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  1. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    was incident deep venous thrombosis. There were no losses to follow-up. RESULTS: During 368381 person-years, 670 individuals developed deep venous thrombosis. A rheumatoid factor concentration ≥ vs ...BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease...... in the general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome...

  2. Increasing Impact of Coursework Through Deep Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Schonstein, D.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past few years, ASU has developed the online astrobiology lab course Habitable Worlds, which has been offered to over 1,500 students over seven semesters. The course is offered through Smart Sparrow's intelligent tutoring system, which records student answers, time on question, simulation setups, and additional data that we refer to as "analytics". As the development of the course has stabilized, we have been able to devote more time to analyzing these data, extracting patterns of student behavior and how they have changed as the course has developed. During the most recent two semesters, pre- and post-tests of content knowledge related to the greenhouse effect were administered to assess changes in students' knowledge. The results of the Fall 2013 content assessment and an analysis of each step of every activity using the course platform analytics were used to identify problematic concepts and lesson elements, which were redesigned for the following semester. We observed a statistically significant improvement from pre to post instruction in Spring 2014. Preliminary results seem to indicate that several interactive activities, which replaced written/spoken content, contributed to this positive outcome. Our study demonstrates the benefit of deep analytics for thorough analysis of student results and quick iteration, allowing for significantly improved exercises to be redeployed quickly. The misconceptions that students have and retain depend on the individual student, although certain patterns do emerge in the class as a whole. These patterns can be seen in student discussion board behavior, the types of answers they submit, and the patterns of mistakes they make. By interrogating this wealth of data, we seek to identify the patterns that outstanding, struggling, and failing students display and how early in the class these patterns can be detected. If these patterns can be identified and detected early in the semester, instructors can intervene earlier

  3. Imaging findings and significance of deep neck space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qixin; Gu Yifeng; Du Lianjun; Zhu Lili; Pan Yuping; Li Minghua; Yang Shixun; Shang Kezhong; Yin Shankai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of deep neck space cellulitis and abscess and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of deep neck space infection. Methods: CT and MRI findings of 28 cases with deep neck space infection proved by clinical manifestation and pathology were analyzed, including 11 cases of retropharyngeal space, 5 cases of parapharyngeal space infection, 4 cases of masticator space infection, and 8 cases of multi-space infection. Results: CT and MRI could display the swelling of the soft tissues and displacement, reduction, or disappearance of lipoid space in the cellulitis. In inflammatory tissues, MRI imaging demonstrated hypointense or isointense signal on T 1 WI, and hyperintense signal changes on T 2 WI. In abscess, CT could display hypodensity in the center and boundary enhancement of the abscess. MRI could display obvious hyperintense signal on T 2 WI and boundary enhancement. Conclusion: CT and MRI could provide useful information for deep neck space cellulitis and abscess

  4. Significance testing of orbital forcing in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of orbitally forced (Milankovitch) climate cycles in geological archives marked a paradigm shift in Earth science, revealing a heartbeat within the climate system of general importance and key utility. Resolving orbital cycles in stratigraphic data is, however, problematic owing to the imperfect stratigraphic preservation of climate signals, the masking effects of non-periodic variance, and uncertainties in the expected responses of proxy records to climate change. Power spectral analysis is the primary tool used to facilitate identification of orbital cycles in stratigraphic data, but commonly employed methods for testing the significance of relatively high narrow-band variance of potential orbital origin in spectra have been criticised for inadequately balancing the respective probabilities of type I (false positive) and type II (false negative) errors. This has led to suggestions that the importance of orbital forcing in deep time is overstated [1]. It can be readily demonstrated, however, that the imperfect nature of the stratigraphic record sets an upper limit on the attainable significance of orbital signals. Optimised significance testing is that which minimises the sum of type I and type II errors [2]. Numerical simulations of stratigraphically preserved orbital signals suggest that optimum significance levels at which to reject a null hypothesis of no orbital forcing cluster between 99% and 99.9%. This is lower than recently advocated [1], but higher than the 90-99% levels most commonly employed in the literature. Nevertheless, in consonance with the emergent view from other scientific disciplines, fixed-value null hypothesis significance testing of power spectra is likely ill suited to verifying orbital forcing. In part, this is because the experiments also indicate that the combined probability of making an error in the acceptance or rejection of an orbital hypothesis may be rather high for typical stratigraphic data, and hence the use of

  5. Primary venous insufficiency increases risk of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaydakov, Maxim E; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins have been recognized as a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, venous reflux has not carried the same correlation. This study evaluated the association between primary valvular reflux and DVT. We performed a nested case-control study with enrollment of outpatients presenting to the vascular laboratory with signs and symptoms of DVT. All patients had a complete bilateral venous duplex examination evaluating for DVT and superficial and deep venous valvular reflux. Eighty-seven patients with confirmed DVT on venous duplex were selected for the study group. The control group was randomly selected from the same cohort in a 4:1 ratio matched by age and gender (n = 348). Groups were compared for the prevalence of deep and superficial reflux. DVT outpatients were 4.7-times more likely to have primary valvular reflux than symptomatic controls (65.5% vs 29.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-7.7; P superficial reflux was 4.6-times more prevalent (43.7% vs 14.4%; odds ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.75-7.77; P superficial reflux than non-DVT patients (13.8% vs 6.6%, 95% CI, 1.08-4.75; P = .044). The prevalence of primary valvular reflux in patients with DVT is significantly higher than expected. Reflux may be considered as a novel risk factor for DVT. Two-thirds of patients with DVT have pre-existent primary chronic venous disease, which is likely to contribute to post-thrombotic morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  7. The Significance of Deep Groundwater Contributions to Streamflow in a Crystalline Bedrock Mountain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G.; Frisbee, M. D.; Harding, J.; Wilson, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    In western states, such as New Mexico, most surface water is derived from high-elevation mountainous watersheds. Unfortunately, the interaction between groundwater and surface water within mountain systems is poorly understood. While most research on streamflow generation has been conducted at the hillslope scale, there are significant limitations when attempting to upscale these processes to an entire basin. Recent work by Frisbee et al. (2011) in the mountainous Saguache watershed (~1600 km^2) of southern Colorado has shown a significant portion of streamflow is controlled by old (>1000 yrs) groundwater inputs, and this old groundwater greatly influences stream geochemistry and residence time distributions. Is the deep-groundwater conceptual model developed for the volcanic-rich Saguache transferable to other watersheds with different drainage areas and geologic settings, and larger human population? We apply the conceptual model developed for Saguache to the Rio Hondo, a mesoscale (~200 km^2) watershed in northern New Mexico with crystalline basement rock that has been extensively fractured due to tectonic activity. We hypothesize that the enhanced secondary permeability of the basement rock allows for significant groundwater flow through the mountain block, a portion of which is eventually discharged to the surface water system. Upwelling from this deep, more geochemically evolved groundwater would be expected to increase moving from the headwaters to the outlet. Geochemical data collected from the Rio Hondo strongly supports this hypothesis. Surface water solute concentrations for most constituents increase as a function of the drainage area while the stable isotopic signature remains constant (both spatially and temporally), indicating that while nearly all water in the basin is sourced from winter and spring precipitation it has undergone differing degrees of geochemical evolution along different flow paths. End-member mixing analysis (EMMA) performed on

  8. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  9. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  10. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  11. Ubiquity and quantitative significance of bacterioplankton lineages inhabiting the oxygenated hypolimnion of deep freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yusuke; Fujinaga, Shohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kohzu, Ayato; Oyagi, Hideo; Nakano, Shin-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    The oxygenated hypolimnion accounts for a volumetrically significant part of the global freshwater systems. Previous studies have proposed the presence of hypolimnion-specific bacterioplankton lineages that are distinct from those inhabiting the epilimnion. To date, however, no consensus exists regarding their ubiquity and abundance, which is necessary to evaluate their ecological importance. The present study investigated the bacterioplankton community in the oxygenated hypolimnia of 10 deep freshwater lakes. Despite the broad geochemical characteristics of the lakes, 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the communities in the oxygenated hypolimnia were distinct from those in the epilimnia and identified several predominant lineages inhabiting multiple lakes. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that abundant hypolimnion-specific lineages, CL500-11 (Chloroflexi), CL500-3, CL500-37, CL500-15 (Planctomycetes) and Marine Group I (Thaumarchaeota), together accounted for 1.5-32.9% of all bacterioplankton in the hypolimnion of the lakes. Furthermore, an analysis of single-nucleotide variation in the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (oligotyping) suggested the presence of different sub-populations between lakes and water layers among the lineages occurring in the entire water layer (for example, acI-B1 and acI-A7). Collectively, these results provide the first comprehensive overview of the bacterioplankton community in the oxygenated hypolimnion of deep freshwater lakes.

  12. Significance of Bioturbated Layer (BTL) and Deep Groundwater Storage on Runoff in Steep Saprolitic Tropical Lowlands Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Ogden, F. L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Bioturbated soil layers (BTLs) play a significant role in hydrological response and provisioning of ecosystem services in steep, saprolitic, tropical lowlands catchments. In this study, a new physically-based model formulation was developed for testing of runoff generation hypotheses. A main feature in the model formulation is explicit simulation of hydrological processes in the BTL including macropores, which our field observations show are ubiquitous, and deep groundwater stores that provide streamflow during the dry season The numerical model developed includes two main flow paths in the BTL, including one-dimensional (1D) vertical infiltration and two-dimensional (2D) lateral flows in both macropores and the soil matrix. Hydrological processes incorporated along with the BTL processes include intercepted rainfall, evapotranspiration, 2D surface flow and 1D deep groundwater discharge. This model was first tested in a 6.5 ha secondary succession catchment, that is under study by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Agua Salud project in Panama, which is dominated by steep slopes. With the incorporation of lateral macropore flow mechanism in the BTL, the model performs better than only including soil matrix flow in the BTL especially in simulating baseflow dynamics, which illustrates the importance of preferential flow from the BTL to stream discharge dynamics. The increase in the BTL thickness promotes more flow through the BTL and increases storage in both the BTL and the deep groundwater reservoir, but decreases the total streamflow and overland flow. Lateral macropore diameter distribution influences flows more than the macropore number or distribution type. The model has thus far passed falsification tests during the early wet season. Complexity in subsurface storage and base flow generation offer a new challenge for this model. The overall objective is to develop a model formulation that is useful in practical applications related to land

  13. Modeling positional effects of regulatory sequences with spline transformations increases prediction accuracy of deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Žiga; Barekatain, Mohammadamin; Cheng, Jun; Gagneur, Julien

    2017-11-16

    Regulatory sequences are not solely defined by their nucleic acid sequence but also by their relative distances to genomic landmarks such as transcription start site, exon boundaries, or polyadenylation site. Deep learning has become the approach of choice for modeling regulatory sequences because of its strength to learn complex sequence features. However, modeling relative distances to genomic landmarks in deep neural networks has not been addressed. Here we developed spline transformation, a neural network module based on splines to flexibly and robustly model distances. Modeling distances to various genomic landmarks with spline transformations significantly increased state-of-the-art prediction accuracy of in vivo RNA-binding protein binding sites for 120 out of 123 proteins. We also developed a deep neural network for human splice branchpoint based on spline transformations that outperformed the current best, already distance-based, machine learning model. Compared to piecewise linear transformation, as obtained by composition of rectified linear units, spline transformation yields higher prediction accuracy as well as faster and more robust training. As spline transformation can be applied to further quantities beyond distances, such as methylation or conservation, we foresee it as a versatile component in the genomics deep learning toolbox. Spline transformation is implemented as a Keras layer in the CONCISE python package: https://github.com/gagneurlab/concise. Analysis code is available at goo.gl/3yMY5w. avsec@in.tum.de; gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B

    2014-12-15

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of water fluxes in a deep arid-region vadose zone to waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnejack, K.R.; Blout, D.O.; Sully, M.J.; Emer, D.F.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Dever, L.G.; O'Neill, L.J.; Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recently collected subsurface site characterization data have led to the development of a conceptual model of water movement beneath the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that differs significantly from the conceptual model of water movement inherent in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. At the Area 5 RWMS, water fluxes in approximately the upper 75 m (250 ft) of the vadose zone point in the upward direction (rather than downward) which effectively isolates this region from the deep (approximately 250 m (820 ft)) uppermost aquifer. Standard RCRA approaches for detection and containment (groundwater monitoring and double liners/leachate collection/leak detection systems) are not able to fulfill their intended function in this rather unique hydrogeologic environment. In order to better fulfill the waste detection and containment intentions of RCRA for mixed waste disposal at the Area 5 RWMS, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) is preparing a single petition for both a waiver from groundwater monitoring and an exemption from double liners with leachate collection/leak detection. DOE/NV proposes in this petition that the containment function of liners and leachate collection is better accomplished by the natural hydrogeologic processes operating in the upper vadose zone; and the detection function of groundwater monitoring and the leak detection system in liners is better fulfilled by an alternative vadose zone monitoring system. In addition, an alternative point of compliance is proposed that will aid in early detection, as well as limit the extent of potential contamination before detection. Finally, special cell design features and operation practices will be implemented to limit leachate formation, especially while the cell is open to the atmosphere during waste emplacement

  16. Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Future global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our warming...... world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global warming event 55.8Ma ago, a possible future...... indicates climate sensitivity increase with global warming....

  17. Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Jens F; Sunde, Niels A; Bergholt, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation......Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation...

  18. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  19. Hydrothermal Fe cycling and deep ocean organic carbon scavenging: Model-based evidence for significant POC supply to seafloor sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    German, C.R.; Legendre, L.L.; Sander, S.G.;; Niquil, N.; Luther-III, G.W.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Han, X.; LeBris, N.

    by more than ~10% over background values, what the model does indicate is that scavenging of carbon in association with Fe-rich hydrothermal plume particles should play a significant role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon to deep ocean...

  20. Lupus anticoagulant is significantly associated with inflammatory reactions in patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Sjøland, Jonas A.; Gram, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lupus anticoagulant (LA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are suggested as risk factors for development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among patients without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Other conditions, e.g. inflammation, are reported to induce LA and it is uncertain whether...... the association between LA and DVT is causal. In this study the associations between aPL, LA and inflammation were investigated in 170 consecutive patients without SLE, but with a tentative diagnosis of DVT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DVT was diagnosed in 64 patients. LA was determined according to the criteria...

  1. Interactions Between Students and Tutor in Problem-Based Learning: The Significance of Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy A. Azer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is an excellent opportunity for students to take responsibility for their learning and to develop a number of cognitive skills. These include identifying problems in the trigger, generating hypotheses, constructing mechanisms, developing an enquiry plan, ranking their hypotheses on the basis of available evidence, interpreting clinical and laboratory findings, identifying their learning needs, and dealing with uncertainty. Students also need to work collaboratively in their group, communicate effectively, and take active roles in the tutorials. Therefore, interaction in the group between students and their tutor is vital to ensure deep learning and successful outcomes. The aims of this paper are to discuss the key principles for successful interaction in PBL tutorials and to highlight the major symptoms of superficial learning and poor interactions. This comprises a wide range of symptoms for different group problems, including superficial learning. By early detection of such problems, tutors will be able to explore actions with the group and negotiate changes that can foster group dynamics and enforce deep learning.

  2. Significant Dissipation of Tidal Energy in the Deep Ocean Inferred from Satellite Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, G. D.; Ray, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    How and where the ocean tides dissipate their energy are longstanding questions that have consequences ranging from the history of the Moon to the mixing of the oceans. Historically, the principal sink of tidal energy has been thought to be bottom friction in shallow seas. There has long been suggestive however, that tidal dissipation also occurs in the open ocean through the scattering by ocean-bottom topography of surface tides into internal waves, but estimates of the magnitude of this possible sink have varied widely. Here we use satellite altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. We show that approximately 10(exp 12) watts-that is, 1 TW, representing 25-30% of the total dissipation-occurs in the deep ocean, generally near areas of rough topography. Of the estimated 2 TW of mixing energy required to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean, one-half could therefore be provided by the tides, with the other half coming from action on the surface of the ocean.

  3. The potential significance of permafrost to the behaviour of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Marsily, G.de

    1991-02-01

    Permafrost is one of the scenarios that is being considered as part of the groundwater flow and transport modelling for the Project-90 assessment. It is included as one of the primary Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) which are being kept outside the Process System in the SKB/SKI scenario development project. There is a large amount of evidence that Sweden has suffered several cycles of permafrost development over the Quaternary, approximately the last 2My, and climatic predictions for the next hundred thousand years suggest that similar climatic cycling is likely to occur. The presence of permafrost could have important effects on the hydrogeological regime and could therefore be important in modifying the release and dispersion of radionuclides from a repository. The climatic conditions of permafrost would also influence radionuclide migration and accumulation in the biosphere and the associated radiation exposure of man. These biosphere aspects are not considered here but the implications for discharge into the biosphere are examined, including the abstraction of groundwater by man in permafrost regions. This report reviews the evidence relating to permafrost development and discusses the possible implications for the long-term safety of a deep repository. (78 refs.) (au)

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation Target Selection in an Advanced Parkinson's Disease Patient with Significant Tremor and Comorbid Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar S. Patel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Vignette: A 67-year-old female with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, medically refractory tremor, and a history of significant depression presents for evaluation of deep brain stimulation (DBS candidacy.  Clinical Dilemma: Traditionally, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has been the preferred target for patients with significant PD tremor. However, STN stimulation is avoided in patients with a significant pre-surgical history of mood disorder.  Clinical Solution: Bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus interna led to significant short term improvement in PD motor symptoms, including significant tremor reduction.  Gap in Knowledge: There is insufficient evidence to support or refute clinicians' traditional preference for STN stimulation in treating refractory PD tremor. Similarly, the available evidence for risk of worsening depression and/or suicidality after STN DBS is mixed. Both questions require further clarification to guide patient and clinician decision-making.

  5. Increased energy differentially increases richness and abundance of optimal body sizes in deep-sea wood falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P; Webb, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies suggest that the total energy available in natural communities influences body size as well as patterns of abundance and diversity. But the precise mechanisms underlying these relationships or how these three ecological properties relate remain elusive. We identify five hypotheses relating energy availability, body size distributions, abundance, and species richness within communities, and we use experimental deep-sea wood fall communities to test their predicted effects both on descriptors describing the species-richness-body-size distribution, and on trends in species richness within size classes over an energy gradient (size-class-richness relationships). Invertebrate communities were taxonomically identified, weighed, and counted from 32 Acacia sp. logs ranging in size from 0.6 to 20.6 kg (corresponding to different levels of energy available), which were deployed at 3,203 m in the Northeast Pacific Ocean for 5 and 7 yr. Trends in both the species-richness-body-size distribution and the size-class-richness distribution with increasing wood fall size provide support for the Increased Packing hypothesis: species richness increases with increasing wood fall size but only in the modal size class. Furthermore, species richness of body size classes reflected the abundance of individuals in that size class. Thus, increases in richness in the modal size class with increasing energy were concordant with increases in abundance within that size class. The results suggest that increases in species richness occurring as energy availability increases may be isolated to specific niches, e.g., the body size classes, especially in communities developing on discrete and energetically isolated resources such as deep sea wood falls. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Increased precursor cell proliferation after deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: a human study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinata Vedam-Mai

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been used for more than a decade to treat Parkinson's disease (PD; however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. Given the close proximity of the electrode trajectory to areas of the brain known as the "germinal niches," we sought to explore the possibility that DBS influences neural stem cell proliferation locally, as well as more distantly.We studied the brains of a total of 12 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients that were treated with DBS (the electrode placement occurred 0.5-6 years before death, and who subsequently died of unrelated illnesses. These were compared to the brains of 10 control individuals without CNS disease, and those of 5 PD patients with no DBS.Immunohistochemical analyses of the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle lining, and the tissue surrounding the DBS lead revealed significantly greater numbers of proliferating cells expressing markers of the cell cycle, plasticity, and neural precursor cells in PD-DBS tissue compared with both normal brain tissue and tissue from PD patients not treated with DBS. The level of cell proliferation in the SVZ in PD-DBS brains was 2-6 fold greater than that in normal and untreated PD brains.Our data suggest that DBS is capable of increasing cellular plasticity in the brain, and we hypothesize that it may have more widespread effects beyond the electrode location. It is unclear whether these effects of DBS have any symptomatic or other beneficial influences on PD.

  7. Protein oxidative stress markers in peritoneal fluids of women with deep infiltrating endometriosis are increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Fiorese, Mauro; Marcellin, Louis; Lemarechal, Herve; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric; Borderie, Didier; Chapron, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Are protein oxidative stress markers [thiols, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites] in perioperative peritoneal fluid higher in women with histologically proven endometriosis when compared with endometriosis-free controls? Protein oxidative stress markers are significantly increased in peritoneal fluids from women with deep infiltrating endometriosis with intestinal involvement when compared with endometriosis-free controls. Endometriosis is a common gynaecologic condition characterized by an important inflammatory process. Various source of evidence support the role of oxidative stress in the development of endometriosis. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and December 2012, and included 235 non-pregnant women, younger than 42 year old, undergoing surgery for a benign gynaecological condition. After complete surgical exploration of the abdomino-pelvic cavity, 150 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 85 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Women with endometriosis were staged according to a surgical classification in three different phenotypes of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Perioperative peritoneal fluids samples were obtained from all study participants. Thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites were assayed in all peritoneal samples. Concentrations of peritoneal AOPP were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in the control group (median, 128.9 µmol/l; range, 0.3-1180.1 versus median, 77.8 µmol/l; range, 0.8-616.1; P peritoneal nitrates/nitrites were higher in endometriosis patients than in the control group (median, 24.8 µmol/l; range, 1.6-681.6 versus median, 18.5 µmol/l; range, 1.6-184.5; P peritoneal fluids protein AOPP and nitrates/nitrites were significantly increased only in DIE samples

  8. Microbial communities of the deep unfrozen: Do microbes in taliks increase permafrost carbon vulnerability? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Blazewicz, S.; Jones, M.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Harden, J. W.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Turetsky, M.; Hultman, J.; Jansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The vast frozen terrain of northern latitude ecosystems is typically thought of as being nearly biologically inert for the winter period. Yet deep within the frozen ground of northern latitude soils reside microbial communities that can remain active during the winter months. As we have shown previously, microbial communities may remain active in permafrost soils just below the freezing point of water. Though perhaps more importantly, microbial communities persist in unfrozen areas of water, soil, and sediment beneath water bodies the entire year. Microbial activity in taliks may have significant impacts on biogeochemical cycling in northern latitude ecosystems because their activity is not limited by the winter months. Here we present compositional and functional data, including long term incubation data, for microbial communities within permafrost landscapes, in permafrost and taliks, and the implications of these activities on permafrost carbon decomposition and the flux of CO2 and CH4. Our experiment was conducted at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) within the Bonanza Creek LTER in interior Alaska. Our site consists of a black spruce forest on permafrost that has degraded into thermokarst bogs at various times over the last five hundred years. We assume the parent substrate of the deep (1-1.5m) thermokarst peat was similar to the nearby forest soil and permafrost C before thaw. At this site, flux tower and autochamber data show that the thermokarst bog is a sink of CO2 , but a significant source of CH4. Yet this does not tell the whole story as these data do not fully capture microbial activity within the deep unfrozen talik layer. There is published evidence that within thermokarst bogs, relatively rapid decomposition of old forest floor material may be occurring. There are several possible mechanisms for this pattern; one possible mechanism for accelerated decomposition is the overwintering activities of microbial communities in taliks of thermokarst

  9. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    We report a new route to improve quantum efficiencies of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent with concave curvatures. Furthermore, an efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  10. The effects of increasing occlusal vertical dimension on the deep masseter of rat at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Jie; Lu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Wen-Sheng; Dong, Fu-Sheng; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Chun-Yan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the influence of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension (iOVD) on the fibre-type distribution and ultrastructure of deep masseter of rat at different ages. A total of forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to age: 'teenage' group (n=24, 1.5 months) and 'young adult' group (n=24, 8 months). Both the teenage and the young adult rats were then randomly divided into the control group (n=12) and the experimental group (n=12). The occlusal vertical dimensions of the rats in the experimental groups were increased by placing composite resin on all maxillary molars. The fibre-type distribution and ultrastructure of the deep masseter were subsequently observed on day 7 and day 14 after iOVD. In the teenage experimental group, the proportion of type IIa fibres increased, while the proportion of type IIb and type IIx fibres decreased by day 7 after iOVD (Pocclusal vertical dimension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost of wound treatment to increase significantly in Denmark over the next decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anne Mette; Gottrup, F

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark.......To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark....

  12. Anatomical variations of the deep head of Cruveilhier of the flexor pollicis brevis and its significance for the evolution of the precision grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Samuel S; Aziz, M Ashraf; Ziermann, Janine M

    2017-01-01

    Cruveilhier described in 1834 the human flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), a muscle of the thenar compartment, as having a superficial and a deep head, respectively, inserted onto the radial and ulnar sesamoids of the thumb. Since then, Cruveilhier's deep head has been controversially discussed. Often this deep head is confused with Henle's "interosseous palmaris volaris" or said to be a slip of the oblique adductor pollicis. In the 1960s, Day and Napier described anatomical variations of the insertions of Cruveilhier's deep head, including its absence, and hypothesized, that the shift of the deep head's insertion from ulnar to radial facilitated "true opposability" in anthropoids. Their general thesis for muscular arrangements underlying the power and precision grip is sound, but they did not delineate their deep head from Henle's muscle or the adductor pollicis, and their description of the attachments of Cruveilhier's deep head were too vague and not supported by a significant portion of the anatomical literature. Here, we reinvestigated Cruveilhier's deep head to resolve the controversy about it and because many newer anatomy textbooks do not describe this muscle, while it is often an obvious functionally (writing, texting, precision grip) and clinically significant thenar muscle. For the first time, we empirically delineated Cruveilhier's deep head from neighboring muscles with which it was previously confused. We observed 100% occurrence of the uncontested deep head in 80 human hands, displaying a similar variability of insertions as Day and Napier, but in significantly different numbers. Furthermore, we found variability in the origin and included as important landmarks the trapezoid and the ligamentum carpi radiatum. We tested the assertion regarding the evolutionary morphology and its role in the improvements in thumb movements during various precision grips. Our overall conclusions differ with respect to the developmental and evolutionary origin of the FPB

  13. Flexor accessorius longus: A rare variation of the deep extrinsic digital flexors of the leg and its phylogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaijesh P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the calf muscles are rare. One such anomalous muscle, known as the Muscle Flexor accessorius longus (also named accessorius ad accessorium, accessorius secondus, accessory flexor digitorum longus or pronator pedis is of morphological significance. When present, this originates in the deep fascia of the tibia or fibula and inserts in the foot either into the flexor digitorum accessorius or into the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus. In this report we present a discussion of the morphological significance and phylogenetic history of one such muscle observed. In this case report we describe an anomalous calf muscle which extends from the popliteal region, runs along the posterior compartment of the leg, reaches the sole and is inserted to the flexor digitorum longus muscle. This kind of muscle variations are considered to be the higher origin of the flexor digitorum accessorius muscle of the sole. Here we discuss the phylogenetic history of this muscle as this muscle variant is present in some primitive mammals, absent in apes and in this particular case appeared as one of the muscles of the flexor compartment of the leg.

  14. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  16. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab

    2018-01-26

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  17. An Inexpensive Modified Primary Closure Technique for Class IV (Dirty) Wounds Significantly Decreases Superficial and Deep Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bradford J; Aloia, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the creation of several programs to decrease the incidence of surgical site infection, it remains a common complication that has a significant impact on patient recovery and medical costs. The following is a description and brief outcome report of a modified primary closure technique used for dirty (Class IV) wounds. There were 14 consecutive patients who had a laparotomy with Class IV wounds treated by a single surgeon (TAA) from 2011 to 2015. All patients had a history of cancer and either showed signs suggestive for an acute abdomen and required an emergent exploratory laparotomy or were found to have purulent intraabdominal infection at the time of elective surgery. The operation and "modified primary closure" technique (subcutaneous wound wicks with stapled skin closure) were performed in every case. The modified primary closure technique was utilized in 14 patients with a Class IV wound. There were no 30-day mortalities or readmissions. Wound wicks were slowly advanced out over a 7-day period, and only one patient required subsequent wound packing of a single-wicked area. There were no superficial or deep surgical site infections, or wound dehiscence during the hospital course, or 30-day postoperative period. The modified primary closure technique is efficient and inexpensive and was effective in a series of 14 patients with wounds classified as dirty.

  18. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  19. Deep learning analysis of the myocardium in coronary CT angiography for identification of patients with functionally significant coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Majd; Lessmann, Nikolas; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Wolterink, Jelmer M; Voskuil, Michiel; Viergever, Max A; Leiner, Tim; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-02-01

    In patients with coronary artery stenoses of intermediate severity, the functional significance needs to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement, performed during invasive coronary angiography (ICA), is most often used in clinical practice. To reduce the number of ICA procedures, we present a method for automatic identification of patients with functionally significant coronary artery stenoses, employing deep learning analysis of the left ventricle (LV) myocardium in rest coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The study includes consecutively acquired CCTA scans of 166 patients who underwent invasive FFR measurements. To identify patients with a functionally significant coronary artery stenosis, analysis is performed in several stages. First, the LV myocardium is segmented using a multiscale convolutional neural network (CNN). To characterize the segmented LV myocardium, it is subsequently encoded using unsupervised convolutional autoencoder (CAE). As ischemic changes are expected to appear locally, the LV myocardium is divided into a number of spatially connected clusters, and statistics of the encodings are computed as features. Thereafter, patients are classified according to the presence of functionally significant stenosis using an SVM classifier based on the extracted features. Quantitative evaluation of LV myocardium segmentation in 20 images resulted in an average Dice coefficient of 0.91 and an average mean absolute distance between the segmented and reference LV boundaries of 0.7 mm. Twenty CCTA images were used to train the LV myocardium encoder. Classification of patients was evaluated in the remaining 126 CCTA scans in 50 10-fold cross-validation experiments and resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74 ± 0.02. At sensitivity levels 0.60, 0.70 and 0.80, the corresponding specificity was 0.77, 0.71 and 0.59, respectively. The results demonstrate that automatic analysis of the LV myocardium in a single

  20. Urban Growth Causes Significant increase in Extreme Rainfall - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    World's urban centers are growing rapidly causing the impact of extreme rainfall events felt much more severely due to relatively well unerstood phenomena like decreased infiltration and flow resistance. However, an increasing set of evidence (e.g. heavy rainfall event observed at Nerima, central part of Tokyo metropolitan area, on 21 July 1999) suggest that the extreme rainfall, the driving force itself increases as a result of the microclimatic changes due to urban growth. Urban heat islands(UHI) due to heat anomalies of urban sprawl act as virtual mountains resulting in a local atmosphere more conducive for heavy rainfall. In this study, we employ a popular mesoscale atmoshperic model to numerically simulate the UHI induced rainfall enhancement. Initial idealized experiments conducted under trophical atmospheric conditions indicated that the changes in landuse due to significant urban growth will indeed cause more intense rainfall events. This is largely due to increased convective breakup, causing a favourable situation for convective cloud systems. Five historical heavy rainfall events that caused floods in five urban centres (Dhaka, Mumbai, Colombo, Lyon and Taipei) were selected from historical records. Numerical simulations were setup to assertain what would be the amount of rainfall if the same large-scale atmospheric situations (forcings) occured under a hypothetical situation of doubled urbanization level these events. Significant increases (upto 50%) of extreme rainfall was indicated for many of the events. Under major assumptions, these simulations were used to estimate the anticipated changes in the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF). The magnitude of the 30min event with 25 year return period increased by about 20 percent. Without considering any changes in the external forcing the urban growth alone could cause very significant increase in local rainfall.

