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapucu, A.; Merilo, M.

    1977-01-01

    The axial pressure variations of two parallel channels with single phase flows communicating by a long lateral slot have been studied experimentally. Using mass and momentum conservation principles, the axial pressure variations have been derived in terms of two parameters ksub(d) and ksub(r), for donor and recipient channels, respectively. These parameters include the combined effect of fluid transferred from donor to recipient channel, and drag force brought on by the connection gap, and are functions of the velocities and slot geometry parameters. A pressure difference oscillation between channels along the slot has been detected which is sinusoidal with wave lengths which seem to be a function of the gap clearance. (Auth.)

  3. Semi-automatic parking slot marking recognition for intelligent parking assist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Gi Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a semi-automatic parking slot marking-based target position designation method for parking assist systems in cases where the parking slot markings are of a rectangular type, and its efficient implementation for real-time operation. After the driver observes a rearview image captured by a rearward camera installed at the rear of the vehicle through a touchscreen-based human machine interface, a target parking position is designated by touching the inside of a parking slot. To ensure the proposed method operates in real-time in an embedded environment, access of the bird's-eye view image is made efficient: image-wise batch transformation is replaced with pixel-wise instantaneous transformation. The proposed method showed a 95.5% recognition rate in 378 test cases with 63 test images. Additionally, experiments confirmed that the pixel-wise instantaneous transformation reduced execution time by 92%.

  4. Wave Propagation in a coaxial waveguide with a periodic slot array

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D; Garganese, C; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the numerical and experimental study of the electromagnetic elds that propagate in a coaxial waveguide having periodic slots in the inner conductor. The aim of the work is to estimate the e ects of the holes on the phase velocity of the eld propagating in structures like the LHC liner, and to which extent these elds can be considered synchronous with the generating beam. To this end we have performed a numerical analysis by using the MAFIA simulation code, and have obtained, for a given geometry, the ampli- tude of the slowing down of the phase velocity due to the presence of the slot array. We have then performed a set of measurements of this e ect on a simple coaxial resonator, measuring the shift of the resonance frequencies produced by the slots. This shift, related to the phase velocity, has been compared with the results obtained with the simulations.

  5. Multiphysics modelling and simulation of dry laser cleaning of micro-slots with particle contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Liyang; Wang Zengbo; Li Lin

    2012-01-01

    Light could interact differently with thin-film contaminants and particle contaminates because of their different surface morphologies. In the case of dry laser cleaning of small transparent particles, it is well known that particles could function like mini-lenses, causing a localized near-field hot spot effect on the cleaning process. This paper looks into a special, yet important, phenomenon of dry laser cleaning of particles trapped in micro-sized slots. The effects of slot size, particle size and particle aggregate states in the cleaning process have been theoretically investigated, based on a coupled electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical multiphysics modelling and simulation approach. The study is important for the development and optimization of laser cleaning processes for contamination removal from cracks and slots. (paper)

  6. Crossed-Slot Cavity-Backed Antenna with Improved Hemispherical Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Østergaard, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the crossed-slot cavity-backed antenna with the complementary crossed electric dipoles added to compensate the circularly polarized (CP) radiation pattern degradation near the horizon. Dependences of the radiation characteristics...... of the modified crossed-slot cavity-backed antenna on the length, width and height of the crossed electric dipoles are shown. Effects of a finite size ground plane are taken into account due to a full wave electromagnetic analysis software utilized in the parametrical investigations. Simulated and measured...... results for a selected antenna configuration prove that the properly adjusted crossed electric dipoles are able to improve the coverage and CP polarization characteristics of the crossed-slot cavity-backed antenna....

  7. Discrete-Slots Models of Visual Working-Memory Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkin, Christopher; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Gold, Jason M.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has aimed to establish whether visual working memory (WM) is better characterized by a limited number of discrete all-or-none slots or by a continuous sharing of memory resources. To date, however, researchers have not considered the response-time (RT) predictions of discrete-slots versus shared-resources models. To complement the past research in this field, we formalize a family of mixed-state, discrete-slots models for explaining choice and RTs in tasks of visual WM change detection. In the tasks under investigation, a small set of visual items is presented, followed by a test item in 1 of the studied positions for which a change judgment must be made. According to the models, if the studied item in that position is retained in 1 of the discrete slots, then a memory-based evidence-accumulation process determines the choice and the RT; if the studied item in that position is missing, then a guessing-based accumulation process operates. Observed RT distributions are therefore theorized to arise as probabilistic mixtures of the memory-based and guessing distributions. We formalize an analogous set of continuous shared-resources models. The model classes are tested on individual subjects with both qualitative contrasts and quantitative fits to RT-distribution data. The discrete-slots models provide much better qualitative and quantitative accounts of the RT and choice data than do the shared-resources models, although there is some evidence for “slots plus resources” when memory set size is very small. PMID:24015956

  8. Can You Cut It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  10. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  11. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  12. Simple gambling or sophisticated gaming? : applying game analysis methods to modern video slot machine games

    OpenAIRE

    Leppäsalko, Tero

    2017-01-01

    Slot machine games have become the most popular form of gambling worldwide. In Finland, their pervasiveness in public spaces and popularity makes them one of the most common form of gaming. However, in game studies, gambling games are often regarded as borderline games due to the player’s lack of control. In this thesis I ask whether modern video slot machine games can be considered as games and if so, what similarities there are between them and contemporary video games. To find out if m...

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jong-Gwan; Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Simons, Rainee N.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in MMCI technology make it possible to construct transitions from CPW-to-microstrip with via hole, microstrip-to-slot line and microshield line-to-CPW all of which have potential applications in the feed network of antennas. In this study we investigate the characteristics of the microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition using the finite element methods (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques, and compared the theoretical results with the measurements. In both cases, the results agree with the measurements within a few percent.

  14. Low-loss slot waveguides with silicon (111 surfaces realized using anisotropic wet etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Debnath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate low-loss slot waveguides on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platform. Waveguides oriented along the (11-2 direction on the Si (110 plane were first fabricated by a standard e-beam lithography and dry etching process. A TMAH based anisotropic wet etching technique was then used to remove any residual side wall roughness. Using this fabrication technique propagation loss as low as 3.7dB/cm was realized in silicon slot waveguide for wavelengths near 1550nm. We also realized low propagation loss of 1dB/cm for silicon strip waveguides.

  15. Compact broadband circularly polarised slot antenna for universal UHF RFID readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Bo; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yusha

    2015-01-01

    A compact broadband circularly polarised (CP) slot antenna is designed for universal ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) readers. The antenna consists of an L-shaped metal strip and a square-slot-loaded ground plane with four tuning stubs. The total size is 100 mm×100mm......×1.6 mm. The measured –10 dB impedance bandwidth is 40.7% (772–1166 MHz) and the measured 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is 13.9% (840–965 MHz). Both the impedance and AR bandwidth cover the worldwide UHF RFID band....

  16. Multidimensional Brain MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoeur, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the segmentation of multimodal brain MRIs by graph cuts method. First, we propose a method that utilizes three MRI modalities by merging them. The border information given by the spectral gradient is then challenged by a region information, given by the seeds selected by the user, using a graph cut algorithm. Then, we propose three enhancements of this method. The first consists in finding an optimal spectral space because the spectral gradient is based on natural images and then inadequate for multimodal medical images. This results in a learning based segmentation method. We then explore the automation of the graph cut method. Here, the various pieces of information usually given by the user are inferred from a robust expectation-maximization algorithm. We show the performance of these two enhanced versions on multiple sclerosis lesions. Finally, we integrate atlases for the automatic segmentation of deep brain structures. These three new techniques show the adaptability of our method to various problems. Our different segmentation methods are better than most of nowadays techniques, speaking of computation time or segmentation accuracy. (authors)

  17. 26 CFR 7.6041-1 - Return of information as to payments of winnings from bingo, keno, and slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... winnings from bingo, keno, and slot machines. 7.6041-1 Section 7.6041-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE..., keno, and slot machines. (a) In general. On or after May 1, 1977, every person engaged in a trade or... machine play or of $1,500 or more from a keno game shall make an information return with respect to such...

  18. Creating New Child Care Slots in Mini Child Care Centers: Big Bang for the Buck in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Small grants of $7,500 with technical assistance were offered to the child care community of New Jersey to either start or increase licensed capacity in mini-child care centers. Results of a subsequent analysis showed that 26 grantees created 481 new child care slots at an average cost of $561 per slot. (Author/SM)

  19. Spontaneous decay of a single quantum dot coupled to a metallic slot waveguide in the presence of leaky plasmonic modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2010-01-01

    in which the metallic slot waveguide is embedded. Compared to the ideal case of a homogenous dielectric environment, the coupling efficiency of an emitter to a metallic slot waveguide is significantly reduced. We attribute the reduction to the coupling to leaky plasmonic modes. By increasing the refractive...

  20. Leptogenesis: The other cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    For standard leptogenesis from the decay of singlet right-handed neutrinos, we derive source terms for the lepton asymmetry that are present in a finite density background but absent in the vacuum. These arise from cuts through the vertex correction to the decay asymmetry, where in the loop either the Higgs boson and the right-handed neutrino or the left-handed lepton and the right-handed neutrino are simultaneously on-shell. We evaluate the source terms numerically and use them to calculate the lepton asymmetry for illustrative points in parameter space, where we consider only two right-handed neutrinos for simplicity. Compared to calculations where only the standard cut through the propagators of left-handed lepton and Higgs boson is included, sizable corrections arise when the masses of the right-handed neutrinos are of the same order, but the new sources are found to be most relevant when the decaying right-handed neutrino is heavier than the one in the loop. In that situation, they can yield the dominant contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

  1. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  2. Stall inception and warning in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with axial skewed slot casing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byeung Jun; Kwon, Se Jin; Park, Tae Choon

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic changes in the stall inception in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with an axial skewed slot casing treatment were investigated experimentally. A rotating stall occurred intermittently in a compressor with an axial skewed slot, whereas spike-type rotating stalls occurred in the case of smooth casing. The axial skewed slot suppressed stall cell growth and increased the operating range. A mild surge, the frequency of which is the Helmholtz frequency of the compressor system, occurred with the rotating stall. The irregularity in the pressure signals at the slot bottom increased decreasing flow rate. An autocorrelation-based stall warning method was applied to the measured pressure signals. Results estimate and warn against the stall margin in a compressor with an axial skewed slot.

  3. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  4. Finite element analysis of slot wall deformation in stainless steel and titanium orthodontic brackets during simulated palatal root torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesh, Varadaraju; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan; Kingsly Jeba Singh, Devadhas

    2018-04-01

    Torque applied on anterior teeth is vital for root positioning and stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detailed slot wall deformation in stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) edgewise brackets during palatal root torque using finite element analysis. A finite element model was developed from a maxillary central incisor SS bracket (0.022 in). The generated torque values from an SS rectangular archwire (0.019 × 0.025 in) while twisting from 5° to 40° were obtained experimentally by a spine tester, and the calculated torque force was applied in the bracket slot. The deformations of the slot walls in both SS and Ti brackets were measured at various locations. There were gradual increases in the deformations of both bracket slot walls from the bottom to top locations. In the SS bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 9.28, 36.8, and 44.8 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. Similarly, in the Ti bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 39.2, 62.4, and 76.2 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. The elastic limits were reached at 28° for SS and at 37° for Ti. Both SS and Ti bracket slots underwent deformation during torque application. There are variations in the deformations at different locations in the slot walls and between the materials. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  7. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    projects - among others - from ARC are included: Soft Structures builds upon of a series of experimental use of EPS hot wire cutting, where the EPS eventually act as formwork for concrete casting. The processing of the EPS is distinct and delimited by the behaviour and form of both the robot and tool...... of steel and concrete makes it a reliable approach to many challenges in the realisation of buildings. Rebar Inside Out attempts to rethink the possibilities of the reinforced concrete composite starting from its inside. This means starting with the reinforcing steel, the production and shaping of this......, and then through that process build a workflow for the production of the concrete composite. It also means letting the steel out of the concrete, thereby positioning the two materials in a transnational relationship between steel construction and concrete composite....

  8. Numerical Modeling of the Work Piece Region in the Plasma Arc Cutting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhouse, David

    The plasma arc cutting process is widely used for the cutting of metals. The process, however, is not fully understood and further understanding will lead to further improvements. This work aims to elucidate the fundamental physical phenomena in the region where the plasma interacts with the work piece through the use of numerical modeling techniques. This model follows standard computational fluid dynamic methods that have been suitably modified to include plasma effects, assuming either local thermodynamic equilibrium or a slight non-equilibrium captured by the two-temperature assumption. This is implemented in the general purpose, open source CFD package, OpenFOAM. The model is applied to a plasma flow through a geometry that extends from inside the plasma torch to the bottom of the slot cut in the work piece. The shape of the kerf is taken from experimental measurements. The results of this model include the temperature, velocity, and electrical current distribution throughout the plasma. From this, the heat flux to and drag force on the work piece are calculated. The location of the arc attachment in the cut slot is also noted because it is a matter of interest in the published literature as well as significantly effecting the dynamics of the heat flux and drag force. The results of this model show that the LTE formulation is not sufficient to capture the physics present due to unphysical fluid dynamic instabilities and numerical problems with the arc attachment. The two-temperature formulation, however, captures a large part of the physics present. Of particular note, it is found that an additional inelastic collision factor is necessary to describe the increased energy transfer between electrons and diatomic molecules, which is widely neglected in published literature. It is also found that inclusion of the oxygen molecular ion is necessary to accurately describe the plasma flow, which has been neglected in all published two-temperature oxygen calculations

  9. Experimental Hydraulic Optimization of the Wave Energy Converter Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of a experimental hydraulic optimization of the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs has been used. Model tests have been performed...

  10. The Effect of Slot-Code Optimization in Warehouse Order Picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fumi

    2013-07-01

    most appropriate material handling resource configuration. Building on previous work on the effect of slot-code optimization on travel times in single/dual command cycles, the authors broaden the scope to include the most general picking case, thus widening the range of applicability and realising former suggestions for future research.

  11. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  12. Slot Machines: Pursuing Responsible Gaming Practices for Virtual Reels and Near Misses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1983, slot machines in North America have used a computer and virtual reels to determine the odds. Since at least 1988, a technique called clustering has been used to create a high number of near misses, failures that are close to wins. The result is that what the player sees does not represent the underlying probabilities and randomness,…

  13. Lattice Boltzmann study of slip flow over structured surface with transverse slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Wang, Lei; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    Slip flow over structured superhydrophobic surface with transverse slots is investigated by the lattice Boltzmann method. The Shan-Chen multiphase model is employed to simulate the flow over gas bubbles in the slots. The Carnahan-Starling equation of state is applied to obtain large density ratio. The interface thickness of the multiphase model is discussed. We find that the Cahn number Cn should be smaller than 0.02 when the temperature T = 0.5T c to restrict the influence of interface thickness on slip length. Influences of slot fraction on slip length is then studied, and the result is compared with single LB simulation of which the interface is treated as free-slip boundary. The slip length obtained by the multiphase model is a little smaller. After that, the shape of the liquid-gas interface is considered, and simulations with different initial protrusion angles and capillary numbers are performed. Effective slip length as a function of initial protrusion angle is obtained. The result is in qualitative agreement with a previous study and main features are reproduced. Furthermore, the influence of Capillary number Ca is studied. Larger Ca causes larger interface deformation and smaller slip length. But when the interface is concaving into the slot, this influence is less obvious.