  1. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  2. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain over the North China Plain – during 2003–2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr−1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr−1 for the July–August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3 with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980–2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs. An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  4. Deep brain stimulation of the accumbens increases dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Addy; Klompmakers, Andre A; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is effective in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the rapid and effective changes of DBS. One of the hypotheses is that DBS modulates activity of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DBS in the NAc core on the extracellular concentration of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the medial (mPFC) and orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC). Freely moving rats were bilaterally stimulated in the NAc core for 2 h while dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline were measured using in vivo microdialysis in the mPFC and the OFC. We report rapid increases in the release of dopamine and serotonin to a maximum of 177% and 127% in the mPFC and an increase up to 171% and 166% for dopamine and noradrenaline in the OFC after onset of stimulation in the NAc core. These results provide further evidence for the distal effects of DBS and corroborate previous clinical and pre-clinical findings of altered neuronal activity in prefrontal areas. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  6. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  7. Endurance training significantly increases serum endocan but not osteoprotegerin levels: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-01-05

    Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels. One hundred nine subjects were told to increase their amount of physical activity for 8 months by performing 150min/week moderate or 75min/week vigorous exercise. Incremental cycle ergometer tests were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months for the determination of EN and OPG. To investigate the difference between baseline and 8 months levels of EN and OPG we used a paired sample t-test. To investigate the significance of the tendency of the progression (baseline/2 months/4 months/6 months/8 months) we used a Friedman test. Thirty-eight female and 60 male subjects completed the study. In the group of 61 subjects who had a performance gain by >4,9% EN-levels increased from 146 ± 110 to 196 ± 238 pg/ml (p = 0,036) equivalent to an increase of 33,5% but there was no significant change in OPG (4,4 ± 2,4 pmol/l vs. 4,3 ± 2,1 pmol/l; p = 0,668). Physical activity increases significantly EN-levels relativizing the status of EN as proinflammatory factor. EN should rather be considered as a mediator which is involved in several physiological (e.g., angiogenesis) but also pathological processes (e.g., CVD, tumour progression or endothelium-dependent inflammation) and whose expression can be significantly influenced by long term endurance training. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02097199 Date of trial registration at Clinical Trials

  8. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelong; Añel, Juan A.; Su, Zhongbo; de la Torre, Laura; Kelder, Hennie; van Peet, Jacob; Ma, Yaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this study the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the Tibetan Plateau was measured during a regional radiosonde observation campaign in 2008 and found to be deeper than indicated by previously measurements. Results indicate that during fair weather conditions on winter days, the top of the mixed layers can be up to 5 km above the ground (9.4 km above sea level). Measurements also show that the depth of the ABL is quite distinct for three different periods (winter, monsoon-onset, and monsoon seasons). Turbulence at the top of a deep mixing layer can rise up to the upper troposphere. As a consequence, as confirmed by trajectory analysis, interaction occurs between deep ABLs and the low tropopause during winter over the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23451108

  10. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  11. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  12. HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations.

  13. High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Mohammed; Hill, Robert G; Bushby, Andrew J; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive glass-containing toothpastes for treating dentine hypersensitivity work by precipitating hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) onto the tooth surface, but concerns exist over the long-term durability of HCA in the mouth. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses form fluorapatite (FAp) in physiological solutions, which is more chemically stable against acid attack. The influence of phosphate content on apatite formation was investigated by producing a low-phosphate (about 1 mol% P(2)O(5)) and a high-phosphate (about 6 mol%) series of melt-derived bioactive glasses in the system SiO(2)P(2)O(5)CaONa(2)O; increasing amounts of CaF(2) were added by keeping the ratio of all other components constant. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion in Tris buffer at 37°C over up to 7 days were investigated. Crystal phases formed in Tris buffer were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH; fluoride enhanced apatite formation due to lower solubility of FAp compared to hydroxyapatite or HCA. High phosphate content glasses formed apatite significantly faster (within 6h) than low phosphate content glasses (within 3 days). In addition, an increase in phosphate content favoured apatite formation rather than fluorite (CaF(2)). (19)F magic angle spinning NMR showed the apatite formed by fluoride-containing glasses to be FAp, which makes these glasses of particular interest for dental applications. This study shows that by varying the phosphate content, the reactivity and apatite formation of bioactive glasses can be controlled successfully. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Significance of the identification in the Horn of Africa of an exceptionally deep branching Mycobacterium tuberculosis clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Blouin

    Full Text Available Molecular and phylogeographic studies have led to the definition within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC of a number of geotypes and ecotypes showing a preferential geographic location or host preference. The MTBC is thought to have emerged in Africa, most likely the Horn of Africa, and to have spread worldwide with human migrations. Under this assumption, there is a possibility that unknown deep branching lineages are present in this region. We genotyped by spoligotyping and multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA 435 MTBC isolates recovered from patients. Four hundred and eleven isolates were collected in the Republic of Djibouti over a 12 year period, with the other 24 isolates originating from neighbouring countries. All major M. tuberculosis lineages were identified, with only two M. africanum and one M. bovis isolates. Upon comparison with typing data of worldwide origin we observed that several isolates showed clustering characteristics compatible with new deep branching. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of seven isolates and comparison with available WGS data from 38 genomes distributed in the different lineages confirms the identification of ancestral nodes for several clades and most importantly of one new lineage, here referred to as lineage 7. Investigation of specific deletions confirms the novelty of this lineage, and analysis of its precise phylogenetic position indicates that the other three superlineages constituting the MTBC emerged independently but within a relatively short timeframe from the Horn of Africa. The availability of such strains compared to the predominant lineages and sharing very ancient ancestry will open new avenues for identifying some of the genetic factors responsible for the success of the modern lineages. Additional deep branching lineages may be readily and efficiently identified by large-scale MLVA screening of isolates from sub-Saharan African countries followed by

  15. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  16. Myriocin Significantly Increases the Mortality of a Non-Mammalian Model Host during Candida Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nadja Rodrigues; Abdrahman, Ahmed; Greig, Carolyn; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Thornton, Catherine; Ratcliffe, Norman A.; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Butt, Tariq M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR) inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMPH). Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans -infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders. PMID:24260135

  17. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  19. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P Plan Nacional de I + D + I' and co-funded by the 'ISCIII-Subdirección General de Evaluación' and 'Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)' and by the grant 'Premi Fi de Residència Emili Letang 2015' from the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona. The authors have no competing interests to disclose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of

  20. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  1. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the accumbens increases dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Addy; Klompmakers, Andre A.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is effective in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the rapid and effective changes of DBS. One of the hypotheses is that

  3. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  4. Increased dopamine receptor expression and anti-depressant response following deep brain stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, Manoj P; Luse, Dustin; Hoffmann, Carson; Cotton, Patrick; Peery, Travis; Ruiz, Christian; Hussey, Caroline; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Soares, Jair C; Quevedo, Joao; Fenoy, Albert J

    2017-08-01

    Among several potential neuroanatomical targets pursued for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), the superolateral-branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is emerging as a privileged location. We investigated the antidepressant-like phenotypic and chemical changes associated with reward-processing dopaminergic systems in rat brains after MFB-DBS. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, DBS-Off, and DBS-On. For DBS, a concentric bipolar electrode was stereotactically implanted into the right MFB. Exploratory activity and depression-like behavior were evaluated using the open-field and forced-swimming test (FST), respectively. MFB-DBS effects on the dopaminergic system were evaluated using immunoblotting for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and dopamine receptors (D1-D5), and high-performance liquid chromatography for quantifying dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in brain homogenates of prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Animals receiving MFB-DBS showed a significant increase in swimming time without alterations in locomotor activity, relative to the DBS-Off (pbrain regions distant from the target area of stimulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ileus following total hip or knee arthroplasty is associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Mallory, Thomas H; Dodds, Kathleen L; Adams, Joanne B

    2004-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, causes morbidity and mortality following total hip and total knee arthroplasties, while ileus complicates up to 4.0%. The clinical courses of 2,949 patients undergoing 3,364 consecutive primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasties, radical debridements, and reimplantations at one institution over a 2-year period were reviewed to examine the relationship between ileus and VTD. VTD prophylaxis consisted of aspirin and intermittent plantar pulse boots for all patients except those at high risk, who received parenteral chemical prophylaxis and boots. Ileus occurred in 62 patients (2.1%) and symptomatic DVT in 51 (1.7%). With ileus, the incidence of DVT was 8.1%: odds ratio 5.5 (P =.0036). Symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 7 patients (0.24%); with ileus the incidence was 3.2%: odds ratio 19.6 (P =.0082). A significant increase was observed in rates of VTD with ileus. We recommend using parenteral chemical and mechanical prophylaxis in patients with ileus following total hip and total knee arthroplasties.

  6. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ( 15 N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  7. Characterization of microRNAs in Taenia saginata of zoonotic significance by Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

    2012-06-01

    The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica.

  8. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  9. Significance of increased and reduced proteasome activity in the pathomechanism of selected disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Tylicka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are structures responsible for the elimination of damaged and misfolded proteins. Thus, they also regulate the most important intracellular processes. Changes in their functions can lead to many molecular diseases. There are two possible disorders in the function of proteasomes. Their increasing activity causes excessive degradation of important cell proteins. On the other hand, their insufficiency can inhibit the degradation of pathological proteins and lead to their accumulation.The increase of proteasome activity and the degradation of important proteins are observed in many pathological disorders. Therefore the study of pharmacological methods using proteasome inhibitors has gained growing interest in the last years. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of proteasomes in pathogenesis of selected diseases and discusses the potential use of proteasomes in diagnosis of different disorders.

  10. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  12. The exploration of eastern Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins with MODUS: a significant example of technology spin-off from the Geostar Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant example of technological spin-off from the GEOSTAR project is represented by the special-purpose instrumented module, based on the deep-sea ROV MODUS, which was developed in the framework of the EU-sponsored project BIODEEP. The goal to be achieved has been defined as the exploration, through real-time video images, measurements and accurate video-guided sampling, of the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea at water depths well exceeding 3000 meters. Due to their peculiar characteristics, these basins are one of the most extreme environments on Earth and represent a site of utmost interest for their geochemical and microbial resources. The paper presents the strategies and the main results achieved during the two cruises carried out within the BIODEEP project.

  13. Calcium phosphate cement augmentation after volar locking plating of distal radius fracture significantly increases stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Antoni, Anna; Redl, Heinz; Zysset, Philippe; Weninger, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Distal radius fractures represent the most common fractures in adults. Volar locking plating to correct unstable fractures has become increasingly popular. Although reasonable primary reduction is possible in most cases, maintenance of reduction until the fracture is healed is often problematic in osteoporotic bone. To our knowledge, no biomechanical studies have compared the effect of enhancement with biomaterial on two different volar fixed-angle plates. Human fresh-frozen cadaver pairs of radii were used to simulate an AO/OTA 23-A3 fracture. In a total of four groups (n = 7 for each group), two volar fixed-angle plates (Aptus 2.5 mm locking fracture plate, Medartis, Switzerland and VA-LCP two-column distal radius plate 2.4, volar, Synthes, Switzerland) with or without an additional injection of a biomaterial (Hydroset Injectable HA Bone Substitute, Stryker, Switzerland) into the dorsal comminution zone were used to fix the distal metaphyseal fragment. Each specimen was tested load-controlled under cyclic loading with a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. Displacement, stiffness, dissipated work and failure mode were recorded. Improved mechanical properties (decreased displacement, increased stiffness, decreased dissipated work) were found in both plates if the biomaterial was additionally injected. Improvement of mechanical parameters after biomaterial injection was more evident in the Synthes plate compared to the Aptus plate. Pushing out of the screws was noticed as a failure mode only in samples lacking supplementary biomaterial. Injection of a biomaterial into the dorsal comminution zone increases stability after volar locking plating of distal radius fractures in vitro.

  14. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  15. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  16. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  18. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  19. Dietary phosphorus is associated with a significant increase in left ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C.; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A.C.; Siscovick, David; Weiss, Noel S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4,494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1,167 mg/day in men and 1,017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 gram greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 gram greater LVM compared to the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies. PMID:23283134

  20. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  1. Electrical resistance increases at the tissue-electrode interface as an early response to nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Rajas P; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Berk, Julian; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Tye, Susannah J

    2016-08-01

    The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days. Daily resistance values rose significantly (pstimulation.

  2. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  3. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  5. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The pro-active payload strategy significantly increases selective release from mesoporous nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Steinmann, Mark; Estupiñán, Diego; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-11-28

    The controlled release of payloads from mesoporous silica nanocapsules (SiNCs) consisting of stimulus-responsive shells is of considerable interest in applications such as self-healing materials and drug delivery. However, the release of payloads from SiNCs before application of external triggers (i.e. non-selective release) remains a formidable challenge. In fact, the non-selective release of payloads from SiNCs occurs because of the mesoporous nature of the silica shell that cannot trap payloads in the core of SiNCs perfectly. We establish an efficient and straightforward strategy based on the encapsulation of a pro-active payload to hinder the non-selective release of small payloads from mesoporous capsules. A pro-active payload is defined as a compound that is converted to an active functional molecule in the environment where it is needed. In this sense, it is a generalization of a prodrug. Encapsulating a pro-active payload instead of a payload allowed hindering the non-selective release of the payload from SiNCs. A selective release of the payload could be achieved upon reduction of the encapsulated pro-active payload. Furthermore, the total amount of released substance is significantly enhanced by introducing responsive groups in the silica shell. These results show that the pro-active payload strategy combined with the use of stimulus-responsive materials can be successfully exploited to achieve selective release of cargo from mesoporous nanocapsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Eila

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  8. Significant increase in the stability of rare gas hydrides on insertion of beryllium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekharan, T; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2007-09-21

    Chemical binding between a rare gas atom with other elements leading to the formation of stable chemical compounds has received considerable attention in recent years. With an intention to predict highly stable novel rare gas compounds, the process of insertion of beryllium atom into rare gas hydrides (HRgF with Rg=Ar, Kr, and Xe) has been investigated, which leads to the prediction of HBeRgF species. The structures, energetic, and charge distributions have been obtained using MP2, density functional theory, and CCSD(T) methods. Analogous to the well-known rare gas hydrides, HBeRgF species are found to be metastable in nature; however, the stabilization energy of the newly predicted species has been calculated to be significantly higher than that of HRgF species. Particularly, for HBeArF molecule, it has been found to be an order of magnitude higher. Strong chemical binding between beryllium and rare gas atom has also been found in the HBeArF, HBeKrF, and HBXeF molecules. In fact, the basis set superposition error and zero-point energy corrected Be-Ar bond energy calculated using CCSD(T) method has been found to be 112 kJ/mol, which is the highest bond energy ever achieved for a bond involving an argon atom in any chemically bound neutral species. Vibrational analysis reveals a large blueshift (approximately 200 cm(-1)) of the H-Be stretching frequency in HBeRgF with respect to that in BeH and HBeF species. This feature may be used to characterize these species after their preparation by the laser ablation of Be metal along with the photolysis of HF precursor in a suitable rare gas matrix. An analysis of the nature of interactions involved in the present systems has been performed using theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). Geometric as well as energetic considerations along with the AIM results suggest a substantial covalent nature of Be-Rg bond in these systems. Thus, insertion of a suitable metal atom into rare gas hydrides is a promising way to energetically

  9. Gangrenous cholecystitis: Deceiving ultrasounds, significant delay in surgical consult, and increased postoperative morbidity!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Daniel Dante; Cropano, Catrina; Fagenholz, Peter; King, David R; Chang, Yuchiao; Klein, Eric N; DeMoya, Marc; Kaafarani, Haytham; Velmahos, George

    2015-11-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is difficult to diagnose preoperatively in the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. We sought to characterize preoperative risk factors and post-operative complications. Pathology reports of all patients undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected acute cholecystitis from June 2010 to January 2014 and admitted through the emergency department were examined. Patients with GC were compared with those with acute/chronic cholecystitis (AC/CC). Data collected included demographics, preoperative signs and symptoms, radiologic studies, operative details, and clinical outcomes. Thirty-eight cases of GC were identified and compared with 171 cases of AC/CC. Compared with AC/CC, GC patients were more likely to be older (57 years vs. 41 years, p < 0.001), of male sex (63% vs. 31%, p < 0.001), hypertensive (47% vs. 22%, p = 0.002), hyperlipidemic (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.026), and diabetic (24% vs. 8%, p = 0.006). GC patients were more likely to have a fever (29% vs. 12%, p = 0.007) and less likely to have nausea/vomiting (61% vs. 80%, p = 0.019) or an impacted gallstone on ultrasound (US) (8% vs. 26%, p = 0.017). Otherwise, there was no significant difference in clinical or US findings. Among GC patients, US findings were absent (8%, n = 3) or minimal (42%, n = 16). Median time from emergency department registration to US (3.3 hours vs. 2.8 hours, p = 0.28) was similar, but US to operation was longer (41.2 hours vs. 18.4 hours, p < 0.001), conversion to open cholecystectomy was more common (37% vs. 10%, p < 0.001), and hospital stay was longer (median, 4 days vs. 2 days, p < 0.0001). Delay in surgical consultation occurred in 16% of GC patients compared with 1% of AC patients (p < 0.001). Demographic features may be predictive of GC. Absent or minimal US signs occur in 50%, and delay in surgical consultation is common. Postoperative morbidity is greater for patients with GC compared with those with AC/CC. Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic

  10. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  11. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  12. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VanLeeuwen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of deep soil-regolith through flow in a small (3.4 km2 ephemeral catchment in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia was investigated by detailed hydrochemical analysis of soil water and stream flow during autumn and early winter rains. In this Mediterranean climate with strong summer moisture deficits, several significant rainfalls are required to generate soil through flow and stream flow [in ephemeral streams]. During autumn 2007, a large (127 mm drought-breaking rain occurred in April followed by significant May rains; most of this April and May precipitation occurred prior to the initiation of stream flow in late May. These early events, especially the 127 mm April event, had low stable water isotope values compared with later rains during June and July and average winter precipitation. Thus, this large early autumn rain event with low isotopic values (δ18O, δD provided an excellent natural tracer. During later June and July rainfall events, daily stream and soil water samples were collected and analysed. Results from major and trace elements, water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and dissolved organic carbon analysis clearly demonstrate that a large component of this early April and May rain was stored and later pushed out of deep soil and regolith zones. This pre-event water was identified in the stream as well as identified in deep soil horizons due to its different isotopic signature which contrasted sharply with the June–July event water. Based on this data, the soil-regolith hydrologic system for this catchment has been re-thought. The catchment area consists of about 60% sandy and 40% clayey soils. Regolith flow in the sandy soil system and not the clayey soil system is now thought to dominate the deep subsurface flow in this catchment. The clayey texture contrast soils had rapid response to rain events and saturation excess overland flow. The sandy soils had delayed soil through flow and

  13. Nerve injury-induced calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein dysregulation leads to increased pre-synaptic excitatory input into deep dorsal horn neurons and neuropathic allodynia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyi; Luo, Z. David

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of voltage-gated-calcium-channel α2δ1 subunit post spinal nerve ligation injury (SNL) or in α2δ1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice correlates with tactile allodynia, a pain state mediated mainly by Aβ sensory fibers forming synaptic connections with deep dorsal horn neurons. It is not clear however whether dysregulated α2δ1 alters deep dorsal horn synaptic neurotransmission that underlies tactile allodynia development post nerve injury. Methods Tactile allodynia was tested in the SNL and α2δ1 Tg models. Miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents were recorded in deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons from these animal models using whole cell patch clamp slice recording techniques.. Results There was a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) in DDH neurons that correlated with tactile allodynia in SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Gabapentin, an α2δ1 ligand that is known to block tactile allodynia in these models, also normalized mEPSC frequency dose-dependently in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. In contrast, neither frequency nor amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was altered in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that α2δ1 dysregulation is highly likely contributing to tactile allodynia through a pre-synaptic mechanism involving facilitation of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in deep dorsal horn of spinal cord. PMID:25691360

  14. Increased ventilation of Antarctic deep water during the warm mid-Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Nisancioglu, Kerim H; Ninnemann, Ulysses S

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period is a recent warm geological period that shares similarities with predictions of future climate. It is generally held the mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must have been stronger, to explain a weak Atlantic meridional δ(13)C gradient and large northern high-latitude warming. However, climate models do not simulate such stronger Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, when forced with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. Proxy reconstructions allow for an alternative scenario that the weak δ(13)C gradient can be explained by increased ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Here this alternative scenario is supported by simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-L), which simulate an intensified and slightly poleward shifted wind field off Antarctica, giving enhanced ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Our findings challenge the prevailing theory and show how increased Southern Ocean ventilation can reconcile existing model-data discrepancies about Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation while explaining fundamental ocean features.

  15. Marine litter on deep Arctic seafloor continues to increase and spreads to the North at the HAUSGARTEN observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mine B.; Krumpen, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie

    2017-02-01

    The increased global production of plastics has been mirrored by greater accumulations of plastic litter in marine environments worldwide. Global plastic litter estimates based on field observations account only for 1% of the total volumes of plastic assumed to enter the marine ecosystem from land, raising again the question 'Where is all the plastic? '. Scant information exists on temporal trends on litter transport and litter accumulation on the deep seafloor. Here, we present the results of photographic time-series surveys indicating a strong increase in marine litter over the period of 2002-2014 at two stations of the HAUSGARTEN observatory in the Arctic (2500 m depth). Plastic accounted for the highest proportion (47%) of litter recorded at HAUSGARTEN for the whole study period. When the most southern station was considered separately, the proportion of plastic items was even higher (65%). Increasing quantities of small plastics raise concerns about fragmentation and future microplastic contamination. Analysis of litter types and sizes indicate temporal and spatial differences in the transport pathways to the deep sea for different categories of litter. Litter densities were positively correlated with the counts of ship entering harbour at Longyearbyen, the number of active fishing vessels and extent of summer sea ice. Sea ice may act as a transport vehicle for entrained litter, being released during periods of melting. The receding sea ice coverage associated with global change has opened hitherto largely inaccessible environments to humans and the impacts of tourism, industrial activities including shipping and fisheries, all of which are potential sources of marine litter.

  16. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  17. The impact of a grain of sand: increasing production speed in flexible risers generates significant savings in gas production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Blokland, H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea oil and gas production normally involves the use of flexible risers that comprise a metal carcass with a large number of enveloping layers that safeguard the integrity of the pipe system. The flexible risers are hung from a floating platform and may be supported by several floating buoys to

  18. Potential Increased Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality With Significant Dose Fractionation in the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Little, Mark P.; Cornett, R. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Risks of noncancer causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease, associated with exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation, are well known. Recent studies have reported excess risk in workers who are occupationally exposed to low doses at a low dose rate, but the risks of moderately fractionated exposures, such as occur during diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. The Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study includes 63,707 tuberculosis patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic procedures in 1930–1952 and followed-up for death from noncancer causes in 1950–1987. We used a Poisson regression to estimate excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of cumulative radiation dose to the lung (mean dose = 0.79 Gy; range, 0–11.60). The risk of death from noncancer causes was significantly lower in these subjects compared with the Canadian general population (P < 0.001). We estimated small, nonsignificant increases in the risk of death from noncancer causes with dose. We estimated an ERR/Gy of 0.176 (95% confidence interval: 0.011, 0.393) (n = 5,818 deaths) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for dose fractionation. A significant (P = 0.022) inverse dose fractionation effect in dose trends of IHD was observed, with the highest estimate of ERR/Gy for those with the fewest fluoroscopic procedures per year. Radiation-related risks of IHD decreased significantly with increasing time since first exposure and age at first exposure (both P < 0.05). This is the largest study of patients exposed to moderately fractionated low-to-moderate doses of radiation, and it provides additional evidence of increased radiation-associated risks of death from IHD, in particular, significantly increased radiation risks from doses similar to those from diagnostic radiation procedures. The novel finding of a significant inverse dose-fractionation association in IHD mortality requires further investigation. PMID:24145888

  19. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  20. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  1. Differential changes in production measures for an estuarine-resident sparid in deep and shallow waters following increases in hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Alan; Hall, Norman G.; Hesp, S. Alex; Potter, Ian C.

    2018-03-01

    This study determined how productivity measures for a fish species in different water depths of an estuary changed in response to the increase in hypoxia in deep waters, which had previously been shown to occur between 1993-95 and 2007-11. Annual data on length and age compositions, body mass, growth, abundance, biomass, production and production to biomass ratio (P/B) were thus determined for the estuarine-resident Acanthopagrus butcheri in nearshore shallow (fish typically reside. Annual densities, biomass and production in shallow waters of fish m-2, 2-4 g m-2 and ∼2 g m-2 y-1 in the earlier period were far lower than the 0.1-0.2 fish m-2, 8-15 g m-2 and 5-10 g m-2 y-1 in the later period, whereas the reverse trend occurred in deep waters, with values of 6-9 fish net-1, 2000-3900 g net-1, 900-1700 g net-1 y-1 in the earlier period vs fish net-1, ∼110 g net-1 and 27-45 g net-1 y-1 in the later period. Within the later period, and in contrast to the trends with annual abundance and biomass, the production in shallow waters was least during 2008/09, rather than greatest, reflecting the slow growth in that particularly cool year. The presence of substantial aggregations of both small and large fish in shallow waters accounts for the abundance, biomass and production in those waters increasing between those periods and thus, through a density-dependent effect, provide a basis for the overall reduction in growth. In marked contrast to the trends with the other three production measures, annual production to biomass ratios (P/B) in shallow waters in the two years in the earlier period, and in three of the four years of the later period, fell within the same range, i.e. 0.6-0.9 y-1, but was only 0.2 y-1 in 2008/09, reflecting the poor growth in that year. This emphasises the need to obtain data on P/B for a number of years when considering the implications of the typical P/B for a species in an estuary, in which environmental conditions and the growth of a species

  2. Using Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery to explore for deep groundwater resources in the Ceres-Tankwa Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa: Significance for the 'water-energy(-food) nexus' in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Chris; Wise, Edward; Hartnady, Michael; Olianti, Camille; Hay, E. Rowena

    2017-04-01

    The Ceres-Tankwa region is an arid region in the south-western part of the main Karoo Basin, underlain by folded and faulted strata of the Cape and lower Karoo Supergroups in the syntaxis zone between the Western and Southern branches of the Cape Fold Belt. Explored for oil in the mid-1960s, with the drilling of the >3000 m deep KL1/65 borehole, the area recently attracted attention as a potential shale-gas prospect with the drilling in 2015 of the 671 m-deep KZF-1 research borehole on the farm Zandfontein (de Kock et al, 2016). KZF-1 encountered no positive indication of methane gas in the carbonaceous shale target but intersected a strong flow of deep groundwater from fractures in the basal Dwyka tillite. The accidental discovery of deep artesian groundwater, probably originating from the underlying Cape Supergroup aquifers and of significantly better quality than the shallow aquifer utilised by local farmers, has important implications for future development here. Using 13-channel multispectral data from the European Space Agency satellite Sentinel-2A, a false-colour composite image, centred about the KZF-1 location, was assembled by combination of selected spectral band-ratios. Stratigraphic layering and associated folding within the hitherto undivided, pelitic Tierberg Formation (Ecca Group), is revealed in striking new detail, together with narrow lines of stratal offset corresponding to previously unmapped faults. KZF-1 is evidently sited within an anomalous NE/SW-striking belt, unlike the general NNW/SSE strike of Cape-Karoo sequence strata in the north-western part of the image. Associated with a notable strike change of a lower Tierberg marker unit, subparallel to and aligned with a similar trend in the Swartruggens mountain foothills to the SW, a deep-seated, controlling, NE/SW-striking fault structure may continue downwards from the lower Karoo units into the underlying Cape strata, providing hydraulic connection. With the looming threat of global

  3. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  4. Increased thalamic gamma band activity correlates with symptom relief following deep brain stimulation in humans with Tourette's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Maling

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS is an idiopathic, childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder, which is marked by persistent multiple motor and phonic tics. The disorder is highly disruptive and in some cases completely debilitating. For those with severe, treatment-refractory TS, deep brain stimulation (DBS has emerged as a possible option, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We performed a longitudinal study of the effects of DBS on TS symptomatology while concomitantly examining neurophysiological dynamics. We present the first report of the clinical correlation between the presence of gamma band activity and decreased tic severity. Local field potential recordings from five subjects implanted in the centromedian nucleus (CM of the thalamus revealed a temporal correlation between the power of gamma band activity and the clinical metrics of symptomatology as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Modified Rush Tic Rating Scale. Additional studies utilizing short-term stimulation also produced increases in gamma power. Our results suggest that modulation of gamma band activity in both long-term and short-term DBS of the CM is a key factor in mitigating the pathophysiology associated with TS.

  5. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Hsin; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator "a". The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator "a" can reflect intracranial conditions. Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20-25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter "a". The overall mean for indicator "a" was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of "a" in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (ppressure-volume curve can reflect the dynamic intracranial condition and is comparable in different situations. A significantly larger indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is always observed in severe intracranial mass lesions with cerebral edema. A significantly smaller indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is observed in hydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator "a" is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator.

  6. Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhilai

    2009-07-01

    An indium post-treatment of the InGaN epilayers was employed for InGaN-to-GaN interface modification. We find that the treatment could lead to selective etching of the InGaN epilayers around threading dislocations (TDs) due to preferential etching of the chemically active step-correlated TDs and formation of indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on the smooth InGaN surface. The intentionally formed V-shaped pits by site-selective etching of the InGaN epilayers resulted in an increased surface potential barrier at the pit sidewalls due to the relatively thin InGaN single quantum well. The increased energy bandgap of the InGaN active layers around the TDs cores caused the lateral carrier confinement away from nonradiative recombination at the defects and thus significantly enhanced the light emission efficiency.

  7. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  8. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  9. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  10. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  11. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  12. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp- somatotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzo, D; Losa, M; Albiger, N M; Terreni, M R; Vazza, G; Ceccato, F; Emanuelli, E; Denaro, L; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor ( GIPR ) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp - somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIP/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Nearly 80% of GIPR -expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to Forskolin but not to somatostatin analogs. Besides increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. We demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp - acromegalic patients. In these cases, the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH/IGF-1/GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Simulation of Jack-Up Overturning Using the Monte Carlo Method with Artificially Increased Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2010-01-01

    wave height irrespectively of the non-linearity in the system. However, the FORM analysis only gives an approximation to the mean out-crossing rate. A more exact result can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, but the necessary length of the time domain simulations for very low out-crossing rates...... might be prohibitive long. In such cases the property mentioned above for the FORM reliability index can be assumed valid in the Monte Carlo simulations making it possible to increase the out-crossing rates and thus reduced the necessary length of the time domain simulations by applying a larger......-linear processes the mean out-crossing rate depends non-linearly on the response level r and a good estimate can be found using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), see e.g. Jensen and Capul (2006). The FORM analysis also shows that the reliability index is strictly inversely proportional to the significant...

  14. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  15. Frontal Sinus Breach During Routine Frontal Craniotomy Significantly Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infection: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzey, Joseph R; Wilson, Thomas J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2017-09-01

    Frontotemporal craniotomies are commonly performed for a variety of neurosurgical pathologies. Infections related to craniotomies cause significant morbidity. We hypothesized that the risk of cranial surgical site infections (SSIs) may be increased in patients whose frontal sinuses are breached during craniotomy. To compare the rate of cranial SSIs in patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies with and without frontal sinus breach (FSB). We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies for the management of cerebral aneurysms from 2005 to 2014. This study included 862 patients undergoing 910 craniotomies. Primary outcome of interest was occurrence of a cranial SSI. Standard statistical methods were utilized to explore associations between a variety of variables including FSB, cranial SSI, and infections requiring reoperation. Of the 910 craniotomies, 141 (15.5%) involved FSB. Of those involving FSB, 22 (15.6%) developed a cranial SSI, compared to only 56 of the 769 without FSB (7.3%; P = .001). Cranial SSI requiring reoperation was much more likely in patients with FSB compared to those without a breach (7.8% vs 1.6%; P craniotomies are at significantly greater risk of serious cranial SSIs if the frontal sinus has been breached. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  17. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is compared. • Being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening unless a curvature is added. • The edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron–phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, T c can be strongly enhanced. The increase in T c with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  18. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  19. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Waleed F.; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A ≤3, B ≤7, C ≤14, D ≤21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered ≤3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p 3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  20. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  1. Clinical significance of increased serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in elderly subjects with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Luo Nanping; Sun Xiaoming; Liu Hengguo; Li Jinhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and bone r-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGP) in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels were measured with RIA in 40 elderly patients with osteoporosis, 40 elderly subjects with decreased bone density but not to the degree of osteoporosis (i.e. decreased bone mass), 35 aged controls (above 60) and 35 younger controls (below 45). Results: By definition, the bone density in patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than that in all other groups (P<0.05-0.01) and the bone density in subjects with decreased bone mass only was also significantly lower than that in younger controls (P<0.01). The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with osteoporosis were significantly higher than those in all controls (P<0.05-0.01), especially in advanced eases, while the BGP levels were significantly lower. Conclusion: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels could be used as indicators of the degree of osteoporosis. (authors)

  2. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because

  3. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...... be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD...... signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec...

  4. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  5. Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Wright, Jonathan; Simons, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Line-focusing compound silicon x-ray lenses with structure heights exceeding 300 μm were fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. To ensure profile uniformity over the full height, a new strategy was developed in which the perimeter of the structures was defined by trenches of constant width....... The remaining sacrificial material inside the lens cavities was removed by etching through the silicon wafer. Since the wafers become fragile after through-etching, they were then adhesively bonded to a carrier wafer. Individual chips were separated using laser micro machining and the 3D shape of fabricated...... analysis, where a slight bowing of the lens sidewalls and an insufficiently uniform apex region are identified as resolution-limiting factors. Despite these, the proposed fabrication route proved a viable approach for producing x-ray lenses with large structure heights and provides the means to improve...

  6. Significant, but limited collateral blood flow increases occur with prolonged training in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, B M; Ren, J; Terjung, R L; Yang, H T

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the capacity of collateral dependent blood flow induced by a prolonged treadmill training program, as compared to a low collateral resistance model created by femoral artery to vein (A-V) shunt. Sprague-Dawley rats, with bilateral femoral artery occlusion were confined to cage activity (Sed, n=9) or trained by daily treadmill exercise (Tr, n=15; up to ≈350 min/d) for 15 weeks. Another set of animals received a femoral A-V anastomosis in one limb and treated with (n=4) or without VEGF(165) (n=9) infusion for 2 weeks. The contralateral side was used as control. Blood flow (BF) was measured with isotope labeled microspheres. Maximal calf muscle BF increased by 15 week training (up to 100±5.0 ml x min(-1) x 100g(-1) (ptraining programs used previously. In contrast, femoral A-V shunt with VEGF(165) increased calf muscle conductance to 1.70±0.3 ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1) x mmHg(-1) that is similar to blood flows observed in non-occluded rats during maximal running. Our data indicate that the collateral circuit development is related to the driving stimulus and that exercise training, does not provide a maximal stimulus for adaptation that is possible. Nonetheless, exercise training results in profound increases in exercise capacity associated with this enhanced collateral blood flow. Our results illustrate that vascular adaptations can be much greater when physiologically induced stimuli are enhanced at the time of therapeutic angiogenesis.

  7. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  10. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  11. Depressive episodes of bipolar disorder in early teenage years: changes with increasing age and the significance of IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, T; Takahashi, N; Suzuki, T; Abe, K

    2000-05-01

    Depressive (or depression-like) episodes are the most common manifestations of bipolar affective disorder in early teenage years. The present paper analyses the clinical features and their changes over time in these episodes. By a prospective study on children who had their first affective or psychotic episodes between the ages of ten and fifteen, those who eventually met the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder were selected and followed up. There were three boys and nine girls. Their early depressive episodes were characterised by psychotic features and clinging to the mother in most cases, and in some by brief episodes and/or a good response to sulpiride. However, these characteristics tended to disappear with increasing age. Five children (42%) had an IQ of 61-75. Generalisability of the results is limited because of the small number of patients and the lack of control groups. Bipolar disorder in early teenage years may show clinical features and a drug response that are different from those in adulthood. Low IQ may expedite the onset of bipolar disorder.

  12. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  13. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  14. The significance of increased FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy. A follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Y.; Sun, X.G.; Yu, J.Q.; El-Haddad, G.; Kumar, R.; Alavi, A.; Chen, S.L.; Zhuang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that increased FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy could represent thymic uptake and probably not malignancy. However, long-term follow-up of these 'thymic uptake' has not been reported. The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to assess whether the FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy is indeed a benign finding. Method: The records of 83 patients who following chemotherapy revealed FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum on PET scan were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one of these 83 patients had follow-up imaging study and were included in the final analysis. A repeat FDG-PET was performed in 23 patients and follow-up chest CT was performed in 25 patients (7 patients had both follow-up PET and CT). The average follow-up period was 9.3 month. Results: For 40 of the 41 patients no malignancy was noted in the mediastinum during the follow-up period. In 23 patients with follow-up PET scans, FDG uptake in the thymic region remained unchanged in 4 patients, decreased in intensity or returned to completely normal in 18 patients. One patient had more intense FDG activity in the thymic region in the follow-up PET study. However, in this patient, 4 subsequent follow-up CTs up to 634 days post PET scan demonstrated no mediastinal pathology. None of the follow-up CT demonstrated any mediastinal pathology except for one patient with primary thymic carcinoma. Conclusion: Diffuse anterior mediastinal FDG uptake in post-chemotherapy states does not represent a pathological process and is possibly related to an inflammatory reaction to the immunological effects of chemotherapy. (authors)

  15. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100∼200 m, 600∼850 m and 1450∼1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole. (paper)

  16. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer significantly reduces cardiac radiation exposure compared to inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Saglam, Yucel; Selek, Ugur; Topkan, Erkan; Kataria, Anglina; Unal, Zeynep; Alpan, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the objective utility of our clinical routine of reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation for left-sided breast cancer patients on reducing cardiac exposure. Free-breathing and reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold scans were evaluated for our 10 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients treated with reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold. The study was based on the adjuvant dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction. Both inverse and forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated for each computed tomography dataset. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold plans with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly spared the heart and left anterior descending artery compared to generated free-breathing plans based on mean doses - free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold, left ventricle (296.1 vs 94.5 cGy, P = 0.005), right ventricle (158.3 vs 59.2 cGy, P = 0.005), left anterior descending artery (171.1 vs 78.1 cGy, P = 0.005), and whole heart (173.9 vs 66 cGy, P = 0.005), heart V20 (2.2% vs 0%, P = 0.007) and heart V10 (4.2% vs 0.3%, P = 0.007) - whereas they revealed no additional burden on the ipsilateral lung. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing plans with inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy provided similar organ at risk sparing by reducing the mean doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, V10-V20 of the heart and right ventricle. However, forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed significant reduction in doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, right ventricle, and contralateral breast (mean dose, 248.9 to 12.3 cGy, P = 0.005). The mean doses for free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold of the proximal left anterior descending artery were 1.78 vs 1.08 Gy and of the distal left anterior descending artery were 8.11 vs 3.89 Gy, whereas mean distances to the 50 Gy

  17. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  18. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Neck infections of Odontogenic Origin and Their Clinical Significance. A Retrospective Study from Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Helena; Zemek, Josef; Tuček, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    Cellulitis remains a very serious disease even today. Mortality, which varied between 10-40%, has been reduced owing to the standard securing of airway patency and use of an appropriate surgical treatment approach. A total of 195 patients were hospitalised for cellulitis at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové during 2007-2011. The following parameters were evaluated: age, gender, dependence of incidence of the disease on the season of the year, frequency of attacks of the particular areas and their clinical characteristics, aetiology of the inflammation, types of patient complaints, prevalence of current systemic diseases, results of microbiological and selected laboratory analyses, socio-economic status of the patients, and duration of patient stay at the hospital. Statistical analysis was performed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient, the statistical significance level was p odontogenic origin of the disease was verified in 173 (88.7%) patients. In total, 65 (33.3%) patients had no coinciding complicating systemic disease, 22 (11.3%) patients had diabetes mellitus. The most frequent symptom of cellulitis was painful swelling, found in 194 (99.5%) patients, followed by jaw contracture, found in 153 (78.5%) patients. The results are largely very similar to those of previous studies performed in other countries, except that we found no correlation between the prevalence of cellulitis and the socio-economic status, nor have we confirmed Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. as the cause of cellulitis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Deep Neck Infections of Odontogenic Origin and Their Clinical Significance. A Retrospective Study from Hradec Králové, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Doležalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cellulitis remains a very serious disease even today. Mortality, which varied between 10–40%, has been reduced owing to the standard securing of airway patency and use of an appropriate surgical treatment approach. Materials and methods: A total of 195 patients were hospitalised for cellulitis at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové during 2007–2011. The following parameters were evaluated: age, gender, dependence of incidence of the disease on the season of the year, frequency of attacks of the particular areas and their clinical characteristics, aetiology of the inflammation, types of patient complaints, prevalence of current systemic diseases, results of microbiological and selected laboratory analyses, socio-economic status of the patients, and duration of patient stay at the hospital. Statistical analysis was performed by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the statistical significance level was p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.8 years. The group of 195 patients included 108 (55% males and 87 (45% females. The mean time between the first symptoms of the disease and admission to the Department was 5 days. From among the 195 patients, 116 (59.5% were working persons, 79 (40.5% were non-working (children, students, unemployed persons, women on maternity leave, retired people. The odontogenic origin of the disease was verified in 173 (88.7% patients. In total, 65 (33.3% patients had no coinciding complicating systemic disease, 22 (11.3% patients had diabetes mellitus. The most frequent symptom of cellulitis was painful swelling, found in 194 (99.5% patients, followed by jaw contracture, found in 153 (78.5% patients. Conclusion: The results are largely very similar to those of previous studies performed in other countries, except that we found no correlation between the prevalence of cellulitis and the socio-economic status, nor have we confirmed Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. as the cause of

  1. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  2. CT Venography for Deep Vein Thrombosis Using a Low Tube Voltage (100 kVp) Setting Could Increase Venous Enhancement and Reduce the Amount of Administered Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Joo Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Yoon, Choon-Sik [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the validity of the 100 kVp setting in CT venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the amount of administered iodine in this setting. After receiving the contrast medium (CM) of 2.0 mL/kg, 88 patients underwent CTV of the pelvis and lower extremities by using one of four protocols: Group A, 120 kVp setting and 370 mgI/mL CM; group B, 120 kVp and 300 mgI/mL; group C, 100 kVp and 370 mgI/mL; group D, 100 kVp and 300 mgI/mL. The groups were evaluated for venous attenuation, vein-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub VEIN}), DVT-to-vein contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub DVT}), and subjective degree of venous enhancement and image quality. Venous attenuation and CNR{sub VEIN} were significantly higher in group C (144.3 Hounsfield unit [HU] and 11.9), but there was no significant difference between group A (118.0 HU and 8.2) and D (122.4 HU and 7.9). The attenuation value of DVT was not significantly different among the four groups, and group C had a higher absolute CNR{sub DVT} than the other groups. The overall diagnostic image quality and venous enhancement were significantly higher in group C, but there was no difference between groups A and D. The 100 kVp setting in CTV substantially help improve venous enhancement and CNR{sub VEIN}. Furthermore, it enables to reduce the amount of administered iodine while maintaining venous attenuation, as compared with the 120 kVp setting.

  3. Significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased number of Langerhans cells in dentigerous cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased LC number in DCs is found. The finding of few LCs in the lining epithelia of DCs without inflammation indicates the reduced immunosurveillance ability against DC lining epithelial cells in DC patients. It needs further studies to confirm the role of reduced immunosurveillance in the enlargement of the DC.

  4. Significance of the rapid increase in GSH levels in the protective response to cadmium exposure through phosphorylated Nrf2 signaling in Jurkat T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Takeda, Yuko; Takayama, Hazuki; Nishimoto, Shouichi; Ichikawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Maiko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is a redox system disruptor, the systematic defensive responses to Cd-induced oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we initially determined that when human T-cell-derived Jurkat cells were exposed to a low concentration of Cd, the glutathione (GSH) concentration rapidly increased via the transient nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Therefore, we hypothesized that this increase in the GSH levels was a significant event that occurred in response to the Cd toxicity in the Jurkat T-cells. To test this hypothesis, the expression of Nrf2 in the cells was silenced using siRNA transfection. These restricted expression conditions demonstrated that the sensitivity of the Jurkat T-cells to Cd toxicity was significantly higher in the knockdown cells. Whereas we could not find differences in the metallothionein (MT) expression responses, accumulation of Nrf2 in the nuclei and the GSH increase after Cd exposure were clearly suppressed in the Nrf2 knockdown cells. These findings strongly suggest that the Cd-induced activation of GSH synthesis is initiated as an acute response for Cd detoxification. Furthermore, the Cd remaining in the Jurkat T-cells did not cause a significant inhibition of cell growth after the rapid and transient increase in the GSH concentration returned to its basal level. Additionally, we found that MT expression induced by Cd occurred much later, with the expression seen at least 12h or more after the Nrf2-dependent immediate responses were almost completed. These results indicate that the rapid increase in GSH is an essential defensive response, with the subsequent induction of MT potentially chelating the Cd retained in the cell, thereby leading to continued suppression of Cd toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T Shearn

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT. In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.

  6. Biomechanical consequences of running with deep core muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Margaret E; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2018-01-23

    The deep core muscles are often neglected or improperly trained in athletes. Improper function of this musculature may lead to abnormal spinal loading, muscle strain, or injury to spinal structures, all of which have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP) risk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential strategies used to compensate for weakness of the deep core musculature during running and to identify accompanying changes in compressive and shear spinal loads. Kinematically-driven simulations of overground running were created for eight healthy young adults in OpenSim at increasing levels of deep core muscle weakness. The deep core muscles (multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas, and deep fascicles of the erector spinae) were weakened individually and together. The superficial longissimus thoracis was a significant compensator for 4 out of 5 weakness conditions (p strength of the deep core musculature may increase a runner's risk of developing LBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet control to achieve euglycemia induces significant loss of heart and liver weight via increased autophagy compared with ad libitum diet in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Jin, Mingli; Han, Sang-Don; Chon, Gyu-Rak; Kim, Ick-Hee; Kim, Seonguk; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Soo-Bong; Noh, Yun-Hee

    2014-08-29

    Intensive glucose control increases the all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia in diabetes damages major organs, increasing the mortality risk. To evaluate effects on major organs when euglycemia is obtained by diet control, we generated a model of end-stage T2DM in 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal pancreatectomy, followed by ad libitum feeding for 5 weeks. We divided these rats into two groups and for the subsequent 6 weeks provided ad libitum feeding to half (AL, n=12) and a calorie-controlled diet to the other half (R, n=12). To avoid hypoglycemia, the degree of calorie restriction in the R group was isocaloric (g per kg body weight per day) compared with a sham-operated control group (C, n=12). During the 6-week diet control period, AL rats ate three times more than rats in the C or R groups, developing hyperglycemia with renal hyperplasia. R group achieved euglycemia but lost overall body weight significantly compared with the C or AL group (49 or 22%, respectively), heart weight (39 or 23%, respectively) and liver weight (50 or 46%, respectively). Autophagy levels in the heart and liver were the highest in the R group (Pdiabetes but may be deleterious even at isocaloric rate when insulin is deficient because of significant loss of heart and liver mass via increased autophagy.

  8. Increased brain expression of GPNMB is associated with genome wide significant risk for Parkinson's disease on chromosome 7p15.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Megha N; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hardy, John; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah

    2017-07-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) have previously revealed a significant association with a locus on chromosome 7p15.3, initially designated as the glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) locus. In this study, the functional consequences of this association on expression were explored in depth by integrating different expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) datasets (Braineac, CAGEseq, GTEx, and Phenotype-Genotype Integrator (PheGenI)). Top risk SNP rs199347 eQTLs demonstrated increased expressions of GPNMB, KLHL7, and NUPL2 with the major allele (AA) in brain, with most significant eQTLs in cortical regions, followed by putamen. In addition, decreased expression of the antisense RNA KLHL7-AS1 was observed in GTEx. Furthermore, rs199347 is an eQTL with long non-coding RNA (AC005082.12) in human tissues other than brain. Interestingly, transcript-specific eQTLs in immune-related tissues (spleen and lymphoblastoid cells) for NUPL2 and KLHL7-AS1 were observed, which suggests a complex functional role of this eQTL in specific tissues, cell types at specific time points. Significantly increased expression of GPNMB linked to rs199347 was consistent across all datasets, and taken in combination with the risk SNP being located within the GPNMB gene, these results suggest that increased expression of GPNMB is the causative link explaining the association of this locus with PD. However, other transcript eQTLs and subsequent functional roles cannot be excluded. This highlights the importance of further investigations to understand the functional interactions between the coding genes, antisense, and non-coding RNA species considering the tissue and cell-type specificity to understand the underlying biological mechanisms in PD.

  9. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  11. [Percutaneous transfemoral valvuloplasty in patients with calcified aortic stenosis and significantly increased surgical risk: clinical course and value of Doppler sonography in assessment of therapeutic success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, H; Katus, H; Dietz, R; Rauch, B; Kübler, W

    1988-07-01

    Percutaneous transluminal valvuloplasty (PTV) was performed in 24 patients (aged 67-86 years, mean: 76 +/- 5.7 years) with calcific aortic stenosis and high operative risk. The gradient between maximal left ventricular and aortic pressures (peak-to-peak gradient, PPPG) could be reduced by 52% from 73 +/- 21 to 34 +/- 12 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Peak pressure gradient (PPG), as assessed by continuous wave Doppler, could be reduced from 80 +/- 28 to 58 +/- 21 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Aortic valve area (AVA) as determined by Doppler and two dimensional echocardiography increased significantly from 0.39 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.3 cm2 (p less than 0.05). Clinical symptoms were found to be improved in 5 of 8 patients with impaired ejection fraction and in 11 of 16 patients with normal ejection fraction during the first week after PTV. Complications due to the procedure were surgical revision of femoral artery puncture site in one patient and hemodynamic relevant pericardial effusion in another patient. Transmitral early (E) and late (L) diastolic filling integrals were measured by pulsed Doppler: the ratio E/L decreased significantly after PTV from 0.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.63 +/- 0.31 (p less than 0.03) indicating further reduction of left ventricular early diastolic filling. Ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output did not significantly change immediately after PTV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Training Programs on Endoscopic Scoring Systems for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lead to a Significant Increase in Interobserver Agreement Among Community Gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daperno, Marco; Comberlato, Michele; Bossa, Fabrizio; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Biancone, Livia; Bonanomi, Andrea G; Cosintino, Rocco; Lombardi, Giovanni; Mangiarotti, Roberto; Papa, Alfredo; Pica, Roberta; Grassano, Luca; Pagana, Guido; D'Incà, Renata; Orlando, Ambrogio; Rizzello, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic outcomes are increasingly used in clinical trials and in routine practice for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in order to reach more objective patient evaluations than possible using only clinical features. However, reproducibility of endoscopic scoring systems used to categorize endoscopic activity has been reported to be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to analyse the inter-rated agreement of non-dedicated gastroenterologists on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and to explore the effects of a dedicated training programme on agreement. A total of 237 physicians attended training courses on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and they independently scored a set of IBD endoscopic videos for ulcerative colitis [with Mayo endoscopic subscore], post-operative Crohn's disease [with Rutgeerts score] and luminal Crohn's disease (with the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease [SESCD] and Crohn's Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS]). A second round of scoring was collected after discussion about determinants of discrepancy. Interobserver agreement was measured by means of the Fleiss' kappa [kappa] or intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] as appropriate. The inter-rater agreement increased from kappa 0.51 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.48-0.55) to 0.76 [95% CI 0.72-0.79] for the Mayo endoscopic subscore, and from 0.45 [95% CI 0.40-0.50] to 0.79 [0.74-0.83] for the Rutgeerts score before and after the training programme, respectively, and both differences were significant [P training programme can significantly impact on inter-rater agreement, increasing it to levels expected among expert central reviewers. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Significant ecological impact on the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli with increased community use of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Oscar; Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; Aracil, Belén; de Abajo, Francisco; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ortega, Adriana; Campos, José

    2011-03-01

    To determine trends in ciprofloxacin resistance and co-resistance to other antibiotic classes in blood isolates of Escherichia coli, and to investigate if there is an ecological relationship to the community use of fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Forty-two Spanish hospitals of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network collected ciprofloxacin and other antibiotic susceptibility data for non-duplicate consecutive E. coli isolates from patients with bacteraemia between 2001 and 2009. The nationwide ambulatory use of antibiotics between 1997 and 2008 was determined by WHO methods, and the co-evolution of both parameters was further analysed. Of the 28 307 E. coli blood isolates, 27.9% were ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (CIPNS), increasing from 17.6% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2009. A continuous increase was observed between CIPNS and other resistances, including cephalosporin resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and non-susceptibility to both amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and tobramycin. Although the total use of antibiotics did not increase, community use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid increased by 307.2%, 62.6% and 70.1%, respectively. Yearly rates of CIPNS E. coli strongly correlated with the use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (r(2 )> 0.80; P resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, production of ESBLs and resistance to aminoglycosides. Community use of fluoroquinolones (mainly moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represents a significant driver in the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteraemic E. coli.

  14. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  15. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  16. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  17. Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Pierre; Mateus, Victor; Bieuzen, Francois; Ouedraogo, Nafi; Cisse, Fallou; Leftheriotis, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Increase in arterial inflow to the lower limbs is important to obtain functional improvement in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients with claudication. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electrical stimulation of calf muscles on arterial inflow and tissue oxygen content in PAD in the area of stimulation. Fifteen adult patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 62 (12 ) years; height, 165 (8)cm; weight, 76 (13) kg; lowest ankle-brachial index 0.66 (0.19)] with stable arterial claudication were recruited. All patients performed a treadmill test (3.2 km/h, 10% slope) associated with a transcutaneous oximetry test expressed as decrease from rest of oxygen pressure (DROP) index values (calf changes minus chest changes from rest) with a maximum walking distance (median [25th/75th percentiles]) of 295 [133-881] m. The DROP index on the symptomatic side was -25 [-18/-34] mm Hg. On another day the patients underwent electrical stimulation in the seated position on the leg that was the most symptomatic on the treadmill. After resting values were recorded, the gastrocnemius was stimulated for 20minutes at increasing contraction rates at 5-minute steps of 60, 75, 86, and 100bpm on the most symptomatic side. Arterial blood inflow with duplex Doppler ultrasound scanning of the femoral artery, DROP transcutaneous oxygen pressure value, and oxygen concentration (O2Hb) from the near-infrared spectroscopic signal of the calf were recorded on both sides. Patients were instructed to report eventual contraction-induced pain in the stimulated calf. Results are given as mean (standard deviation) or median [25th/75th percentiles] according to distribution, and the level of statistical significance was set at P  .05) before stimulation, 123 [75/156] vs 57 [44/92] (P calf muscle with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase of arterial inflow without measurable muscle ischemia or pain. Potential use of this device as an adjuvant treatment to improve

  18. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

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    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  19. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  20. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  1. Laninamivir octanoate and artificial surfactant combination therapy significantly increases survival of mice infected with lethal influenza H1N1 Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Fukushi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with influenza virus infection can develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which have a high mortality. Influenza virus infection is treated worldwide mainly by neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. However, monotherapy with NAIs is insufficient for severe pneumonia secondary to influenza virus infection. We previously demonstrated that mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza virus develop diffuse alveolar damage (DAD with alveolar collapse similar to that seen in ARDS in humans. Additionally, pulmonary surfactant proteins were gradually increased in mouse serum, suggesting a decrease in pulmonary surfactant in the lung. Therefore, the present study examined whether combination therapy of NAI with exogenous artificial surfactant affects mortality of influenza virus-infected mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were inoculated with several viral doses of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 virus (H1N1. The mice were additionally administered exogenous artificial surfactant in the presence or absence of a new NAI, laninamivir octanoate. Mouse survival, body weight and general condition were observed for up to 20 days after inoculation. Viral titer and cytokine/chemokine levels in the lungs, lung weight, pathological analysis, and blood O(2 and CO(2 pressures were evaluated. Infected mice treated with combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant showed a significantly higher survival rate compared with those that received laninamivir octanoate monotherapy (p = 0.003. However, virus titer, lung weight and cytokine/chemokine responses were not different between the groups. Histopathological examination, a hydrostatic lung test and blood gas analysis showed positive results in the combination therapy group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant reduces lethality in mice infected with influenza virus, and

  2. Incorporating biologic measurements (SF2, CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, Francesca Meteora; Davidson, Susan E.; Hunter, Robert D.; Nahum, Alan E.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Methods and Materials: Measurements of SF 2 and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp α,ρ ). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp α,ρ vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF 2 and CFE measurements alone. Results: In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp α,ρ was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p 2 alone (p=0.009 for local control, p=0.29 for survival) or CFE alone (p=0.015 for local control, p=0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp α,ρ emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p α,ρ , CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF 2 was not. The sensitivities of tcp α,ρ and SF 2 as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF 2 , CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients

  3. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 -28C>G is significantly associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lelin; Zhang, Kaixian; Yao, Lihong; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) has been shown to play an important role in antimycobacterial immune responses. Previous studies have extensively reported that the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between the CCL5 -28C>G and the risk of TB, we performed a meta-analysis. Methods: We searched articles published before June 6, 2014 from PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Data were extracted from all eligible publications independently by two investigators and statistically analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association between CCL5 polymorphism and TB. Results: Four case-control studies including 647 TB cases and 726 controls were involved in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of TB (G vs. C: 3.75, 95% CI = 1.76-7.99; GG vs. CC: OR = 30.26, 95% CI = 14.28-64.12). Conclusion: Our results suggested that the -28C>G polymorphism is significantly associated with higher TB risk, which is opposite from previously published reports. However, the number of the study is limited, additional well-designed studies are required to elucidate the association between the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism and TB. PMID:26550245

  4. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  5. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  6. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  7. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  8. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS.

  9. Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy deaths by age, race/ethnicity, and gender in the United States significantly increased from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-04-01

    To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  11. Duration of Red Blood Cell Storage Is Associated with Increased Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and in Hospital Mortality in Patients with Traumatic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    failure via inflammatory and coagulation pathways. ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; DVT: deep vein thrombosis; MI: myocardial infarction ; RBC...race, sex, ABO blood type, admission vital signs and lab- oratory values, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), total units of RBCs...did it meet criteria for inclusion in the multivariate logistic regression anal- ysis. The distribution of patient ABO blood group types was not

  12. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  13. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  14. Mathematics of Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Rene; Bruna, Joan; Giryes, Raja; Soatto, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the performance of recognition systems due to the introduction of deep architectures for representation learning and classification. However, the mathematical reasons for this success remain elusive. This tutorial will review recent work that aims to provide a mathematical justification for several properties of deep networks, such as global optimality, geometric stability, and invariance of the learned representations.

  15. Pre-feasibility Study to Identify Opportunities for Increasing CO2 Storage in Deep, Saline Aquifers by Active Aquifer Management and Treatment of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-05

    In this report, we present initial estimates of CO2 injectivity and plume radius for injection of 0.1 MT/yr and 1 MT/yr. Results for 1 and 10 years of injection are used to show how the plume from a single injector well could grow through time for a simplified, idealized system. Most results are for a 2 km deep injection well, while several results from a deeper plume are also presented to demonstrate the impact of changing depth and temperature.

  16. Deep Learning in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Morgan P; Awan, Omer A; Colucci, Andrew T; Ghobadi, Comeron W; Kadom, Nadja; Kansagra, Akash P; Tridandapani, Srini; Auffermann, William F

    2018-03-29

    As radiology is inherently a data-driven specialty, it is especially conducive to utilizing data processing techniques. One such technique, deep learning (DL), has become a remarkably powerful tool for image processing in recent years. In this work, the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Deep Learning provides an overview of DL for the radiologist. This article aims to present an overview of DL in a manner that is understandable to radiologists; to examine past, present, and future applications; as well as to evaluate how radiologists may benefit from this remarkable new tool. We describe several areas within radiology in which DL techniques are having the most significant impact: lesion or disease detection, classification, quantification, and segmentation. The legal and ethical hurdles to implementation are also discussed. By taking advantage of this powerful tool, radiologists can become increasingly more accurate in their interpretations with fewer errors and spend more time to focus on patient care. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  19. Increased cortical and deep grey matter sodium concentration is associated with physical and cognitive disability in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, WJ; Alves Da Mota, Patricia; Prados, Ferran

    digit modalities test (SDMT) and tests of verbal and visual memory. Linear regression was used to compare differences in tissue TSC between groups. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify independent associations between TSC and disability with adjustment for age, sex, disease duration......=0.40) and visual memory (β=-0.06, 95%CI -0.11, -.0.02, R2=0.19). Conclusion: Sodium accumulation in cortical and deep grey matter may reflect underlying neurodegeneration that is relevant to the development of long-term disability and cognitive impairment in relapse-onset MS. 23Na-MRI may become a secondary......-appearing white matter (NAWM), T1-isointense and T1-hypointense lesions was calculated. Physical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), timed 25-foot walk test (TWT) and 9-hole peg test (9HPT). Cognition was assessed using the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), symbol...

  20. Increased cortical and deep grey matter sodium concentration is associated with physical and cognitive disability in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, WJ; Alves Da Mota, Patricia; Prados, Ferran

    -appearing white matter (NAWM), T1-isointense and T1-hypointense lesions was calculated. Physical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), timed 25-foot walk test (TWT) and 9-hole peg test (9HPT). Cognition was assessed using the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), symbol...... digit modalities test (SDMT) and tests of verbal and visual memory. Linear regression was used to compare differences in tissue TSC between groups. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify independent associations between TSC and disability with adjustment for age, sex, disease duration......=0.40) and visual memory (β=-0.06, 95%CI -0.11, -.0.02, R2=0.19). Conclusion: Sodium accumulation in cortical and deep grey matter may reflect underlying neurodegeneration that is relevant to the development of long-term disability and cognitive impairment in relapse-onset MS. 23Na-MRI may become a secondary...

  1. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  2. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  4. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911. In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum, two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays, two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba and one moss (Physcomitrella patens. Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants.

  5. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  6. VaCPK20 gene overexpression significantly increased resveratrol content and expression of stilbene synthase genes in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynova-Shumakova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant phenol, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation, we show that transformation of a Vitis amurensis Rupr. cell suspension with the gene VaCPK20 for a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter increased resveratrol production in five independently transformed cell lines in 9-68 times compared with control cells. The VaCPK20-transformed calli were capable of producing 0.04-0.42 % dry wt. of resveratrol, while the control calli produced up to 0.008 % dry wt. of resveratrol Also, we characterized expression of stilbene synthase (STS) genes in the five VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines of V. amurensis. In all VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines, expression of VaSTS7 increased; while expression of VaSTS1 decreased. We suggest that transformation of V. amurensis calli with the VaCPK20 gene induced resveratrol accumulation via enhancement of expression of the VaSTS7 gene involved in resveratrol biosynthesis. The obtained data first demonstrate that overexpression of a CDPK gene resulted in increased accumulation of a stilbenoid phytoalexine in transgenic plant cells. We propose that the VaCPK20 gene could play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis in grape cells.

  7. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  8. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  11. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. The restorative management of the deep overbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddis, H P; Durey, K; Alhilou, A; Chan, M F W Y

    2014-11-01

    A deep overbite is where the vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors exceeds half of the lower incisal tooth height. Problems associated with the deep overbite can include soft tissue trauma, lack of inter-occlusal space and tooth wear, all of which can present significant challenges for the restorative dentist. While management options very much depend on the nature of the situation and patient's symptoms, options may range from provision of a simple removable appliance or splint and non-surgical periodontal therapy, to multidisciplinary care involving orthodontics, orthognathic surgery and restorative dentistry. Restorative management may involve an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension with fixed restorations or removable prostheses, and careful assessment and treatment planning is essential. This article discusses the aetiology and restorative management strategies for deep and traumatic overbites.

  14. Deep Learning Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rivenson, Yair; Gorocs, Zoltan; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with rem...