  14. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  15. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed; Farooqui, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing

  16. Analytical study of optimal design and gain parameters of double-slot plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handapangoda, Dayan; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically analyze guided modes in optically active and passive double-slot plasmonic waveguides. We show that for one of the two different mode symmetries supported by the waveguide, a most productive guiding condition can be realized by adjusting the thicknesses of the layers to optimal values. We also derive approximate analytic expressions to calculate the optimal geometrical parameters of the waveguide. Interestingly, our analysis shows that the propagation losses associated with the inverse mode symmetry of the double-slot waveguide are comparatively low, regardless of the dimensions of the waveguide. We further show that the propagation losses become the smallest in the limiting case of a single-slot (metal–dielectric–metal (MDM)) waveguide. For both double- and single-slot waveguides, we show that the gain required to overcome the losses can be reduced by choosing a dielectric with a low refractive index. We also derive accurate analytical expressions to readily estimate the critical gain and modal gain of the waveguides. (paper)

  17. PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Broučková, Zuzana; Hsu, S.S.; Wang, A. B.; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 114, March (2016), č. článku 02007. ISSN 2101-6275. [International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics /10./. Praha, 17.11.2015-20.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : continuous jet * slot jet * particle image velocimetry Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave

  19. Wave Loadings on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) at Kvitsøy Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents results from a new research study performed to derive information on wave loadings acting on Wave Energy Convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) exposed to extreme wave conditions. The SSG concept is based on the principle of overtopping and stores the wave energy...

  20. A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Suhr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision.

  1. Problem-Matched Basis Functions for Microstrip Coupled Slot Antennas based on Transmission Line Greens Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Llombart Juan, N.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Maci, S.

    2004-01-01

    A general algorithm for the analysis of microstrip coupled leaky wave slot antennas was discussed. The method was based on the construction of physically appealing entire domain Methods of Moments (MoM) basis function that allowed a consistent reduction of the number of unknowns and of total

  2. Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two homogeneous dielectrics - Part II: Uniform asymptotic solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maci, S.; Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    This second part of a two-paper sequence deals with the uniform asymptotic description of the Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two different homogeneous dielectric media. Starting from the magnetic current derived in Part I, the dyadic green's function is first formulated in

  3. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOT ANTENNA WITH COMPACT SIZE FOR WLAN/WIMAX APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Rezaei Motlagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this letter a circle patch that have two slots in ground and patch is presented. The antenna is operated in WLAN/WiMAX at 4.7~6 GHz. The 3dB axial ratio bandwidth is 0.5GHz at 5.3~5.8GHz. Comparison results between measured and simulated of antenna are acceptable.

  4. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  5. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  6. A Surgery Issue: Cutting through the Architectural Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Angelopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the material ontologies of surgical trans-modifications. Focusing on incisions and subsequent scars, the essay argues for the queering of architecture and design as an act of cutting through structures and processes. I start by rereading a topological body plan, used by surgeons as a guide for performing incisions. I suggest that this plan constitutes a variation within topological representations. It is thus reconceptualised as an internally contradictory representation, calling for dis/continuous cutting acts upon the represented body; that is an amphi-topological representation. The notion of the cut is further approached from the point of view of queer theory and ‘agential realism’. This perspective offers affirmative ways of discussing about acts of cutting. When performed into self-organizing fabrics, cuts appear to act as ‘agents of dis/continuity’. Then, the discussion passes through the genealogy of the architectural section and the building cuts of Gordon Matta Clark, so as to show that the production of buildings by ‘cutting through them to come to matter’ is deep-rooted in the architectural discipline. Next, the philosophical origins of the idea of cutting through the material fabric of the world are sought. It is argued that the latter, beginning as a gnosiological tool, was transformed into a fabricating tool and then into a tool of smoothing the striated. The essay concludes with the presentation of SCARchiCAD; a computational design tool which takes the skin’s wound healing process as a model, offering an interpretation of what the ‘cutting through a virtual form’ could suggest for the design of architectural bodies and the queering of architecture.

  7. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  8. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  9. Evaluation of surface roughness of the bracket slot floor—a 3D perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetankumar O. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important constituent of an orthodontic appliance is orthodontic brackets. It is either the bracket or the archwire that slides through the bracket slot, during sliding mechanics. Overcoming the friction between the two surfaces demands an important consideration in an appliance design. The present study investigated the surface roughness of four different commercially available stainless steel brackets. Methods All tests were carried out to analyse quantitatively the morphological surface of the bracket slot floor with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM machine and to qualitatively analyse the average surface roughness (Sa of the bracket slot floor with the help of a three-dimensional (3D non-contact optical surface profilometer machine. Results The SEM microphotographs were evaluated with the help of visual analogue scale, the surface roughness for group A = 0—very rough surface, group C = 1—rough surface, group B = 2—smooth surface, and group D = 3—very smooth surface. Surface roughness evaluation with the 3D non-contact optical surface profilometer machine was highest for group A, followed by group C, group B and group D. Groups B and D provided smooth surface roughness; however, group D had the very smooth surface with values 0.74 and 0.75 for mesial and distal slots, respectively. Conclusions Evaluation of surface roughness of the bracket slot floor with both SEM and profilometer machine led to the conclusion that the average surface roughness was highest for group A, followed by group C, group B and group D.

  10. Elevated CPW-Fed Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated-coplanar-waveguide- (ECPW- fed microstrip antenna with inverted “G” slots in the back conductor is presented. It is modeled and analyzed for the application of multiple frequency bands. The changes in radiation and the transmission characteristics are investigated by the introduction of the slots in two different positions at the ground plane (back conductor. The proposed antenna without slots exhibits a stop band from 2.55 GHz to 4.25 GHz while introducing two slots on the back conductor, two adjacent poles appear at central frequencies of 3.0 GHz and 3.9 GHz, respectively, and the antenna shows the ultra-wideband (UWB characteristics. The first pole appears at the central frequency of 3.0 GHz and covers the band width of 950 MHz, and the second pole exists at a central frequency of 3.90 GHz covering a bandwidth of 750 MHz. Experimental result shows that impedance bandwidth of 129% (S11<-10 dB is well achieved when the antenna is excited with both slots. Compared to most of the previously reported ECPW structures, the impedance bandwidth of this antenna is increased and also the size of the antenna becomes smaller and more suitable for many wireless applications like PCS (1850–1990 MHz, WLAN (2.4–2.484 GHz, WiMAX (2.5–2.69 GHz and 5.15–5.85 GHz, and also X-band communication.

  11. Detailed Study of Closed Stator Slots for a Direct-Driven Synchronous Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lejerskog

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how a permanent magnet linear generator for wave power behaves when the stator slots are closed. The usual design of stator geometry is to use open slots to maintain a low magnetic leakage flux between the stator teeth. By doing this, harmonics are induced in the magnetic flux density in the air-gap due to slotting. The closed slots are designed to cause saturation, to keep the permeability low. This reduces the slot harmonics in the magnetic flux density, but will also increase the flux leakage between the stator teeth. An analytical model has been created to study the flux through the closed slots and the result compared with finite element simulations. The outcome shows a reduction of the cogging force and a reduction of the harmonics of the magnetic flux density in the air-gap. It also shows a small increase of the total magnetic flux entering the stator and an increased magnetic flux leakage through the closed slots.

  12. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  13. Numerical investigation of the LM MHD flows in a curved duct with an FCI with varying slot locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Hoon; Yan, Yue; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a curved duct with an FCI. • The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. • The influence of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. - Abstract: This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with an FCI having three different slot locations and having no slot under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the duct. The flow velocity, current density, electric potential, Lorentz force, and pressure in different flow situations are presented in detail. The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. The flow field is examined with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current, allowing us to analyze the interdependency of the flow variables. The effect of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. The result shows that and the case with an FCI slot located in the neutral position yields the smallest pressure gradient in the main flow direction among the cases with an FCI slot, resulting in the smallest pressure drop. Also, in a flow situation with smaller radius of curvature with the FCI slot in the neutral position, the axial velocity near the inner (in terms of the curvature) part of a cross-section is higher than that near the outer part.

  14. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  15. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.

    1982-06-30

    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  16. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  17. The Gesso Cut for Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Perry; Sarvis, Alva

    1969-01-01

    Directions are given for the preparation, cutting, and printing of a gesso board. A gesso cut is defined as a board coated with gesso into which a design has been impressed. The process is similar to the woodcut, but offers greater textural possibilities. (BF)

  18. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  19. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  20. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  1. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  2. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  3. Modeling arbitrarily directed slots that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to the FDTD spatial cell. [Finite Difference-Time Domain (TDTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Hybrid Thin-Slot Algorithm (HTSA) integrates a transient integral-equation solution for an aperture in an infinite plane into a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code. The technique was introduced for linear apertures and was extended to include wall loss and lossy internal gaskets. A general implementation for arbitrary thin slots is briefly described here. The 3-D FDTD-code TSAR was selected for the implementation. The HTSA does not provide universal solutions to the narrow slot problem, but has merits appropriate for particular applications. The HTSA is restricted to planar slots, but can solve the important case that both the width and depth of the slot are narrow compared to the FDTD spatial cell. IN addition, the HTSA is not bound to the FDTD discrete spatial and time increments, and therefore, high-resolution solutions for the slot physics are possible. The implementation of the HTSA into TSAR is based upon a slot data file'' that includes the cell indices where the desired slots are exist within the FDTD mesh. For an HTSA-defined slot, the wall region local to the slot is shorted, and therefore, to change the slot's topology simply requires altering the file to include the desired cells. 7 refs.

  4. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  5. High S/N Ratio Slotted Step Piezoresistive Microcantilever Designs for Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zahid Ansari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes new microcantilever designs in slotted step configuration to improve the S/N ratio of surface stress-based sensors used in physical, chemical, biochemical and biosensor applications. The cantilevers are made of silicon dioxide with a u-shaped silicon piezoresistor in p-doped. The cantilever step length and piezoresistor length is varied along with the operating voltage to characterise the surface stress sensitivity and thermal drifting sensitivity of the cantilevers when used as immunosensor. The numerical analysis is performed using ANSYS Multiphysics. Results show the surface stress sensitivity and the S/N ratio of the slotted step cantilevers is improved by more than 32% and 22%, respectively, over its monolithic counterparts.

  6. High S/N ratio slotted step piezoresistive microcantilever designs for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu

    2013-03-26

    This study proposes new microcantilever designs in slotted step configuration to improve the S/N ratio of surface stress-based sensors used in physical, chemical, biochemical and biosensor applications. The cantilevers are made of silicon dioxide with a u-shaped silicon piezoresistor in p-doped. The cantilever step length and piezoresistor length is varied along with the operating voltage to characterise the surface stress sensitivity and thermal drifting sensitivity of the cantilevers when used as immunosensor. The numerical analysis is performed using ANSYS Multiphysics. Results show the surface stress sensitivity and the S/N ratio of the slotted step cantilevers is improved by more than 32% and 22%, respectively, over its monolithic counterparts.

  7. [Measurement of plasma parameters in slot microplasma by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Lü, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wei-Yuan; Yue, Han; Lu, Ning; Li, Xin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Slot microplasma was generated in argon and air mixture by using dielectric barrier discharge device with two parallel water electrodes. The molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy of the slot plasma were studied by optical emission spectrum. The molecular vibrational temperature was calculated using the second positive system of nitrogen molecules ( C3 pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)). The molecular rotational temperature was calculated using the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions ( B 2sigma(u)+ --> X sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391.4 nm) and nitrogen molecules in the excitation level (337.1 nm) emission spectrum line were measured for studying the variations of electron energy. It was found that the molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy decrease with gas pressure increasing.

  8. Theoretical examination of the slot channel waveguide configured in a cylindrically symmetric dielectric ring profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Robert C.; Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Jafari, Seyed Hamed

    2014-10-01

    It has recently been experimentally demonstrated that slot channel waveguides, configured in cylindrical space, can support high azimuthal order modes similar to whispering-gallery modes. This paper presents a mode solver based on Maxwell's vector wave equation for the electric field cast into an eigenvalue problem using a Fourier-Bessel basis function space. The modal frequencies and field profiles of the high azimuthal order slot-channel-whispering-gallery (SCWG) modes are computed for a set of nanometer spaced silicon rings supported by oxide. The computations show, that in addition to the traditionally observed, lowest order mode, the structure may support higher order SCWG modes. We complete the analysis by computing structures response as an ambient medium index of refraction sensor which achieves over 400 nm per RIU sensitivity.

  9. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of fixed deflection stressed slotted rings of Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Wood, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy fuel cladding by fission products is thought to be an important mechanism influencing power ramping defects of water-reactor fuels. We have used the fixed-deflection stressed slotted-ring technique to demonstrate cracking. The results show both the sensitivity and limitations of the stressed slotted-ring method in determining the responses of tubing to stress corrosion cracking. They are interpreted in terms of stress relaxation behavior, both on a microscopic scale for hydrogen-induced stress-relief and on a macroscopic scale for stress-time characteristics. Analysis also takes account of nonuniform plastic deformation during loading and residual stress buildup on unloading. 27 refs

  10. Error Floor Analysis of Coded Slotted ALOHA over Packet Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Graell i Amat, Alexandre; Brannstrom, F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of the error floor of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) for finite frame lengths over the packet erasure channel. The error floor is caused by stopping sets in the corresponding bipartite graph, whose enumeration is, in general, not a trivial problem. We therefore ...... identify the most dominant stopping sets for the distributions of practical interest. The derived analytical expressions allow us to accurately predict the error floor at low to moderate channel loads and characterize the unequal error protection inherent in CSA.......We present a framework for the analysis of the error floor of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) for finite frame lengths over the packet erasure channel. The error floor is caused by stopping sets in the corresponding bipartite graph, whose enumeration is, in general, not a trivial problem. We therefore...

  11. Performance evaluation of fractional-slot tubular permanent magnet machines with low space harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiabin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the perforamnce of fractional-slot per pole winding configurations for tubular permanent magnet (PM machines that can effectively eliminate the most undesirable space harmonics in a simple and cost-effective manner. The benefits of the proposed machine topology winding configurations are illustrated through comparison with 9-slot, 10-pole tubular PM machine developed for a free piston energy converter under the same specification and volumetric constraints. It has been shown that the proposed machine topology results in more than 7 times reduction in the eddy current loss in the mover magnets and supporting tube, and hence avoids potential problem of excessive mover temperature and risk of demagnetization.