  15. Hot and sour in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Christopher L.

    2017-12-01

    Stable layering in the ocean limits the rate that human-derived carbon dioxide can acidify the deep ocean. Now observations show that ocean warming, however, can enhance deep-ocean acidification through increased organic matter decomposition.

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  17. Decadal trends in deep ocean salinity and regional effects on steric sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, S. G.; Llovel, W.

    2017-12-01

    We present deep (below 2000 m) and abyssal (below 4000 m) global ocean salinity trends from the 1990s through the 2010s and assess the role of deep salinity in local and global sea level budgets. Deep salinity trends are assessed using all deep basins with available full-depth, high-quality hydrographic section data that have been occupied two or more times since the 1980s through either the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program or the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). All salinity data is calibrated to standard seawater and any intercruise offsets applied. While the global mean deep halosteric contribution to sea level rise is close to zero (-0.017 +/- 0.023 mm/yr below 4000 m), there is a large regional variability with the southern deep basins becoming fresher and northern deep basins becoming more saline. This meridional gradient in the deep salinity trend reflects different mechanisms driving the deep salinity variability. The deep Southern Ocean is freshening owing to a recent increased flux of freshwater to the deep ocean. Outside of the Southern Ocean, the deep salinity and temperature changes are tied to isopycnal heave associated with a falling of deep isopycnals in recent decades. Therefore, regions of the ocean with a deep salinity minimum are experiencing both a halosteric contraction with a thermosteric expansion. While the thermosteric expansion is larger in most cases, in some regions the halosteric compensates for as much as 50% of the deep thermal expansion, making a significant contribution to local sea level rise budgets.

  18. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  19. The management of heat flow in deep mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Horst [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Dept. Mineral Resources and Petroleum Engineering

    2013-04-15

    With the ever-increasing depth of mines, the management of heat has become a key issue for their design and operation. There are two main sources of heat: heat transfer from the rock mass into the mine workings and heat associated with mining operations. The principles of heat transfer from the rock mass are discussed and basic relationships presented. Sources of heat linked to mining operations are discussed. It is shown that in deep-level mines, heat transfer from the rock mass accounts more than 75 % of total mine heat load. In highly mechanized coal mines, heat from the use of mining machinery is also significant. Some models of heat flow prediction for deep gold mines are presented. It is shown that in the case of deep mines, control of heat flow is more important than increasing refrigeration capacity. Examples of heat flow management methods are given. Furthermore, the paper deals with the effects of heat on the human body and mine cooling strategies for deep mines. In detail the effects of heat on a worker are examined, heat stress and heat tolerance discussed and methods of assessing heat stress in different mining situations presented. Experiences from deep South African gold mines highlight the adverse effects of heat stress environment on safety and labour productivity. The principal methods of cooling of deep and ultra deep mines are discussed. It is shown that auto-compression of ventilation air is a deciding factor governing the choice of surface or underground cooling of ventilation air. In the case of deep and ultra deep mines, the use of chilled service water and ice slurry has shown to be the most cost effective means of mine cooling. In the case of ice slurry as cooling medium advantage is taken of the latent heat of ice which significantly reduces the amount of water required for mine cooling and hence the cost of pumping the water to surface. Cooling strategies for moderately deep, deep and ultra deep mines are discussed. Examples of cooling

  20. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  1. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the accuracy of two prediction scores for the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Tudor Radu; Vesa, Ştefan Cristian; Trifa, Adrian Pavel; Crişan, Sorin; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of two scores in predicting the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. The study included 170 patients [85 (50%) women and 85 (50%) men] who were diagnosed with acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with duplex ultrasonography. Median age was 62 (52.75; 72) years. The control group consisted of 166 subjects [96 (57.8%) women and 70 (42.2%) men], without DVT, matched for age (± one year) to those in the group with DVT. The patients and controls were selected from those admitted to the internal medicine, cardiology and geriatrics wards within the Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between October 2009 and June 2011. Clinical, demographic and lab data were recorded for each patient. For each patient we calculated the prior risk of DVT using two prediction scores: Caprini and Padua. According to the Padua score only 93 (54.7%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 48 (28.9%) of controls were at high risk of developing DVT. When Padua score included PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, the sensitivity increased at 71.7%. Using the Caprini score, we determined that 147 (86.4%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 103 (62%) controls were at high risk of developing DVT. A Caprini score higher than 5 was the strongest predictor of acute lower extremity DVT risk. The Caprini prediction score was more sensitive than the Padua score in assessing the high risk of DVT in medical patients. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the sensitivity of Padua score.

  2. Skeletal and dentoalveolar features in patients with deep overbite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Hamidreza; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Afzali Baghdadabadi, Neda; Shahian Jahromi, Shervin

    2014-11-01

    An increased overbite may be due to a skeletal or dental etiology that may influence treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar features in patients with deep bite malocclusion in an Iranian population and to determine the most and least effective and contributory variables causing deep bite. Lateral cephalograms and study casts of normal (n=85) and deep bite (n=85) subjects were used to evaluate skeletal and dentoalveolar variables. Data were analyzed statistically by independent t-test. The percentages of each variable within normal limits, less and more than one standard deviation were calculated for deep bite subjects. The most significant skeletal contributing factors were gonial and basal angles, as well as the posterior facial height, ramus length, lower anterior facial height and upper anterior facial height. An increased curve of spee and decreased mandibular first molar height were predominant dental variables in the deep bite group. The variables with the greatest variances from the normal limit were the ratio of the lower anterior facial height to the total anterior facial height, the lower anterior facial height to the upper anterior facial height and the ramus length. The counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and the increased curve of spee were the dominant feature of deep bite malocclusion.

  3. Cultured and uncultured fungal diversity in deep-sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Nagano, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    The importance of fungi found in deep-sea extreme environments is becoming increasingly recognized. In this chapter, current scientific findings on the fungal diversity in several deep-sea environments by conventional culture and culture-independent methods are reviewed and discussed, primarily focused on culture-independent approaches. Fungal species detected by conventional culture methods mostly belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla. Culture-independent approaches have revealed the presence of highly novel fungal phylotypes, including new taxonomic groups placed in deep branches within the phylum Chytridiomycota and unknown ancient fungal groups. Future attempts to culture these unknown fungal groups may provide key insights into the early evolution of fungi and their ecological and physiological significance in deep-sea environments.

  4. Deep Discrete Supervised Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qing-Yuan; Cui, Xue; Li, Wu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hashing has been widely used for large-scale search due to its low storage cost and fast query speed. By using supervised information, supervised hashing can significantly outperform unsupervised hashing. Recently, discrete supervised hashing and deep hashing are two representative progresses in supervised hashing. On one hand, hashing is essentially a discrete optimization problem. Hence, utilizing supervised information to directly guide discrete (binary) coding procedure can avoid sub-opti...

  5. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  6. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  7. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...

  8. Impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Wei, Yi-Yong; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the morphological alterations of the deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening have been investigated in cellular and extracellular aspects, the impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia remains largely unknown. This study aimed to address the changes of viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia during leg lengthening using uniaxial tensile test. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day in two steps, and preceded until increases of 10% and 20% in the initial length of tibia had been achieved. The deep fascia specimens of 30 mm × 10 mm were clamped with the Instron 1122 tensile tester at room temperature with a constant tensile rate of 5 mm/min. After 5 load-download tensile tests had been performed, the specimens were elongated until rupture. The load-displacement curves were automatically generated. Results The normal deep fascia showed typical viscoelastic rule of collagenous tissues. Each experimental group of the deep fascia after leg lengthening kept the properties. The curves of the deep fascia at a rate of 1 mm/day with 20% increase in tibia length were the closest to those of normal deep fascia. The ultimate tension strength and the strain at rupture on average of normal deep fascia were 2.69 N (8.97 mN/mm2) and 14.11%, respectively. The increases in ultimate tension strength and strain at rupture of the deep fascia after leg lengthening were statistically significant. Conclusion The deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening exhibits viscoelastic properties as collagenous tissues without lengthening other than increased strain and strength. Notwithstanding different lengthening schemes result in varied viscoelastic properties changes, the most comparable viscoelastic properties to be demonstrated are under the scheme of a distraction rate of 1 mm/day and 20% increase in tibia length. PMID:19698092

  9. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such meth...

  10. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  11. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2016-01-01

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mat...

  12. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  13. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  14. Deep significance of the field concept in contemporary biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Leskovar, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Since antiquity, biology has had two opposing views of life and organisms: holistic (organismic) and reductionist. In contemporary biology, the molecular reductionist approach prevails--its central entity being the gene. Organicism lingers on the margin of biology, having well-elaborated ideas but no empirical confirmation for the integrative biological entity. The latter could be found in the endogenous coherent EM field (ECEMF), since it organizes countless cellular processes, including cell's division, and through the coupling of coherence domains integrates the whole organism. A serious and thorough reconsideration of life and organisms in light of this new biological entity would have far-reaching consequences in all areas of biological science, i.e., in ontogeny, the theory of evolution, understanding and combating serious illnesses, and above all, cancer.

  15. Jet-images — deep learning edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luke de; Kagan, Michael; Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Building on the notion of a particle physics detector as a camera and the collimated streams of high energy particles, or jets, it measures as an image, we investigate the potential of machine learning techniques based on deep learning architectures to identify highly boosted W bosons. Modern deep learning algorithms trained on jet images can out-perform standard physically-motivated feature driven approaches to jet tagging. We develop techniques for visualizing how these features are learned by the network and what additional information is used to improve performance. This interplay between physically-motivated feature driven tools and supervised learning algorithms is general and can be used to significantly increase the sensitivity to discover new particles and new forces, and gain a deeper understanding of the physics within jets.

  16. Jet-images — deep learning edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luke de [Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University,Huang Building 475 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kagan, Michael [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,390 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-07-13

    Building on the notion of a particle physics detector as a camera and the collimated streams of high energy particles, or jets, it measures as an image, we investigate the potential of machine learning techniques based on deep learning architectures to identify highly boosted W bosons. Modern deep learning algorithms trained on jet images can out-perform standard physically-motivated feature driven approaches to jet tagging. We develop techniques for visualizing how these features are learned by the network and what additional information is used to improve performance. This interplay between physically-motivated feature driven tools and supervised learning algorithms is general and can be used to significantly increase the sensitivity to discover new particles and new forces, and gain a deeper understanding of the physics within jets.

  17. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  18. Significant increase of IGF-I concentration and of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in generation test predicts the good response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with short stature and normal results of GH stimulating tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyczynska, Joanna; Hilczer, Maciej; Stawerska, Renata; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) generation test has been introduced for the assessment of growth hormone (GH) sensitivity, however, its significance in predicting growth response to GH therapy has also been brought up. The molar ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) determines IGF-I bioavailability. Evaluation of usefulness of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test in predicting the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in children with short stature. The analysis comprised 60 children with short stature, normal results of GH stimulating tests but decreased IGF-I secretion. In all the patients, GH insensitivity was excluded on the basis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test. Next, GH therapy was administered and height velocity (HV), together with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 secretion, was assessed every year, during 3 years. The comparative group consisted of 30 children with partial GH deficiency (pGHD). Both IGF-I secretion and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly during generation test (pGH therapy (however insignificantly), together with at least doubling of pretreatment HV. There was no significant difference between the studied group of patients and children with pGHD. Significant increase of IGF-I in generation test speaks for GH therapy effectiveness in short children, despite normal results of GH stimulating tests.

  19. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  20. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such methods might be used to automate certain aspects of data analysis in particle physics. Next, the connection to Bayesian methods is discussed and the paper ends with thoughts on a significant practical issue, namely, how, from a Bayesian perspective, one might optimize the construction of deep neural networks.

  1. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  2. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  3. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  4. Referred pain and cutaneous responses from deep tissue electrical pain stimulation in the groin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2015-01-01

    outside the stimulation area was reported, with 90-100% having the same response on both days, depending on the location. Deep pain stimulation significantly increased the cutaneous HPT (P...>0.474, P≤0.040) at the two test days for the majority of test areas. CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate a systematic relationship between deep pain and changes in cutaneous nociception. The individual referred/projected pain patterns and cutaneous responses are variable, but reproducible...

  5. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  6. Hybrid deep drawing tool for lubricant free deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleaume, Christina; Mousavi, Ali; Brosius, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a concept for a hybrid deep drawing tool based on polymer concrete and first results from actual deep drawing tests using a prototype of the newly developed tool. The hybrid tool presented here has a defined macro-structure of the blankholder and drawing die as implemented before by Brosius et al. [1] in a steel tool for a lubricant free deep drawing process. The macro structure has a positive effect on the lubrication free deep drawing process, because it reduces the contact surface, increases the sheet's stability against wrinkling in the flange, reduces the necessary blank holder force and thereby the contact pressure, and offers a means to control the material flow [1]. The main objective in transferring this concept to a new hybrid tool from polymer concrete is an enhanced possibility to easily integrate other functional elements like temperature and pressure sensors, graphite inlays or roller bearings into the drawing die or blankholder. Since polymer concrete is cast in a cold exothermal process of no more than 60° Celsius, these elements are not subjected to high thermal loads and their positioning is relatively simple and precise. Polymer concrete moreover has good mechanical properties regarding compressive strength [2] and Young's modulus [3] and is therefore well suited for a deep drawing tool application.

  7. Deep Generative Models for Molecular Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Winther, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Generative deep machine learning models now rival traditional quantum-mechanical computations in predicting properties of new structures, and they come with a significantly lower computational cost, opening new avenues in computational molecular science. In the last few years, a variety of deep...

  8. Mammalian niche conservation through deep time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa R G DeSantis

    Full Text Available Climate change alters species distributions, causing plants and animals to move north or to higher elevations with current warming. Bioclimatic models predict species distributions based on extant realized niches and assume niche conservation. Here, we evaluate if proxies for niches (i.e., range areas are conserved at the family level through deep time, from the Eocene to the Pleistocene. We analyze the occurrence of all mammalian families in the continental USA, calculating range area, percent range area occupied, range area rank, and range polygon centroids during each epoch. Percent range area occupied significantly increases from the Oligocene to the Miocene and again from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene; however, mammalian families maintain statistical concordance between rank orders across time. Families with greater taxonomic diversity occupy a greater percent of available range area during each epoch and net changes in taxonomic diversity are significantly positively related to changes in percent range area occupied from the Eocene to the Pleistocene. Furthermore, gains and losses in generic and species diversity are remarkably consistent with ~2.3 species gained per generic increase. Centroids demonstrate southeastern shifts from the Eocene through the Pleistocene that may correspond to major environmental events and/or climate changes during the Cenozoic. These results demonstrate range conservation at the family level and support the idea that niche conservation at higher taxonomic levels operates over deep time and may be controlled by life history traits. Furthermore, families containing megafauna and/or terminal Pleistocene extinction victims do not incur significantly greater declines in range area rank than families containing only smaller taxa and/or only survivors, from the Pliocene to Pleistocene. Collectively, these data evince the resilience of families to climate and/or environmental change in deep time, the absence of

  9. Withania somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R significantly increases the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs by generating strong IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated immune responses in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Mandal, Chitra; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Dube, Anuradha

    2017-01-15

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medical systems. Pharmacological studies have established that root extracts of W. somnifera contain several bioactive constituents called withanolides. The plant has long been used for its several beneficial properties and recently as an immunomodulator. A combination therapy including a potential and safe immunostimulant with lower doses of effective drug, which can reduce the parasitic burden and simultaneously can produce an enhancement of adaptive immunity, has proven to be significantly a more effective approach than immunotherapy or drug therapy alone. Evaluation of the immunostimulatory effect of W. somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R when used in combination with ED 50 doses of antileishmanial drugs in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. Infected animals were administered with chemotype 101R(30mg/kg × 15 days) either alone or in combination with ED 50 doses of miltefosine (10mg/kg × 5 days), paromomycin (30mg/kg × 5 days) or amphotericin B (0.5mg/kg × 5 days). The treated animals were euthanized on days 30 and 60 post-treatment (p.t.) and checked for parasite clearance, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels by real-time PCR, nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lymphoproliferative and antibody responses. The group of animals that received 101R and ED 50 dose of miltefosine showed optimum inhibition of parasite multiplication (∼98%) by day 60 p.t. followed by the group that received 101R plus paromomycin (∼94%) and 101R plus amphotericin B (∼93%). The efficacy was well supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript, strong IFN-γand IL-12 mediated Th1 immune responses and significantly suppressed levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β). Additionally, same

  10. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is an agent designed to make a classification system perform in some particular way, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, exploiting the parameters of the system to find...... the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...

  11. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Leer en español What Is Deep vein thrombosis ( ... life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  12. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  13. Auditory processing during deep propofol sedation and recovery from unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Heinke, Wolfgang; Sammler, Daniela; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-08-01

    Using evoked potentials, this study investigated effects of deep propofol sedation, and effects of recovery from unconsciousness, on the processing of auditory information with stimuli suited to elicit a physical MMN, and a (music-syntactic) ERAN. Levels of sedation were assessed using the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale (MOAAS). EEG-measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep propofol sedation (MOAAS 2-3, mean BIS=68), and a recovery period. Between deep sedation and recovery period, the infusion rate of propofol was increased to achieve unconsciousness (MOAAS 0-1, mean BIS=35); EEG measurements of recovery period were performed after subjects regained consciousness. During deep sedation, the physical MMN was markedly reduced, but still significant. No ERAN was observed in this level. A clear P3a was elicited during deep sedation by those deviants, which were task-relevant during the awake state. As soon as subjects regained consciousness during the recovery period, a normal MMN was elicited. By contrast, the P3a was absent in the recovery period, and the P3b was markedly reduced. Results indicate that the auditory sensory memory (as indexed by the physical MMN) is still active, although strongly reduced, during deep sedation (MOAAS 2-3). The presence of the P3a indicates that attention-related processes are still operating during this level. Processes of syntactic analysis appear to be abolished during deep sedation. After propofol-induced anesthesia, the auditory sensory memory appears to operate normal as soon as subjects regain consciousness, whereas the attention-related processes indexed by P3a and P3b are markedly impaired. Results inform about effects of sedative drugs on auditory and attention-related mechanisms. The findings are important because these mechanisms are prerequisites for auditory awareness, auditory learning and memory, as well as language perception during anesthesia.

  14. Serum hCG-β levels of postovulatory day 12 and 14 with the sequential application of hCG-β fold change significantly increased predictability of pregnancy outcome after IVF-ET cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nayoung; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Koo, H S; Yang, K M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate hCG-β level on postovulatory day (POD) 12 and its fold increase as predictors for pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A retrospective cohort study was performed in total 1408 fresh and 598 frozen cycles between November 2008 and October 2011, which resulted in biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, or live birth of singleton pregnancy. The serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 were compared among biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth groups. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels and the degree of hCG-β increase from POD 12 to 14 were determined for each pregnancy outcome. POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels stratified based on pregnancy outcomes were significantly different among the biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth in both fresh and frozen cycles. Serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 and the fold increase of hCG-β levels from POD 12 to 14 significantly predict pregnancy outcomes after fresh and frozen cycles. Among these, the cutoff value of POD 14 hCG-β had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). In fresh cycles, the cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for clinical pregnancies were 30.2 mIU/mL (sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 79.6 %, and PPV 92.3 %) and 70.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 88.4 %, specificity 85.2 %, and PPV 94.7 %). In pregnancies with POD 12 serum hCG-β levels ≥30.2 mIU/mL, the cutoff level of increase of hCG-β for clinical pregnancy was 2.56 (sensitivity 73.6 %, specificity 72.4 %, and PPV 97.8 %). Sequential application of cutoff values such as POD 12 hCG-β and fold increase of hCG-β improved predictability of pregnancy outcome as compared with that of POD 12 hCG-β alone. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for live birth were 40.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 75.2 %, specificity 72.6 %, PPV 78.9 %) and 104.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 80.3 %, specificity 74.1 %, PPV 80.8 %). In the frozen

  15. Crop response to deep tillage - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Don, Axel; Hennings, Inga; Schmittmann, Oliver; Seidel, Sabine J.

    2017-04-01

    Subsoil, i.e. the soil layer below the topsoil, stores tremendous stocks of nutrients and can keep water even under drought conditions. Deep tillage may be a method to enhance the plant-availability of subsoil resources. However, in field trials, deep tillage effects on crop yields were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of crop yield response to subsoiling, deep ploughing and deep mixing of soil profiles. Our search resulted in 1530 yield comparisons following deep and conventional control tillage on 67 experimental cropping sites. The vast majority of the data derived from temperate latitudes, from trials conducted in the USA (679 observations) and Germany (630 observations). On average, crop yield response to deep tillage was slightly positive (6% increase). However, individual deep tillage effects were highly scattered including about 40% yield depressions after deep tillage. Deep tillage on soils with root restrictive layers increased crop yields about 20%, while soils containing >70% silt increased the risk of yield depressions following deep tillage. Generally, deep tillage effects increased with drought intensity indicating deep tillage as climate adaptation measure at certain sites. Our results suggest that deep tillage can facilitate the plant-availability of subsoil nutrients, which increases crop yields if (i) nutrients in the topsoil are growth limiting, and (ii) deep tillage does not come at the cost of impairing topsoil fertility. On sites with root restrictive soil layers, deep tillage can be an effective measure to mitigate drought stress and improve the resilience of crops. However, deep tillage should only be performed on soils with a stable structure, i.e. <70% silt content. We will discuss the contribution of deep tillage options to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production by facilitating the uptake of nutrients and water from the subsoil.

  16. Deep 6-DOF Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Mathieu; Lalonde, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-01

    We present a temporal 6-DOF tracking method which leverages deep learning to achieve state-of-the-art performance on challenging datasets of real world capture. Our method is both more accurate and more robust to occlusions than the existing best performing approaches while maintaining real-time performance. To assess its efficacy, we evaluate our approach on several challenging RGBD sequences of real objects in a variety of conditions. Notably, we systematically evaluate robustness to occlusions through a series of sequences where the object to be tracked is increasingly occluded. Finally, our approach is purely data-driven and does not require any hand-designed features: robust tracking is automatically learned from data.

  17. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  18. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  19. IBM Deep Learning Service

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Bishwaranjan; Boag, Scott; Doshi, Chandani; Dube, Parijat; Herta, Ben; Ishakian, Vatche; Jayaram, K. R.; Khalaf, Rania; Krishna, Avesh; Li, Yu Bo; Muthusamy, Vinod; Puri, Ruchir; Ren, Yufei; Rosenberg, Florian; Seelam, Seetharami R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning driven by large neural network models is overtaking traditional machine learning methods for understanding unstructured and perceptual data domains such as speech, text, and vision. At the same time, the "as-a-Service"-based business model on the cloud is fundamentally transforming the information technology industry. These two trends: deep learning, and "as-a-service" are colliding to give rise to a new business model for cognitive application delivery: deep learning as a servi...

  20. Deep cascade learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Enrique, Salvador; Hare, Jonathon; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficient training of deep neural networks in a bottom-up fashion using a layered structure. Our algorithm, which we refer to as Deep Cascade Learning, is motivated by the Cascade Correlation approach of Fahlman who introduced it in the context of perceptrons. We demonstrate our algorithm on networks of convolutional layers, though its applicability is more general. Such training of deep networks in a cascade, directly circumvents the well-know...

  1. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  2. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  3. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    Full Text Available Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth, including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components

  4. Potential Osteoporosis Recovery by Deep Sea Water through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hen-Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8 and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Deep sea water at hardness (HD 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3 by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.

  5. Deep-water zooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea: Results from a continuous, synchronous sampling over different regions using sediment traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, R.; Carugati, L.; Boldrin, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Fabres, J.; Finlay, K.; Heussner, S.; Miserocchi, S.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Information on the dynamics of deep-sea biota is extremely scant particularly for long-term time series on deep-sea zooplankton. Here, we present the results of a deep-sea zooplankton investigation over one annual cycle based on samples from sediment trap moorings in three sub-basins along the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea zooplankton assemblages were dominated by copepods, as in shallow waters, only in the Adriatic Sea (>60% of total abundance), but not in the deep Ionian Sea, where ostracods represented >80%, neither in the deep Alboran Sea, where polychaetes were >70%. We found that deep-sea zooplankton assemblages: i) are subjected to changes in their abundance and structure over time, ii) are characterized by different dominant taxa in different basins, and iii) display clear taxonomic segregation between shallow and near-bottom waters. Zooplankton biodiversity decreases with increasing water depth, but the equitability increases. We suggest here that variations of zooplankton abundance and assemblage structure are likely influenced by the trophic condition characterizing the basins. Our findings provide new insights on this largely unknown component of the deep ocean, and suggest that changes in the export of organic matter from the photic zone, such as those expected as a consequence of global change, can significantly influence zooplankton assemblages in the largest biome on Earth.

  6. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  7. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  8. Deep learning guided stroke management: a review of clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Badgeley, Marcus; Mocco, J; Oermann, Eric K

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, and outcome is directly related to timely intervention. Not all patients benefit from rapid intervention, however. Thus a significant amount of attention has been paid to using neuroimaging to assess potential benefit by identifying areas of ischemia that have not yet experienced cellular death. The perfusion-diffusion mismatch, is used as a simple metric for potential benefit with timely intervention, yet penumbral patterns provide an inaccurate predictor of clinical outcome. Machine learning research in the form of deep learning (artificial intelligence) techniques using deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at working with complex inputs. The key areas where deep learning may be imminently applied to stroke management are image segmentation, automated featurization (radiomics), and multimodal prognostication. The application of convolutional neural networks, the family of DNN architectures designed to work with images, to stroke imaging data is a perfect match between a mature deep learning technique and a data type that is naturally suited to benefit from deep learning's strengths. These powerful tools have opened up exciting opportunities for data-driven stroke management for acute intervention and for guiding prognosis. Deep learning techniques are useful for the speed and power of results they can deliver and will become an increasingly standard tool in the modern stroke specialist's arsenal for delivering personalized medicine to patients with ischemic stroke. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  10. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging.

  11. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dosimetric Considerations in Respiratory-Gated Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold for Left Breast Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Steve; Quick, Allison M; Kuhn, Karla; Rong, Yi

    2017-02-01

    To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol. Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison. The AlignRT system was used for patient setup and monitoring. Dosimetric measurements and their correlation with chest wall excursion and increase in left lung volume were studied for free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold plans. Deep inspiration breath-hold plans had significantly increased chest wall excursion when compared with free breathing. This change in geometry resulted in reduced mean and maximum heart dose but did not impact lung V 20 or mean dose. The correlation between chest wall excursion and absolute reduction in heart or lung dose was found to be nonsignificant, but correlation between left lung volume and heart dose showed a linear association. It was also identified that higher levels of chest wall excursion may paradoxically increase heart or lung dose. Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for many left-sided breast and chest wall patients using deep inspiration breath-hold. Chest wall excursion as well as left lung volume did not correlate with reduction in heart dose, and it remains to be determined what metric will provide the most optimal and reliable dosimetric advantage.

  13. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  14. Significant enhancement of gas uptake capacity and selectivity via the judicious increase of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites within two polyhedron-based metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yao, Shuo; Shi, Chao; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2016-02-21

    Two new isomorphous polyhedron-based MOFs ( and ), with dual functionalities of OMSs and LBSs, have been synthesized by using the SBB strategy. By judiciously avoiding the DABCO axial ligand, possesses more OMSs than , and exhibits a significant enhancement of CO2 uptake capacity 210 versus 162 cm(3) g(-1) for at 273 K under 1 bar.

  15. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  16. Deep Space Atomic Clock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) project will develop a small, low mass atomic clock based on mercury-ion trap technology and demonstrate it in space providing the...

  17. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  18. Pathogenesis of deep endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Stephan; Koninckx, Philippe; Brosens, Ivo

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiology of (deep) endometriosis is still unclear. As originally suggested by Cullen, change the definition "deeper than 5 mm" to "adenomyosis externa." With the discovery of the old European literature on uterine bleeding in 5%-10% of the neonates and histologic evidence that the bleeding represents decidual shedding, it is postulated/hypothesized that endometrial stem/progenitor cells, implanted in the pelvic cavity after birth, may be at the origin of adolescent and even the occasionally premenarcheal pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis in the adolescent is characterized by angiogenic and hemorrhagic peritoneal and ovarian lesions. The development of deep endometriosis at a later age suggests that deep infiltrating endometriosis is a delayed stage of endometriosis. Another hypothesis is that the endometriotic cell has undergone genetic or epigenetic changes and those specific changes determine the development into deep endometriosis. This is compatible with the hereditary aspects, and with the clonality of deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis. It explains the predisposition and an eventual causal effect by dioxin or radiation. Specific genetic/epigenetic changes could explain the various expressions and thus typical, cystic, and deep endometriosis become three different diseases. Subtle lesions are not a disease until epi(genetic) changes occur. A classification should reflect that deep endometriosis is a specific disease. In conclusion the pathophysiology of deep endometriosis remains debated and the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as the role of genetics and epigenetics in the process, still needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  20. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  1. Identifying beneficial task relations for multi-task learning in deep neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) in deep neural networks for NLP has recently received increasing interest due to some compelling benefits, including its potential to efficiently regularize models and to reduce the need for labeled data. While it has brought significant improvements in a number of NLP...

  2. Overview of deep learning in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The use of machine learning (ML) has been increasing rapidly in the medical imaging field, including computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), radiomics, and medical image analysis. Recently, an ML area called deep learning emerged in the computer vision field and became very popular in many fields. It started from an event in late 2012, when a deep-learning approach based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) won an overwhelming victory in the best-known worldwide computer vision competition, ImageNet Classification. Since then, researchers in virtually all fields, including medical imaging, have started actively participating in the explosively growing field of deep learning. In this paper, the area of deep learning in medical imaging is overviewed, including (1) what was changed in machine learning before and after the introduction of deep learning, (2) what is the source of the power of deep learning, (3) two major deep-learning models: a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) and a convolutional neural network (CNN), (4) similarities and differences between the two models, and (5) their applications to medical imaging. This review shows that ML with feature input (or feature-based ML) was dominant before the introduction of deep learning, and that the major and essential difference between ML before and after deep learning is the learning of image data directly without object segmentation or feature extraction; thus, it is the source of the power of deep learning, although the depth of the model is an important attribute. The class of ML with image input (or image-based ML) including deep learning has a long history, but recently gained popularity due to the use of the new terminology, deep learning. There are two major models in this class of ML in medical imaging, MTANN and CNN, which have similarities as well as several differences. In our experience, MTANNs were substantially more efficient in their development, had a higher performance, and required a

  3. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  4. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  5. Stimulus point distribution in deep or superficial peroneal nerve for treatment of ankle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shinji; Tanabe, Shigeo; Sugawara, Kenichi; Muraoka, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Norihide; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2013-01-01

     To develop effective electrical stimulation treatment to reduce spasticity, we examined the optimal stimulus point of the common peroneal nerve.  The locations of selective stimulus points for the deep peroneal nerve or superficial peroneal nerve fiber were examined in 25 healthy subjects in both legs (50 legs) using the ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA) to the peroneus longus (PL) M-wave amplitude (TA/PL ratio). In addition, we measured reciprocal Ia inhibition in ten healthy subjects. The amount of inhibition was determined from short-latency suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex by conditioning stimuli to the deep or superficial peroneal nerve. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.  The mean TA/PL ratio during deep peroneal nerve stimulation was significantly different from superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (p < 0.001). The mean stimulus point for the deep peroneal nerve was located 7 ± 5 mm distal and 3 ± 6 mm anterior from the distal edges of the head of fibula and was markedly different from the stimulus point for the superficial peroneal nerve (20 ± 7 mm distal and 12 ± 8 mm posterior). During deep peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex was depressed to 83.8 ± 10.7% of the unconditioned value of the H-reflex. In contrast, during superficial peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex increased to 105.3 ± 5.2%. These values were significantly different (p < 0.001).  In the present study, we revealed a stimulus area of the deep peroneal nerve. Also, we observed the inhibitory effects of stimulation upon the deep peroneal nerve at individual stimulus point. Our results appear to indicate that localized stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve is more useful for the reduction of ankle spasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramirez-Llodra

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008. A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past to exploitation (present. We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this

  7. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A; Baker, Maria C; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A; Smith, Craig R; Van Dover, Cindy L

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2) and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2) and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  8. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A.; Baker, Maria C.; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R.; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A.; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  9. The Deep Structure of Organizational Online Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Matthias; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    While research on organizational online networking recently increased significantly, most studies adopt quantitative research designs with a focus on the consequences of social network configurations. Very limited attention is paid to comprehensive theoretical conceptions of the complex phenomenon...... of organizational online networking. We address this gap by adopting a theoretical framework of the deep structure of organizational online networking with a focus on their emerging meaning for the employees. We apply and assess the framework in a qualitative case study of a large-scale implementation...... of a corporate social network site (SNS) in a global organization. We reveal organizational online networking as a multi-dimensional phenomenon with multiplex relationships that are unbalanced, primarily consist of weak ties and are subject to temporal change. Further, we identify discourse drivers...

  10. Increased detection of clinically significant antibodies and decreased incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction with the indirect antiglobulin test potentiated by polyethylene glycol compared to albumin: a Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Miho; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Ono, Satoshi; Saito, Shunnichi; Sugawara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Masami; Miura, Saori; Ishii, Youko; Watanabe, Kazuya; Tohyama, Yuriko; Nollet, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) can be potentiated by agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG-IAT) and albumin (Alb-IAT). PEG-IAT is generally regarded as superior to Alb-IAT for the detection of clinically significant red blood cell (RBC) antibodies. However, supporting data come from Caucasian-dominant populations. Non-Caucasian populations should be investigated as well. Material and methods In this single-centre, retrospective, sequential study, Alb-IAT was used from 1989 to 1996 (8 years) and PEG-IAT from 1997 to 2008 (12 years). Pre-transfusion RBC alloantibody detection rates and specificity, post-transfusion alloantibody production, and the incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction were assessed and compared for the two periods. Results Although overall RBC alloantibody detection rates were comparable, PEG-IAT more frequently detected clinically significant antibodies such as anti-E, anti-Fyb, and anti-Jka, and less frequently detected insignificant antibodies such as anti-Leb and anti-P1. New alloantibodies emerged comparably during the two periods. Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction was less frequent during the PEG-IAT period (0.30% versus 0.12%, ptransfusion reaction better than Alb-IAT among Japanese transfusion recipients in this retrospective survey of limited power. PMID:21251459

  11. Influence of ocean acidification and deep water upwelling on oligotrophic plankton communities in the subtropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    and successfully simulated a deep water upwelling event that induced a pronounced plankton bloom. Our study revealed significant effects of OA on the entire food web, leading to a restructuring of plankton communities that emerged during the oligotrophic phase, and was further amplified during the bloom......Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect marine food webs and biogeochemical......, which regularly occur in response to upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in the study region. Therefore, we specifically developed a deep water collection system that allowed us to obtain 85 m3 of seawater from 650 m depth. Thereby, we replaced 20% of each mesocosm's volume with deep water...

  12. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  13. Some Challenges of Deep Mining†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fairhurst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An increased global supply of minerals is essential to meet the needs and expectations of a rapidly rising world population. This implies extraction from greater depths. Autonomous mining systems, developed through sustained R&D by equipment suppliers, reduce miner exposure to hostile work environments and increase safety. This places increased focus on “ground control” and on rock mechanics to define the depth to which minerals may be extracted economically. Although significant efforts have been made since the end of World War II to apply mechanics to mine design, there have been both technological and organizational obstacles. Rock in situ is a more complex engineering material than is typically encountered in most other engineering disciplines. Mining engineering has relied heavily on empirical procedures in design for thousands of years. These are no longer adequate to address the challenges of the 21st century, as mines venture to increasingly greater depths. The development of the synthetic rock mass (SRM in 2008 provides researchers with the ability to analyze the deformational behavior of rock masses that are anisotropic and discontinuous—attributes that were described as the defining characteristics of in situ rock by Leopold Müller, the president and founder of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM, in 1966. Recent developments in the numerical modeling of large-scale mining operations (e.g., caving using the SRM reveal unanticipated deformational behavior of the rock. The application of massive parallelization and cloud computational techniques offers major opportunities: for example, to assess uncertainties in numerical predictions; to establish the mechanics basis for the empirical rules now used in rock engineering and their validity for the prediction of rock mass behavior beyond current experience; and to use the discrete element method (DEM in the optimization of deep mine design. For the first time, mining

  14. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiu Cheng

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks.

  16. Applications of Deep Learning in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Vieira, Armando; Putin, Evgeny; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-05-02

    Increases in throughput and installed base of biomedical research equipment led to a massive accumulation of -omics data known to be highly variable, high-dimensional, and sourced from multiple often incompatible data platforms. While this data may be useful for biomarker identification and drug discovery, the bulk of it remains underutilized. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are efficient algorithms based on the use of compositional layers of neurons, with advantages well matched to the challenges -omics data presents. While achieving state-of-the-art results and even surpassing human accuracy in many challenging tasks, the adoption of deep learning in biomedicine has been comparatively slow. Here, we discuss key features of deep learning that may give this approach an edge over other machine learning methods. We then consider limitations and review a number of applications of deep learning in biomedical studies demonstrating proof of concept and practical utility.

  17. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  18. Pathways to deep decarbonization - 2015 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribera, Teresa; Colombier, Michel; Waisman, Henri; Bataille, Chris; Pierfederici, Roberta; Sachs, Jeffrey; Schmidt-Traub, Guido; Williams, Jim; Segafredo, Laura; Hamburg Coplan, Jill; Pharabod, Ivan; Oury, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In September 2015, the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project published the Executive Summary of the Pathways to Deep Decarbonization: 2015 Synthesis Report. The full 2015 Synthesis Report was launched in Paris on December 3, 2015, at a technical workshop with the Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) program. The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (deg. C). Achieving the 2 deg. C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. In turn, this will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call 'deep decarbonization'

  19. Deep space propagation experiments at Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Stanley A.

    1990-01-01

    Propagation experiments as essential components of the general plan to develop an operational deep space telecommunications and navigation capability at Ka-band (32 to 35 GHz) by the end of the 20th century are discussed. Significant benefits of Ka-band over the current deep space standard X-band (8.4 GHz) are an improvement of 4 to 10 dB in telemetry capacity and a similar increase in radio navigation accuracy. Propagation experiments are planned on the Mars Observer Mission in 1992 in preparation for the Cassini Mission to Saturn in 1996, which will use Ka-band in the search for gravity waves as well as to enhance telemetry and navigation at Saturn in 2002. Subsequent uses of Ka-band are planned for the Solar Probe Mission and the Mars Program.

  20. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies do not significantly increase the risk of finding iodine avid metastases on post-radioactive iodine ablation scan in low-risk thyroid cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, F; Porter, K; Senter, L; Ringel, M D

    2017-09-01

    Post-operative thyroglobulin (Tg) levels can predict the likelihood of residual cancer, including distant metastases, thereby influencing postsurgical treatment strategies even in patients with low-risk disease. Circulating anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg Abs) interfere with Tg measurement preventing this clinical use. It is not known if the presence of anti-Tg Abs predicts metastatic disease on post-therapy scan in patients with low-risk disease or if they should influence the use or dose of I-131 therapy. In the present study, we compare post-therapy scans in low-risk patients with and without anti-Tg Abs. This is a single-institution retrospective study. The study population (Group A) included all patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI between 1/1/2006 to 9/11/2015 with intrathyroidal T1-T2, Nx, N0 or N1a (≤5 nodes all measuring, when reported, scan results were compared by Chi-square test with 86% negative post therapy scan frequency in group A and 92% in group B without evidence of a difference (p = 0.45). In patients with low-risk DTC, anti-Tg Abs did not significantly predict metastatic disease on post-therapy scan. If confirmed, these data suggest that the presence of anti-Tg Abs alone should not influence initial therapy in patients with low-risk DTC.

  1. DeepSurv: personalized treatment recommender system using a Cox proportional hazards deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Jared L; Shaham, Uri; Cloninger, Alexander; Bates, Jonathan; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval

    2018-02-26

    Medical practitioners use survival models to explore and understand the relationships between patients' covariates (e.g. clinical and genetic features) and the effectiveness of various treatment options. Standard survival models like the linear Cox proportional hazards model require extensive feature engineering or prior medical knowledge to model treatment interaction at an individual level. While nonlinear survival methods, such as neural networks and survival forests, can inherently model these high-level interaction terms, they have yet to be shown as effective treatment recommender systems. We introduce DeepSurv, a Cox proportional hazards deep neural network and state-of-the-art survival method for modeling interactions between a patient's covariates and treatment effectiveness in order to provide personalized treatment recommendations. We perform a number of experiments training DeepSurv on simulated and real survival data. We demonstrate that DeepSurv performs as well as or better than other state-of-the-art survival models and validate that DeepSurv successfully models increasingly complex relationships between a patient's covariates and their risk of failure. We then show how DeepSurv models the relationship between a patient's features and effectiveness of different treatment options to show how DeepSurv can be used to provide individual treatment recommendations. Finally, we train DeepSurv on real clinical studies to demonstrate how it's personalized treatment recommendations would increase the survival time of a set of patients. The predictive and modeling capabilities of DeepSurv will enable medical researchers to use deep neural networks as a tool in their exploration, understanding, and prediction of the effects of a patient's characteristics on their risk of failure.

  2. Deep Overbite Dan Cara Penanggulangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rofiah Nasution

    2008-01-01

    Masalah deep overbite dan seluruh dimensi vertikal harus dipertimbangkan pada setiap perawatan maloklusi. Deep overbite merupakan keadaan pada relasi sentrik di mana terdapat jarak vertikal yang besar antara kedua insisal insisivus rahang atas dan bawah dengan hubungan oklusal posterior yang normal. Berdasarkan etiologi deep overbite dapat dibedakan atas dua bagian besar yaitu deep overbite dentoalveolar (melibatkan gigi dan tulang alveolar) dan deep overbite skeletal (melibatkan gigi, tulang...

  3. Tropical deep convective cloud morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Matthew R.

    A cloud-object partitioning algorithm is developed. It takes contiguous CloudSat cloudy regions and identifies various length scales of deep convective clouds from a tropical, oceanic subset of data. The methodology identifies a level above which anvil characteristics become important by analyzing the cloud object shape. Below this level in what is termed the pedestal region, convective cores are identified based on reflectivity maxima. Identifying these regions allows for the assessment of length scales of the anvil and pedestal of the deep convective clouds. Cloud objects are also appended with certain environmental quantities from the ECMWF reanalysis. Simple geospatial and temporal assessments show that the cloud object technique agrees with standard observations of local frequency of deep-convective cloudiness. Additionally, the nature of cloud volume scale populations is investigated. Deep convection is seen to exhibit power-law scaling. It is suggested that this scaling has implications for the continuous, scale invariant, and random nature of the physics controlling tropical deep convection and therefore on the potentially unphysical nature of contemporary convective parameterizations. Deep-convective clouds over tropical oceans play important roles in Earth's climate system. The response of tropical, deep convective clouds to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated using this new data set. Several previously proposed feedbacks are examined: the FAT hypothesis, the Iris hypothesis, and the Thermostat hypothesis. When the data are analyzed per cloud object, each hypothesis is broadly found to correctly predict cloud behavior in nature, although it appears that the FAT hypothesis needs a slight modification to allow for cooling cloud top temperatures with increasing SSTs. A new response that shows that the base temperature of deep convective anvils remains approximately constant with increasing SSTs is introduced. These cloud-climate feedbacks are

  4. Discovery radiomics via evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery for pathologically proven lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Chung, Audrey G; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    While lung cancer is the second most diagnosed form of cancer in men and women, a sufficiently early diagnosis can be pivotal in patient survival rates. Imaging-based, or radiomics-driven, detection methods have been developed to aid diagnosticians, but largely rely on hand-crafted features that may not fully encapsulate the differences between cancerous and healthy tissue. Recently, the concept of discovery radiomics was introduced, where custom abstract features are discovered from readily available imaging data. We propose an evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach based on evolutionary deep intelligence. Motivated by patient privacy concerns and the idea of operational artificial intelligence, the evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach organically evolves increasingly more efficient deep radiomic sequencers that produce significantly more compact yet similarly descriptive radiomic sequences over multiple generations. As a result, this framework improves operational efficiency and enables diagnosis to be run locally at the radiologist's computer while maintaining detection accuracy. We evaluated the evolved deep radiomic sequencer (EDRS) discovered via the proposed evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery framework against state-of-the-art radiomics-driven and discovery radiomics methods using clinical lung CT data with pathologically proven diagnostic data from the LIDC-IDRI dataset. The EDRS shows improved sensitivity (93.42%), specificity (82.39%), and diagnostic accuracy (88.78%) relative to previous radiomics approaches.

  5. Evolution of Redox State of Shallow and Deep Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Redox state of seawater and atmosphere of early Earth is still controversial. Generally speaking, many previous works indicated that oxygen was free even in the shallow seawater before 2.7 Ga, and gradually increased because of emergence of oxygen-producing lives since then. However, it is still poorly known the detailed secular change of redox state of shallow and deeper part of the seawater, respectively. It is well known that carbonates are deposited equilibrated with ambient seawater in microbial or abiotic environment. Therefore, the distribution, composition, and mineralogy of the carbonate rocks and minerals give constraints on physical and chemical properties of paleoseawater. This work presents in-situ analyses of major, trace and rare earth elements of well-preserved carbonate minerals in shallow and deep-sea deposits with EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. We focus on carbonates with original depositional textures because of elimination of post-depositional alteration. The shallow marine deposits include sedimentary carbonates in 3.0 Ga Pongola, 2.7 Ga Tumbiana, 2.5 Ga Wittenoom and Campbellrand, 2.4 Ga Mooidraai, 2.3 Ga Kazput, 2.2 Ga Duck Creek, 1.9 Ga Slave, 1.0 Nepal, 0.58 Ga Altai and modern Solomon Islands, and amygdaloidal carbonates within hot-sport basalts in 3.5 Ga North Pole, 2.7 Ga Belingwe, Mount Roe and Maddina, 2.5 Ga Hamersley, and modern OIB. The deep-sea carbonates include amygdaloidal carbonates within mid-oceanic and mature rift-type basalts in 3.5 Ga North Pole, 2.7 Ga Belingwe, 2.5 Ga Hamersley, 1.9 Ga Glengarry and modern MORB. Deep-sea carbonates have LREE-enriched pattern with faint Ce and Eu anomalies between 3.5 and 1.9 Ga, but modern equivalents have significant negative Ce anomaly. In contrast, negative Ce anomalies in shallow carbonates were frequently deviated from those in deep-sea carbonate with the equivalent ages. The negative Ce anomalies increase since 2.78 Ga Mount Roe Basalt, but they decreased until 2.72 Ga, again. They

  6. Deep Learning from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the stateof-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently......, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural...... networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels...

  7. Holography as deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen-Cong; Shu, Fu-Wen

    Quantum many-body problem with exponentially large degrees of freedom can be reduced to a tractable computational form by neural network method [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355 (2017) 602, arXiv:1606.02318.] The power of deep neural network (DNN) based on deep learning is clarified by mapping it to renormalization group (RG), which may shed lights on holographic principle by identifying a sequence of RG transformations to the AdS geometry. In this paper, we show that any network which reflects RG process has intrinsic hyperbolic geometry, and discuss the structure of entanglement encoded in the graph of DNN. We find the entanglement structure of DNN is of Ryu-Takayanagi form. Based on these facts, we argue that the emergence of holographic gravitational theory is related to deep learning process of the quantum-field theory.

  8. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Raman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageability on writing in Turkish. Nonword spelling is abolished. A similar pattern of errors is observed in English. BRB is the first report of acquired dysgraphia in a truly transparent writing system. We argue that deep dysgraphia results from damage to the mappings that are common to both languages between word meanings and orthographic representations.

  9. News on Deep Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, John C.; Dearborn, Davis S. P.; Eggleton, Peter P.

    2008-04-01

    We briefly summarize the abundant observational evidence for the need of a ``deep mixing'' mechanism in first-ascent red-giant stars, and probably in AGB stars as well. By the term ``deep mixing'' we mean some mixing mechanism which operates in the radiative zone below the convective envelope, and which transports material from the convective region to hotter regions, near the top of the hydrogen shell, where nuclear burning may take place. We then discuss a recent discovery of deep-mixing caused by the burning of 3He following first dredge-up in low-mass stars. This is expected to be a thermohaline process and preliminary calculations show that it has many of the properties required to explain the observations.

  10. [Deep Relief sonophoresis in degenerative changes of the knee joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zjuzin, Nada; Muftić, Mirsad; Avdić, Dijana; Zubcević, Haris; Stefanovski, Mihajlo; Stefanovski, Gordana; Lukać, Tamara; Hotić, Asia; Halilbegović, Emir; Kapidzić, Nedima

    2004-01-01

    We analysed 130 persons with osteoarthritis of knee and compared efficiency Deep Relief gel with sonophoresis and ultrasound with standard gel. Deep Relief has significant better effect for less pain and better improvement of functional capacity in comparison with ultrasound. Results of examination are statistic significant.

  11. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  13. Optimising abdominal space with deep neuromuscular blockade in gynaecologic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Gätke, M R; Springborg, H H

    2015-01-01

    was measured during deep NMB and without NMB at pneumoperitoneum 8 and 12 mmHg both. Additionally, we assessed surgical conditions while suturing the abdominal fascia using a 4-point subjective rating scale. Deep NMB was established with rocuronium and reversed with sugammadex. RESULTS: At 12 mm...... resulted in significantly better ratings of surgical conditions during suturing of the fascia (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney U-test). CONCLUSION: Deep NMB enlarged surgical space measured as the distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar. The enlargement, however, was minor and the clinical significance...... is unknown. Moreover, deep NMB improved surgical conditions when suturing the abdominal fascia....

  14. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  15. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexiang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1, lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2 and lesion classification (task 3. A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  16. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuexiang; Shen, Linlin

    2018-02-11

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  17. A Comparative Study of Deep Neck Abscess with Regards to Anatomical Location and Age Groups Using CT and Clinical Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Ho; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Jou, Sung Shick

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate differences anatomical location and age groups on CT and clinical data in deep neck abscess. This study included 200 patients who underwent CT and were diagnosed with a deep neck abscess, from December 2005 to July 2010. Patients were divided into four groups by age (children, adolescent, adult, elderly). Next, the anatomic location, location multiplicity and clinical data regarding the deep neck abscesses were analyzed retrospectively. The deep neck abscesses observed were defined as superficial or deep and partitioned into sub-groups, with further analysis of their clinical data. The incidence of the parapharyngeal abscess was more frequent in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). The masticator abscess was only observed among patients in the elderly group (p < 0.05). Multiple locations were observed with increased frequency in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). Swelling in the neck was more frequently observed in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05), cervical lymphadenitis was frequently seen in children and adolescent groups (p < 0.05), and the incidence of symptoms including sore throat were significantly increased in adolescent and adult groups (p < 0.05). Location multiplicity was significantly higher in parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, submandibular, danger, visceral and masticator spaces than other spaces (p < 0.05). With regards to anatomic location, neck swelling was more frequent in superficial group and sore throat was more frequent in deep group (p < 0.05). Deep neck abscess would show significant differences with regards to the abscess location, location multiplicity, and clinical symptoms according to age. The clinical symptoms observed are dependent on the anatomic location as defined by a superficial or deep abscess.

  18. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  19. The IAEA desalination economic evaluation programme (DEEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.

    2009-01-01

    DEEP is derived from desalination cost evaluation package developed in the eighties by General Atomics on behalf of the IAEA. The old version, named 'Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation' Spreadsheet, CDEE) was used for feasibility studies related to nuclear desalination in the IAEA and other Member States. Subsequently, with its increasing popularity, a user-friendly version was issued by the Agency towards the end of 1998 under the name of DEEP. Through the next years the software was updated constantly within DEEP-1 family (versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and working version 1.7). Both the user interface and model structure were further developed and in 2000 a new upgrade - first version from the DEEP-2 family was released. Its salient feature was the complete modularization of various cases. As the user group enlarged, new ideas as well as criticisms of the DEEP models appeared. Some of them were implemented gradually in different working versions (versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6). The four year period of continuous development culminated in the development of DEEP 3.0, released in August 2005. Following further development, the latest version of DEEP 3.1 is currently available for user to down load freely from the web site of the IAEA at no cost. This paper summarizes the salient features of DEEP software and echoes some of the information presented in the TECDOC draft prepared as a result of the CRP on 'Economic Research on, and Assessment of, Selected Nuclear Desalination Projects and Case Studies' which was closed at the end of 2006

  20. Software Graphics Processing Unit (sGPU) for Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Mary; Salazar, George; Steele, Glen

    2015-01-01

    A graphics processing capability will be required for deep space missions and must include a range of applications, from safety-critical vehicle health status to telemedicine for crew health. However, preliminary radiation testing of commercial graphics processing cards suggest they cannot operate in the deep space radiation environment. Investigation into an Software Graphics Processing Unit (sGPU)comprised of commercial-equivalent radiation hardened/tolerant single board computers, field programmable gate arrays, and safety-critical display software shows promising results. Preliminary performance of approximately 30 frames per second (FPS) has been achieved. Use of multi-core processors may provide a significant increase in performance.

  1. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction experiments are renewed. Singlet and non-singlet structure functions are measured and the consistency of the different results is checked. A detailed analysis of the scaling violation is performed in terms of the quantum chromodynamics predictions [fr

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  3. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  4. Teaching for Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…

  5. Deep Trawl Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Otter trawl (36' Yankee and 4-seam net deepwater gear) catches from mid-Atlantic slope and canyons at 200 - 800 m depth. Deep-sea (200-800 m depth) flat otter trawls...

  6. The deep universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, AR; Longair, MS

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the deep universe from two conflicting theoretical viewpoints: firstly as a theory embracing the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present; and secondly through observations gleaned over the years on stars, galaxies and clusters.

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. The occurrence of the disease is related to presence of risk factors, which are related primarily to trauma, venous stasis and hyper-coagulability. DVT seems not to be taken seriously ...

  8. Deep Learning Policy Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.

  9. How to study deep roots–and why it matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eMaeght

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass. Even though a distinct classification of deep roots is missing to date, deep roots provide important functions for individual plants such as nutrient and water uptake but can also shape plant communities by hydraulic lift. Subterranean fauna and microbial communities are highly influenced by resources provided in the deep rhizosphere and deep roots can influence soil paedogenesis and carbon storage. Despite recent technological advances, the study of deep roots and their rhizosphere remains inherently time-consuming, technically demanding and costly, which explains why deep roots are yet to be given the attention they deserve. While state-of-the-art technologies are promising for laboratory studies involving relatively small soil volumes, they remain of limited use for the in situ observation of deep roots. Thus, basic techniques such as destructive sampling or observations at transparent interfaces with the soil (e.g., root windows which have been known and used for decades to observe roots near the soil surface, must be adapted to the specific requirements of deep root observation. In this review, we successively address major physical, biogeochemical and ecological functions of deep roots to emphasise the significance of deep roots and to illustrate the yet limited knowledge. In a second part we describe the main methodological options to observe and measure deep roots, providing researchers interested in the field of deep root/rhizosphere studies with a comprehensive overview. Addressed methodologies are excavations, trenches and soil coring approaches, minirhizotrons, access shafts, caves and mines, and indirect approaches such as tracer-based techniques.

  10. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  11. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, Lotte; Broholm, R; Baekgaard, N

    2013-01-01

    to the condition. Malignancy and therapeutic interventions are major risk factors for the secondary deep vein thrombosis in combination with the patient's characteristics, comorbidities and prior history of deep vein thrombosis. Complications: recurrent deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and Post...... Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS) are the major complications after UEDVT. PTS is a chronic condition leading to significant functional disability and impaired quality of life. Diagnosis: compression ultrasonography is noninvasive and the most frequently used objective test with a high accuracy in experienced hands...

  12. Deep-water oilfield development cost analysis and forecasting —— Take gulf of mexico for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Jianjun; Yi, Chenggao; Bai, Jianhui; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is the earliest offshore oilfield which has ever been developed. It tends to breed increasingly value of efficient, secure and cheap key technology of deep-water development. Thus, the analyze of development expenditure in this area is significantly important the evaluation concept of deep-water oilfield all over the world. This article emphasizes on deep-water development concept and EPC contract value in GoM in recent 10 years in case of comparison and selection to the economic efficiency. Besides, the QUETOR has been put into use in this research processes the largest upstream cost database to simulate and calculate the calculating examples’ expenditure. By analyzing and forecasting the deep-water oilfield development expenditure, this article explores the relevance between expenditure index and oil price.

  13. Benchmark of Deep Learning Models on Large Healthcare MIMIC Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Purushotham, Sanjay; Meng, Chuizheng; Che, Zhengping; Liu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning models (aka Deep Neural Networks) have revolutionized many fields including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and is being increasingly used in clinical healthcare applications. However, few works exist which have benchmarked the performance of the deep learning models with respect to the state-of-the-art machine learning models and prognostic scoring systems on publicly available healthcare datasets. In this paper, we present the benchmarking res...

  14. Deep learning in jet reconstruction at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Stoye, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has led to several breakthroughs outside the field of high energy physics, yet in jet reconstruction for the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC it has not been used so far. This report shows results of applying deep learning strategies to jet reconstruction at the stage of identifying the original parton association of the jet (jet tagging), which is crucial for physics analyses at the LHC experiments. We introduce a custom deep neural network architecture for jet tagging. We compare the performance of this novel method with the other established approaches at CMS and show that the proposed strategy provides a significant improvement. The strategy provides the first multi-class classifier, instead of the few binary classifiers that previously were used, and thus yields more information and in a more convenient way. The performance results obtained with simulation imply a significant improvement for a large number of important physics analysis at the CMS experiment.

  15. Psychological effects of deep-breathing: the impact of expectancy-priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Kocsis, Ágnes

    2017-06-01

    Outcome expectancy could mediate the psychological effects of exercise-related interventions, which implies that part of the psychological benefits of physical activity could be ascribed to placebo effects. In this framed field-experiment, 89 healthy participants were studied in three groups, (1) breathing-primed (deep-breathing with an exercise-related expectancy), (2) breathing-unprimed (deep-breathing with no exercise-related expectancy), and (3) control (no intervention). Deep-breathing lasted for three minutes. Before and after deep-breathing, or sitting quietly in the control group, participants completed two questionnaires assessing their positive- and negative affect (NA) and subjective well-being (WB). In contrast to the control group, both the breathing-primed and breathing-unprimed groups showed decreased NA and increased subjective WB. The breathing-primed group reported larger changes in WB than the breathing-unprimed group, in addition to also exhibiting significant increases in positive affect. These findings support the hypothesis of the work that expectations mediate the psychological effects of deep-breathing beyond the intervention's specific effects. Therefore, future research should control for expectations related to an intervention when gauging psychological changes.

  16. DeepCAD: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Mammographic Masses Using Deep Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system for differentiation between benign and malignant mammographic masses is a challenging task due to the use of extensive pre- and post-processing steps and ineffective features set. In this paper, a novel CAD system is proposed called DeepCAD, which uses four phases to overcome these problems. The speed-up robust features (SURF and local binary pattern variance (LBPV descriptors are extracted from each mass. These descriptors are then transformed into invariant features. Afterwards, the deep invariant features (DIFs are constructed in supervised and unsupervised fashion through multilayer deep-learning architecture. A fine-tuning step is integrated to determine the features, and the final decision is performed via softmax linear classifier. To evaluate this DeepCAD system, a dataset of 600 region-of-interest (ROI masses including 300 benign and 300 malignant masses was obtained from two publicly available data sources. The performance of DeepCAD system is compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC curve. The difference between AUC of DeepCAD and other methods is statistically significant, as it demonstrates a sensitivity (SN of 92%, specificity (SP of 84.2%, accuracy (ACC of 91.5% and AUC of 0.91. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DeepCAD system is reliable for providing aid to radiologists without the need for explicit design.

  17. Deep Convection in the Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, James

    1999-01-01

    ... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...

  18. Deep Count: Fruit Counting Based on Deep Simulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Sheppard, Clay

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant advancement in computer vision research based on deep learning. Success of these tasks largely depends on the availability of a large amount of training samples. Labeling the training samples is an expensive process. In this paper, we present a simulated deep convolutional neural network for yield estimation. Knowing the exact number of fruits, flowers, and trees helps farmers to make better decisions on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force. The current practice of yield estimation based on the manual counting of fruits or flowers by workers is a very time consuming and expensive process and it is not practical for big fields. Automatic yield estimation based on robotic agriculture provides a viable solution in this regard. Our network is trained entirely on synthetic data and tested on real data. To capture features on multiple scales, we used a modified version of the Inception-ResNet architecture. Our algorithm counts efficiently even if fruits are under shadow, occluded by foliage, branches, or if there is some degree of overlap amongst fruits. Experimental results show a 91% average test accuracy on real images and 93% on synthetic images. PMID:28425947

  19. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  20. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  1. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  2. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  3. Disagreement over vaccination programmes: deep or merely complex and why does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that significant aspects of the vaccination debate are 'deep' in a sense described by Robert Fogelin and others. Some commentators have suggested that such disagreements warrant rather threatening responses. I argue that appreciating that a disagreement is deep might have positive implications, changing our moral assessment of individuals and their decisions, shedding light on the limits of the obligation to give and respond to arguments in cases of moral disagreement, and providing an incentive to seek alternative ways of going on in the face of intractable moral disagreement. Non-coercive, non-reasoned strategies have been used or recommended to increase vaccination rates. Such strategies look problematic when judged by the standards of ideal moral and rational argumentation, but more acceptable if seen as responses to deep disagreements.

  4. The Impact of Deep Muscle Training on the Quality of Posture and Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygieł, Elżbieta; Blaut, Jędrzej; Zielonka-Pycka, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Golec, Joanna; Czechowska, Dorota; Masłoń, Agata; Golec, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Postural control and breathing are mechanically and neuromuscularly interdependent. Both systems- of spinal stability and respiration- involve the diaphragm, transversus abdominis, intercostal muscles, internal oblique muscles and pelvic floor muscles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercises activating deep stabilizer muscles on postural control and quality of breathing movements. Eighteen volunteers (25,7 ± 3,5) were recruited from the general population. All the subjects implemented an exercise program activating deep muscles. Head, pelvic and trunk positions in the sagittal and frontal planes were assessed with the photogrammetric method. Breathing movements were estimated with the respiratory inductive plethysmography. The results indicate that the use of deep muscle training contributed to a significant change in the position of the body in the sagittal plane (p = 0.008) and the increase in the amplitude of breathing (p = 0.001).

  5. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  6. The Next Era: Deep Learning in Pharmaceutical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decade we have witnessed the increasing sophistication of machine learning algorithms applied in daily use from internet searches, voice recognition, social network software to machine vision software in cameras, phones, robots and self-driving cars. Pharmaceutical research has also seen its fair share of machine learning developments. For example, applying such methods to mine the growing datasets that are created in drug discovery not only enables us to learn from the past but to predict a molecule's properties and behavior in future. The latest machine learning algorithm garnering significant attention is deep learning, which is an artificial neural network with multiple hidden layers. Publications over the last 3 years suggest that this algorithm may have advantages over previous machine learning methods and offer a slight but discernable edge in predictive performance. The time has come for a balanced review of this technique but also to apply machine learning methods such as deep learning across a wider array of endpoints relevant to pharmaceutical research for which the datasets are growing such as physicochemical property prediction, formulation prediction, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/Tox), target prediction and skin permeation, etc. We also show that there are many potential applications of deep learning beyond cheminformatics. It will be important to perform prospective testing (which has been carried out rarely to date) in order to convince skeptics that there will be benefits from investing in this technique.