  12. Small slot waveguide rings for on-chip quantum optical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Nir; Türschmann, Pierre; Haakh, Harald R; Martin-Cano, Diego; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2017-03-06

    Nanophotonic interfaces between single emitters and light promise to enable new quantum optical technologies. Here, we use a combination of finite element simulations and analytic quantum theory to investigate the interaction of various quantum emitters with slot-waveguide rings. We predict that for rings with radii as small as 1.44 μm, with a Q-factor of 27,900, near-unity emitter-waveguide coupling efficiencies and emission enhancements on the order of 1300 can be achieved. By tuning the ring geometry or introducing losses, we show that realistic emitter-ring systems can be made to be either weakly or strongly coupled, so that we can observe Rabi oscillations in the decay dynamics even for micron-sized rings. Moreover, we demonstrate that slot waveguide rings can be used to directionally couple emission, again with near-unity efficiency. Our results pave the way for integrated solid-state quantum circuits involving various emitters.

  13. A U-Shaped Slot UWB Antenna with Flexible and Wide Tunable Dual Notch Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with flexible and wide tunable dual bandnotched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The dual band-notched function is achieved by using an U-shaped slot inserted into the ellipse radiation patch and by using an elliptic parasitic slit placed near the ground plane. The wide tunable band-notched characteristic is implemented by adjusting the length of U-shaped slot and by adjusting the length of ellipse parasitic slit. The design aims to achieve wide reconfigurable band-notched features on the UWB antenna. The simulated results indicate that the proposed antenna has a wide bandwidth (VSWR under 2 from 2.9GHz to 12.6GHz with fractional bandwidth of 125%, and has a wide tunable notch band center frequency from 4.5GHz to 12.4GHz.

  14. Design of novel SOI 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontally slotted waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Malka, Dror

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact silicon on insulator (SOI) 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontal slotted waveguides. Aluminum nitride (AIN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was used to confine the optical field in the slot region. All of the power analysis has been done in transverse magnetic (TM) polarization mode and a compact optical power splitter as short as 14.5 μm was demonstrated. The splitter was designed by using full vectorial beam propagation method (FV-BPM) simulations. Numerical investigations show that this device can work across the whole C-band (1530-1565 nm) with excess loss better than 0.23 dB.

  15. A Novel Structure and Design Optimization of Compact Spline-Parameterized UWB Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Slawomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen. For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.

  16. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual circularly polarized (CP omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 to 5.95 GHz with an isolation higher than 15 dB between the two CP ports, and the return loss (RL is higher than 10 dB within the bandwidth in both of the two ports. From the measured results, the average axial ratio (AR of the proposed antenna in omnidirectional plane is lower than 1.5 dB.

  17. Enhanced and selective optical trapping in a slot-graphite photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aravind; Huang, Ningfeng; Wu, Shao-Hua; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-10-03

    Applicability of optical trapping tools for nanomanipulation is limited by the available laser power and trap efficiency. We utilized the strong confinement of light in a slot-graphite photonic crystal to develop high-efficiency parallel trapping over a large area. The stiffness is 35 times higher than our previously demonstrated on-chip, near field traps. We demonstrate the ability to trap both dielectric and metallic particles of sub-micron size. We find that the growth kinetics of nanoparticle arrays on the slot-graphite template depends on particle size. This difference is exploited to selectively trap one type of particle out of a binary colloidal mixture, creating an efficient optical sieve. This technique has rich potential for analysis, diagnostics, and enrichment and sorting of microscopic entities.

  18. Compact SOI optimized slot microring coupled phase-shifted Bragg grating resonator for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao Ying; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Cheng Mei

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel sensor structure composed of a slot microring and a phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide. We first present a theoretical analysis of transmission by using the transfer matrix. Then, the mode-field distributions of transmission spectrum obtained from 3D simulations based on FDTD method demonstrates that our sensor exhibit theoretical sensitivity of 297 . 13 nm / RIU, a minimum detection limit of 1 . 1 × 10-4 RIU, the maximum extinction ratio of 20 dB, the quality factor of 2 × 103 and a compact dimension-theoretical structure of 15 μm × 8 . 5 μm. Finally, the sensor's performance is simulated for NaCl solution.

  19. Refractive index and temperature sensitivity characteristics of a micro-slot fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Pouneh; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin

    2012-07-10

    Fabrication and characterization of a UV inscribed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a micro-slot liquid core is presented. Femtosecond (fs) laser patterning/chemical etching technique was employed to engrave a micro-slot with dimensions of 5.74 μm(h)×125 μm(w)×1388.72 μm(l) across the whole grating. The device has been evaluated for refractive index (RI) and temperature sensitivities and exhibited distinctive thermal response and RI sensitivity beyond the detection limit of reported fiber gratings. This structure has not just been RI sensitive, but also maintained the robustness comparing with the bare core FBGs and long-period gratings with the partial cladding etched off.

  20. PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a continuous jet issuing from a small narrow slot with a width of 0.36 mm. The experimental arrangement is based on the piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator studied previously for easy comparisons. The working fluid is water at room temperature. The experiments were performed using methods of particle image velocimetry (PIV and flow visualization (laser induced fluorescence, LIF. The time-mean volume flux through the exit nozzle was quantified using precise scales. The mean velocity and the Reynolds number were evaluated as Um = 0.12 m/s and Re = 90, respectively. The results of LIF and PIV techniques revealed the three-dimensional character of the flow field, namely the saddle-shape velocity profiles. This behavior is typical for steady jets from a rectangular nozzle. The obtained results were compared with previous measurements of the synthetic jet issuing from the same cavity and the slot nozzle.

  1. Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2009-01-05

    We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

  2. Quadrature Slotted Surface Coil Pair for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla: Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A coil array was composed of two slotted surface coils forming a structure with two plates at 900, each one having 6 circular slots and is introduced in this paper. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field of this coil array were performed at 170 MHz using the finite element method to study its behaviour. This coil array was developed for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode and quadrature driven. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses and high field magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. The Numerical Sensitivity Study of Cold Leg Top Slot Break for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hae Jung; Lee, Sang Ik; Park, Ju hyun; Choi, Tong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, cold leg top slot break calculations are performed by RELAP5/MOD3.3 Patch04 for the ATLAS test which is the scaled down experimental facility for the APR1400. The test condition for base case is selected as 0.1016 m (4 in.) based on the break size of the APR1400. In addition, sensitivity studies about break size, break distance from vessel, and pressurizer location are performed until the initiation of simultaneous injection of 2.5 hours. The loop seal reformation occurs early, and the duration of final loop seal reformation is longer as the break is close to vessel. Nonetheless, PCT increased by loop seal reformation is not identified since core uncovery does not occur. In this study, it is confirmed through RELAP5 simulation of the ATLAS test that cold leg top slot break for the APR1400 is not a safety issue in perspective of the loop seal reformation.

  4. Multiband Slot-Based Dual Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abdo-Sanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line (CRLH TL implementation that presents multiband behaviour is proposed in this contribution. The artificial TL is realized by loading a host microstrip line with alternate rectangular stubs and slots. The required series and shunt immittances are respectively provided by the slot and the stub. Due to the distributed nature of these immittances, the resultant phase response presents theoretically infinite RH and LH alternate bands, thus being appropriate for multiband applications. The design methodology is described with the help of a proposed TLs-based equivalent circuit and highlights the simplicity for balance condition. Full wave simulated results of the dispersion characteristics and frequency response of a unit-cell and a three-cells structure are presented.

  5. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.

  6. Effect of Substrate Permittivity and Thickness on Performance of Single-Layer, Wideband, U-Slot Antennas on Microwave Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natarajan, V; Chatterjee, D

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents effects of substrate permittivity and thickness on the performance characteristics like impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency and gain of a single-layer, wideband, U-slot antenna...

  7. Study of Allocation Guaranteed Time Slot Wireless Body Area Networks Based on IEEE 802.15.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption

  8. Design of a Short/Open-Ended Slot Antenna with Capacitive Coupling Feed Strips for Hepta-Band Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoseung Keum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a planar printed hybrid short/open-ended slot antenna with capacitive coupling feed strips is proposed for hepta-band mobile applications. The proposed antenna is comprised of a slotted ground plane on the top plane and two capacitive coupling feed strips with a chip inductor on the bottom plane. At the low frequency band, the short-ended long slot fed by strip 1 generates its half-wavelength resonance mode, whereas the T-shaped open ended slot fed by strip 2 generates its quarter-wavelength resonance mode for the high frequency band. The antenna provides a wide bandwidth covering GSM850/GSM900/DCS/PCS/UMTS/LTE2300/LTE2500 operation bands. Moreover, the antenna occupies a small volume of 15 mm × 50 mm × 1 mm. The operating principle of the proposed antenna and the simulation/measurement results are presented and discussed.

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency and ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-02-25

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear pulse propagation in a Λ-type three-level atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide, in which electric field is strongly confined inside the slot of the waveguide due to the discontinuity of dielectric constant. We find that EIT effect can be greatly enhanced due to the reduction of optical-field mode volume contributed by waveguide geometry. Comparing with the atomic gases in free space, the EIT transparency window in the slot waveguide system can be much wider and deeper, and the Kerr nonlinearity of probe laser field can be much stronger. We also prove that using slot waveguide ultraslow optical solitons can be produced efficiently with extremely low generation power.

  10. Effect of pole number and slot number on performance of dual rotor permanent magnet wind power generator using ferrite magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifeng Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual rotor permanent magnet (DRPM wind power generator using ferrite magnets has the advantages of low cost, high efficiency, and high torque density. How to further improve the performance and reduce the cost of the machine by proper choice of pole number and slot number is an important problem to be solved when performing preliminarily design a DRPM wind generator. This paper presents a comprehensive performance comparison of a DRPM wind generator using ferrite magnets with different slot and pole number combinations. The main winding factors are calculated by means of the star of slots. Under the same machine volume and ferrite consumption, the flux linkage, back-electromotive force (EMF, cogging torque, output torque, torque pulsation, and losses are investigated and compared using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the slot and pole number combinations have an important impact on the generator properties.

  11. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  12. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanCleave, R.A.

    1977-09-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.

  13. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  14. Finite Length Analysis of Irregular Repetition Slotted ALOHA in the Waterfall Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Alexandre Graell i; Liva, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    A finite length analysis is introduced for irregular repetition slotted ALOHA (IRSA) that enables to accurately estimate its performance in the moderate-to-high packet loss probability regime, i.e., in the so-called waterfall region. The analysis is tailored to the collision channel model, which enables mapping the description of the successive interference cancellation process onto the iterative erasure decoding of low-density parity-check codes. The analysis provides accurate estimates of t...

  15. Contribution of experimental fluid mechanics to the design of vertical slot fish passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang R.W.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of an experimental study of mean and turbulent characteristics of flow in a scale model of a vertical slot fish pass with varying width and slope (from 5% to 15%. Experimental hydraulic modelling was combined with the study of fish behaviour in the model. The discharge coefficient, which significantly affects the design of such facilities, varied from 0.67 to 0.89 and was strongly influenced by the slope. Two distinct flow patterns were observed, depending on the slope and the fish pass width. The point of transition between the two states was determined. Low velocity areas are likely resting zones for fish and particular attention was paid to evaluating these areas. Slope was found to affect both the volume of the low velocity zone, and the value of turbulent kinetic energy in these areas. The statistical characteristics of turbulent kinetic energy in the pools were linked primarily to the maximum velocity in the jet. An analysis of the behaviour of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta in the scale model clearly showed that the fish avoided the areas of high velocities in the jet, except at the slot itself where they took advantage of the jet’s non-stationary character. Low-velocity areas were not frequented uniformly by fish, which stayed most frequently in the zone located just downstream from the slot and behind the small side baffle. It is suggested that future studies might investigate lower pool-length to slot-width ratios, which might make it possible to increase the slope significantly and should also examine ways of improving hydraulic conditions for fish by carefully distributing obstacles in pools.

  16. Analytical and hybrid methods in the theory of slot-hole coupling of electrodynamic volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Katrich, Victor A; Berdnik, Sergey L; Berdnik, Sergey L

    2008-01-01

    Narration of the text is both laconic and visually accessible, providing the reader with the possibility of rapid study and application of methods of computer analysis of electrodynamic problemsThe book is aimed at university professors, researchers and those specialists who are interested in theory and practical analysis of waveguide devices and systems using slot coupling elementsTopics included in the book are directly based on the original research results obtained by the authors and otherwise unknown earlier.

  17. Optical trapping via guided resonance modes in a Slot-Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-03-12

    A novel photonic crystal lattice is proposed for trapping a two-dimensional array of particles. The lattice is created by introducing a rectangular slot in each unit cell of the Suzuki-Phase lattice to enhance the light confinement of guided resonance modes. Large quality factors on the order of 10⁵ are predicted in the lattice. A significant decrease of the optical power required for optical trapping can be achieved compared to our previous design.

  18. Radio-Frequency design of a Lower Hybrid Slotted Waveguide Antenna.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Žáček, František; Achard, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Bogár, Ondrej; Mollard, P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Poli, S.; Šesták, David; Volpe, R.; Zajac, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 223-227 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Lower Hybrid Current Drive * Slotted Waveguide Antenna * Phased arrays Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617304076

  19. Design and Fabrication of Slotted Multimode Interference Devices for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present optical sensors based on slotted multimode interference waveguides. The sensor can be tuned to highest sensitivity in the refractive index ranges necessary to detect protein-based molecules or other water-soluble chemical or biological materials. The material of choice is low-loss silicon oxynitride (SiON which is highly stable to the reactivity with biological agents and processing chemicals. Sensors made with this technology are suited to high volume manufacturing.

  20. Design of dual band FSS by using quadruple L-slot technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Noor Azamiah Md; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd.; Said, Maizatul Alice Meor; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Malek, Mohd Fareq Abd

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new design of dual band frequency selective surface (FSS) for band pass microwave transmission application. FSS can be used on energy saving glass to improve the transmission of wireless communication signals through the glass. The microwave signal will be attenuate when propagate throughout the different structure such as building. Therefore, some of the wireless communication system cannot be used in the optimum performance. The aim of this paper is designed, simulated and analyzed the new dual band FSS structure for microwave transmission. This design is based on a quadruple L slot combined with cross slot to produce pass band at 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. The vertical of pair inverse L slot is used as the band pass for the frequency of 2.4GHz. While, the horizontal of pair inverse L slot is used as the band pass at frequency 900MHz. This design is simulated and analyzed by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio (MWS) software. The characteristics of the transmission (S21) and reflection (S11) of the dual band FSS were simulater and analyzed. The bandwidth of the first band is 118.91MHz which covered the frequency range from 833.4MHz until 952.31MHz. Meanwhile, the bandwidth for the second band is 358.84MHz which covered the frequency range from 2.1475GHz until 2.5063GHz. The resonance/center frequency of this design is obtained at 900MHz with a 26.902dB return loss and 2.37GHz with 28.506dB a return loss. This FSS is suitable as microwave filter for GSM900 and WLAN 2.4GHz application.