  7. The Next Era: Deep Learning in Pharmaceutical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade we have witnessed the increasing sophistication of machine learning algorithms applied in daily use from internet searches, voice recognition, social network software to machine vision software in cameras, phones, robots and self-driving cars. Pharmaceutical research has also seen its fair share of machine learning developments. For example, applying such methods to mine the growing datasets that are created in drug discovery not only enables us to learn from the past but to predict a molecule’s properties and behavior in future. The latest machine learning algorithm garnering significant attention is deep learning, which is an artificial neural network with multiple hidden layers. Publications over the last 3 years suggest that this algorithm may have advantages over previous machine learning methods and offer a slight but discernable edge in predictive performance. The time has come for a balanced review of this technique but also to apply machine learning methods such as deep learning across a wider array of endpoints relevant to pharmaceutical research for which the datasets are growing such as physicochemical property prediction, formulation prediction, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/Tox), target prediction and skin permeation, etc. We also show that there are many potential applications of deep learning beyond cheminformatics. It will be important to perform prospective testing (which has been carried out rarely to date) in order to convince skeptics that there will be benefits from investing in this technique. PMID:27599991

  8. Deep Learning Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Number of people who participated in n or more events .......................................................... 4 v 1. INTRODUCTION CS231N is a...talked about his work doing predictive analytics on V -22 aircraft for the Comprehensive Automated Maintenance Environment Optimized/Readiness... MOOC Wiki Page.” https://wiki.spawar.navy.mil/ confluence/display/ MOOC /Machine+Learning. Accessed 12 August 2016. 5. Rainey, K. 2016. “Deep Learning

  9. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  10. Deep learning from crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the state-of-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributor...

  11. Deep Mutual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Tao; Hospedales, Timothy M.; Lu, Huchuan

    2017-01-01

    Model distillation is an effective and widely used technique to transfer knowledge from a teacher to a student network. The typical application is to transfer from a powerful large network or ensemble to a small network, that is better suited to low-memory or fast execution requirements. In this paper, we present a deep mutual learning (DML) strategy where, rather than one way transfer between a static pre-defined teacher and a student, an ensemble of students learn collaboratively and teach ...

  12. Evaluation of Deep Discount Fare Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the success of a fare pricing strategy known as deep discounting, that entails the bulk sale of transit tickets or tokens to customers at a significant discount compared to the full fare single ticket price. This market-driven s...

  13. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  14. Learning Deep Representations for Ground to Aerial Geolocalization (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    train our deep neural net - works, and test set, which is used to validate the effective- ness of the learned features. We divide our collected image pairs......proposed approach, Where-CNN, is inspired by deep learning success in face verification and achieves significant improvements over tra- ditional hand

  15. Sutureless Deep Sclerectomy: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed M; ElTanamly, Rasha; Sabry, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    This study describes a modification of deep sclerectomy, making it completely sutureless, with a 6-month follow-up period. This was a prospective pilot phase that included 24 eyes of 16 patients, 13 male individuals and 3 female individuals, with medically uncontrolled open-angle glaucomas despite maximally tolerated medical therapy. After excising the deep flap, no sutures are added to the superficial scleral flap or to the conjunctiva. A statistically significant reduction of the intraocular pressure was reported during all the follow-up visits without serious complications.

  16. IceCube deep core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resconi, Elisa; Gross, Andreas; Schulz, Olaf; Sestayo, Yolanda [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Euler, Sebastian; Huelss, Jan-Patrick; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen, III Physikalisches Institut B, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The IceCube neutrino telescope has been designed to obtain the best performances in the energy region above few TeV. This will make IceCube sensitive to the co-called PeVatrons, i.e. sources of cosmic rays around the 'knee'. Recent observations of galactic sources from ground-based Cherenkov telescopes indicate a softening or cut-off at energies slightly lower than expected for the PeVatrons. Some of these sources could be also neutrino emitters, producing neutrinos at energies below the optimal range for IceCube. At even lower energies, the study of neutrino oscillations could become accessible as well as indirect dark matter search. Currently, a design study for the construction of a compact core inside IceCube called IceCube deep core is undergoing. IceCube deep core will significantly improve IceCube performances below 1 TeV and open the field of view to the southern hemisphere. We report in this talk the preliminary results of this design study including preliminary sensitivities.

  17. A Framework for Transparently Accessing Deep Web Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Eduard Constantin

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of Web sites expose their content via query interfaces, many of them offering the same type of products/services (e.g., flight tickets, car rental/purchasing). They constitute the so-called "Deep Web". Accessing the content on the Deep Web has been a long-standing challenge for the database community. For a user interested in…

  18. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  19. Deep Learning: A Primer for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Gabriel; Cheng, Phillip M; Vorontsov, Eugene; Drozdzal, Michal; Turcotte, Simon; Pal, Christopher J; Kadoury, Samuel; Tang, An

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning is a class of machine learning methods that are gaining success and attracting interest in many domains, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and playing games. Deep learning methods produce a mapping from raw inputs to desired outputs (eg, image classes). Unlike traditional machine learning methods, which require hand-engineered feature extraction from inputs, deep learning methods learn these features directly from data. With the advent of large datasets and increased computing power, these methods can produce models with exceptional performance. These models are multilayer artificial neural networks, loosely inspired by biologic neural systems. Weighted connections between nodes (neurons) in the network are iteratively adjusted based on example pairs of inputs and target outputs by back-propagating a corrective error signal through the network. For computer vision tasks, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have proven to be effective. Recently, several clinical applications of CNNs have been proposed and studied in radiology for classification, detection, and segmentation tasks. This article reviews the key concepts of deep learning for clinical radiologists, discusses technical requirements, describes emerging applications in clinical radiology, and outlines limitations and future directions in this field. Radiologists should become familiar with the principles and potential applications of deep learning in medical imaging. © RSNA, 2017.

  20. From DeepCore to PINGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yáñez J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Very large volume neutrino telescopes (VLVNTs observe atmospheric neutrinos over a wide energy range (GeV to TeV, after they travel distances as large as the Earth's diameter. DeepCore, the low energy extension of IceCube, has started making meaningful measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters θ23 and | Δm232| by analyzing the atmospheric flux at energies above 10 GeV. PINGU, a proposed project to lower DeepCore's energy threshold, aims to use the same flux to further increase the precision with which these parameters are known, and eventually determine the sign of Δm232. The latest results from DeepCore, and the planned transition to PINGU, are discussed here.

  1. Deep-water carbonate dissolution in the northern South China Sea during Marine Isotope Stage 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production, transportation, deposition, and dissolution of carbonate profoundly form part of the global carbon cycle and affect the amount and distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and alkalinity (ALK, which drive atmospheric CO2 changes during glacial/interglacial cycles. These processes may provide significant clues for better understanding of the mechanisms that control the global climate system. In this study, we calculate and analyze the foraminiferal dissolution index (FDX and the fragmentation ratios of planktonic foraminifera for the 60–25 ka B.P. time-span, based on samples from Core 17924 and ODP Site 1144 in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS, so as to reconstruct the deep-water carbonate dissolution during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3. Our analysis shows that the dissolution of carbonate increases gradually in Core 17924, whereas it remains stable at ODP Site 1144. This difference is caused by the deep-sea carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−] that affected the dissolution in Core 17924 where the depth of 3440 m is below the saturation horizon. However, the depth of ODP Site 1144 is 2037 m, which is above the lysocline where the water is always saturated with calcium carbonate; the dissolution is therefore less dependent of chemical changes of the seawater. The combined effect of the productivity and the deep-water chemical evolution may decrease deep-water [CO32−] and accelerate carbonate dissolution. The fall of the sea-level increased the input of DIC and ALK to the deep ocean and deepened the carbonate saturation depth, which caused an increase of the deep-water [CO32−]. The elevated [CO32−] partially neutralized the reduced [CO32−] contributed by remineralization of organic matter and slowdown of thermohaline. These consequently are the fundamental reasons for the difference in dissolution rate between these two sites.

  2. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  3. Deep Space Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  4. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  5. [Deep mycoses rarely described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D

    1986-01-01

    Beside deep mycoses very well known: histoplasmosis, candidosis, cryptococcosis, there are other mycoses less frequently described. Some of them are endemic in some countries: South American blastomycosis in Brazil, coccidioidomycosis in California; some others are cosmopolitan and may affect everyone: sporotrichosis, or may affect only immunodeficient persons: mucormycosis. They do not spare Africa, we may encounter basidiobolomycosis, rhinophycomycosis, dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and, more recently reported, rhinosporidiosis. Important therapeutic progresses have been accomplished with amphotericin B and with antifungus imidazole compounds (miconazole and ketoconazole). Surgical intervention is sometime recommended in chromomycosis and rhinosporidiosis.

  6. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  7. Deep axial reflux, an important contributor to skin changes or ulcer in chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Gudmundur; Eklof, Bo; Grandinetti, Andrew; Lurie, Fedor; Kistner, Robert L

    2003-12-01

    We undertook this cross-sectional study to investigate the distribution of venous reflux and effect of axial reflux in superficial and deep veins and to determine the clinical value of quantifying peak reverse flow velocity and reflux time in limbs with chronic venous disease. Four hundred one legs (127 with skin changes, 274 without skin changes) in 272 patients were examined with duplex ultrasound scanning, and peak reverse flow velocity and reflux time were measured. Both parameters were graded on a scale of 0 to 4. The sum of reverse flow scores was calculated from seven venous segments, three in superficial veins (great saphenous vein at saphenofemoral junction, great saphenous vein below knee, small saphenous vein) and four in deep veins (common femoral vein, femoral vein, deep femoral vein, popliteal vein). Axial reflux was defined as reflux in the great saphenous vein above and below the knee or in the femoral vein to the popliteal vein below the knee. Reflux parameters and presence or absence of axial reflux in superficial or deep veins were correlated with prevalence of skin changes or ulcer (CEAP class 4-6). The most common anatomic presentation was incompetence in all three systems (superficial, deep, perforator; 46%) or in superficial or perforator veins (28%). Isolated reflux in one system only was rare (15%; superficial, 28 legs; deep, 14 legs; perforator, 18 legs). Deep venous incompetence was present in 244 legs (61%). If common femoral vein reflux was excluded, prevalence of deep venous incompetence was 52%. The cause, according to findings at duplex ultrasound scanning, was primary in 302 legs (75%) and secondary in 99 legs (25%). Presence of axial deep venous reflux increased significantly with prevalence of skin changes or ulcer (C4-C6; odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-4.67). Of 110 extremities with incompetent popliteal vein, 81 legs had even femoral vein reflux, with significantly more skin changes or ulcer, compared

  8. Deep primary production in coastal pelagic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke; Richardson, Katherine; Markager, Stiig

    2014-01-01

    produced. The primary production (PP) occurring below the surface layer, i.e. in the pycnocline-bottom layer (PBL), is shown to contribute significantly to total PP. Oxygen concentrations in the PBL are shown to correlate significantly with the deep primary production (DPP) as well as with salinity...... that eutrophication effects may include changes in the structure of planktonic food webs and element cycling in the water column, both brought about through an altered vertical distribution of PP....

  9. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Pharmacologically significant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fa!sal

    a-d) at the excitation wavelength (478 nm). [DNA]. =50 μM, [EB] =50 μM and [1-4] = 0-70 μM in DMSO-PBS buffer solution. The arrow shows the intensity change on increasing the complex concentration. Stern-Volmer plot (a'-d') for interaction of ...

  10. Marginal Space Deep Learning: Efficient Architecture for Volumetric Image Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesu, Florin C; Krubasik, Edward; Georgescu, Bogdan; Singh, Vivek; Yefeng Zheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-05-01

    Robust and fast solutions for anatomical object detection and segmentation support the entire clinical workflow from diagnosis, patient stratification, therapy planning, intervention and follow-up. Current state-of-the-art techniques for parsing volumetric medical image data are typically based on machine learning methods that exploit large annotated image databases. Two main challenges need to be addressed, these are the efficiency in scanning high-dimensional parametric spaces and the need for representative image features which require significant efforts of manual engineering. We propose a pipeline for object detection and segmentation in the context of volumetric image parsing, solving a two-step learning problem: anatomical pose estimation and boundary delineation. For this task we introduce Marginal Space Deep Learning (MSDL), a novel framework exploiting both the strengths of efficient object parametrization in hierarchical marginal spaces and the automated feature design of Deep Learning (DL) network architectures. In the 3D context, the application of deep learning systems is limited by the very high complexity of the parametrization. More specifically 9 parameters are necessary to describe a restricted affine transformation in 3D, resulting in a prohibitive amount of billions of scanning hypotheses. The mechanism of marginal space learning provides excellent run-time performance by learning classifiers in clustered, high-probability regions in spaces of gradually increasing dimensionality. To further increase computational efficiency and robustness, in our system we learn sparse adaptive data sampling patterns that automatically capture the structure of the input. Given the object localization, we propose a DL-based active shape model to estimate the non-rigid object boundary. Experimental results are presented on the aortic valve in ultrasound using an extensive dataset of 2891 volumes from 869 patients, showing significant improvements of up to 45

  11. Deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman-Brochu, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a review of the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy, a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The incidence of DVT in pregnancy varies widely, but it is a leading cause of maternal morbidity in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Risk factors during pregnancy include prolonged bed rest or immobility, pelvic or leg trauma, and obesity. Additional risk factors are preeclampsia, Cesarean section, instrument-assisted delivery, hemorrhage, multiparity, varicose veins, a previous history of a thromboembolic event, and hereditary or acquired thrombophilias such as Factor V Leiden. Heparin is the anticoagulant of choice to treat active thromboembolic disease or to administer for thromboprophylaxis, but low molecular-weight heparin is being used with increasing frequency in the pregnant woman. Perinatal nurses should be aware of the symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options available to manage active thrombosis during pregnancy and in the intrapartum and postpartum periods.

  12. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  13. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  14. DeepARG: a deep learning approach for predicting antibiotic resistance genes from metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Argoty, Gustavo; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Heath, Lenwood S; Vikesland, Peter; Zhang, Liqing

    2018-02-01

    Growing concerns about increasing rates of antibiotic resistance call for expanded and comprehensive global monitoring. Advancing methods for monitoring of environmental media (e.g., wastewater, agricultural waste, food, and water) is especially needed for identifying potential resources of novel antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), hot spots for gene exchange, and as pathways for the spread of ARGs and human exposure. Next-generation sequencing now enables direct access and profiling of the total metagenomic DNA pool, where ARGs are typically identified or predicted based on the "best hits" of sequence searches against existing databases. Unfortunately, this approach produces a high rate of false negatives. To address such limitations, we propose here a deep learning approach, taking into account a dissimilarity matrix created using all known categories of ARGs. Two deep learning models, DeepARG-SS and DeepARG-LS, were constructed for short read sequences and full gene length sequences, respectively. Evaluation of the deep learning models over 30 antibiotic resistance categories demonstrates that the DeepARG models can predict ARGs with both high precision (> 0.97) and recall (> 0.90). The models displayed an advantage over the typical best hit approach, yielding consistently lower false negative rates and thus higher overall recall (> 0.9). As more data become available for under-represented ARG categories, the DeepARG models' performance can be expected to be further enhanced due to the nature of the underlying neural networks. Our newly developed ARG database, DeepARG-DB, encompasses ARGs predicted with a high degree of confidence and extensive manual inspection, greatly expanding current ARG repositories. The deep learning models developed here offer more accurate antimicrobial resistance annotation relative to current bioinformatics practice. DeepARG does not require strict cutoffs, which enables identification of a much broader diversity of ARGs. The

  15. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  16. Increased particle flux to the deep ocean related to monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Ittekkot, V.; Manganini, S.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Haake, B.; Degens, E.T.; Desai, B.N.; Honjo, S.

    . To assess the impact of monsoon-driven processes on the downward particle flux variations in the open ocean we deployed three moored arrays consisting of six time-series sediment traps at selected locations in the western, central and eastern parts...

  17. Significant engineering developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system is a successful product of creative intelligence combined with the tenacious pursuit of practical solutions to complex engineering challenges. Outstanding engineering developments have transformed a demanding technology into a safe, economic and reliable one. Among the noteworthy developments that have been made CANDU the world's best performing reactor system are those relating to fuel, pressure tubes, heavy water production and management, steam generators, live-load valve packing, pump seals, on-power refuelling and computer control. In addition to pragmatic engineering accomplishments, there has been significant engineering input to guide the direction and shaping of the unique form of safety design and regulation of the CANDU system

  18. A continuum of life histories in deep-sea demersal fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Haedrich, Richard L.

    2012-03-01

    It is generally perceived that all deep-sea fishes have great longevity, slow growth, and low reproductive output in comparison to shelf dwelling species. However, such a dichotomy is too simplistic because some fishes living on continental slopes are relatively fecund and fast growing, important considerations in respect to the management of expanding deep-sea fisheries. We tested two hypotheses that might explain variation in life history attributes of commercially exploited demersal fishes: (1) phylogeny best explains the differences because deep-sea species are often in different families from shelf dwelling ones and, alternatively, (2) environmental factors affecting individual life history attributes that change with depth account for the observed variation. Our analysis was based on 40 species from 9 orders, including all major commercially exploited deep-sea fishes and several phylogenetically related shelf species. Depth of occurrence correlated significantly with age at 50% maturity increasing linearly with depth (r2=0.46), while the von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, maximum fecundity and potential rate of population increase declined significantly and exponentially with depth (r2=0.41, 0.25 and 0.53, respectively). These trends were still significant when phylogenetically independent contrasts were applied. The trends were also consistent with similar slopes amongst members of the order Gadiformes and the order Scorpaeniformes. Reduced temperatures, predation pressure, food availability, or metabolic rates may all contribute to such changes with depth. Regardless of the mechanisms, by analyzing a suite of fishes from the shelves to the slope the present analysis has shown that rather than a simple dichotomy between deep-sea fishes and shelf fishes there is a continuum of life history attributes in fishes which correlate strongly with depth of occurrence.

  19. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  20. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  1. Deep Groundwater Contributions to Surface Water in a Mountainous Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G.; Harding, J. J.; Wilson, J. L.; Frisbee, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    With growing concerns about declining snowpack, warmer temperatures, and land use changes, it is becoming increasingly important to determine the sources that contribute to surface water. In western states, such as New Mexico, most of the surface water is derived from mountainous watersheds. However, the interaction between the groundwater and the surface water within these mountain systems is poorly understood. Geochemical data collected from a mesoscale (~200 km2) watershed in northern New Mexico indicate there may be significant groundwater contributions to the surface water that have largely been ignored in previous studies. Stable isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H and Piper diagrams for surface water, groundwater, and spring water are not geochemically distinct. Surface water solute concentrations for most constituents increase as a function of the drainage area while the stable isotopic signature remains constant, suggesting that the water is sourced from similar areas but has undergone differing degrees of geochemical evolution along different flow paths. Plots of SiO2 vs Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and K+ show evidence of spatial evolution of groundwater with solute concentrations from the headwaters to the watershed outlet. We hypothesize that the increasing solute concentrations in the surface water are controlled by inputs from deep, more geochemically evolved groundwater. This is similar to what Frisbee et al. (2011) saw in the Saguache Watershed, though our watershed is significantly smaller and has a different geological setting. Due to the chemical kinetics involved, this more geochemically evolved groundwater would require longer residence time along a given flow path to achieve the observed chemical compositions. Significant contributions of old groundwater to surface water could result in the surface water system having increased buffering capacity against climate change. This deep groundwater component in watersheds has largely been unexplored. Our

  2. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems.  Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...

  3. Foraminifera from the deep lake terraces, Vestfold hills, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Williams, R.; Kerry, K.R.

    Neogloboquadrina pachyderma@@ is significantly absent from all samples. Several of the species in the Deep Lake terraces were previously reported from the Ross Sea, McMurdo Sound, South Georgia, and the Falkland Islands sectors of Antarctica. Three possible explanations...

  4. Deep learning for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  5. Neural plasticity in human brain connectivity: the effects of long term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hartevelt, Tim J; Cabral, Joana; Deco, Gustavo; Møller, Arne; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2014-01-01

    Positive clinical outcomes are now well established for deep brain stimulation, but little is known about the effects of long-term deep brain stimulation on brain structural and functional connectivity. Here, we used the rare opportunity to acquire pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging in a patient undergoing deep brain stimulation in bilateral subthalamic nuclei for Parkinson's Disease. This allowed us to analyse the differences in structural connectivity before and after deep brain stimulation. Further, a computational model of spontaneous brain activity was used to estimate the changes in functional connectivity arising from the specific changes in structural connectivity. We found significant localised structural changes as a result of long-term deep brain stimulation. These changes were found in sensory-motor, prefrontal/limbic, and olfactory brain regions which are known to be affected in Parkinson's Disease. The nature of these changes was an increase of nodal efficiency in most areas and a decrease of nodal efficiency in the precentral sensory-motor area. Importantly, the computational model clearly shows the impact of deep brain stimulation-induced structural alterations on functional brain changes, which is to shift the neural dynamics back towards a healthy regime. The results demonstrate that deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's Disease leads to a topological reorganisation towards healthy bifurcation of the functional networks measured in controls, which suggests a potential neural mechanism for the alleviation of symptoms. The findings suggest that long-term deep brain stimulation has not only restorative effects on the structural connectivity, but also affects the functional connectivity at a global level. Overall, our results support causal changes in human neural plasticity after long-term deep brain stimulation and may help to identify the underlying mechanisms of deep brain stimulation.

  6. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  7. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  8. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  9. Deep water formation in the North Pacific and deglacial CO2 rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James W. B.; Sarnthein, Michael; Foster, Gavin L.; Ridgwell, Andy; Grootes, Pieter M.; Elliott, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Deep water formation in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean is widely thought to influence deglacial CO2 rise and climate change; here we suggest that deep water formation in the North Pacific may also play an important role. We present paired radiocarbon and boron isotope data from foraminifera from sediment core MD02-2489 at 3640 m in the North East Pacific. These show a pronounced excursion during Heinrich Stadial 1, with benthic-planktic radiocarbon offsets dropping to 350 years, accompanied by a decrease in benthic δ11B. We suggest that this is driven by the onset of deep convection in the North Pacific, which mixes young shallow waters to depth, old deep waters to the surface, and low-pH water from intermediate depths into the deep ocean. This deep water formation event was likely driven by an increase in surface salinity, due to subdued atmospheric/monsoonal freshwater flux during Heinrich Stadial 1. The ability of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW) formation to explain the excursions seen in our data is demonstrated in a series of experiments with an intermediate complexity Earth system model. These experiments also show that breakdown of stratification in the North Pacific leads to a rapid 30 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2, along with decreases in atmospheric δ13C and Δ14C, consistent with observations of the early deglaciation. Our inference of deep water formation is based mainly on results from a single sediment core, and our boron isotope data are unavoidably sparse in the key HS1 interval, so this hypothesis merits further testing. However, we note that there is independent support for breakdown of stratification in shallower waters during this period, including a minimum in δ15N, younging in intermediate water 14C, and regional warming. We also re-evaluate deglacial changes in North Pacific productivity and carbonate preservation in light of our new data and suggest that the regional pulse of export production observed during the B

  10. Increased pond depth improves algal productivity and nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Craggs, Rupert J

    2014-04-15

    Depth has been widely recognised as a crucial operational feature of a high rate algal pond (HRAP) as it modifies the amount of light and frequency at which microalgal cells are exposed to optimal light. To date, there has been little focus on the optimisation of microalgal performance in wastewater treatment HRAPs with respect to depth, with advice ranging from as shallow as possible to 100 cm deep. This paper investigates the seasonal performance of microalgae in wastewater treatment HRAPs operated at three different depths (200, 300 and 400 mm). Microalgal performance was measured in terms of biomass production and areal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency and photosynthetic performance. The overall areal productivity significantly increased with increasing depth. Areal productivity ranged from 134 to 200% higher in the 400 mm deep HRAP compared to the 200 mm deep HRAP. Microalgae in the 400 mm deep HRAP were more efficient at NH4-N uptake and were photosynthetically more efficient compared to microalgae in the 200 mm deep HRAP. A higher chlorophyll-a concentration in the 200 mm deep HRAP resulted in a decrease in photosynthetic performance, due to insufficient carbon supply, over the course of the day in summer (as indicated by lower α, Pmax and oxygen production) compared to the 300 and 400 mm deep HRAPs. Based on these results, improved areal productivity and more wastewater can be treated per land area in the 400 mm deep HRAPs compared to 200 mm deep HRAPs without compromising wastewater treatment quality, while lowering capital and operational costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  12. Deep inelastic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental situation of the deep inelastic scattering for electrons (muons) is reviewed. A brief history of experimentation highlights Mohr and Nicoll's 1932 experiment on electron-atom scattering and Hofstadter's 1950 experiment on electron-nucleus scattering. The phenomenology of electron-nucleon scattering carried out between 1960 and 1970 is described, with emphasis on the parton model, and scaling. Experiments at SLAC and FNAL since 1974 exhibit scaling violations. Three muon-nucleon scattering experiments at BFP, BCDMA, and EMA, currently producing new results in the high Q 2 domain suggest a rather flat behaviour of the structure function at fixed x as a function of Q 2 . It is seen that the structure measured in DIS can then be projected into a pure hadronic process to predict a cross section. Protonneutron difference, moment analysis, and Drell-Yan pairs are also considered

  13. Deep Learning for Computer Vision: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Voulodimos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein.

  14. Deep Learning for Computer Vision: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulodimos, Athanasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios

    2018-01-01

    Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein.

  15. Deep Learning for Computer Vision: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulamis, Nikolaos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios

    2018-01-01

    Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein. PMID:29487619

  16. The Implications of Deep Mitigation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    The 21st Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC agreement called for limiting climate change to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C." A climate target of 1.5°C places a stringent constraint on allowable emissions over the twenty-first century. Roegli et al. (2015) set that constraint at 200-415 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2100 for a likely chance of staying below 1.5°C in 2100. Limiting emissions to these levels requires that global emissions peak and decline over the coming decades, with net negative global emissions by mid-century. This level of decarbonization requires dramatic shifts in the energy and agricultural sectors, and comes at significant economic costs. This talk explores the effect of mitigating climate change to 1.5°C on the economy, energy system, and terrestrial system. We quantify the required deployment of various low carbon technologies, as well as the amount of existing capital that is abandoned in an effort to limit emissions. We show the shifts required in the terrestrial system, including its contribution to carbon sequestration through afforestation and bioenergy. Additionally, we show the implications of deep mitigation pathways on energy, food, and carbon prices. We contrast these results with a reference, no climate policy, world and a 2°C.

  17. Deep temperature variability in Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.

    2017-01-01

    Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average temperature of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year variability (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the temperature variability into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep temperature is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year variability but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep temperature variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep temperature variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep temperature variability in Drake Passage, although much of the temperature variability in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.

  18. Ductility and performance assessment of high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadhassani, Mohammad; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Jameel, Mohammed; Badiee, Hamid; Arumugam, Arul M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. ► The width of the load point and the support point influences premature failure. ► Load–deflection relationship is linear till 85% of the ultimate load. ► The absorbed energy increases with the increase of tensile reinforcement ratios. - Abstract: The behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of normal beams. Because of their proportions, deep beams are likely to have strength controlled by shear. This paper discusses the results of eight simply supported high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams having variation in ratio of web reinforcement and tensile reinforcement. The deflection at two points along the beam length, web strains, tensile bars strains and the strain at concrete surface are recorded. The results show that the strain distribution at the section height of mid span is nonlinear. Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. The effect of width of load point and the support point is more important than the effect of tensile reinforcement ratio in preventing premature failure. Load–deflection graphs confirm linear relationship up to 85% of the ultimate load for HSSCC over-reinforcement web sections. The absorbed energy index increases with the increase in tensile reinforcement ratios.

  19. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  20. AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR DEEP WEB CRAWLER BASED ON ACCURACY -A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pranali Zade1, Dr.S.W.Mohod2

    2018-01-01

    As deep web grows at a very fast pace, there has been increased interest in techniques that help efficiently locate deep-web interfaces. However, due to the large volume of web resources and the dynamic nature of deep web, achieving wide coverage and high efficiency is a challenging issue. We propose a three-stage framework, for efficient harvesting deep web interfaces. Project experimental results on a set of representative domains show the agility and accuracy of our proposed crawler framew...

  1. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  2. Deep sedation during pneumatic reduction of intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilivitzki, Anat; Shtark, Luda Glozman; Arish, Karin; Engel, Ahuva

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic reduction of intussusception under fluoroscopic guidance is a routine procedure. The unsedated child may resist the procedure, which may lengthen its duration and increase the radiation dose. We use deep sedation during the procedure to overcome these difficulties. The purpose of this study was to summarize our experience with deep sedation during fluoroscopic reduction of intussusception and assess the added value and complication rate of deep sedation. All children with intussusception who underwent pneumatic reduction in our hospital between January 2004 and June 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Anesthetists sedated the children using propofol. The fluoroscopic studies, ultrasound (US) studies and the childrens' charts were reviewed. One hundred thirty-one attempted reductions were performed in 119 children, of which 121 (92%) were successful and 10 (8%) failed. Two perforations (1.5%) occurred during attempted reduction. Average fluoroscopic time was 1.5 minutes. No complication to sedation was recorded. Deep sedation with propofol did not add any complication to the pneumatic reduction. The fluoroscopic time was short. The success rate of reduction was high,raising the possibility that sedation is beneficial, possibly by smooth muscle relaxation.

  3. DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.

  4. Deep Ecology: Beyond Mere Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the principles of deep ecology, a movement that questions the societal values that have resulted in damage to the earth's life-supporting biosphere. In contrast to shallow reform, deep ecology encourages individuals to examine their values and relationship to nature to address the environmental crisis. (LP)

  5. Context and Deep Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…

  6. Focused Crawling of the Deep Web Using Service Class Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, D; Liu, L; Critchlow, T

    2004-06-21

    Dynamic Web data sources--sometimes known collectively as the Deep Web--increase the utility of the Web by providing intuitive access to data repositories anywhere that Web access is available. Deep Web services provide access to real-time information, like entertainment event listings, or present a Web interface to large databases or other data repositories. Recent studies suggest that the size and growth rate of the dynamic Web greatly exceed that of the static Web, yet dynamic content is often ignored by existing search engine indexers owing to the technical challenges that arise when attempting to search the Deep Web. To address these challenges, we present DynaBot, a service-centric crawler for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources offering dynamic content. DynaBot has three unique characteristics. First, DynaBot utilizes a service class model of the Web implemented through the construction of service class descriptions (SCDs). Second, DynaBot employs a modular, self-tuning system architecture for focused crawling of the DeepWeb using service class descriptions. Third, DynaBot incorporates methods and algorithms for efficient probing of the Deep Web and for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources and services through SCD-based service matching analysis. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the service class discovery, probing, and matching algorithms and suggest techniques for efficiently managing service discovery in the face of the immense scale of the Deep Web.

  7. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  8. The Capodimonte Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    A Window towards the Distant Universe Summary The Osservatorio Astronomico Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) is a multi-colour imaging survey project that is opening a new window towards the distant universe. It is conducted with the ESO Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel advanced camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). As a pilot project at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) [1], the OACDF aims at providing a large photometric database for deep extragalactic studies, with important by-products for galactic and planetary research. Moreover, it also serves to gather experience in the proper and efficient handling of very large data sets, preparing for the arrival of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) with the 1 x 1 degree 2 OmegaCam facility. PR Photo 15a/01 : Colour composite of the OACDF2 field . PR Photo 15b/01 : Interacting galaxies in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15c/01 : Spiral galaxy and nebulous object in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15d/01 : A galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15e/01 : Another galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15f/01 : An elliptical galaxy in the OACDF2 field. The Capodimonte Deep Field ESO PR Photo 15a/01 ESO PR Photo 15a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 426 pix - 73k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 851 pix - 736k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3190 pix - 7.3M] Caption : This three-colour image of about 1/4 of the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the la Silla Observatory. It covers "OACDF Subfield no. 2 (OACDF2)" with an area of about 35 x 32 arcmin 2 (about the size of the full moon), and it is one of the "deepest" wide-field images ever obtained. Technical information about this photo is available below. With the comparatively few large telescopes available in the world, it is not possible to study the Universe to its outmost limits in all directions. Instead, astronomers try to obtain the most detailed

  9. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  10. Deep Vein Thrombosis after Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Guleria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography (CAG, incidence being just 0.05%. Only a few clinical cases of DVT after diagnostic transfemoral catheterization have been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed significant DVT after CAG without venous thromboembolism (VTE and, which was treated with anticoagulants.