  1. Optical slotted circuit switched network: a bandwidth efficient alternative to wavelength-routed network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Collier, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Wavelength-routed networks have received enormous attention due to the fact that they are relatively simple to implement and implicitly offer Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. However, they suffer from a bandwidth inefficiency problem and require complex Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA). Most attempts to address the above issues exploit the joint use of WDM and TDM technologies. The resultant TDM-based wavelength-routed networks partition the wavelength bandwidth into fixed-length time slots organized as a fixed-length frame. Multiple connections can thus time-share a wavelength and the grooming of their traffic leads to better bandwidth utilization. The capability of switching in both wavelength and time domains in such networks also mitigates the RWA problem. However, TMD-based wavelength-routed networks work in synchronous mode and strict synchronization among all network nodes is required. Global synchronization for all-optical networks which operate at extremely high speed is technically challenging, and deploying an optical synchronizer for each wavelength involves considerable cost. An Optical Slotted Circuit Switching (OSCS) architecture is proposed in this paper. In an OSCS network, slotted circuits are created to better utilize the wavelength bandwidth than in classic wavelength-routed networks. The operation of the protocol is such as to avoid the need for global synchronization required by TDM-based wavelength-routed networks.

  2. Correction of Beam Distortion in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source with Multi-Slot Grounded Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Ikeda, Katsunori; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Asano, Eiji; Sato, Mamoru; Kondo, Tomoki; Watanabe, Junko; Asano, Shiro; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed to increase the port-through power into large helical device (LHD). Using the accelerator, the maximum power of 5.7 MW was achieved at the beam energy of 186 keV in the beam injection to LHD plasma last year. Although the port-through power increased compared with conventional accelerators with multi-hole grounded grid (MHGG), the accelerator with the MSGG includes a disadvantage of bi-focal condition in parallel and perpendicular direction to the long side of the slots. When the beam width in one of those directions gets narrower, the width in another direction becomes wider. This disadvantage includes the loss of beam port-through power and induces internal damages in neutral beam line. In order to reduce the disadvantage, an experiment has been done using a small-scaled negative ion source with racetrack-shaped apertures for the steering grid installed at beam upstream of the MSGG. By applying the racetrack apertures to the accelerator, it is observed that the beam widths in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the slot long side have almost the same focal condition to obtain minimal beam widths

  3. Ultra-Broad Band Radar Cross Section Reduction of Waveguide Slot Antenna with Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the radar cross section of a waveguide slot antenna, a three-layer metamaterial is presented based on orthogonal double split-ring resonators. The absorption characteristics of three-layer metamaterial are demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, the metamaterials have been loaded on common waveguide slot antenna according to the surface current distribution. The ultra-broad band radar cross section reduction of the antenna with metamaterials had been theoretically and experimentally investigated by radiating and scattering performances. Experimental and simulated results showed that the proposed antenna with metamaterials performed broadband radar cross section reduction from 3.9 GHz to 18 GHz and the gain had been improved due to the coupling effect between slot and the period structure. The maximal radar cross section reduction achieved 17.81 dB at 8.68 GHz for x-polarized incidence and 21.79 dB at 6.25 GHz for y-polarized waves.

  4. Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.

  5. A Minimax Network Flow Model for Characterizing the Impact of Slot Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Douglas W.; Patek, Stephen D.; Alexandrov, Natalia; Bass, Ellen J.; Kincaid, Rex K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for evaluating long-term measures to reduce congestion at airports in the National Airspace System (NAS). This model is constructed with the goal of assessing the global impacts of congestion management strategies, specifically slot restrictions. We develop the Minimax Node Throughput Problem (MINNTHRU), a multicommodity network flow model that provides insight into air traffic patterns when one minimizes the worst-case operation across all airports in a given network. MINNTHRU is thus formulated as a model where congestion arises from network topology. It reflects not market-driven airline objectives, but those of a regulatory authority seeking a distribution of air traffic beneficial to all airports, in response to congestion management measures. After discussing an algorithm for solving MINNTHRU for moderate-sized (30 nodes) and larger networks, we use this model to study the impacts of slot restrictions on the operation of an entire hub-spoke airport network. For both a small example network and a medium-sized network based on 30 airports in the NAS, we use MINNTHRU to demonstrate that increasing the severity of slot restrictions increases the traffic around unconstrained hub airports as well as the worst-case level of operation over all airports.

  6. Coplanar Waveguide Fed Compact Wide Circular-Slotted Antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samsuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed printing and wide circular slotted, dual band antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX applications are presented. The antenna mainly encompasses a ground with a wide circular slot in the centre, a rectangular feeding strip, and two pairs of symmetric planar inverted L (SPIL strips connecting with the slotted ground. The tuning effects of the rectangular patch, ground size, and SPIL strips to the resonance and matching condition are examined by HFSS and the prototype is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experimental results show that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth with −10 dB reflection coefficients 600 MHz (3.26–3.86 GHz, lower band and 1040 MHz (5.02–6.26 GHz, upper band, which can cover both the Wi-Fi 5.2/5.5/5.8 GHz and WiMAX 3.3/3.5/3.7/5.8 GHz bands. Moreover, a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern and average peak gain for lower band 3.23 dB and upper band 5.93 dB have been achieved, respectively.

  7. Design of Ultra-Wideband Tapered Slot Antenna by Using Binomial Transformer with Corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonsiri, Yosita; Thaiwirot, Wanwisa; Akkaraekthalin, Prayoot

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the tapered slot antenna (TSA) with corrugation is proposed for UWB applications. The multi-section binomial transformer is used to design taper profile of the proposed TSA that does not involve using time consuming optimization. A step-by-step procedure for synthesis of the step impedance values related with step slot widths of taper profile is presented. The smooth taper can be achieved by fitting the smoothing curve to the entire step slot. The design of TSA based on this method yields results with a quite flat gain and wide impedance bandwidth covering UWB spectrum from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. To further improve the radiation characteristics, the corrugation is added on the both edges of the proposed TSA. The effects of different corrugation shapes on the improvement of antenna gain and front-to-back ratio (F-to-B ratio) are investigated. To demonstrate the validity of the design, the prototypes of TSA without and with corrugation are fabricated and measured. The results show good agreement between simulation and measurement.

  8. Brain cells in the avian 'prefrontal cortex' code for features of slot-machine-like gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Scarf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slot machines are the most common and addictive form of gambling. In the current study, we recorded from single neurons in the 'prefrontal cortex' of pigeons while they played a slot-machine-like task. We identified four categories of neurons that coded for different aspects of our slot-machine-like task. Reward-Proximity neurons showed a linear increase in activity as the opportunity for a reward drew near. I-Won neurons fired only when the fourth stimulus of a winning (four-of-a-kind combination was displayed. I-Lost neurons changed their firing rate at the presentation of the first nonidentical stimulus, that is, when it was apparent that no reward was forthcoming. Finally, Near-Miss neurons also changed their activity the moment it was recognized that a reward was no longer available, but more importantly, the activity level was related to whether the trial contained one, two, or three identical stimuli prior to the display of the nonidentical stimulus. These findings not only add to recent neurophysiological research employing simulated gambling paradigms, but also add to research addressing the functional correspondence between the avian NCL and primate PFC.

  9. Two-Slotted Surface Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S. E.; Hernandez, J. A.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Tomasi, D.

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of antennas have been widely accepted for magnetic resonance imaging applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over large volumes of interest. A new surface coil based on the magnetron tube and called slotted surface coil, has been recently introduced by our group. This coil design experimentally demonstrated a significant improvement over the circular-shaped coil when used in the receive-only mode. The slotted coils formed a two-sheet structure with a 90 deg. separation and each coil had 6 circular slots. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method for this coil design to study the behaviour of the array magnetic field. Then, we developed a two-coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses for high field magnetic resonance imaging

  10. Laser Doppler vibrometry experiment on a piezo-driven slot synthetic jet in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a slot synthetic jet (SJ issuing from an actuator into quiescent surroundings and driven by a piezoceramic transducer. The actuator slot width was 0.36 mm, with a drive frequency proposed near the theoretical natural frequency of the actuator. The working fluid was water at room temperature. The present experiments used flow visualization (a laser-induced fluorescence technique and laser Doppler vibrometry methods. Flow visualization was used to identify SJ formation, to demonstrate its function, and to estimate SJ velocity. Laser Doppler vibrometry was used to quantify diaphragm displacement and refine operating parameters. Phase averaging yielded a spatial and temporal diaphragm deflection during the actuation period. Taking incompressibility and continuity into consideration, the velocity in the actuator slot and the Reynolds number of the SJ were evaluated as 0.21 m/s and 157, respectively. The present results confirmed a SJ actuator function at the resonance frequency of approximately 46 Hz, which corresponds closely with the theoretical evaluation. The laser Doppler vibrometry results corresponded closely with an estimation of SJ velocity by the present flow visualization.

  11. Artificial Material Integrated Ultra-wideband Tapered Slot Antenna for Gain Enhancement with Band Notch Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The gain of the ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna (TSA is enhanced by using broadband artificial material with band notch characteristics. The proposed artificial material unit cell is designed by fabricating non-resonant three S-shaped parallel metallic line on single side of the dielectric substrate which provides a longer current path compared to the parallel-line structure. The proposed S-shaped structure is printed on the top side of the tapered slot antenna in the extended substrate periodically. The effective refractive index of the artificial material is lower than antenna substrate and phase velocity in the region of artificial material is much higher than the other region. Therefore, the proposed artificial material acts like a beam focusing lens. The band notch at 5.5 GHz is achieved by creating a split ring resonator (SRR slot near the balun. The basic and artificial material loaded TSAs are fabricated and the measurement results show that the gain of the basic antenna has been increased by 1.6 dBi. At the same time, the proposed antenna achieves a VSWR below 2 from 3 to 11 GHz except at 5.5 GHz with a notch band from 5.1 to 5.8 GHz for band rejection of wireless local area network (WLAN application.

  12. A three-dimensional algebraic grid generation scheme for gas turbine combustors with inclined slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. L.; Cline, M. C.; Chen, R.; Chang, Y. L.

    1993-01-01

    A 3D algebraic grid generation scheme is presented for generating the grid points inside gas turbine combustors with inclined slots. The scheme is based on the 2D transfinite interpolation method. Since the scheme is a 2D approach, it is very efficient and can easily be extended to gas turbine combustors with either dilution hole or slot configurations. To demonstrate the feasibility and the usefulness of the technique, a numerical study of the quick-quench/lean-combustion (QQ/LC) zones of a staged turbine combustor is given. Preliminary results illustrate some of the major features of the flow and temperature fields in the QQ/LC zones. Formation of co- and counter-rotating bulk flow and shape temperature fields can be observed clearly, and the resulting patterns are consistent with experimental observations typical of the confined slanted jet-in-cross flow. Numerical solutions show the method to be an efficient and reliable tool for generating computational grids for analyzing gas turbine combustors with slanted slots.

  13. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Covele, B.; Feng, Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations of toroidal asymmetries in a tightly baffled small angle slot (SAS) divertor on the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal asymmetries in divertor closure result in (non-axisymmetric) local onset of detachment within a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density. The SAS divertor is explored at DIII-D for improving access to cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions. The narrow width of the slot divertor coupled with a small magnetic field line-to-target angle facilitates the buildup of neutral density, thereby increasing radiative and neutrals-related (atoms and molecules) losses in the divertor. Small changes in the strike point location can be expected to have a large impact on divertor conditions. The combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field configuration causes the strike point to move along the divertor target plate, possibly leaving the divertor slot at some locations. The latter extreme case essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade the performance of the slot divertor. Such a strike point dislocation is approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle for which 3D edge plasma and neutral gas simulations are performed with the EMC3-EIRENE code.

  14. Shape-optimization of round-to-slot holes for improving film cooling effectiveness on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Wang, Chun-hua

    2018-06-01

    Single-objective optimization for improving adiabatic film cooling effectiveness is performed for single row of round-to-slot film cooling holes on a flat surface by using CFD analysis and surrogate approximation methods. Among the main geometric parameters, dimensionless hole-to-hole pitch ( P/ d) and slot length-to-diameter ( l/ d) are fixed as 2.4 and 2 respectively, and the other parameters (hole height-to-diameter ratio, slot width-to-diameter and inclination angle) are chosen as the design variables. Given a wide range of possible geometric variables, the geometric optimization of round-to-slot holes is carried out under two typical blowing ratios of M = 0.5 and M = 1.5 by selecting a spatially-averaged adiabatic film cooling effectiveness between x/ d = 2 and x/ d = 12 as the objective function to be maximized. Radial basis function neural network is applied for constructing the surrogate model and then the optimal design point is searched by a genetic algorithm. It is revealed that the optimal round-to-slot hole is of converging feature under a low blowing ratio but of diffusing feature under a high blowing ratio. Further, the influence principle of optimal round-to-slot geometry on film cooling performance is illustrated according to the detailed flow and thermal behaviors.

  15. Tri-Band CPW-Fed Stub-Loaded Slot Antenna Design for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxing; Guo, Jianying; He, Bin; Zhang, Anxue; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-11-01

    A novel uniplanar CPW-fed tri-band stub-loaded slot antenna is proposed for wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications. Dual resonant modes were effectively excited in the upper band by using two identical pairs of slot stubs and parasitic slots symmetrically along the arms of a traditional CPW-fed slot dipole, achieving a much wider bandwidth. The middle band was realized by the fundamental mode of the slot dipole. To obtain the lower band, two identical inverted-L-shaped open-ended slots were symmetrically etched in the ground plane. A prototype was fabricated and measured, showing that tri-band operation with 10-dB return loss bandwidths of 150 MHz from 2.375 to 2.525 GHz, 725 MHz from 3.075 to 3.8 GHz, and 1.9 GHz from 5.0 to 6.9 GHz has been achieved. Details of the antenna design as well as the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed.

  16. Regge cuts: A general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss an approach to the calculation of Regge-cut contributions to scattering amplitudes which relies only on the general structure of the physical Reggeon couplings. It thus allows a unified treatment of disparate models [such as the Feynman (Mandelstam) graph model and the dual model] and a general derivation of the Abramovskii--Gribov--Kancheli (AGK) rules. The structure of the Reggeon couplings is expressed through integrals over complex helicity. The Regge-cut amplitude can then be obtained, and its s-channel discontinuity, taken; there results a direct derivation of a set of ''cutting rules'' which express the total discontinuity as a sum of terms involving various discontinuities of the Reggeon couplings. The equality of these discontinuities follows directly if the singularities in complex helicity are the usual ones. Thus the AGK rules are seen to be quite model independent. Here we study in detail the simplest example: the Reggeon-particle cut in the four-particle amplitude

  17. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  18. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  19. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  20. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I. [Natural Sciences Center, General Physics Institute, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University, “MEPhI,” Kashirskoye shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Freitag, C. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); GSaME Graduate School of Excellence Advanced Manufacturing Engineering, Nobelstrasse 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-14

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres.

  1. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I.; Freitag, C.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2014-01-01

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres

  2. PIV study of large-scale flow organisation in slot jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, Maxim V.; Dulin, Vladimir M.; Tokarev, Mikhail P.; Sikovsky, Dmitrii Ph.; Markovich, Dmitriy M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Volumetric velocity measurements are perfumed by PIV to analyse 3D flow organisation in a slot jet. • Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract coherent flow motion. • Movement of quasi-two-dimensional large-scale vortices is associated with jet meandering. • Amplitude of jet meandering is found to be aperiodically modulated. • Secondary longitudinal vortex rolls are important for cross-stream mixing and momentum transfer. - Abstract: The paper reports on particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in turbulent slot jets bounded by two solid walls with the separation distance smaller than the jet width (5–40%). In the far-field such jets are known to manifest features of quasi-two dimensional, two component turbulence. Stereoscopic and tomographic PIV systems were used to analyse local flows. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to extract coherent modes of the velocity fluctuations. The measurements were performed both in the initial region close to the nozzle exit and in the far fields of the developed turbulent slot jets for Re ⩾ 10,000. A POD analysis in the initial region indicates a correlation between quasi-2D vortices rolled-up in the shear layer and local flows in cross-stream planes. While the near-field turbulence shows full 3D features, the wall-normal velocity fluctuations day out gradually due to strong wall-damping resulting in an almost two-component turbulence. On the other hand, the longitudinal vortex rolls take over to act as the main agents in wall-normal and spanwise mixing and momentum transfer. The quantitative analysis indicates that the jet meandering amplitude was aperiodically modulated when arrangement of the large-scale quasi-2D vortices changed between asymmetric and symmetric pattern relatively to the jet axis. The paper shows that the dynamics of turbulent slot jets are more complex than those of 2D, plane and rectangular 3D jets. In particular, the detected secondary longitudinal

  3. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  5. Three-dimensional hard and soft tissue imaging of the human cochlea by scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Tinne

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the application of scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT for visualization of anatomical structures inside the human cochlea ex vivo. SLOT is a laser-based highly efficient microscopy technique which allows for tomographic imaging of the internal structure of transparent specimens. Thus, in the field of otology this technique is best convenient for an ex vivo study of the inner ear anatomy. For this purpose, the preparation before imaging comprises decalcification, dehydration as well as optical clearing of the cochlea samples in toto. Here, we demonstrate results of SLOT imaging visualizing hard and soft tissue structures with an optical resolution of down to 15 μm using extinction and autofluorescence as contrast mechanisms. Furthermore, the internal structure can be analyzed nondestructively and quantitatively in detail by sectioning of the three-dimensional datasets. The method of X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (μCT has been previously applied to explanted cochlea and is solely based on absorption contrast. An advantage of SLOT is that it uses visible light for image formation and thus provides a variety of contrast mechanisms known from other light microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence or scattering. We show that SLOT data is consistent with μCT anatomical data and provides additional information by using fluorescence. We demonstrate that SLOT is applicable for cochlea with metallic cochlear implants (CI that would lead to significant artifacts in μCT imaging. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the capability of SLOT for resolution visualization of cleared human cochleae ex vivo using multiple contrast mechanisms and lays the foundation for a broad variety of additional studies.

  6. The value of interventional therapy in acute deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yaoqiang; Cao Ran; Luo Canhua; Lin Haibo; Chen Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application in the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis by the intervention from Share vein little cutting edges. Methods: To treat 8 patients who are with acute deep venous thrombosis by using Share vein little cutting edges enter road comprehensive intervene treatment, to press and dissolve the thrombus. Among the 8 cases, put the bracket of hip total vein in 3 cases. The others put Next cavity vein strain permanently. Result: The success rate is 100%. After the treatment, the thrombus and swelling of the crura had gone, basically the patients could get back to a normal activity. Conclusion: It is quite complicated and dangerous in the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis by the interposition from Share vein little cutting edges. But the curative effect is remarkable and it could dissolve the thrombus completely. (authors)

  7. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  8. Enhancement of acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities by utilizing surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian-Xue [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    A phoxonic crystal is a periodically patterned material that can simultaneously localize optical and acoustic modes. The acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities is investigated numerically. The photons can be well confined in the slot owing to the large electric field discontinuity at the air/dielectric interfaces. Besides, the surface acoustic modes lead to the localization of the phonons near the air-slot. The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes near the slot results in a significant enhancement of the moving interface effect, and thus strengthens the total acousto-optical interaction. The results of two cavities with different slot widths show that the coupling strength is dependent on the slot width. It is expected to achieve a strong acousto-optical/optomechanical coupling in air-slot phoxonic crystal structures by utilizing surface acoustic modes. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities which can confine simultaneously optical and acoustic waves are proposed. • The acoustic and optical waves are highly confined near/in the air-slot. • The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes significantly enhances the moving interface effect. • Different factors which affect the acousto-optical coupling are discussed.

  9. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  10. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  11. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H

    2011-01-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  12. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.

    1978-11-30

    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  13. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  14. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, K; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V; Baeker, M

    2009-01-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  15. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  16. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  17. Optical datacenter network employing slotted (TDMA) operation for dynamic resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, P.; Tokas, K.; Spatharakis, C.; Patronas, I.; Landi, G.; Christodoulopoulos, K.; Capitani, M.; Kyriakos, A.; Aziz, M.; Reisis, D.; Varvarigos, E.; Zahavi, E.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2018-02-01

    The soaring traffic demands in datacenter networks (DCNs) are outpacing progresses in CMOS technology, challenging the bandwidth and energy scalability of currently established technologies. Optical switching is gaining traction as a promising path for sustaining the explosive growth of DCNs; however, its practical deployment necessitates extensive modifications to the network architecture and operation, tailored to the technological particularities of optical switches (i.e. no buffering, limitations in radix size and speed). European project NEPHELE is developing an optical network infrastructure that leverages optical switching within a software-defined networking (SDN) framework to overcome the bandwidth and energy scaling challenges of datacenter networks. An experimental validation of the NEPHELE data plane is reported based on commercial off-the-shelf optical components controlled by FPGA boards. To facilitate dynamic allocation of the network resources and perform collision-free routing in a lossless network environment, slotted operation is employed (i.e. using time-division multiple-access - TDMA). Error-free operation of the NEPHELE data plane is verified for 200 μs slots in various scenarios that involve communication between Ethernet hosts connected to custom-designed top-of-rack (ToR) switches, located in the same or in different datacenter pods. Control of the slotted data plane is obtained through an SDN framework comprising an OpenDaylight controller with appropriate add-ons. Communication between servers in the optical-ToR is demonstrated with various routing scenarios, concerning communication between hosts located in the same rack or in different racks, within the same or different datacenter pods. Error-free operation is confirmed for all evaluated scenarios, underpinning the feasibility of the NEPHELE architecture.

  18. An analysis of switching and non-switching slot machine player behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ewan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Learning theory predicts that, given the repeated choice to bet between two concurrently available slot machines, gamblers will learn to bet more money on the machine with higher expected return (payback percentage) or higher win probability per spin (volatility). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this occurs when the two machines vary orthogonally on payback percentage and volatility. The sample comprised 52 first year psychology students (mean age = 20.3 years, 20 females, 32 males) who had played a gaming machine at least once in the previous 12 months. Participants were administered a battery of questionnaires designed to assess level of knowledge on the characteristics and operation of poker machines, frequency of poker machine play in the past 12 months, personality traits of impulsivity and capacity for cognitive reflection, and gambling beliefs. For the experimental task, participants were instructed to play on two PC-simulated electronic gaming machines (EGMs or slot machines) that differed on payback percentage and volatility, with the option of freely switching between EGMs after a practice phase. Results indicated that participants were able to easily discriminate between machines and manifested a preference to play machines offering higher payback or volatility. These findings diverged from previous findings of no preference for play on higher payback/volatility machines, potentially due to of the current study's absence of the option to make multi-line and multi-credit bets. It was concluded that return rate parameters like payback percentage and volatility strongly influenced slot machine preference in the absence of betting options like multi-line bets, though more research is needed to determine the effects of such betting options on player distribution of money between multiple EGMs.

  19. Cutting system for burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Toyama, Norihide; Koshino, Yasuo; Fujii, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Burnable poison rods attached to spent fuels are contained in a containing box and transported to a receiving pool. The burnable poison rod-containing box is provisionally situated by the operation to a handling device to a provisional setting rack in a cutting pool and attached to a cutting guide of a cutting device upon cutting. The burnable poison rod is cut only in a cutting pool water and tritium generated upon cutting is dissolved into the cutting pool water. Diffusion of tritium is thus restricted. Further, the cutting pool is isolated by a partition device from the receiving pool during cutting of the burnable poison rod. Accordingly, water in which tritium is dissolved is inhibited from moving to the receiving pool and prevail of tritium contamination can be avoided. (T.M.)

  20. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Heinke; Schmitz, Oliver; Covele, Brent; Guo, Houyang; Hill, David; Feng, Yuhe

    2017-10-01

    In the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor in DIII-D, the combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field causes the strike point to vary radially along the divertor slot and even leave it at some toroidal locations. This effect essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade performance of the slot divertor. This effect has been approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle. Simulations with EMC3-EIRENE show that a toroidally localized loss of divertor closure can result in non-axisymmetric divertor densities and temperatures. This introduces a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density during which a non-axisymmetric onset of local detachment occurs, initially leaving the gap and up to 60 deg beyond that still attached. Conversely, the impact of such toroidally localized divertor perturbations on the toroidal symmetry of midplane separatrix conditions is small. This work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Early Career Award Grant DE-SC0013911, and Grant DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  2. Co-simulation of a complete rectenna with a circular slot loop antenna in CPW technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Jérôme; Douyère, Alexandre; Cazour, Jonathan; Alicalapa, Frédéric; Luk, Jean-Daniel Lan Sun

    2017-05-01

    This study starts with the design of a planar and compact CPW antenna fabricated on Arlon AD1000 substrate, ɛr=10.35. The antenna is a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed circular slot loop antenna matched to the standard impedance 50 Ω by two stubs. The goal is to implement this antenna with a CPW RF/DC rectifier to build an optimized low power level rectenna. The rectenna design is restricted to allow easy and fast fabrication of an array with a high reproducibility. The full rectenna is simulated and achieves 10% effciency at -20 dBm.

  3. Modeling of Coaxial Slot Waveguides Using Analytical and Numerical Approaches: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Yeow You

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our reviews of analytical methods and numerical methods for coaxial slot waveguides are presented. The theories, background, and physical principles related to frequency-domain electromagnetic equations for coaxial waveguides are reassessed. Comparisons of the accuracies of various types of admittance and impedance equations and numerical simulations are made, and the fringing field at the aperture sensor, which is represented by the lumped capacitance circuit, is evaluated. The accuracy and limitations of the analytical equations are explained in detail. The reasons for the replacement of analytical methods by numerical methods are outlined.

  4. The effect of a magnetic field on heat transfer in a slotted channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Hua, T.Q.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, Claude B.; Sidorenkov, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of numerical and experimental studies of liquid metal heat transfer in slotted channels in a transverse magnetic field are presented. Test results showed an improvement in heat transfer in a straight channel at low and moderate interaction parameter N. The Nusselt number at small N (around 120) was up to twofold higher than in turbulent flow without a magnetic field, the Peclet number being equal. This effect of heat transfer enhancement is caused by the generation and development of large-scale velocity fluctuations close to the heated wall area. Qualitative and quantitative correlations between heat transfer and velocity fluctuation characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  5. Resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots calculated by boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2002-01-01

    In order to calculate the resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used. The result at 1 GHz is Re(ZL/L) = 6.689×10−3 Ω/m, Re(Zx/L) = 1.251 Ω/m2, Re(Zy/L) = 1.776 Ω/m2, andRe(2Z0,2 cos/kL) = −0.525 Ω/m2, assuming σ = 5.8 × 109 /Ωm.

  6. Cogging Torque Reduction in Brushless DC Motors Using Slot-Opening Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIED, S. A.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two new methods for the stator skew are introduced. In contrary with the conventional stator skew, this paper is concentrate on the slot-opening skew. The simula-tion result by finite element shows a considerable reduction in the cogging torque of the motors, the new methods are applied to. Moreover the simulations justify that the back-EMF shape remains trapezoidal for various skew angles in contrary with that in the conventional skew, this fact makes the method highly applicable in BLDC motors.

  7. Comparing of cogging torque reduction methods in permanent magnet machines with fractional slot windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristup, A. G.; Toporkov, D. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of the investigation of the cogging torque in permanent magnet synchronous machines, which is caused by the stator slotting and the rotor eccentricity, are presented in the paper. A new design of the machine has been developed in the course of the investigation, and the value of the cogging torque in this construction is less considerably compared to other constructions. In contrast to the available methods of the cogging torque reduction, the solution suggested not only decreases the level of the cogging torque but also has negligibly small influence on characteristics of the machine with the rotor eccentricity which is typical of the mass production and long-term usage.

  8. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...... be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mathematical expressions as directed graphs. The latest version is available at http...

  9. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  10. Chip & Cut Tests an Elastomeren

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Dieser Vortrag stellt einen neuartigen Prüfstand vor, mit welchem das Chip & Cut Verhalten von Elastomeren charakterisiert werden kann. Sowohl theoretischer Hintergrund als auch praktische Erkenntnisse werden diskutiert. Die Vorstellung der Praxisrelevanz dieser Untersuchungen steht im Fokus des Vortrags.

  11. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  12. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  13. Remote welding and cutting techniques for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ishide, T.; Oda, Y.; Nagaoka, E.; Ue, K.; Kamei, H.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques has been conducted to examine their suitability for remote maintenance systems in future fusion experimental reactors. Using a hybrid beam coupling system, two laser beams of 500W and 740W powers were successfully combined to provide a 1,240W beam power. The combined laser was transmitted through the optical fiber for cutting and welding. The transmission loss for the beams is in the range of 13% to 14%, which is low. As for plasma gouging, the shallow gouging made a groove measuring 10 mm in width and 4 mm in depth on the stainless steel plates at a traversing speed of 75 cm/min, while the deep gouging made a groove of 12 mm in width and 7.5 mm in depth at a traversing speed of 50 cm/min. In addition, it was found that the shallow gouging did not leave byproducts from the material, providing a clean surface. Based on the findings, it is shown that the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques can be us3ed for remote welding and cutting in future fusion experimental reactors

  14. Remote welding and cutting techniques for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ishide, T.; Oda, Y.; Nagaoka, E.; Ue, K.; Kamei, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Experimental investigation of the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques has been conducted to examine their suitability for remote maintenance systems in future fusion experimental reactors. Using a hybrid beam coupling system, two laser beams of 500W and 740W powers were successfully combined to provide a 1,240W beam power. The combined laser was transmitted through the optical fiber for cutting and welding. The transmission loss for the beams is in the range of 13% to 14%, which is low. As for plasma gouging, the shallow gouging made a groove measuring 10 mm in width and 4 mm in depth on the stainless steel plates at a traversing speed of 75 cm/min, while the deep gouging made a groove of 12 mm in width and 7.5 mm in depth at a traversing speed of 50 cm/min. In addition, it was found that the shallow gouging did not leave byproducts from the material, providing a clean surface. Based on the findings, it is shown that the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques can be us3ed for remote welding and cutting in future fusion experimental reactors.