  11. Prediction of residue-residue contact matrix for protein-protein interaction with Fisher score features and deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tianchuan; Liao, Li; Wu, Cathy H; Sun, Bilin

    2016-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions play essential roles in many biological processes. Acquiring knowledge of the residue-residue contact information of two interacting proteins is not only helpful in annotating functions for proteins, but also critical for structure-based drug design. The prediction of the protein residue-residue contact matrix of the interfacial regions is challenging. In this work, we introduced deep learning techniques (specifically, stacked autoencoders) to build deep neural network models to tackled the residue-residue contact prediction problem. In tandem with interaction profile Hidden Markov Models, which was used first to extract Fisher score features from protein sequences, stacked autoencoders were deployed to extract and learn hidden abstract features. The deep learning model showed significant improvement over the traditional machine learning model, Support Vector Machines (SVM), with the overall accuracy increased by 15% from 65.40% to 80.82%. We showed that the stacked autoencoders could extract novel features, which can be utilized by deep neural networks and other classifiers to enhance learning, out of the Fisher score features. It is further shown that deep neural networks have significant advantages over SVM in making use of the newly extracted features. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. deepTools2: a next generation web server for deep-sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Fidel; Ryan, Devon P; Grüning, Björn; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Kilpert, Fabian; Richter, Andreas S; Heyne, Steffen; Dündar, Friederike; Manke, Thomas

    2016-07-08

    We present an update to our Galaxy-based web server for processing and visualizing deeply sequenced data. Its core tool set, deepTools, allows users to perform complete bioinformatic workflows ranging from quality controls and normalizations of aligned reads to integrative analyses, including clustering and visualization approaches. Since we first described our deepTools Galaxy server in 2014, we have implemented new solutions for many requests from the community and our users. Here, we introduce significant enhancements and new tools to further improve data visualization and interpretation. deepTools continue to be open to all users and freely available as a web service at deeptools.ie-freiburg.mpg.de The new deepTools2 suite can be easily deployed within any Galaxy framework via the toolshed repository, and we also provide source code for command line usage under Linux and Mac OS X. A public and documented API for access to deepTools functionality is also available. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Deep learning beyond cats and dogs: recent advances in diagnosing breast cancer with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jeremy R; Torosdagli, Neslisah; Khosravan, Naji; RaviPrakash, Harish; Mortazi, Aliasghar; Tissavirasingham, Fiona; Hussein, Sarfaraz; Bagci, Ulas

    2018-03-22

    Deep Learning has demonstrated tremendous revolutionary changes in the computing industry and its effects in radiology and imaging sciences have begun to dramatically change screening paradigms. Specifically, these advances have influenced the development of computer aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems. These technologies have long been thought of as "second-opinion" tools for radiologists and clinicians. However, with significant improvements in deep neural networks, the diagnostic capabilities of learning algorithms are approaching levels of human expertise (radiologists, clinicians, etc.), shifting the CAD paradigm from a "second opinion" tool to a more collaborative utility. This paper reviews recently developed CAD systems based on deep learning technologies for breast cancer diagnosis, explains their superiorities with respect to previously established systems, defines the methodologies behind the improved achievements including algorithmic developments, and describes remaining challenges in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. We also discuss possible future directions for new CAD models that continue to change as artificial intelligence algorithms evolve.

  14. Complications of Moderate Sedation Versus Deep Sedation/General Anesthesia for Adolescent Patients Undergoing Third Molar Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Dodson, Thomas B; Gonzalez, Martin L; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the complications resulting from moderate sedation versus deep sedation/general anesthesia for adolescent patients undergoing third molar extraction and determine whether any differences in complication risks exist between the 2 levels of sedation. We performed a prospective study of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Outcomes System from January 2001 to December 2010. The primary predictor variable was the level of sedation, divided into 2 groups: moderate sedation versus deep sedation/general anesthesia. The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse complications resulting from the sedation level. Differences in the cohort characteristics were analyzed using the independent samples t test, χ(2) test, and analysis of variance, as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the effect the level of sedation had on the adverse complication rate. Patients in the moderate sedation group had a complication rate of 0.5%, and patients in the deep sedation/general anesthesia group had a complication rate of 0.9%. Compared with moderate sedation, deep sedation/general anesthesia did not pose a significantly increased risk of adverse anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 2.81; P = .077). The results of our study have shown that the risk of adverse anesthesia complications is not increased when choosing between moderate and deep sedation/general anesthesia for adolescent patients undergoing third molar extraction. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep Learning the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiwangi; Bard, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is an effective tool to map the structure of matter in the universe, and has been used for more than ten years as a probe of the nature of dark energy. Beyond the well-established two-point summary statistics, attention is now turning to methods that use the full statistical information available in the lensing observables, through analysis of the reconstructed shear field. This offers an opportunity to take advantage of powerful deep learning methods for image analysis. We present two early studies that demonstrate that deep learning can be used to characterise features in weak lensing convergence maps, and to identify the underlying cosmological model that produced them.We developed an unsupervised Denoising Convolutional Autoencoder model in order to learn an abstract representation directly from our data. This model uses a convolution-deconvolution architecture, which is fed with input data (corrupted with binomial noise to prevent over-fitting). Our model effectively trains itself to minimize the mean-squared error between the input and the output using gradient descent, resulting in a model which, theoretically, is broad enough to tackle other similarly structured problems. Using this model we were able to successfully reconstruct simulated convergence maps and identify the structures in them. We also determined which structures had the highest “importance” - i.e. which structures were most typical of the data. We note that the structures that had the highest importance in our reconstruction were around high mass concentrations, but were highly non-Gaussian.We also developed a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification of weak lensing convergence maps from two different simulated theoretical models. The CNN uses a softmax classifier which minimizes a binary cross-entropy loss between the estimated distribution and true distribution. In other words, given an unseen convergence map the trained CNN determines

  16. Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking".

  17. Effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep release on postrelease mortality of Lake Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10–12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release–and deep-release–treated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured.

  18. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark. A ...

  19. Neuropsychiatric Outcome of an Adolescent Who Received Deep Brain Stimulation for Tourette's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Pullen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study followed one adolescent patient who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation of the centromedian parafascicular complex (CM-Pf for debilitating, treatment refractory Tourette's syndrome for a period of 1.5 years. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant changes between baseline and follow-up assessments. Psychiatric assessment revealed positive outcomes in overall adaptive functioning and reduction in psychotropic medication load in this patient. Furthermore, despite significant baseline psychiatric comorbidity, this patient reported no suicidal ideation following electrode implantation. Deep brain stimulation is increasingly being used in children and adolescents. This case reports on the positive neurologic and neuropsychiatric outcome of an adolescent male with bilateral CM-Pf stimulation.

  20. Deep video deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-11-25

    Motion blur from camera shake is a major problem in videos captured by hand-held devices. Unlike single-image deblurring, video-based approaches can take advantage of the abundant information that exists across neighboring frames. As a result the best performing methods rely on aligning nearby frames. However, aligning images is a computationally expensive and fragile procedure, and methods that aggregate information must therefore be able to identify which regions have been accurately aligned and which have not, a task which requires high level scene understanding. In this work, we introduce a deep learning solution to video deblurring, where a CNN is trained end-to-end to learn how to accumulate information across frames. To train this network, we collected a dataset of real videos recorded with a high framerate camera, which we use to generate synthetic motion blur for supervision. We show that the features learned from this dataset extend to deblurring motion blur that arises due to camera shake in a wide range of videos, and compare the quality of results to a number of other baselines.

  1. Operation Deep Sweep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Fifty scientists and a crew of 18 have embarked on a 64,000 km odyssey to explore the Pacific from pole to pole—the most ambitious program in the history of the marine geology branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Called Operation Deep Sweep, the 1-year cruise will search areas above the Arctic Circle, off of Alaska, to McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. The 63-m, 1,300-tonne research vessel Samuel P. Lee sailed from its home port of Redwood City, Calif., to San Francisco to begin the first leg of the lengthy journey.According to USGS officials and the cosponsoring Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the cruise will ultimately involve 150 scientists, some of them representing Germany, France, Australia, and New Zealand. David Howell, branch chief of Pacific Marine Geology for the USGS, said the voyage of the Lee was “the most far reaching and of the longest duration” ever attempted by his unit. He said the cruise would string together a large number of scientific experiments spanning the Pacific. Howell likened the voyage to the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803-1806 (which explored Louisiana and the western United States) because “we're going into unknown territory and into regions not studied except in the most cursory manner.”

  2. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  3. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  4. Hypoxia in deep waters of moderately eutrophic marine lakes, Island of Mljet, eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Hrustić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the impact of eutrophication and stratification on hypoxia in deep waters of moderately warm Croatian marine lakes. Although the Mljet Lakes (MLs are predominantly oligotrophic, mesotrophic conditions are present at depths below 20 m in the Small Lake (SL and below 30 m in the Big Lake (BL, along with higher apparent oxygen utilization (AOU. Hypoxia at depths ≥ 25 m in SL and and ≥ 40 m in BL was observed between October 2009 and January 2010, and in SL in summer (July and September 2010. Significant differences (p 0.05 between the lakes. An intense and persistent pycnocline throughout the year, comparatively high water temperature, extended water renewal time and summer phytoplankton bloom were identified as physical and biological parameters which might have significantly contributed to increased frequency of hypoxic events in a shallow SL. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher ammonium concentration in SL, especially in its deep water, seems to be a long-term chemical feature related to the poor ventilation and higher sediment oxygen demand. At the current level of eutrophication and the present climate change trends, the MLs and similar systems may experience more persistent and intense stratification, which could further prevent mixing between upper and deep waters, likely leading to increasing duration of hypoxia and its negative impacts on the biodiversity of benthic communities.

  5. Deep coal mining and meningococcal meningitis in England and Wales, 1931-38: Ecological study, with implications for deep shaft mining activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historical testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period. Communities in areas of the world that currently maintain substantial deep coal extraction industries may be at increased risk for the epidemic transmission of meningococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Facial expression recognition based on improved deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the robustness of facial expression recognition, a method of face expression recognition based on Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with improved deep belief networks (DBNs) is proposed. This method uses LBP to extract the feature, and then uses the improved deep belief networks as the detector and classifier to extract the LBP feature. The combination of LBP and improved deep belief networks is realized in facial expression recognition. In the JAFFE (Japanese Female Facial Expression) database on the recognition rate has improved significantly.

  7. Deep learning for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-06-15

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Deep learning for computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Garrett B. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Hodas, Nathan O. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Vishnu, Abhinav [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354

    2017-03-08

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both the fields of computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on “deep” neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning the computer science domain, notably in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties as compared to traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including QSAR, virtual screening, protein structure modeling, QM calculations, materials synthesis and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network based models often exceeded the “glass ceiling” expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a useful tool and may grow into a pivotal role for various challenges in the computational chemistry field.

  9. System-Level Analysis Modeling of Impacts of Operation Schemes of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage on Deep Groundwater and Carbon Dioxide Leakage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kihm, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to predict quantitatively groundwater and carbon dioxide flow in deep saline sandstone aquifers under various carbon dioxide injection schemes (injection rate, injection period) and to analyze integratively impacts of such carbon dioxide injection schemes on deep groundwater (brine) and carbon dioxide leakage risk through abandoned wells or faults. In order to achieve the first objective, a series of process-level prediction modeling of groundwater and carbon dioxide flow in a deep saline sandstone aquifer under several carbon dioxide injection schemes was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999). The prediction modeling results show that the extent of carbon dioxide plume is significantly affected by such carbon dioxide injection schemes. In order to achieve the second objective, a series of system-level analysis modeling of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage risk through an abandoned well or a fault under several carbon dioxide injection schemes was then performed using a brine and carbon dioxide leakage risk analysis model CO2-LEAK (Kim, 2012). The analysis modeling results show that the rates and amounts of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage through an abandoned well or a fault increase as the carbon dioxide injection rate increases. However, the rates and amounts of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage through an abandoned well or a fault decrease as the carbon dioxide injection period increases. These system-level analysis modeling results for deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage risk can be utilized as baseline data for establishing guidelines to mitigate anticipated environmental adverse effects on shallower groundwater systems (aquifers) when deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage occur. This work was supported by the Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Program funded by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute

  10. Deep learning applications in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    To describe the emerging applications of deep learning in ophthalmology. Recent studies have shown that various deep learning models are capable of detecting and diagnosing various diseases afflicting the posterior segment of the eye with high accuracy. Most of the initial studies have centered around detection of referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Deep learning has shown promising results in automated image analysis of fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images. Additional testing and research is required to clinically validate this technology.

  11. Distributed Deep Q-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hao Yi; Chavez, Kevin; Hong, Augustus

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed deep learning model to successfully learn control policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement learning. The model is based on the deep Q-network, a convolutional neural network trained with a variant of Q-learning. Its input is raw pixels and its output is a value function estimating future rewards from taking an action given a system state. To distribute the deep Q-network training, we adapt the DistBelief software framework to the conte...

  12. Deep-sea genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Desbruyere, D; Arnaud-haond, Sophie; Fabri, Marie-claire; Guezennec, Jean; Querellou, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Two third of our Planet are covered by oceans more than 3,000m deep (~ 307 millions km2) and the mean depth of the sea is approximately 3,800m. The volume of the deep ocean (aphotic) is about 1,280 Millions of km3 while the volume of terrestrial ecosystems is only 125 Millions of km3. Therefore, the deep-sea ecosystem is by far the largest complex biome on the Earth. However, it suffers from a general disinterest of the public and decision makers due to its remoteness and inaccessibility. Edw...

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ...

  14. PRE-ACTIVITY MODULATION OF LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLES WITHIN DIFFERENT TYPES AND HEIGHTS OF DEEP JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mrdakovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m, who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm. Surface EMG device (1000Hz was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience

  15. Computational analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the presence of deep brain stimulation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, F.; Holloway, K.; El-Gendy, A. A.; Hadimani, R. L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is an emerging non-invasive treatment for depression, Parkinson's disease, and a variety of other neurological disorders. Many Parkinson's patients receive the treatment known as Deep Brain Stimulation, but often require additional therapy for speech and swallowing impairment. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has been explored as a possible treatment by stimulating the mouth motor area of the brain. We have calculated induced electric field, magnetic field, and temperature distributions in the brain using finite element analysis and anatomically realistic heterogeneous head models fitted with Deep Brain Stimulation leads. A Figure of 8 coil, current of 5000 A, and frequency of 2.5 kHz are used as simulation parameters. Results suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation leads cause surrounding tissues to experience slightly increased E-field (Δ Emax =30 V/m), but not exceeding the nominal values induced in brain tissue by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation without leads (215 V/m). The maximum temperature in the brain tissues surrounding leads did not change significantly from the normal human body temperature of 37 °C. Therefore, we ascertain that Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the mouth motor area may stimulate brain tissue surrounding Deep Brain Stimulation leads, but will not cause tissue damage.

  16. Genetic homogeneity in the deep-sea grenadier Macrourus berglax across the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Ilaria; Castilho, Rita; Massa-Gallucci, Alexia; Sacchi, Carlotta; Cunha, Regina L.; Stefanni, Sergio; Helyar, Sarah J.; Knutsen, Halvor; Mariani, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    Paucity of data on population structure and connectivity in deep sea species remains a major obstacle to their sustainable management and conservation in the face of ever increasing fisheries pressure and other forms of impacts on deep sea ecosystems. The roughhead grenadier Macrourus berglax presents all the classical characteristics of a deep sea species, such as slow growth and low fecundity, which make them particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic impact, due to their low resilience to change. In this study, the population structure of the roughhead grenadier is investigated throughout its geographic distribution using two sets of molecular markers: a partial sequence of the Control Region of mitochondrial DNA and species-specific microsatellites. No evidence of significant structure was found throughout the North Atlantic, with both sets of molecular markers yielding the same results of overall homogeneity. We posit two non-mutually exclusive scenarios that can explain such outcome: i) substantial high gene flow among locations, possibly maintained by larval stages, ii) very large effective size of post-glacially expanded populations. The results can inform management strategies in this by-caught species, and contribute to the broader issue of biological connectivity in the deep ocean.

  17. Application of a water balance model for estimating deep infiltration in a karstic watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of water scarcity evidences the need for an adequate management of water resources. In karstic regions, the water flow through fractures significantly increases the water infiltration rate, which explains the small number of rivers and the importance of groundwater for urban supply. Therefore, the water balance is necessary since it may aid decision making processes and guide water management projects. The objective of this paper was to perform the water balance of a watershed situated in a karstic region quantifying infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration. The study area is located near the Tancredo Neves International Airport in Confins, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Most of the area consists of forest formations (40.9%, and pastures (34.5%. In order to estimate deep infiltration, the BALSEQ model was used. BALSEQ is a numeric model of sequential water balance in which deep infiltration at the end of the day is given by the difference between daily precipitation and the sum of surface runoff, evapotranspiration and the variation of the amount of water stored in the soil. The results show that approximately 60% of total annual precipitation result in deep infiltration, considering the recharge period from September to March. After the dry period, the areas with no vegetal cover present higher deep infiltration. However, over the months, the contribution of the vegetated areas becomes greater, showing the importance of these areas to aquifer recharge.

  18. Deep Learning Accurately Predicts Estrogen Receptor Status in Breast Cancer Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakwaa, Fadhl M; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Garmire, Lana X

    2018-01-05

    Metabolomics holds the promise as a new technology to diagnose highly heterogeneous diseases. Conventionally, metabolomics data analysis for diagnosis is done using various statistical and machine learning based classification methods. However, it remains unknown if deep neural network, a class of increasingly popular machine learning methods, is suitable to classify metabolomics data. Here we use a cohort of 271 breast cancer tissues, 204 positive estrogen receptor (ER+), and 67 negative estrogen receptor (ER-) to test the accuracies of feed-forward networks, a deep learning (DL) framework, as well as six widely used machine learning models, namely random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVM), recursive partitioning and regression trees (RPART), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM), and generalized boosted models (GBM). DL framework has the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 in classifying ER+/ER- patients, compared to the other six machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, the biological interpretation of the first hidden layer reveals eight commonly enriched significant metabolomics pathways (adjusted P-value machine learning methods. Among them, protein digestion and absorption and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters pathways are also confirmed in integrated analysis between metabolomics and gene expression data in these samples. In summary, deep learning method shows advantages for metabolomics based breast cancer ER status classification, with both the highest prediction accuracy (AUC = 0.93) and better revelation of disease biology. We encourage the adoption of feed-forward networks based deep learning method in the metabolomics research community for classification.

  19. Gutenberg-Richter law for deep earthquakes revisited: a dual-mechanism hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Size distribution of deep-focus earthquakes varies significantly with slab thermal parameter and earthquake magnitude. The physical reason for the variations and the relation with deep rupture mechanism are still unclear. Here I revisit the Gutenberg-Richter law for deep earthquakes using about 40 years of data from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog. The updated results confirm the spatial variations of b value and its dependence on slab temperature. Furthermore, a new bimodal pattern is observed for the 500-700 km depth range: b is close to 1 in the cold Tonga slab, while in warm slabs (e.g., South America, Japan-Kuril, Izu-Bonin-Mariana), b is close to 0.5 for intermediate magnitudes (Mw 5.3-6.5) and increases to 1 for large magnitudes (Mw>6.5). To explain these observations, I propose a dual-mechanism hypothesis in which deep-focus earthquakes nucleate only within metastable olivine wedge (MOW), but can rupture outside MOW by a different mechanism. The fractal dimension of earthquake size distribution changes from 2 to 1 as the thermally controlled MOW thickness decreases, and back to 2 as the mechanism outside MOW dominates.

  20. Assessing Deep Sea Communities Through Seabed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkin, A. G.; Cross, K.; Milititsky, M.

    2016-02-01

    The deep sea still remains virtually unexplored. Human activity, such as oil and gas exploration and deep sea mining, is expanding further into the deep sea, increasing the need to survey and map extensive areas of this habitat in order to assess ecosystem health and value. The technology needed to explore this remote environment has been advancing. Seabed imagery can cover extensive areas of the seafloor and investigate areas where sampling with traditional coring methodologies is just not possible (e.g. cold water coral reefs). Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are an expensive option, so drop or towed camera systems can provide a more viable and affordable alternative, while still allowing for real-time control. Assessment of seabed imagery in terms of presence, abundance and density of particular species can be conducted by bringing together a variety of analytical tools for a holistic approach. Sixteen deep sea transects located offshore West Africa were investigated with a towed digital video telemetry system (DTS). Both digital stills and video footage were acquired. An extensive data set was obtained from over 13,000 usable photographs, allowing for characterisation of the different habitats present in terms of community composition and abundance. All observed fauna were identified to the lowest taxonomic level and enumerated when possible, with densities derived after the seabed area was calculated for each suitable photograph. This methodology allowed for consistent assessment of the different habitat types present, overcoming constraints, such as specific taxa that cannot be enumerated, such as sponges, corals or bryozoans, the presence of mobile and sessile species, or the level of taxonomic detail. Although this methodology will not enable a full characterisation of a deep sea community, in terms of species composition for instance, itt will allow a robust assessment of large areas of the deep sea in terms of sensitive habitats present and community

  1. SLAUGHTERING TRAITS OF PIGS REARED CONVENTIONALLY AND ON DEEP LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare slaughtering traits of two pig genotypes when reared in two different ways, and to determine the influence of pig housing on carcass characteristics and muscle tissue quality. The research was carried out on 68 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups: the first group was kept on deep litter, and the second one was housed in flat deck pens without deep litter. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. At the end of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and the following values were determined: the pH45 and pH24 values, electric conductivity values (EC45, EC24, the “a” and “b” carcass length, loin values and the values of backfat and muscle thickness, aiming to evaluate the share of muscular tissue in carcass by applying the two-points method. Pigs reared on deep litter had statistically significantly smaller live weights (P<0.05 and warm carcass weights in comparison to pigs reared on flat deck without deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain, which were kept without deep litter had significantly thicker muscles than the ones crossed with German Landrace, kept on deep litter (P<0.05. Fattening pigs of both genotypes, reared without deep litter, had significantly smaller pH45 values in loins and in MLD, when compared to pigs crossed with Pietrain and kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The influence of genotype was statistically significant for the EC45 value in loin, as well as for the muscle thickness and percentage share of muscular tissue (P<0.05. Interaction between the way of fattening and genotype did not have any effect on carcass and meat quality.

  2. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel

    2008-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a reversible surgical procedure that involves stereotactic implantation of electrodes into the targeted brain regions, with a subcutaneously placed pulse generator powering the electrodes via one or two leads. The mechanism of action can be explained by the stimulation-induced modulation of impaired network activity. So far, the main use of DBS has been for neurological conditions, such as essential tremor, motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and chronic pain. In psychiatry, case series and open studies indicate treatment efficacy of DBS in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, and refractory major depression. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed the effects of DBS on the brain regions implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a well-tolerated method with relatively few serious side effects. Additional well-designed and appropriately powered controlled clinical trials are needed to conclusively establish the efficacy and safety of DBS and to identify the patient population(s) who may benefit most. Ongoing research with stimulation techniques may also significantly contribute to our understanding of major neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Bony Regrowth After Deep Lateral Orbital Decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Eichhorn, Knut; Leibowitz, Steven; Goldberg, Robert

    2018-01-25

    To report on 2 cases of late bony regrowth with clinically apparent proptosis after deep lateral orbital decompression for thyroid orbitopathy. A retrospective review of 2 cases identified by the authors as having late bony regrowth. The authors review the clinical, historical, radiologic, and anatomical findings and discuss the significance thereof. Bony regrowth with bowing toward the middle cranial fossa is observed at postoperative month 8 in the first case. Cortical bone and marrow was observed to regrow at 2 years postoperatively in the second case. Both patients underwent successful repeat deep lateral orbital decompression with resolution of proptosis and clinical symptoms. Late bony regrowth should be considered as a possible cause of recurrent proptosis after orbital decompression in thyroid eye disease.

  4. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  5. Gene expression in the deep biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, William D; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Christman, Glenn D; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2013-07-11

    Scientific ocean drilling has revealed a deep biosphere of widespread microbial life in sub-seafloor sediment. Microbial metabolism in the marine subsurface probably has an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, but deep biosphere activities are not well understood. Here we describe and analyse the first sub-seafloor metatranscriptomes from anaerobic Peru Margin sediment up to 159 metres below the sea floor, represented by over 1 billion complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence reads. Anaerobic metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids seem to be the dominant metabolic processes, and profiles of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) transcripts are consistent with pore-water sulphate concentration profiles. Moreover, transcripts involved in cell division increase as a function of microbial cell concentration, indicating that increases in sub-seafloor microbial abundance are a function of cell division across all three domains of life. These data support calculations and models of sub-seafloor microbial metabolism and represent the first holistic picture of deep biosphere activities.

  6. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...... vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction......Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...

  7. Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GCD Program funded Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Project is targeting at least 10x higher instantaneous downlink data-rate while utilizing the...

  8. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  9. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep charging, in contrast to surface charging, focuses on electron penetration deep into insulating materials applied over conductors. A classic example of this scenario is an insulated wire. Deep charging can pose a threat to material integrity, and to sensitive electronics, when it gives rise to an electrostatic discharge or arc. With the advent of Electric Orbit Raising, which requires spiraling through Earth's radiation belts, satellites are subjected to high energy electron environments which they normally would not encounter. Beyond Earth orbit, missions to Jupiter and Saturn face deep charging concerns due to the high energy radiation environments. While predictions can be made about charging in insulating materials, it is difficult to extend those predictions to complicated geometries, such as the case of an insulating coating around a small wire, or a non-uniform silicone grouting on a bus bar. Therefore, to conclusively determine the susceptibility of a system to arcs from deep charging, experimental investigations must be carried out. This paper will describe the evaluation carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. Specifically, deep charging evaluations of solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, will be discussed. The results of each evaluation will be benchmarked against control sample tests, as well as typical power system levels, to show no significant deep charging threat existed for this set of samples under the conditions tested.

  10. AMP-Inspired Deep Networks for Sparse Linear Inverse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Mark; Schniter, Philip; Rangan, Sundeep

    2017-08-01

    Deep learning has gained great popularity due to its widespread success on many inference problems. We consider the application of deep learning to the sparse linear inverse problem, where one seeks to recover a sparse signal from a few noisy linear measurements. In this paper, we propose two novel neural-network architectures that decouple prediction errors across layers in the same way that the approximate message passing (AMP) algorithms decouple them across iterations: through Onsager correction. First, we propose a "learned AMP" network that significantly improves upon Gregor and LeCun's "learned ISTA." Second, inspired by the recently proposed "vector AMP" (VAMP) algorithm, we propose a "learned VAMP" network that offers increased robustness to deviations in the measurement matrix from i.i.d. Gaussian. In both cases, we jointly learn the linear transforms and scalar nonlinearities of the network. Interestingly, with i.i.d. signals, the linear transforms and scalar nonlinearities prescribed by the VAMP algorithm coincide with the values learned through back-propagation, leading to an intuitive interpretation of learned VAMP. Finally, we apply our methods to two problems from 5G wireless communications: compressive random access and massive-MIMO channel estimation.

  11. Deep eutectic-solvothermal synthesis of nanostructured ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Oliver S.; Edler, Karen J.; Bowron, Daniel T.; Torrente-Murciano, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Ceria is a technologically important material with applications in catalysis, emissions control and solid-oxide fuel cells. Nanostructured ceria becomes profoundly more active due to its enhanced surface area to volume ratio, reactive surface oxygen vacancy concentration and superior oxygen storage capacity. Here we report the synthesis of nanostructured ceria using the green Deep Eutectic Solvent reline, which allows morphology and porosity control in one of the less energy-intensive routes reported to date. Using wide Q-range liquid-phase neutron diffraction, we elucidate the mechanism of reaction at a molecular scale at considerably milder conditions than the conventional hydrothermal synthetic routes. The reline solvent plays the role of a latent supramolecular catalyst where the increase in reaction rate from solvent-driven pre-organization of the reactants is most significant. This fundamental understanding of deep eutectic-solvothermal methodology will enable future developments in low-temperature synthesis of nanostructured ceria, facilitating its large-scale manufacturing using green, economic, non-toxic solvents.

  12. Weakly Supervised Deep Detection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Vedaldi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Weakly supervised learning of object detection is an important problem in image understanding that still does not have a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting the power of deep convolutional neural networks pre-trained on large-scale image-level classification tasks. We propose a weakly supervised deep detection architecture that modifies one such network to operate at the level of image regions, performing simultaneously region selection and classificati...

  13. Deep space infections of neck

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluskar, S.; Bajaj, P.; Bane, P.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989–1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig’s angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the ne...

  14. Deep-water Circulation: Processes & Products (16-18 June 2010, Baiona): introduction and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, Francisco Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Llave, Estefanía; Rebesco, Michele; Ercilla, Gemma; van Rooij, David; Mena, Anxo; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Voelker, Antje H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-water circulation is a critical part of the global conveyor belt that regulates Earth's climate. The bottom (contour)-current component of this circulation is of key significance in shaping the deep seafloor through erosion, transport, and deposition. As a result, there exists a high variety of large-scale erosional and depositional features (drifts) that together form more complex contourite depositional systems on continental slopes and rises as well as in ocean basins, generated by different water masses flowing at different depths and at different speeds either in the same or in opposite directions. Yet, the nature of these deep-water processes and the deposited contourites is still poorly understood in detail. Their ultimate decoding will undoubtedly yield information of fundamental importance to the earth and ocean sciences. The international congress Deep-water Circulation: Processes & Products was held from 16-18 June 2010 in Baiona, Spain, hosted by the University of Vigo. Volume 31(5/6) of Geo-Marine Letters is a special double issue containing 17 selected contributions from the congress, guest edited by F.J. Hernández-Molina, D.A.V. Stow, E. Llave, M. Rebesco, G. Ercilla, D. Van Rooij, A. Mena, J.-T. Vázquez and A.H.L. Voelker. The papers and discussions at the congress and the articles in this special issue provide a truly multidisciplinary perspective of interest to both academic and industrial participants, contributing to the advancement of knowledge on deep-water bottom circulation and related processes, as well as contourite sedimentation. The multidisciplinary contributions (including geomorphology, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, physical oceanography, and deep-water ecology) have demonstrated that advances in paleoceanographic reconstructions and our understanding of the ocean's role in the global climate system depend largely on the feedbacks among disciplines. New insights into the link between the biota of

  15. The Evolution of Deep Ocean Chemistry and Respired Carbon in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Over the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Maria; Calvo, Eva; Skinner, Luke; Pelejero, Carles; Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that the deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) region was poorly ventilated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to Holocene values. This finding suggests a more efficient biological pump, which indirectly supports the idea of increased carbon storage in the deep ocean contributing to lower atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial. However, proxies related to respired carbon are needed in order to directly test this proposition. Here we present Cibicides wuellerstorfi B/Ca ratios from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1240 measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) as a proxy for deep water carbonate saturation state (Δ[CO32-], and therefore [CO32-]), along with δ13C measurements. In addition, the U/Ca ratio in foraminiferal coatings has been analyzed as an indicator of oxygenation changes. Our results show lower [CO32-], δ13C, and [O2] values during the LGM, which would be consistent with higher respired carbon levels in the deep EEP driven, at least in part, by reduced deep water ventilation. However, the difference between LGM and Holocene [CO32-] observed at our site is relatively small, in accordance with other records from across the Pacific, suggesting that a "counteracting" mechanism, such as seafloor carbonate dissolution, also played a role. If so, this mechanism would have increased average ocean alkalinity, allowing even more atmospheric CO2 to be "sequestered" by the ocean. Therefore, the deep Pacific Ocean very likely stored a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM, specifically due to a more efficient biological carbon pump and also an increase in average ocean alkalinity.