  15. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.

  16. A High-gain and Low-scattering Waveguide Slot Antenna of Artificial Magnetic Conductor Octagonal Ring Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of high-gain and low-scattering waveguide slot antenna is proposed in this paper. Firstly the scattering pattern of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC composite surface is estimated by array factor analysis method. The comparison between octagonal ring arrangement and chessboard arrangement proves that the former arrangement has the characteristic of diffuseness-like and expands the bandwidth of radar cross section (RCS reduction. Secondly, the metal surface of waveguide slot antenna (WSA is replaced by the octagonal ring arrangement composite surface (ORACS. The gain is improved because of spurious radiation units which are around the slot. At the same time using the phase cancellation principle, a backscatter null achieves RCS reduction in the vertical direction. Experimental results show that the novel antenna after loading with the ORACS, the gain is improved by 5dB; the bandwidth of RCS reduction (reduction greater than 10dB is 5.24-5.92 GHz.

  17. CPW-fed Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna with Small Gap and Stick-shaped Shorted Strip for UHF FRID Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yuan; Su, Chum-Chieh; Yang, Wei-Lin

    2018-04-01

    A new circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna with a small gap and a stick-shaped shorted strip is presented. The proposed antenna has a sufficient bandwidth for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader applications. The antenna structure consists of a rectangular slot with a small gap, a stick-shaped shorted strip and a 50 Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) feedline with an asymmetrical ground plane. By using the stick -shaped shorted strip to disturb magnetic current distribution on the slot, the CP radiation can be generated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can reach a 10 dB return loss impedance bandwidth of 14.1 % (894-1030 MHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 6.4 % (910-970 MHz). The whole antenna size is 80 × 80 × 1.6 mm3.

  18. Ultra-flattened nearly-zero dispersion and ultrahigh nonlinear slot silicon photonic crystal fibers with ultrahigh birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianfei; Xie, Yingmao; Wang, Xinghua; Li, Dongbo; Huang, Tianye

    2017-07-01

    A slot silicon photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed to simultaneously achieve ultrahigh birefringence, large nonlinearity and ultra-flattened nearly-zero dispersion over a wide wavelength range. By taking advantage on the slot effect, ultrahigh birefringence up to 0.0736 and ultrahigh nonlinear coefficient up to 211.48 W-1 m-1 for quasi-TE mode can be obtained at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Moreover, ultra-flattened dispersion of 0.49 ps/(nm km) for quasi-TE mode can be achieved over a 180 nm wavelength range with low dispersion slope of 1.85 × 10-3 ps/(nm2 km) at 1.55 μm. Leveraging on these advantages, the proposed slot PCF has great potential for efficient all-optical signal processing applications.

  19. Dual Band a-Si:H Solar-Slot Antenna for 2.4/5.2GHz WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shynu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact design of solar-slot antenna for dual band 2.4/5.2GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN applications is proposed. The design employs amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar cells in polyimide substrate with an embedded twin strip slot structure to generate dual resonant frequencies. A T-shaped microstripline feed is used to excite the twin slot in the a-Si:H solar cell. The measured impedance bandwidths for the proposed solar antenna are 25.9% (642 MHz centered at 2.482 GHz and 8.2% (420 MHz centered at 5.098 GHz. The measured gain at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz are 3.1 dBi and 2.1 dBi respectively.

  20. Model for Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.

    1977-01-01

    A model is presented for calculating Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts, making use explicitly of the Mandelstam diagram. External spins are treated in a natural way. Calculation for the general case is outlined and it is shown that in practical application the cut can be calculated in a standard way. Cuts associated with the exchanges of π, rho, B, and A 2 are considered, and characteristics of the RP cuts, as well as the structure functions, are extracted and discussed. It is found that the model differs considerably from the absorption model. Two suppression schemes are operative which control the magnitudes of cut contributions to amplitudes with ''naturality'' opposite to the Reggeon. The πP cut is found to be a unique case because of the smallness of the pion mass. In general, the RP cuts are self-conspiratorial. At very high energies, all cuts, except πP cut, exhibit quasifactorization

  1. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  2. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  5. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  6. Distributed Channel Allocation and Time Slot Optimization for Green Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiqi Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable smart cities, power saving is a severe challenge in the energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT. Efficient utilization of limited multiple non-overlap channels and time resources is a promising solution to reduce the network interference and save energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a joint channel allocation and time slot optimization solution for IoT. First, we propose a channel ranking algorithm which enables each node to rank its available channels based on the channel properties. Then, we propose a distributed channel allocation algorithm so that each node can choose a proper channel based on the channel ranking and its own residual energy. Finally, the sleeping duration and spectrum sensing duration are jointly optimized to maximize the normalized throughput and satisfy energy consumption constraints simultaneously. Different from the former approaches, our proposed solution requires no central coordination or any global information that each node can operate based on its own local information in a total distributed manner. Also, theoretical analysis and extensive simulations have validated that when applying our solution in the network of IoT: (i each node can be allocated to a proper channel based on the residual energy to balance the lifetime; (ii the network can rapidly converge to a collision-free transmission through each node’s learning ability in the process of the distributed channel allocation; and (iii the network throughput is further improved via the dynamic time slot optimization.

  7. Distributed Channel Allocation and Time Slot Optimization for Green Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kaiqi; Zhao, Haitao; Hu, Xiping; Wei, Jibo

    2017-10-28

    In sustainable smart cities, power saving is a severe challenge in the energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT). Efficient utilization of limited multiple non-overlap channels and time resources is a promising solution to reduce the network interference and save energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a joint channel allocation and time slot optimization solution for IoT. First, we propose a channel ranking algorithm which enables each node to rank its available channels based on the channel properties. Then, we propose a distributed channel allocation algorithm so that each node can choose a proper channel based on the channel ranking and its own residual energy. Finally, the sleeping duration and spectrum sensing duration are jointly optimized to maximize the normalized throughput and satisfy energy consumption constraints simultaneously. Different from the former approaches, our proposed solution requires no central coordination or any global information that each node can operate based on its own local information in a total distributed manner. Also, theoretical analysis and extensive simulations have validated that when applying our solution in the network of IoT: (i) each node can be allocated to a proper channel based on the residual energy to balance the lifetime; (ii) the network can rapidly converge to a collision-free transmission through each node's learning ability in the process of the distributed channel allocation; and (iii) the network throughput is further improved via the dynamic time slot optimization.

  8. The effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Haga, Sondre; Gjernes, Mikjel Fredericson; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC]  0.40 mg/L; ≈0.80 mg/L) amounts of alcohol]. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic variables, subjective intoxication, alcohol effects (stimulant and sedative), and gambling factors (behavior and problems, evaluation, and beliefs). Participants also gambled on a simulated slot machine. Results A significant main effect of beverage intake on subjective intoxication and alcohol effects was detected as expected. No significant main or interaction effects were detected for number of gambling sessions, bet size and variation, remaining credits at termination, reaction time, and game evaluation. Conclusion Alcohol expectancy and intake do not affect gambling persistence, dissipation of funds, reaction time, or gambling enjoyment.

  9. Single-nanoparticle detection with slot-mode photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko, E-mail: loncar@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States); Li, Yihang [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-29

    Optical cavities that are capable for detecting single nanoparticles could lead to great progress in early stage disease diagnostics and the study of biological interactions on the single-molecule level. In particular, photonic crystal (PhC) cavities are excellent platforms for label-free single-nanoparticle detection, owing to their high quality (Q) factors and wavelength-scale modal volumes. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-Q (>10{sup 4}) slot-mode PhC nanobeam cavity, which is able to strongly confine light in the slotted regions. The enhanced light-matter interaction results in an order of magnitude improvement in both refractive index sensitivity (439 nm/RIU) and single-nanoparticle sensitivity compared with conventional dielectric-mode PhC cavities. Detection of single polystyrene nanoparticles with radii of 20 nm and 30 nm is demonstrated in aqueous environments (D{sub 2}O), without additional laser and temperature stabilization techniques.

  10. Frequency of gambling problems among parents of pathological, versus nonpathological, casino gamblers using slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Audrey; LeGauffre, Cindy; Romo, Lucia; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling, but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements. The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino? Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, 116 problem gamblers, and 143 nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders (alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption) in the gamblers and their 690 parents (through the proband). Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3.3 for being a pathological gambler when at least one of the parents has problematic gambling. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling, and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Two-Element Tapered Slot Antenna Array for Terahertz Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-element tapered slot antenna (TSA array for terahertz (THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD oscillators is proposed in this paper. The proposed TSA array has the advantages of both the high directivity and high gain at the horizontal direction and hence can facilitate the horizontal communication between the RTD oscillators and other integrated circuit chips. A MIM (metal-insulator-metal stub with a T-shaped slot is used to reduce the mutual coupling between the TSA elements. The validity and feasibility of the proposed TSA array have been simulated and analyzed by the ANSYS/ANSOFT’s High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS. Detailed modeling approaches and theoretical analysis of the proposed TSA array have been fully addressed. The simulation results show that the mutual coupling between the TSA elements is reduced below −40 dB. Furthermore, at 500 GHz, the directivity, the gain, and the half power beam width (HPBW at the E-plane of the proposed TSA array are 12.18 dB, 13.09 dB, and 61°, respectively. The proposed analytical method and achieved performance are very promising for the antenna array integrated with the RTD oscillators at the THz frequency and could pave the way to the design of the THz antenna array for the RTD oscillators.

  12. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morais Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA, with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA. The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05. The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05 when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. CONCLUSION: Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

  13. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.

  14. Dynamic Channel Slot Allocation Scheme and Performance Analysis of Cyclic Quorum Multichannel MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high diversity node situation, multichannel MAC protocol can improve the frequency efficiency, owing to fewer collisions compared with single-channel MAC protocol. And the performance of cyclic quorum-based multichannel (CQM MAC protocol is outstanding. Based on cyclic quorum system and channel slot allocation, it can avoid the bottleneck that others suffered from and can be easily realized with only one transceiver. To obtain the accurate performance of CQM MAC protocol, a Markov chain model, which combines the channel-hopping strategy of CQM protocol and IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF, is proposed. The results of numerical analysis show that the optimal performance of CQM protocol can be obtained in saturation bound situation. And then we obtain the saturation bound of CQM system by bird swarm algorithm. In addition, to improve the performance of CQM protocol in unsaturation situation, a dynamic channel slot allocation of CQM (DCQM protocol is proposed, based on wavelet neural network. Finally, the performance of CQM protocol and DCQM protocol is simulated by Qualnet platform. And the simulation results show that the analytic and simulation results match very well; the DCQM performs better in unsaturation situation.

  15. Analysis of the ATLAS Cold Leg Top-Slot Break Experiment Using the MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, T. W.; Jeong, J. J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    During a small-break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) or intermediate-break loss of coolant accident (IBLOCA) in a PWR, such as the APR1400, the steam volume in the reactor vessel upper plenum may continue to expand until the liquid phase in the horizontal intermediate legs is released, called loop seal clearing (LSC), due to the increase of the pressure in the upper plenum. A domestic standard problem (DSP) exercise using the ATLAS facility was promoted in order to transfer the database to domestic nuclear industries. For 4th DSP (DSP-04), the ATLAS cold leg top-slot break experiment was postulated. For the DSP-04, main concerns are to predict the LSC and LSR having a significantly effect on the behavior of the system under long term cooling. In this study, we simulated the ATLAS cold leg top-slot break experiment using the MARS code and the predicted LSC and LSR are compared to experimental results. The LTC-CL-04R was simulated using the MARS code. Most of the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. However, the timing of LSC and LSR is slightly different from each other and, thus, the behavior of the primary system is slightly different. The core heat up was not observed in the experiment and the calculation.

  16. Development of an Architecture of Sun-Synchronous Orbital Slots to Minimize Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, B.

    Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) satellites serve many important functions, primarily in the areas of Earth reconnaissance and weather. The orbital parameters of altitude, inclination and right ascension which allow for the unique utility of Sun-sync orbit limit these satellites to a very specific region of space. The popularity of these satellite missions combined with the use of similar engineering solutions has resulted in the majority of current Sun-sync satellites within this region having very similar inclinations and altitudes while also spaced around the Equator in right ascension, creating the opportunity for conjunctions at the polar crossing points and a serious safety issue that could endanger long-term sustainability of SSO. This paper outlines the development of a new architecture of SSO zoning to create specific slots separating SSO satellites in altitude, right ascension and time at all orbital intersections while minimizing the limitations on utility. A methodical approach for the development of the system is presented along with the work-to-date and a software tool for calculating repeating ground track orbits. The slot system is intended to allow for continued utility of and safe operation within SSO while greatly decreasing the chance of collisions at orbital intersections. This architecture is put forward as one possible element of a new Space Traffic Management (STM) system with the overall goal of maintaining the safe and continued used of space by all actors.

  17. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d. Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  18. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  19. Dynamic thermo-chemo-mechanical strain of Zircaloy-4 slotted rings for evaluating strategies that mitigate stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrier, G.A.; Metzler, J.; Farahani, M.; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Zircaloy-4 fuel sheaths has been investigated by static loading of slotted ring samples under hot and corrosive conditions. However, in nuclear reactors, power ramps can have short (e.g., 10-20 minutes) and recurring time frames due to dynamic processes such as on-power refuelling, adjuster rod manoeuvres, and load following. Therefore, to enable out-reactor dynamic testing, an apparatus was designed to dynamically strain slotted ring samples under SCC conditions. This apparatus can additionally be used to test fatigue properties. Unique capabilities of this apparatus and preliminary results obtained from static and dynamic tests are presented. (author)

  20. Design and optical characterization of high-Q guided-resonance modes in the slot-graphite photonic crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis Javier; Huang, Ningfeng; Ma, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-12-16

    A new photonic crystal structure is generated by using a regular graphite lattice as the base and adding a slot in the center of each unit cell to enhance field confinement. The theoretical Q factor in an ideal structure is over 4 × 10(5). The structure was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer and optically characterized by transmission spectroscopy. The resonance wavelength and quality factor were measured as a function of slot height. The measured trends show good agreement with simulation.

  1. Nano-polarization-converter based on magnetic plasmon resonance excitation in an L-shaped slot antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiasen

    2013-04-08

    We propose a nano-polarization-converter made of a resonant L-shaped slot antenna in a gold film and study its optical properties using the finite-difference time-domain method. Phase retardation between the fast and slow axes of the nano-polarization-converter originates from the simultaneous excitation of both single-surface first-order magnetic plasmon resonance mode and second-order magnetic plasmon resonance mode at the working wavelength. By adjusting the size of the slot antenna, which is still much smaller than the wavelength, the working wavelength can be tuned within a large wavelength range.

  2. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  3. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  4. A Model for Analyzing a Five-Phase Fractional-Slot Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Motor with Modified Winding Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for analyzing a five-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet tubular linear motor (FSPMTLM with the modified winding function approach (MWFA. MWFA is a fast modeling method and it gives deep insight into the calculations of the following parameters: air-gap magnetic field, inductances, flux linkages, and detent force, which are essential in modeling the motor. First, using a magnetic circuit model, the air-gap magnetic density is computed from stator magnetomotive force (MMF, flux barrier, and mover geometry. Second, the inductances, flux linkages, and detent force are analytically calculated using modified winding function and the air-gap magnetic density. Finally, a model has been established with the five-phase Park transformation and simulated. The calculations of detent force reveal that the end-effect force is the main component of the detent force. This is also proven by finite element analysis on the motor. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparing with the results obtained using semianalytical method (SAM and measurements to analyze the motor’s transient characteristics. In addition, the proposed method requires less computation time.

  5. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    was patterned into stripes and juxtaposed with the ITO layer. The fourth layer comprised screen-printed or slot-die-coated PEDOT:PSS and the fifth and the final layer comprised a screen-printed or slot-die-coated silver electrode. The final module dimensions were 28 cm×32 cm and presented four individual solar...

  6. Process and device for the ultrasonic testing of slotted screws screwed into a head of a nuclear reactor fuel element for cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve correct echo signals, a test head is set separately on each area limited by a slot of the top of the slotted screw and the screw head is ultrasonically sounded in the direction of the suspected cracks. (orig./HP) [de

  7. A Comparison of the Accuracy of 0.022 Slots at Face, Base and Mesial and Distal Surface of Brackets marketed by Different Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Tangri

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that orthodontic bracket slots were different than stated by the manufacturers. All the brackets were larger at the face than at the base. Clinicians should be aware that there may be a three-dimensional loss of tooth positioning as a result of the inadvertent use of orthodontic brackets with inaccurate slots.

  8. The generalized good cut equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2010-01-01

    The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this paper to study these equations and show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have a four-complex-dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.

  9. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  10. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use...

  11. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  12. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  13. Deep Neural Network-Based Chinese Semantic Role Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiaoqing; CHEN Jun; SHANG Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    A recent trend in machine learning is to use deep architec-tures to discover multiple levels of features from data, which has achieved impressive results on various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. We propose a deep neural network-based solution to Chinese semantic role labeling (SRL) with its application on message analysis. The solution adopts a six-step strategy: text normalization, named entity recognition (NER), Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech (POS) tagging, theme classification, SRL, and slot filling. For each step, a novel deep neural network - based model is designed and optimized, particularly for smart phone applications. Ex-periment results on all the NLP sub - tasks of the solution show that the proposed neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance with the minimal computational cost. The speed advantage of deep neural networks makes them more competitive for large-scale applications or applications requir-ing real-time response, highlighting the potential of the pro-posed solution for practical NLP systems.

  14. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  15. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  16. Method of cutting radioactivated metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Yoshinori; Sakota, Kotaro; Hamamoto, Noboru; Harada, Keizo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the cutting performance to a level as comparable with that in air, as well as prevent the scattering of the radioactive materials upon cutting to the level as that in water cutting. Method: After igniting a gas cutting torch automatically, water spray by the local water sprayer is started by the actuation of a submerged pump, while a gas cutting manipulator is operated to cut the nuclear reactor pressure vessel. In this way, cutting exhaust gases resulted from the gas cutting torch are water-washed by the spray from the local water sprayer and falls within the nuclear rector pressure vessel in the form of water streams or droplets along the inner wall surface of the pressure vessel. Further, water is fed again to the local water sprayer by the submerged pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  18. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  19. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  20. Non-similar solutions for unsteady flow over a yawed cylinder with non-uniform mass transfer through a slot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Revathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.

  1. Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-20

    A compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed and characterized. For the input TM mode, it is first transferred into the cross strip waveguide using a tapered directional coupler (DC), and then efficiently rotated to the corresponding TE mode using an L-shaped bending polarization rotator (PR). Finally, the TE mode for slot waveguide at the output end is obtained with the help of a strip-to-slot mode converter. By contrast, for the input TE mode, it almost passes through the slot waveguide directly and outputs at the bar end with nearly neglected coupling due to a large mode mismatch. Moreover, an additional S-bend connecting the tapered DC and bending PR is used to enhance the performance. Results show that a total device length of 19.6 μm is achieved, where the crosstalk (CT) and polarization conversion loss are, respectively -26.09 and 0.54 dB, for the TM mode, and the CT and insertion loss are, respectively, -22.21 and 0.41 dB, for the TE mode, both at 1.55 μm. The optical bandwidth is approximately 50 nm with a CT<-20  dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances and field evolution are also presented.

  2. Characteristics and infl uence factors of mold fi lling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Changjun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide fi lms and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold fi lling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum fl owing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the fl ow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many infl uencing factors on the mold fi lling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fi ll into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold fi lling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidifi cation.

  3. A PML-FDTD ALGORITHM FOR SIMULATING PLASMA-COVERED CAVITY-BACKED SLOT ANTENNAS. (R825225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) and recursive convolution approaches is developed to model plasma-covered open-ended waveguide or cavity-backed slot antenn...

  4. Excitation of spin waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic film by the slot line transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V. I.; Popkov, A. F.; Solov'yov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the efficiency of magnetoelectric excitation of spin-waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic films by a slot line is performed based on the solution of dynamic Ginzburg-Landau equations for the antiferromagnetic vector. The excitation efficiency is determined by the magnitude of the conversion coefficient of the electromagnetic wave to the spin wave by the slot line transducer or in other words, losses on conversion in the slot line. Calculations are made for a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state of the multiferroic in the presence of a sufficiently large magnetic field and for a spatially modulated spin state (SMSS) at zero magnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state, the losses on the excitation of spin waves exceed the excitation efficiency in the SMSS state; however, as the frequency approaches the spin excitation gap, it falls and becomes lower than in the SMSS state. Spin wave excitation in the presence of antiferromagnetic cycloid strongly depends on the relation of the slot width of the transducer to the cycloid periodicity and on the magnitude of the shift of the position of the transducer along the cycloid on its period. The usage of multiferroics for delay lines in the considered frequency range from 100 to 600 GHz requires significant reduction in conversion and propagation losses. More promising seems multiferroic usage in phase shifters and switches for this range.

  5. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  6. The worst-case performance of the Cube per Order Index slotting strategy is infinitely bad – A technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A well-known and frequently applied policy to assign stock keeping units (SKUs) to (dedicated) storage locations in a warehouse is the Cube per Order Index (COI) slotting strategy. Basically, COI stores an SKU based on how frequently it is picked per unit of stock space required. Fast movers are

  7. Partially slotted crystals for a high-resolution γ-camera based on a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giokaris, N.; Loudos, G.; Maintas, D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Lembesi, M.; Spanoudaki, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Boukis, S.; Gektin, A.; Pedash, V.; Gayshan, V.

    2005-01-01

    Partially slotted crystals have been designed and constructed and have been used to evaluate the performance with respect to the spatial resolution of a γ-camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier. It is shown that the resolution obtained with such a crystal is only slightly worse than the one obtained with a fully pixelized one whose cost, however, is much higher

  8. Slot deformation of various stainless steel bracket due to the torque force of the beta-titanium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, M. M.; Siregar, E.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel bracket slot deformation ffects the force applied to teeth and it can impede tooth movement and prolong orthodontic treatment time. The aim of this study is to determine the slot deformation due to torque of a 0.021 × 0.025 inch Beta Titanium wire with a torsional angle of 30° and 45° for five different bracket brands: y, 3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco, and Shinye. The research also aims to compare the deformation and amount of torque among all five bracket brands at torsional angles of 30° and 45°. Fifty stainless steel edgewise brackets from the five bracket group brands (n=10) were attached to acrylic plates. The bracket slot measurements were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the, deformation was measured by calculating the average bracket slot height using a stereoscopy microscope before and after application of torque. In the second stage, the torque was measured using a torque measurement apparatus. The statistical analysis shows that slot deformations were found on all five bracket brands with a clinical permanent deformation on the Biom (2.79 μm) and Shinye (2.29 μm) brackets. The most torque was observed on the 3M bracket, followed by the Ormco, Versadent, Shinye, and Biom brackets. When the brands were compared, a correlation between bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque was found, but the correlation was not statistically significant for the 3M and Ormco brackets and the Biom and Shinye brackets. There is a difference in the amount of torque between the five brands with a torsional angle of 30° (except the 3M and Ormco brackets) and those with a torsional angle of 45°. The composition of the metal and the manufacturing process are the factors that influence the occurrence of bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque. A manufacturing process using metal injection molding (MIM) and metal compositions of AISI 303 and 17-4 PH stainless steel reduce the risk of deformation.

  9. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2015-04-13

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing of nano-particle based conductive ink on the broad faces as well as on sides of the substrate. The operating frequency of the antenna can be tuned by applying a variable static bias magnetic field that controls the permeability of the host ferrite substrate. The antenna operates about a center frequency of approximately 14 GHz with an instantaneous impedance bandwidth of 75 MHz. A fabricated prototype has demonstrated a tuning range of 10% (1.5 GHz) using an applied bias magnetic field of 3 kOe yielding it especially attractive for tunable and reconfigurable yet low cost microwave systems.

  10. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  11. Compact circularly polarized truncated square ring slot antenna with suppressed higher resonances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyidul Idzam Sabran

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact circularly polarized (CP antenna with an integrated higher order harmonic rejection filter. The proposed design operates within the ISM band of 2.32 GHz- 2.63 GHz and is suitable for example for wireless power transfer applications. Asymmetrical truncated edges on a square ring create a defected ground structure to excite the CP property, simultaneously realizing compactness. It offers a 50.5% reduced patch area compared to a conventional design. Novel stubs and slot shapes are integrated in the transmission line to reduce higher (up to the third order harmonics. The proposed prototype yields a -10 dB reflection coefficient (S11 impedance bandwidth of 12.53%, a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.27%, and a gain of 5.64 dBi. Measurements also show good agreement with simulations.

  12. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2015-10-22

    To characterize the propagation modes of flames, flame propagation speed must be accurately calculated. The impact of propagating edge-flames on the flow fields of unburned gases is limited experimentally. Thus, few studies have evaluated true propagation speeds by subtracting the flow velocities of unburned gases from flame displacement speeds. Here, we present a counterflow, annular slot burner that provides an ideal one-dimensional strain rate and lengthwise zero flow velocity that allowed us to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized by particle image velocimetry. These techniques allowed us to identify significant modifications to the flow fields of unburned gases caused by thermal expansion of the propagating edges, which enabled us to calculate true flame propagation speeds that took into account the flow velocities of unburned gases.

  13. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  14. A wide band slot-coupled beam sensing electrode for the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.; Rex, K.

    1991-05-01

    Stripline electrodes (traveling wave electrodes, directional couplers) are commonly used in particle accelerators as beam pickups and kickers. The longitudinally symmetric stripline has a constant beam coupling impedance as a function of length and has a characteristic magnitude sin(x) amplitude response in the frequency domain. An experimentally tapered stripline provides nearly constant coupling impedance vs. frequency and yields superior frequency-domain performance. In practice it is difficult to construct either of these devices for broad-band performance because of the transition from coaxial to stripline geometry. We report on the construction of an exponentially-tapered, slot-coupled ''stripline'' which was relatively easy to construct and has the desired frequency response. 2 refs., 6 figs

  15. High Power Test of an X-Band Slotted-IRIS Accelerator Structure at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebert, S.; Fandos, R.; Grudiev, A.; Heikkinen, S.; Rodriquez, J.A.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Laurent, L.

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC study group at CERN has built two X-band HDS (hybrid damped structure) accelerating structures for high-power testing in NLCTA at SLAC. These accelerating structures are novel with respect to their rf- design and their fabrication technique. The eleven-cell constant impedance structures, one made out of copper and one out of molybdenum, are assembled from clamped high-speed milled quadrants. They feature the same heavy higher-order-mode damping as nominal CLIC structures achieved by slotted irises and radial damping waveguides for each cell. The X-band accelerators are exactly scaled versions of structures tested at 30 GHz in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. The results of the X-band tests are presented and compared to those at 30 GHz to determine frequency scaling, and are compared to the extensive copper data from the NLC structure development program to determine material dependence and make a basic validation of the HDS design

  16. Harmonic Suppressed Slot Antennas Using Rectangular/Circular Defected Ground Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Ghaffarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two wide rectangle-shaped microstrip-fed 2.6-GHz slot antennas using defected ground structures (DGSs with a low design complexity are proposed to achieve wideband harmonic suppression. To accomplish this, two rectangular DGSs (RDGSs in the first antenna and two circular DGSs (CDGSs in the second one with various dimensions are etched into the ground plane, which could have a wideband-stop characteristic. Simulated and measured reflection coefficients indicate that the two proposed structures effectively suppress the second and third harmonics up to 23 dB between 3.5 and 10.5 GHz with a maximum ripple of 2.4 dB. In addition, the radiation patterns and peak gains of the antennas can be suppressed at least 17 dB and 7.1 dBi, respectively, at the third harmonic frequency of 7.86 GHz.

  17. A Novel CPW BandPass Filter Integrating Periodic Rectangular Slot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aytouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the design and the achievement of a Bandpass filter structure based on the use of rectangular slot cell. The originality of this work is to achieve a coplanar filter easy to integrate with microwave planar circuits and having a wide frequency bandwidth. The proposed bandpass filter is a low cost and compact planar filter structure. The final circuit is simulated by using two electromagnetic solvers, ADS and HFSS. The validation into simulation is based on using optimization methods integrated into the both solvers. Simulations have taken into account a high meshing density to cover the whole circuit. The fabricated bandpass filter has an area of 35X31mm2 and having a good insertion loss around -0.75dB in the bandwidth. The comparison between simulation and measurement results presents a good agreement.

  18. High precision slotted cavity measurement of a novel ceramic state polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; NurulAfsar, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Thin film materials are already used in a variety of microwave and higher frequency applications such as electrically tunable microwave devices, integrated circuits like MMICs, radomes, and radar absorbing coating. The determination of the dielectric properties of these films is thus of significant importance. The measurement of complex dielectric permittivity of thin films is very difficult at microwave, millimeter, and THz frequencies because both the amplitude change and phase shift are not large enough to evaluate the real part of the dielectric permittivity. A specially designed transverse slotted cavity for X-band microwave measurement has been designed and constructed to employ with a vector network analyzer to evaluate the real part of dielectric permittivity of thin films accurately and conveniently. Commercially available polymer thin films are measured to validate the methods.