  16. Unilateral neuromodulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus of the rat through deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhle, M. J.; Mayes, S. M.; Kipke, D. R.

    2010-06-01

    This study offers evidence that long-term deep brain stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) can alter weight gain in mammals without affecting feeding behavior. Animals stimulated unilaterally at high frequencies of 150 or 500 Hz demonstrated increased CO2 production that decreased from prestimulation levels after the stimulation was removed. Animals stimulated for up to 6 weeks gained weight at a lower rate than normal animals or animals implanted with an electrode but not stimulated. Stimulated animals exhibited normal food and water consumption. A significant decrease in efficiency was observed during stimulation that coincided with an increase in the amount of feces produced. Whereas the weight of control animals was significantly different from week to week, the weight of stimulated animals did not change accordingly. These data suggest that the VMH may be a viable target for long-term deep brain stimulation for modulation of the neural mechanisms of metabolism. The potential therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus are discussed.

  17. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Resting state cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunyan; Li, Dianyou; Jiang, Tianxiao; Ince, Nuri Firat; Zhan, Shikun; Zhang, Jing; Sha, Zhiyi; Sun, Bomin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the modification to cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) by subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Spontaneous cortical oscillations of patients with PD were recorded with magnetoencephalography during on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation states. Several features such as average frequency, average power, and relative subband power in regions of interest were extracted in the frequency domain, and these features were correlated with Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III evaluation. The same features were also investigated in patients with PD without surgery and healthy controls. Patients with Parkinson disease without surgery compared with healthy controls had a significantly lower average frequency and an increased average power in 1 to 48 Hz range in whole cortex. Higher relative power in theta and simultaneous decrease in beta and gamma over temporal and occipital were also observed in patients with PD. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity score correlated with the average frequency and with the relative power of beta and gamma in frontal areas. During subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, the average frequency increased significantly when stimulation was on compared with off state. In addition, the relative power dropped in delta, whereas it rose in beta over the whole cortex. Through the course of stimulation, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity and tremor scores correlated with the relative power of alpha over left parietal. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves the symptoms of PD by suppressing the synchronization of alpha rhythm in somatomotor region.

  19. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Ruhl, H A; Bett, B J; Billett, D S M; Lampitt, R S; Kaufmann, R S

    2009-11-17

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy approximately 60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate.

  20. Paléobiocoenoses profondes à Scléractiniaires sur l'escarpement de Malte-Syracuse (mer Méditerranée : leur structure, leur âge et leur signification Deep-Sea Scleractinian Paleobiocoenoses from the Malta-Siracusa Escarpment (Mediterranean Sea: Their Structure, Age and Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taviani M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Des assemblages Pléistocène supérieur de Scléractiniaires ahermatypiques ont été prélevés sur l'escarpement de Malte-Syracuse à une profondeur d'eau en général supérieure à 2000 m, au cours de la campagne Escarmed 1 sur le N/O Jean Charcot. Les espèces les plus communes sont le corail Desmophyllum cristagalli et le bivalve Delectopecten vitreus, souvent encore en position de vie. La disparition des biocoenoses Desmophyllum-Delectopecten est probablement liée à une hausse de température provoquant une réduction du brassage vertical sur le fond et des conditions de quasi famine ; cependant une influence directe de la température sur la physiologie de tels organismes ne peut être écartée. Les calcaires coralliens reflètent une histoire sédimentologique complexe dont les principales étapes sont : la précipitation de carbonate par les organismes vivants, l'induration de la matrice vaseuse et le dépôt des oxydes Fe-Mn. Late Pleistocene scleractinian assemblages have been dredged along the Malta-Siracusa escarpment at a water depth generally > 2,000 m during the Escarmed 1 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot. The most common species are the coral Desmophyllum cristagalli and the bivalve Delec-topecten vitreus often still in life position. The disappearance of the Desmophyllum-Delectopecten biocoenosis is probably related to an increase of temperature that lead to a reduced vertical mixing and conditions of quasi-starvation at the bottom: however, a more direct influx of the temperature on the physiology of such organisme can not be ruled out. The coral-bearing limestones reflect a complex sedimentological history whose main steps are: precipitation of carbonate by the living organisms, induration of the ooze matrix and deposition of Fe-Mn oxides.

  1. Deep neural networks to enable real-time multimessenger astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy has set in motion a scientific revolution. To further enhance the science reach of this emergent field of research, there is a pressing need to increase the depth and speed of the algorithms used to enable these ground-breaking discoveries. We introduce Deep Filtering—a new scalable machine learning method for end-to-end time-series signal processing. Deep Filtering is based on deep learning with two deep convolutional neural networks, which are designed for classification and regression, to detect gravitational wave signals in highly noisy time-series data streams and also estimate the parameters of their sources in real time. Acknowledging that some of the most sensitive algorithms for the detection of gravitational waves are based on implementations of matched filtering, and that a matched filter is the optimal linear filter in Gaussian noise, the application of Deep Filtering using whitened signals in Gaussian noise is investigated in this foundational article. The results indicate that Deep Filtering outperforms conventional machine learning techniques, achieves similar performance compared to matched filtering, while being several orders of magnitude faster, allowing real-time signal processing with minimal resources. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Deep Filtering can detect and characterize waveform signals emitted from new classes of eccentric or spin-precessing binary black holes, even when trained with data sets of only quasicircular binary black hole waveforms. The results presented in this article, and the recent use of deep neural networks for the identification of optical transients in telescope data, suggests that deep learning can facilitate real-time searches of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic and astroparticle counterparts. In the subsequent article, the framework introduced herein is directly applied to identify and characterize gravitational wave events in real LIGO data.

  2. Deep gray matter hyperperfusion with occipital hypoperfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hanyu, H; Hirao, K; Shimizu, S; Kanetaka, H; Iwamoto, T

    2007-11-01

    Although decreased occipital perfusion is a characteristic feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), not all patients with DLB show a significant decreased perfusion in the occipital lobe. We explored characteristics of perfusion changes to improve the identification of DLB, in addition to occipital hypoperfusion. Statistical image analysis of single photon emission computed tomography data was performed on 22 patients with DLB and 25 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant decreased perfusion in the occipital lobe was found in 16 patients with DLB (72%) and three patients with AD (12%), while a significant increased perfusion in the deep gray matter (striatum and/or thalamus) was found in 18 patients with DLB (81%) and eight patients with AD (31%), respectively. Either occipital hypoperfusion or deep gray matter hyperperfusion was found in 21 patients with DLB (95%), while in nine patients with AD (35%), indicating a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 65% in discriminating DLB from AD. Our results suggest that the addition of deep gray matter hyperperfusion to occipital hypoperfusion may be useful in the clinical differentiation of DLB and AD.

  3. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact...

  4. Inspiration and Intellect: Significant Learning in Musical Forms and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    In his book "Creating Significant Learning Experiences" (2003), Dee Fink challenges professors to create a deep vision for the courses they teach. Educators often have a vision for what their courses could be, but often lack a model for instituting change. Fink's book provides that model. In this article, the author describes how this model helped…

  5. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-08-04

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process.

  6. [PROGNOSIS OF DEEP INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN HIP ARTHROPLASTY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, Yu L; Ptashnikov, D A; Tkachenko, A N; Bakhtin, M Yu; Kalimullina, A F

    2015-01-01

    The retrospective research analyzed the data of 893 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. There were used the data about patients undergoing hip arthroplasty without complications (the first group--808 cases) and patients with developed deep surgical site infection following total joint arthroplasty after 12 months (the second group--85 patients). It was applied as the training matrix in creation of mathematical prognosis and algorithm of prophylaxis of deep infection in patients undergoing the primary total hip arthroplasty. There were revealed 21 prognostic significant criteria of deep infection development in surgical site. The program was tested in prospective investigation (293 clinical cases) with follow-up term of 12 months after operation. The rate of development of postoperative deep infection in surgical wound reduced as compared with the rate in group of retrospective research from 1.7% to 0.7%. The efficacy of proposed program was 80%.

  7. Evolution of deep centers in GaN grown by hydride vapor phaseepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Look, D.C.; Jasinski, J.; Benamara, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar, R.J.

    2001-04-18

    Deep centers and dislocation densities in undoped n GaN, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), were characterized as a function of the layer thickness by deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. As the layer thickness decreases, the variety and concentration of deep centers increase, in conjunction with the increase of dislocation density. Based on comparison with electron irradiation induced centers, some dominant centers in HVPE GaN are identified as possible point defects.

  8. Tetrafluoromethane in the deep North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved tetrafluoromethane (CF4) has been measured for the first time in the North Pacific Ocean. Surface water collected during calm weather is near equilibrium with the modern atmosphere. Deep water, isolated from atmospheric exchange for centuries, is near equilibrium with the preindustrial atmosphere, after accounting for an expected 5% addition of this low-solubility gas due to air injection during high-latitude deep-water formation. These results strongly suggest that dissolved CF4 is conservative in seawater and that the oceanic imprint of anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CF4 can be used as a time-dependent tracer of ocean ventilation and subsurface circulation processes. Although the continental lithosphere is a source of natural atmospheric CF4, we find no evidence of an oceanic lithospheric CF4 input into deep Pacific waters. The estimated upper limit of a potential oceanic lithospheric CF4 flux to the global atmosphere is on the order of 4% of that from the continental lithosphere.

  9. DeepID-Net: Deformable Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wanli; Zeng, Xingyu; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Shi; Luo, Ping; Tian, Yonglong; Li, Hongsheng; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Li, Hongyang; Loy, Chen Change; Wang, Kun; Yan, Junjie; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-07-07

    In this paper, we propose deformable deep convolutional neural networks for generic object detection. This new deep learning object detection framework has innovations in multiple aspects. In the proposed new deep architecture, a new deformation constrained pooling (def-pooling) layer models the deformation of object parts with geometric constraint and penalty. A new pre-training strategy is proposed to learn feature representations more suitable for the object detection task and with good generalization capability. By changing the net structures, training strategies, adding and removing some key components in the detection pipeline, a set of models with large diversity are obtained, which significantly improves the effectiveness of model averaging. The proposed approach improves the mean averaged precision obtained by RCNN [16], which was the state-of-the-art, from 31% to 50.3% on the ILSVRC2014 detection test set. It also outperforms the winner of ILSVRC2014, GoogLeNet, by 6.1%. Detailed component-wise analysis is also provided through extensive experimental evaluation, which provides a global view for people to understand the deep learning object detection pipeline.

  10. Detecting atrial fibrillation by deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Wulan, Naren; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2018-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The incidence of AF increases with age, causing high risks of stroke and increased morbidity and mortality. Efficient and accurate diagnosis of AF based on the ECG is valuable in clinical settings and remains challenging. In this paper, we proposed a novel method with high reliability and accuracy for AF detection via deep learning. The short-term Fourier transform (STFT) and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) were used to analyze ECG segments to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) matrix input suitable for deep convolutional neural networks. Then, two different deep convolutional neural network models corresponding to STFT output and SWT output were developed. Our new method did not require detection of P or R peaks, nor feature designs for classification, in contrast to existing algorithms. Finally, the performances of the two models were evaluated and compared with those of existing algorithms. Our proposed method demonstrated favorable performances on ECG segments as short as 5 s. The deep convolutional neural network using input generated by STFT, presented a sensitivity of 98.34%, specificity of 98.24% and accuracy of 98.29%. For the deep convolutional neural network using input generated by SWT, a sensitivity of 98.79%, specificity of 97.87% and accuracy of 98.63% was achieved. The proposed method using deep convolutional neural networks shows high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and, therefore, is a valuable tool for AF detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  12. A Robust Text Classifier Based on Denoising Deep Neural Network in the Analysis of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulamu Aziguli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Text classification has always been an interesting issue in the research area of natural language processing (NLP. While entering the era of big data, a good text classifier is critical to achieving NLP for scientific big data analytics. With the ever-increasing size of text data, it has posed important challenges in developing effective algorithm for text classification. Given the success of deep neural network (DNN in analyzing big data, this article proposes a novel text classifier using DNN, in an effort to improve the computational performance of addressing big text data with hybrid outliers. Specifically, through the use of denoising autoencoder (DAE and restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM, our proposed method, named denoising deep neural network (DDNN, is able to achieve significant improvement with better performance of antinoise and feature extraction, compared to the traditional text classification algorithms. The simulations on benchmark datasets verify the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed text classifier.

  13. Improving a Deep Learning based RGB-D Object Recognition Model by Ensemble Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Heder, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Augmenting RGB images with depth information is a well-known method to significantly improve the recognition accuracy of object recognition models. Another method to im- prove the performance of visual recognition models is ensemble learning. However, this method has not been widely explored...... in combination with deep convolutional neural network based RGB-D object recognition models. Hence, in this paper, we form different ensembles of complementary deep convolutional neural network models, and show that this can be used to increase the recognition performance beyond existing limits. Experiments...... on the Washington RGB-D Object Dataset show that our best performing ensemble improves the recognition performance with 0.7% compared to using the baseline model alone....

  14. Rupture pressure of the posterior lamella obtained during big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Hamish D; Barua, Ankur; Brahma, Arun K; Jhanji, Vishal; Carley, Fiona M

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the pressure required to rupture the posterior lamella obtained during the presumed Descemet membrane-baring big-bubble technique of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). DALK using the big-bubble technique was carried out on donor corneoscleral discs mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Once the anterior lamella was removed, the chamber was connected to a mercury manometer. The pressure inside the chamber was increased until rupture occurred or the manometer reached its measurement limit. The deep lamella ruptured at 252 mm Hg in one cornea, at 270 mm Hg in another, and had not ruptured at 300 mm Hg (upper limit of the manometer) in the remaining 18 donor corneas. The posterior lamella of big-bubble DALK probably confers significant structural integrity on the globe.

  15. Exploring the Earth Using Deep Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.

    2016-12-01

    Research using deep neural networks have significantly matured in recent times, and there is now a surge in interest to apply such methods to Earth systems science and the geosciences. When combined with Big Data, we believe there are opportunities for significantly transforming a number of areas relevant to researchers and policy makers. In particular, by using a combination of data from a range of satellite Earth observations as well as computer simulations from climate models and reanalysis, we can gain new insights into the information that is locked within the data. Global geospatial datasets describe a wide range of physical and chemical parameters, which are mostly available using regular grids covering large spatial and temporal extents. This makes them perfect candidates to apply deep learning methods. So far, these techniques have been successfully applied to image analysis through the use of convolutional neural networks. However, this is only one field of interest, and there is potential for many more use cases to be explored. The deep learning algorithms require fast access to large amounts of data in the form of tensors and make intensive use of CPU in order to train its models. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has recently augmented its Raijin 1.2 PFlop supercomputer with hardware accelerators. Together with NCI's 3000 core high performance OpenStack cloud, these computational systems have direct access to NCI's 10+ PBytes of datasets and associated Big Data software technologies (see http://geonetwork.nci.org.au/ and http://nci.org.au/systems-services/national-facility/nerdip/). To effectively use these computing infrastructures requires that both the data and software are organised in a way that readily supports the deep learning software ecosystem. Deep learning software, such as the open source TensorFlow library, has allowed us to demonstrate the possibility of generating geospatial models by combining information from

  16. Deep neuromuscular blockade and low insufflation pressure during laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Istre, Olav; Springborg, Henrik Halvor; Staehr-Rye, Anne Kathrine; Rosenberg, Jacob; Lund, Jørgen; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2017-05-01

    Establishment of sufficient muscle relaxation is essential in laparoscopic surgery. During laparoscopy, surgeons can experience abdominal contractions in their patients. Deep neuromuscular block (NMB) has the potential to prevent such episodes. In this study, we explored if deep NMB reduces the incidence of sudden abdominal contractions as compared with standard NMB. This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled study. A total of 110 patients scheduled for laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomized to either deep NMB and 8 mmHg pneumoperitoneum (deep NMB group) or single-bolus NMB and 12 mmHg pneumoperitoneum (standard NMB group). NMB was established with rocuronium and reversed with sugammadex. Two gynaecologists registered episodes of sudden abdominal contractions, alarms from the insufflator due to increased intraabdominal pressure and incidences with tightness of the abdominal wall. No sudden abdominal contractions were detected in the deep NMB group as compared with 12 episodes in the standard NMB group (p deep and standard NMB group, respectively. The gynaecologists registered increasing abdominal tensions in no versus eight procedures (p = 0.006) in the deep and standard NMB group, respectively. Deep NMB in combination with 8 mmHg pneumoperitoneum prevented sudden abdominal contractions during laparoscopic hysterectomy. This work was funded in part by a research grant from the Investigator Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, USA. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. The study was assigned with EudraCT number 2012-003787-51 and registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01722097). Articles published in the DMJ are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  17. What Really is Deep Learning Doing?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Chuyu

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has achieved a great success in many areas, from computer vision to natural language processing, to game playing, and much more. Yet, what deep learning is really doing is still an open question. There are a lot of works in this direction. For example, [5] tried to explain deep learning by group renormalization, and [6] tried to explain deep learning from the view of functional approximation. In order to address this very crucial question, here we see deep learning from perspect...

  18. Dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM in the Mediterranean surface and deep waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotnik J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM was studied in surface and deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea for last 12 years during several oceanographic cruises on board the Italian research vessel Urania and covered both Western and Eastern Mediterranean Basins as well as Adriatic Sea. DGM was measured together with other mercury species (RHg - reactive Hg, THg - total Hg, MeHg - monomethyl Hg and DMeHg - dimethylmercury, and with some water quality parameters in coastal and open sea deep water profiles, however only DGM will be discussed here. DGM represents a considerable portion of THg (average of about 20 % in Mediterranean waters. Spatial and seasonal variations of measured DGM concentrations were observed in different indentified water masses as well as iwere observed. DGM was the highest in the northern Adriatic, most polluted part of the Mediterranean Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and heavy industry of northern Italy.Generally, average DGM concentration was higher in W and E Mediteranean Deep Waters (WMDW and EMDW and Leavantine Intermediate Water (LIW than overlaying Modified Atlantic Water (MAW, however it was the highest in N Adriatic Surface waters and consequently in out flowing Adriatic Deep Waters (ADW. In deep water profiles the portion of DGM typically increased at depths with oxygen minimum and then towards the bottom, especially in areas with strong tectonic activity (Alboran Sea, Strait of Sicily, Tyrrhenian Sea, indicating its bacterial and/or geotectonic origin. A comparison of the results obtained in this study to others performed in the Mediterranean shows no significant differences. Results were also compared to the results obtained in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During last oceanographic cruise in 2011 covering area between Livorno and Lipari Islands a novel method for continuous DGM determination in surface waters (Wangberg and Gardfeldt, 2011 was applied and compared to standard method.

  19. Application of Circular Bubble Plume Diffusers to Restore Water Quality in a Sub-Deep Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular bubble plume diffusers have been confirmed as an effective technology for the restoration of the deep water system, but have never been applied in sub-deep water system. In this study, circular bubble plume diffusers were used, for the first time, to restore water quality in the Aha Reservoir, a typical sub-deep reservoir in Southwest China. Axisymmetric intrusive gravity currents were formed with a horizontal radius of 250 m at the equilibrium depth and the intrusion of oxygen-enriched water occurred within the depth of 10–14 m, while thermal stratification remained intact. A total of 95% of the imported oxygen was dissolved, but most was consumed by organic matter and other reduced substances within the hypolimnion. The oxygen consumption of organic matter, NH4+ and remaining reduced materials, accounted for 41.4–52.5%, 25% and 13.3–24.4% of the total imported oxygen, respectively. Compared with the control sites, dissolved oxygen level in the hypolimnion increased 3–4 times, and concentrations of NH4+, total Fe and total Mn were reduced by 15.5%, 45.5% and 48.9%, respectively. A significant decrease in total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations was observed in the experimental zone (0.04–0.02 mg/L and 1.9–1.7 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that circular bubble plumes have great potential for oxygenation of the hypolimnion and improving water quality in the sub-deep water system. Nevertheless, further efforts are needed to improve the discrete bubble model to elaborate the oxygen transmission dynamics and the plume formation processes in sub-deep water systems, incorporating oxygen consumption processes.

  20. Patterns and trends of macrobenthic abundance, biomass and production in the deep Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Degen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution and dynamics of macrobenthic communities of the deep Arctic Ocean. The few previous studies report low standing stocks and confirm a gradient with declining biomass from the slopes down to the basins, as commonly reported for deep-sea benthos. In this study, we investigated regional differences of faunal abundance and biomass, and made for the first time ever estimates of deep Arctic community production by using a multi-parameter artificial neural network model. The underlying data set combines data from recent field studies with published and unpublished data from the past 20 years, to analyse the influence of water depth, geographical latitude and sea-ice concentration on Arctic benthic communities. We were able to confirm the previously described negative relationship of macrofauna standing stock with water depth in the Arctic deep sea, while also detecting substantial regional differences. Furthermore, abundance, biomass and production decreased significantly with increasing sea-ice extent (towards higher latitudes down to values <200 ind m−2, <65 mg C m−2 and <73 mg C m−2 y−1, respectively. In contrast, stations under the seasonal ice zone regime showed much higher standing stock and production (up to 2500 mg C m−2 y−1, even at depths down to 3700 m. We conclude that particle flux is the key factor structuring benthic communities in the deep Arctic Ocean as it explains both the low values in the ice-covered Arctic basins and the higher values in the seasonal ice zone.

  1. Fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments associated with asphalt seeps at the Sao Paulo Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Miura, Toshiko; Nishi, Shinro; Lima, Andre O.; Nakayama, Cristina; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the fungal diversity in a total of 20 deep-sea sediment samples (of which 14 samples were associated with natural asphalt seeps and 6 samples were not associated) collected from two different sites at the Sao Paulo Plateau off Brazil by Ion Torrent PGM targeting ITS region of ribosomal RNA. Our results suggest that diverse fungi (113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97% sequence similarity assigned into 9 classes and 31 genus) are present in deep-sea sediment samples collected at the Sao Paulo Plateau, dominated by Ascomycota (74.3%), followed by Basidiomycota (11.5%), unidentified fungi (7.1%), and sequences with no affiliation to any organisms in the public database (7.1%). However, it was revealed that only three species, namely Penicillium sp., Cadophora malorum and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, were dominant, with the majority of OTUs remaining a minor community. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in major fungal community structure between the asphalt seep and non-asphalt seep sites, despite the presence of mass hydrocarbon deposits and the high amount of macro organisms surrounding the asphalt seeps. However, there were some differences in the minor fungal communities, with possible asphalt degrading fungi present specifically in the asphalt seep sites. In contrast, some differences were found between the two different sampling sites. Classification of OTUs revealed that only 47 (41.6%) fungal OTUs exhibited >97% sequence similarity, in comparison with pre-existing ITS sequences in public databases, indicating that a majority of deep-sea inhabiting fungal taxa still remain undescribed. Although our knowledge on fungi and their role in deep-sea environments is still limited and scarce, this study increases our understanding of fungal diversity and community structure in deep-sea environments.

  2. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbens, Jordan R.; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016). In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:28736569

  3. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R. Ubbens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016. In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana.

  4. pathways to deep decarbonization - 2014 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Guerin, Emmanuel; Mas, Carl; Schmidt-Traub, Guido; Tubiana, Laurence; Waisman, Henri; Colombier, Michel; Bulger, Claire; Sulakshana, Elana; Zhang, Kathy; Barthelemy, Pierre; Spinazze, Lena; Pharabod, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (deg. C). Achieving the 2 deg. C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. This will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call 'deep decarbonization.' Successfully transition to a low-carbon economy will require unprecedented global cooperation, including a global cooperative effort to accelerate the development and diffusion of some key low carbon technologies. As underscored throughout this report, the results of the DDPP analyses remain preliminary and incomplete. The DDPP proceeds in two phases. This 2014 report describes the DDPP's approach to deep decarbonization at the country level and presents preliminary findings on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization, utilizing technology assumptions and timelines provided by the DDPP Secretariat. At this stage we have not yet considered the economic and social costs and benefits of deep decarbonization, which will be the topic for the next report. The DDPP is issuing this 2014 report to the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in support of the Climate Leaders' Summit at the United Nations on September 23, 2014. This 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathway Project (DDPP) summarizes preliminary findings of the technical pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Partners with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C., without, at this stage, consideration of economic and social costs and benefits. The DDPP is a knowledge

  5. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Intelligent Shimming for Deep Drawing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Danckert, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    cavities the blank-holder force distribution can be controlled during the punch stroke. By means of a sequence of numerical simulations abrasive wear is imposed to the deep drawing of a rectangular cup. The abrasive wear is modelled by changing the tool surface geometry using an algorithm based...... on the sliding energy density. As the tool surfaces are changed the material draw-in is significantly altered when using conventional open-loop control of the blank-holder force. A feed-back controller is presented which is capable of reducing the draw-in difference to a certain degree. Further a learning...

  7. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    > and can reach fresh habitats. It has been recently reported that spores of Aspergillus sydowii are croTied from the Saharan deserts across the Atlantic Ocean during dust storm!) to the Carihhean islands and cause aspergillosis disease in seafan~(87). Fungi... hand, heat shock pre treatment increased barotolerance in S. cerevisiae (strain IFO-0224) cells, indicating that hydrostatic pressure and high temperature may have the same physiological effects on this yeast (31). Heat shock treatment also prevented...

  8. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  9. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  10. Deep learning? What deep learning? | Fourie | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research is, therefore, to discuss the extent to which a South African Higher Education institute promotes and develops a deep approach to learning in its undergraduates, and to describe any changes in students' approaches to learning as they progress through their studies. (South African Journal of ...

  11. Seizure Induced by Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in an Adolescent with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Jasberg, Suzanne; Nelson, Brent; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Lim, Kelvin O; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-09-01

    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with an H-1 coil was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults. Studies assessing the safety and effectiveness of deep TMS in adolescent TRD are lacking. The purpose of this brief report is to provide a case history of an adolescent enrolled in an investigational deep TMS protocol. A case history is described of the first participant of a sham-controlled clinical trial who had a seizure in the course of deep TMS with parameter settings extrapolated from the adult studies that led to US FDA approval (H-1 coil, 120% target stimulation intensity, 18 Hz, 55 trains of 2-second duration, total 1980 pulses). The participant was a 17-year-old unmedicated female, with no significant medical history and no history of seizures or of drug or alcohol use. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural abnormalities. She initially received sham, which was well tolerated. During active treatment sessions, titration began at 85% of motor threshold (MT) and increased by 5% per day. Her weekly MT measurements were stable. On her first day of 120% MT (8th active treatment), during the 48th train, the participant had a generalized, tonic-clonic seizure that lasted 90 seconds and resolved spontaneously. She had an emergency medicine evaluation and was discharged home without anticonvulsant medications. There were no further seizures reported at a 6-month follow-up. We report a deep TMS-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure in an adolescent with TRD participating in a clinical trial. Given the demonstrated benefits of deep TMS for adult TRD, research investigating its use in adolescents with TRD is an important area. However, in light of this experience, additional precautions for adolescents should be considered. We propose that further dose-finding investigations are needed to refine adolescent-specific parameters that may be safe and effective for

  12. Near Earth Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near future the National Aeronautics and Space Administration anticipates a significant increase in demand for long-haul communications services from deep space to Earth. Distances will range from 0.1 to 40 AU, with data rate requirements in the 1's to 1000's of Mbits/second. The near term demand is driven by NASA's Space Science Enterprise which wishes to deploy more capable instruments onboard spacecraft and increase the number of deep space missions. The long term demand is driven by missions with extreme communications challenges such as very high data rates from the outer planets, supporting sub-surface exploration, or supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise beyond Earth orbit. Laser communications is a revolutionary communications technology that will dramatically increase NASA's ability to transmit information across the solar system. Lasercom sends information using beams of light and optical elements, such as telescopes and optical amplifiers, rather than RF signals, amplifiers, and antennas. This paper provides an overview of different network options at Earth to meet NASA's deep space lasercom requirements. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telesat Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Julian J

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Conventional treatment with anticoagulation therapy may undertreat the condition. Patients with VTE are at risk for recurrence with increasing time passage. Endovascular approaches exist for treating VTE, including deep vein thrombosis, but it is unclear which patients are appropriate candidates for endovascular versus medical approaches. Many new endovascular technologies are in development, and new oral anticoagulants are also on the market. Clinicians must be mindful of these new products and use them appropriately to better manage VTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  15. Recent developments in the thermophilic microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hot vents was actively studied over the last two decades. The ever growing interest is reflected in the exponentially increasing number of novel thermophilic genera described. The goal of this paper is to survey the progress in this field made in the years 2000-2005. In this period, representatives of several new taxa of hyperthermophilic archaea were obtained from deep-sea environments. Two of these isolates had phenotypic features new for this group of organisms: the presence of an outer cell membrane (the genus Ignicoccus) and the ability to grow anaerobically with acetate and ferric iron (the genus Geoglobus). Also, our knowledge on the diversity of thermophilic bacteria from deep-sea thermal environments extended significantly. The new bacterial isolates represented diverse bacterial divisions: the phylum Aquificae, the subclass Epsilonproteobacteria, the order Thermotogales, the families Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Thermaceae, and a novel bacterial phylum represented by the genus Caldithrix. Most of these isolates are obligate or facultative lithotrophs, oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of different types of anaerobic respiration or microaerobic growth. The existence and significant ecological role of some of new bacterial thermophilic isolates was initially established by molecular methods.

  16. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-12-23

    Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals. Results: Here we propose a deep learning based simulator, DeepSimulator, to mimic the entire pipeline of Nanopore sequencing. Starting from a given reference genome or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments performed across four species show that the signals generated by our context-dependent model are more similar to the experimentally obtained signals than the ones generated by the official context-independent pore model. In terms of the simulated reads, we provide a parameter interface to users so that they can obtain the reads with different accuracies ranging from 83% to 97%. The reads generated by the default parameter have almost the same properties as the real data. Two case studies demonstrate the application of DeepSimulator to benefit the development of tools in de novo assembly and in low coverage SNP detection. Availability: The software can be accessed freely at: https://github.com/lykaust15/DeepSimulator.

  17. Atmospheric and Oceanic Response to Southern Ocean Deep Convection Oscillations on Decadal to Centennial Time Scales in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Reintges, A.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many current coupled global climate models simulate open ocean deep convection in the Southern Ocean as a recurring event with time scales ranging from a few years to centennial (de Lavergne et al., 2014, Nat. Clim. Ch.). The only observation of such event, however, was the occurrence of the Weddell Polynya in the mid-1970s, an open water area of 350 000 km2 within the Antarctic sea ice in three consecutive winters. Both the wide range of modeled frequency of occurrence and the absence of deep convection in the Weddell Sea highlights the lack of understanding concerning the phenomenon. Nevertheless, simulations indicate that atmospheric and oceanic responses to the cessation of deep convection in the Southern Ocean include a strengthening of the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean (increasing SAM index) and a reduction in the export of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), potentially masking the regional effects of global warming (Latif et al., 2013, J. Clim.; Martin et al., 2014, Deep Sea Res. II). It is thus of great importance to enhance our understanding of Southern Ocean deep convection and clarify the associated time scales. In two multi-millennial simulations with the Kiel Climate Model (KCM, ECHAM5 T31 atmosphere & NEMO-LIM2 ~2˚ ocean) we showed that the deep convection is driven by strong oceanic warming at mid-depth periodically overriding the stabilizing effects of precipitation and ice melt (Martin et al., 2013, Clim. Dyn.). Sea ice thickness also affects location and duration of the deep convection. A new control simulation, in which, amongst others, the atmosphere grid resolution is changed to T42 (~2.8˚), yields a faster deep convection flip-flop with a period of 80-100 years and a weaker but still significant global climate response similar to CMIP5 simulations. While model physics seem to affect the time scale and intensity of the phenomenon, the driving mechanism is a rather robust feature. Finally, we compare the atmospheric and

  18. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  19. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  20. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  1. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of exper