  19. Design optimization for permanent magnet machine with efficient slot per pole ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Upendra Kumar; Rao, P. Mallikarjuna

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the enhancement of a Brush Less Direct Current motor (BLDC) with 6Poles and 8slots. In particular; it is focused on amulti-objective optimization using a Genetic Algorithmand Grey Wolf Optimization developed in MATLAB. The optimization aims to maximize the maximum output power value and minimize the total losses of a motor. This paper presents an application of the MATLAB optimization algorithms to brushless DC (BLDC) motor design, with 7 design parameters chosen to be free. The optimal design parameters of the motor derived by GA are compared with those obtained by Grey Wolf Optimization technique. A comparative report on the specified enhancement approaches appearsthat Grey Wolf Optimization technique has a better convergence.

  20. R&D Towards Commercialization of Sea Wave Slot Cone Generator (SSG) Overtopping Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    between ventures and private investors, and to promote an accelerated shift from a technology to a market focus. This Thesis is presented as a collection of works published by the author on her research on the Sea wave Slot cone Generator wave energy converter. These include 1 accepted and 2 submitted......Global energy needs are likely to continue to grow steadily for the next two and a half decades (International Energy Agency, 2006). If governments continue with current policies the world’s energy needs would be more than 50% higher in 2030 than today. Over 60% of that increase would be covered...... in the form of oil and natural gas. Climate destabilizing carbon-dioxide emissions would continue to rise, calling into question the long-term sustainability of the global energy system. More vigorous government policies in consuming countries are steering the world onto an energy path oriented to reduce...

  1. Wideband Tunable PIFA Antenna with Loaded Slot Structure for Mobile Handset and LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elfergani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A compact planar inverted F antenna (PIFA with a tunable frequency response is presented. Tuning of the resonant frequency is realized by loading a varactor on an embedded slot of the proposed antenna structure without further optimizing other antenna geometry parameters. The antenna exhibits a wide frequency range from 1570 to 2600 MHz with a good impedance matching (S11 ≤-10 dB covering the GPS, PCS, DCS, UMTS, WLAN and LTE systems. To validate the theoretical model and design concept, the antenna prototype was fabricated and measured. The compact size of the antenna is 15mm × 8mm × 3mm, which makes this antenna a good candidate for mobile handset and wireless communication applications.

  2. Dual-band reflective polarization converter based on slotted wire resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxia; Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Yang; Liang, Difei; Lu, Haipeng; Deng, Longjiang

    2018-02-01

    A dual-band and high-efficiency reflective linear polarization converter composed of a layer of slotted metal wires has been proposed. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the structure can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized state for two distinct frequency bands under normal incidence: 9.8-15.1 and 19.2-25.7 GHz. This phenomenon is attributed to a resonance that corresponds to the "trapped mode" at 15.8 GHz. This mode is stable with structural parameters and incident angle at a relatively wide range, and thus becomes promising for dual-band (also multiband) devices design. By surface current distribution and electric field analysis, the operation mechanism has been illuminated, especially for the "trapped mode", identified by the equally but also oppositely directed currents in each unit cell.

  3. UHF coplanar-slot antenna for aircraft-to-satellite data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The initiative for starting the Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR) Program came from a recognition that much of the world's weather originates in the data sparse area of the tropics which are primarily ocean. The ASDAR system consists of (1) a data acquisition and control unit to acquire, store and format these data; (2) a clock to time the data sampling and transmission periods; and (3) a transmitter and low-profile upper hemisphere coverage antenna to relay the formatted data via satellite to the National Weather Service ground stations, as shown schematically. The low-profile antenna is a conformal antenna based on the coplanar-slot approach. The antenna is circular polarized and has an on-axis gain of nearly 2.5 dB and a HPBW greater than 90 deg. The discussion covers antenna design, radiation characteristics, flight testing, and system performance.

  4. Liquid metal MHD and heat transfer in a tokamak blanket slotted coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Black, D.B.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I.; Shapiro, A.M.; Evtushenko, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic)/heat transfer test was conducted at the ALEX (Argonne Liquid Metal Experiment) facility of ANL (Argonne National Laboratory), jointly between ANL and NIIEFA (Efremov Institute). The test section was a rectangular slotted channel geometry (meaning the channel has a high aspect ratio, in this case 10:1, and the long side is parallel to the applied magnetic field). Isothermal and heat transfer data were collected. A heat flux of ∼9 W/cm 2 was applied to the top horizontal surface (the long side) of the test section. Hartmann Numbers to 1050 (2 Tesla), interaction parameters to 9 x 10 3 , Peclet numbers of 10--200, based on the half-width of the small dimension (7mm), and velocities of 1--75 cm/sec. were achieved. The working fluid was NaK (sodium potassium eutectic). All four interior walls were bare, 300-series stainless steel, conducting walls

  5. Low-loss tunable 1D ITO-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Ma, Zhizhen; Suer, Can; Liu, Ke; Dalir, Hamed; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-05-01

    Tunable optical material properties enable novel applications in both versatile metamaterials and photonic components including optical sources and modulators. Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are able to highly tune their optical properties with applied bias via altering their free carrier concentration and hence plasma dispersion. The TCO material indium tin oxide (ITO) exhibits unity-strong index change and epsilon-near-zero behavior. However, with such tuning the corresponding high optical losses, originating from the fundamental Kramers–Kronig relations, result in low cavity finesse. However, achieving efficient tuning in ITO-cavities without using light–matter interaction enhancement techniques such as polaritonic modes, which are inherently lossy, is a challenge. Here we discuss a novel one-dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam cavity to deliver a cavity system offering a wide range of resonance tuning range, while preserving physical compact footprints. We show that a vertical silicon-slot waveguide incorporating an actively gated-ITO layer delivers ∼3.4 nm of tuning. By deploying distributed feedback, we are able to keep the Q-factor moderately high with tuning. Combining this with the sub-diffraction limited mode volume (0.1 (λ/2n)3) from the photonic (non-plasmonic) slot waveguide, facilitates a high Purcell factor exceeding 1000. This strong light–matter-interaction shows that reducing the mode volume of a cavity outweighs reducing the losses in diffraction limited modal cavities such as those from bulk Si3N4. These tunable cavities enable future modulators and optical sources such as tunable lasers.

  6. The allure of multi-line games in modern slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Graydon, Candice; Harrigan, Kevin A; Wojtowicz, Lisa; Siu, Vivian; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2014-11-01

    In multi-line slot machines, players can wager on more than one line per spin. We sought to show that players preferred multi-line over single-line games, and that certain game features could cause multi-line game play to feel more rewarding. Reward was measured using post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) following each outcome (the time between outcome delivery and the next spin). Gamblers (n = 102) played 250 spins on a 20-line game and 250 spins on a one-line game (answering questions about game experiences following each session). Playing one-line, a small credit gain (e.g. 2 cents) was a net win. In the 20-line game it was a net loss of 18 credits but was still accompanied by 'winning' sights and sounds. Most players (94%) preferred the 20-line game. PRPs for small credit gains (net losses) in the 20-line game were equivalent, or larger than in the one-line game where such gains were wins. The largest increase in PRP size was between the 0 and 2 credit conditions for both games. Thus 20-line players reacted as though these net losses of 18 credits were rewarding. Players' estimates of the number of true wins were accurate in the one-line game, but they significantly over-estimated the number of true wins in the 20-line game (P game play. Multi-line games appear to be more appealing to gaming machine ('slots') players than single-line games. These games may be particularly absorbing for those with gambling problems. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Fundamental imaging characteristics of a slot-scan digital chest radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T. III; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Floyd, Carey E.; Ravin, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the fundamental image quality characteristics of a new slot-scan digital chest radiography system (ThoraScan, Delft Imaging Systems/Nucletron, Veenendaal, The Netherlands). The linearity of the system was measured over a wide exposure range at 90, 117, and 140 kVp with added Al filtration. System uniformity and reproducibility were established with an analysis of images from repeated exposures. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was evaluated using an established edge method. The noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system were evaluated at the three kilo-voltages over a range of exposures. Scatter fraction (SF) measurements were made using a posterior beam stop method and a geometrical chest phantom. The system demonstrated excellent linearity, but some structured nonuniformities. The 0.1 MTF values occurred between 3.3-3.5 mm -1 . The DQE(0.15) and DQE(2.5) were 0.21 and 0.07 at 90 kVp, 0.18 and 0.05 at 117 kVp, and 0.16 and 0.03 at 140 kVp, respectively. The system exhibited remarkably lower SFs compared to conventional full-field systems with anti-scatter grid, measuring 0.13 in the lungs and 0.43 in the mediastinum. The findings indicated that the slot-scan design provides marked scatter reduction leading to high effective DQE (DQE eff ) of the system and reduced patient dose required to achieve high image quality

  8. A CdZnTe slot-scanned detector for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainprize, James G.; Ford, Nancy L.; Yin Shi; Gordon, Eli E.; Hamilton, William J.; Tuemer, Tuemay O.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-resolution detector has been developed for use in a slot-scanned digital mammography system. The detector is a hybrid device that consists of a CCD operating in time-delay integration mode that is bonded to a 150-μm-thick CdZnTe photoconductor array. The CCD was designed with a detector element pitch of 50 μm. Two devices were evaluated with differing crystalline quality. Incomplete charge collection was a source of reduction in DQE. This occurs in both devices due to characteristically low mobility-lifetime products for CdZnTe, with the greatest losses demonstrated by the multicrystalline sample. The mobility-lifetime products for the multicrystalline device were found to be 2.4x10 -4 and 4.0x10 -7 cm 2 /V for electrons and holes, respectively. The device constructed with higher quality single crystal CdZnTe demonstrated mobility-lifetime products of 1.0x10 -4 and 4.4x10 -6 cm 2 /V for electrons and holes. The MTF and DQE for the device were measured at several exposures and results were compared to predictions from a linear systems model of signal and noise propagation. The MTF at a spatial frequency of 10 mm -1 exceeded 0.18 and 0.56 along the scan and slot directions, respectively. Scanning motion and CCD design limited the resolution along the scan direction. For an x-ray beam from a tungsten target tube with 40 μm molybdenum filtration operated at 26 kV, the single crystal device demonstrated a DQE(0) of 0.70±0.02 at 7.1x10 -6 C/kg (27 mR) exposure to the detector, despite its relatively poor charge collection efficiency

  9. Modeling and characterization of electret based vibration energy harvesters in slot-effect configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M; Altena, G; Elfrink, R; Goedbloed, M; De Nooijer, C; Van Schaijk, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elaborate a model and the optimization guidelines for electret based harvesters with a specific electret/electrodes configuration, namely the slot-effect configuration. Slot-effect configured harvesters have been investigated experimentally by several research groups. A model describing their dynamic behavior has also been recently proposed in the literature. However, the simplifications used in the existing model can lead to inaccuracies and a refined analysis is elaborated in the present article. The model is compared with experimental measurements on MEMS fabricated devices with a corrugated electret. The electrodes dimensioning in the MEMS device are chosen so that the harvester behaves in a quasi-linear manner over its full range of displacement. This quasi-linearity simplifies greatly the device optimization. Indeed, the behavior of the developed electrostatic harvester is shown to be very comparable to that of piezoelectric harvesters, which are very well understood and documented. The influence of several design parameters on output power performance is investigated. As long as pull-in and breakdown voltage effects can be avoided, the electret surface potential should be maximized and the air gap minimized. We also investigate theoretically the influence of three types of electret on the generated power: planar, corrugated with partial charge coverage, and corrugated with full charge coverage. With the dimensions corresponding to our MEMS devices, the output power characteristics for the three types of electret are similar. However, it is shown that this is not always true. In some conditions, corrugated electrets with full charge coverage are detrimental for the generated power. (paper)

  10. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  11. Experimental energy consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for data collection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-07-24

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  12. Using sound to unmask losses disguised as wins in multiline slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Collins, Karen; Harrigan, Kevin A; Graydon, Candice; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2015-03-01

    Losses disguised as wins (LDWs) are slot machine outcomes where participants bet on multiple lines and win back less than their wager. Despite losing money, the machine celebrates these outcomes with reinforcing sights and sounds. Here, we sought to show that psychophysically and psychologically, participants treat LDWs as wins, but that we could expose LDWs as losses by using negative sounds as feedback. 157 participants were allocated into one of three conditions: a standard sound condition where LDWs, despite being losses, are paired with winning sights and sounds; a silent condition, where LDWs are paired with silence; and a negative sound condition where LDWs and regular losses are both followed by a negative sound. After viewing a paytable, participants conducted 300 spins on a slot machine simulator while heart rate deceleration (HRD) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were monitored. Participants were then shown 20 different spin outcomes including LDWs and asked whether they had won or lost on that outcome. Participants then estimated on how many spins (out of 300) they won more than they wagered. SCRs were similar for losses and LDWs (both smaller than actual wins). HRD, however, was steeper for both wins and LDWs, compared to losses. In the standard condition, a majority of participants (mis)categorized LDWs as wins, and significantly overestimated the number of times they actually won. In the negative sound condition, this pattern was reversed; most participants correctly categorized LDWs as losses, and they gave high-fidelity win estimates. We conclude that participants both think and physiologically react to LDWs as though they are wins, a miscategorization that misleads them to think that they are winning more often than they actually are. Sound can be used to effectively prevent this misconception and unmask the disguise of LDWs.

  13. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change.

  14. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  15. Free-piston cutting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  16. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  17. The Effects of In-Office Reconditioning on the Slot Dimensions and Static Frictional Resistance of Stainless Steel Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluru, Rohini; Nellore, Chaitanya; Karnati, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thalapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijay Bhaskar; Ramyasree, Konda; Prasad, Mandava

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontists are commonly faced with the decision of what to do with loose brackets, and with inaccurately located brackets that need repositioning during treatment. One solution is to recycle the brackets. The potential effects of reconditioning a bracket are dependent upon many factors which may result in physical changes like alteration in slot tolerance, which may influence sliding mechanics by affecting frictional resistance. To study and compare the dimensional changes in the bracket slot width and depth in reconditioned brackets from unused brackets under scanning electronic microscope and to study and compare any consequent effects on the static frictional resistance of stainless steel brackets after reconditioning and in unused brackets. Dentarum manufactured 90 stainless steel central incisors edgewise brackets of size 0.22 X 0.030″ inch and 0° tip and 0°angulation were taken. 60 samples for measuring frictional resistance and 30 samples for measuring slot dimensions. Ortho organizers manufactured stainless steel arch wires 0.019 X 0.025″ straight lengths 60 in number were considered for measuring static frictional resistance. The mean slot width and depth of new brackets were 0.0251″ and 0.0471″, which exceeded the manufacturers reported nominal size of 0.022″ X 0.030″, by 0.003″ and 0.017″. The reconditioned brackets demonstrated a further increase in mean slot width and depth to 0.028″ and 0.0518″ that is by 0.0035″ and 0.0047″ which is statistically significant (p=0.001, 0.002). The mean static frictional forces of the reconditioned brackets was nearly similar to that of new brackets that is 0.3167N for reconditioned brackets and 0.2613 N for new brackets. Although the reconditioning process results in physical changes to bracket structure this does not appear to result in significant effect on ex-vivo static frictional resistance.

  18. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  19. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  20. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...